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Making a Successful Transition to a Green IT Infrastructure


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  • 1. Feature Section: Green it EfficiEnt EntErprisE: Making a succEssful transition to a grEEn it infrastructurE By Albert Esser, Ph.D. Adopting a green IT infrastructure is the key to sustainable growth, and in today’s economic climate can often be the difference between simply surviving and flourishing. CIOs can accelerate this transition by cost-justifying strategic IT investments that advance enterprise efficiency while helping to simplify management and reduce operational costs—thereby contributing to a healthy bottom line and a healthy environment. B etween rapidly growing IT infrastructures To help organizations address the challenges of effi- and high power and cooling costs, today’s ciency and sustainability, Dell has developed a “compute technology executives have more than more, consume less” approach to analyze total data enough reasons to explore green, sustainable IT strat- center efficiency with the potential to provide important egies. An ever-increasing demand for IT innovation guidance on IT policy changes, offering a solid founda- that advances strategic organizational goals only tion for cost-efficient IT implementations. This approach compounds these challenges. This is why CIOs are is also designed to quantify financial returns in language striving to drive costs out of IT infrastructures to help that helps business executives understand how strate- free capital resources for strategic investments. gic IT investments can pay off on the bottom line. The Adopting a green IT strategy can help enter- goals of the Dell methodology: refresh aging IT infra- prises to minimize power consumption, maximize structures with efficient, high-performance systems resource utilization, reduce management complex- such as 11th-generation Dell™ PowerEdge™ servers with ity, and decrease operational costs. At the same the Intel® Xeon® processor 5500 series; virtualize sys- time, green IT has the potential to dramatically tems to help reduce data center power and space improve overall enterprise efficiency—advancing requirements, streamline administration, and lower productivity while facilitating fast, flexible response costs; and reduce CO2 emissions. to evolving business conditions. Although demonstrating environmental responsi- FocuSinG on data center eFFiciency bility can be an important motivator for going green, Data centers account for a significant proportion of the these efforts can have concrete benefits for the energy used within most organizations—and energy use bottom line as well. Quantifying data center efficiency is synonymous with greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. helps to establish return on investment (ROI) for IT Therefore, a green efficiency approach to IT makes projects and data center infrastructure costs. In addi- good business sense as well as environmental sense— tion, measuring efficiency in terms of IT work per- helping enterprises save on operational expenditures formed—not just energy consumed—can be critical through decreased energy use while also contributing to building a true picture of the value of green IT. significantly toward reducing GHG emissions. 30 DELL POWER SOLUTIONS | December 2009 Reprinted from Dell Power Solutions, December 2009. Copyright © 2009 Dell Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 2. However, many data centers have a takinG key StepS alonG consumption in the physical infrastructure— lot of room for improvement. Dell esti- the path to Green it can be expanded by looking at additional mates that by transitioning to a green IT Getting started along the path to a green aspects contributing to data center effi- strategy, a typical traditional data center data center does not have to be a com- ciency. DCiE does not factor in overall IT can potentially become more than 10 plex undertaking. Three critical steps— productivity or take into account whether times less carbon intensive than it is now evaluating energy use, examining the IT equipment is idle or heavily used. (see the example scenarios in the “Step 2: policies affecting green efficiency, and For these reasons, Dell suggests augment- Examine policies affecting green efficiency” taking action—can empower CIOs to ing DCiE to measure the total value deliv- section in this article). Reducing GHG reduce both infrastructure costs and ered by the data center. emissions from the data center can also GHG emissions. Measuring four basic types of effi- translate to enormous cost savings. ciency can help IT leaders assess the abil- A variety of tactics can help CIOs Step 1: evaluate energy use ity of their data centers to convert enhance data center efficiency and reduce The first step in managing energy use is electricity into IT work: DCiE, IT Age Mix GHG emissions, including the following: to be able to measure and quantify it. To Efficiency (ITAME), IT Utilization Efficiency establish a baseline on which to improve, (ITUE), and IT Efficiency (ITE). Multiplying ■■ Refresh legacy servers and standardize IT executives should start by conducting these values offers a way to assess overall with energy-efficient, latest-generation an energy audit. By categorizing energy data center efficiency—which also allows models. use by purpose (such as IT work or ancil- organizations to compare productivity ■■ Specify efficiency levels—for example, lary functions like cooling), they can across data centers with different configu- power supply units (PSUs) with effi- understand where energy is actually being rations and different workloads. Dell calls ciency ratings of 90 percent or higher— used within the data center and examine this comprehensive assessment Total Data and make them part of every request the tasks that consume a disproportionate Center Efficiency (TDCE): for quotation (RFQ). share of overall costs. System-level instru- ■■ Set ROI goals for IT that are just as rigor- mentation in Dell PowerEdge servers with TDCE = DCiE × ITAME × ITUE × ITE ous as those set for other business units, the Intel Xeon processor 5500 series can such as factories and operations. help organizations understand how much TDCE describes the efficiency of con- ■■ Set quantifiable cost-efficiency goals. power these systems consume under verting energy into IT work. Because it Through small up-front investments, normal operating conditions. accounts for the relationship between green IT helps drive cost-effectiveness work production and resources used, it in the data center by providing the foun- Step 2: examine policies affecting does not require a definition of the abso- dation for heightened efficiency levels. green efficiency lute IT work done in units, assuming the ■■ Buy renewable energy. Objectively assessing the value of IT same useful IT work is desired. It also pro- ■■ Use recyclable and recycled materials. expenditures, especially for green IT vides an approximation that can be used ■■ Give every team within the IT depart- investments, can be done by using a holis- to assess the level of CO2 efficiency or ment a goal that contributes toward tic metric that can describe the efficiency “greenness” of a data center. The goal: making the IT infrastructure green. of the entire data center. Data Center allow IT decision makers to quickly iden- Going green requires support through- Infrastructure Efficiency (DCiE)—the con- tify specific areas to target for improve- out the organization—it cannot be a ventional measure IT leaders have used ment. Figure 1 illustrates several scenarios top-down or solo effort. to evaluate the effectiveness of power using a variety of example values for each dcie itaMe ite tdce relative co2 efficiency itue (physical (capital expenditure (oeM and vendor (total (operational energy (virtualization) infrastructure) write-off schedule) qualification) efficiency) cost) Typical 50.0% 56.0% 15.0% 100.0% 4.2% 100.0% Improved 60.0% 63.8% 29.0% 100.0% 11.1% 37.8% Better 70.0% 73.4% 52.0% 100.0% 26.7% 15.7% Very good 75.0% 85.4% 71.0% 100.0% 45.5% 9.2% Excellent 80.0% 100.0% 79.0% 100.0% 63.2% 6.6% Figure 1. Example values showing how increased data center efficiency can help reduce CO2 emissions Reprinted from Dell Power Solutions, December 2009. Copyright © 2009 Dell Inc. All rights reserved. DELL.COM/PowerSolutions 31
  • 3. Feature Section: Green it metric, demonstrating how they affect IT equipment is purchased annually and divided by power consumption as a per- TDCE and the resulting CO2 efficiency the entire server infrastructure is centage of total possible power consump- relative to the “typical” scenario. refreshed every five years (that is, the tion. Energy use by servers does not In these calculations, DCiE measures oldest 20 percent of servers in the data increase at the same rate ITUE increases, the power used to run IT equipment as a center are retired each year), then the indicating that servers have the capacity percentage of power used to run the ITAME at the end of five years would be to perform more work per unit of energy entire data center. This metric shows how just 56 percent, indicating that the data used (see Figure 2). Underutilization of IT much of the power going to the data center is operating at only 56 percent of equipment can be one of the most signifi- center is being used to run equipment that the capacity it would have if all the cant sources of inefficiency in the data actually handles the IT workloads, as servers were new. In comparison, if IT center. Because virtualization is designed opposed to power used for cooling and equipment is on a three-year refresh cycle to increase resource utilization, it can help other support functions. and the oldest third of the server popula- significantly boost ITUE. ITAME approximates the effect of tion is replaced each year, ITAME after Finally, the ITE metric quantifies the Moore’s Law in the data center, which three years would be 73.4 percent. relative efficiency with which IT hardware conservatively describes the phenomenon ITAME can have a significant impact on such as servers and storage devices con- where computing ability doubles every the number of servers required to do the vert energy into useful IT work; the hard- two years. The ITAME metric is designed same amount of IT work. For example, in ware with the lowest power consumption to characterize the effect that server a data center with 1,000 servers, switching at a specific desired configuration is refresh rates have on computing capacity, from a five-year depreciation schedule to defined as having an ITE of 100 percent. which in turn contributes to data center a three-year schedule can reduce overall Not all IT equipment uses the same efficiency. Applying the converse of server count to 763—a 24 percent reduc- amount of electricity to perform IT work, Moore’s Law would characterize two- tion. By avoiding the installation of these and the differences between hardware year-old equipment as having only physical servers, the organization in this from different vendors can be significant. 50 percent of the computing capability of example scenario could expect to emit Dell helps to address ITE by focusing on new equipment—which, mathematically, about 24 percent less CO2 than if it were Dell Energy Smart technologies within its can be described as an exponential decay using a five-year depreciation schedule. server and storage product families. with a half-life of two years. This approach can also lead to savings on ITAME is calculated by using this decay data center power, cooling, space, and Step 3: take action to determine the efficiency of legacy administration overhead. After IT leaders have established the servers relative to latest-generation serv- The next metric, ITUE, describes the baseline values for energy use and applied ers; a data center with all-new hardware ability of servers to convert electricity into this methodology to assess the data cen- would have an ITAME of 100 percent. If IT work, defined as processor utilization ter’s overall efficiency, they can take a variety of measures to enhance efficiency in specific areas. By reducing or eliminat- 120 120 ing power consumption in targeted areas Power consumption (percent) Power consumption and converting to renewable energy 100 100 ITUE sources wherever possible, IT executives Efficiency (ITUE) 80 80 encourage sustainable growth and can significantly boost the bottom line—often 60 60 with improving service levels for vital 40 40 business processes. 20 20 Several strategies, used alone or in combination, help advance data center 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 efficiency: Processor utilization (percent) ■■ Refresh data center hardware: Typically, Note: Power consumption based on a curve fit of measurements performed on a two-socket Dell PowerEdge 2950 server as part of a IT equipment is used for five years or Dell Server Performance Analysis lab study, November 2007; for more information, see “Best Practices for Unlocking Your Hidden Data Center,” in Dell Power Solutions, February 2008, DELL.COM/Downloads/Global/Power/ps1q08-20080198-Esser.pdf. longer. Assuming that the server infra- structure leverages virtualization tech- Figure 2. ITUE values as processor utilization increases, showing how virtualization can be a major contributor nologies, reducing the server lifetime to efficiency to three years can produce significant 32 DELL POWER SOLUTIONS | December 2009 Reprinted from Dell Power Solutions, December 2009. Copyright © 2009 Dell Inc. All rights reserved.
  • 4. healthy bottom line. Through three key steps, CIOs can help their enterprises get “Green IT equals efficient IT—and that on the path to green IT and enhanced equals an efficient and sustainable data center efficiency. Evaluating energy use through an energy audit helps estab- enterprise with a healthy bottom line.” lish a baseline for future improvements. Using the Total Data Center Efficiency approach to examine the organization’s savings in total server acquisition and increase virtualization performance, fur- policies affecting green efficiency is maintenance costs because of the effi- ther enhancing the efficiency benefits of designed to suggest specific actions ciencies realized by more recent server virtualization. organizations can take to improve their technology. For example, the multi- ■■ Avoid the cost of building new data overall data center efficiency. And taking core Intel Xeon processor 5500 series centers: By upgrading their facilities action to enhance efficiency and avoid in 11th-generation Dell PowerEdge and IT equipment, organizations can building new data centers—particularly servers is designed to provide up to dramatically increase the efficiency of by refreshing systems to gain the advan- 2.25 times the performance of the Intel their existing data center and poten- tages of 11th-generation Dell PowerEdge Xeon processor 5400 series in a similar tially avoid the massive cost of building servers with the Intel Xeon processor power envelope1 while consuming less a new one. Investing in these upgrades 5500 series—helps IT executives achieve idle and peak power, helping to maxi- following the approach described in this both reduced GHG emissions and signifi- mize performance, optimize energy article can yield a rapid ROI—even in as cant cost savings. use, and enable dramatic reductions in little as 12 months, depending on the server count for the same amount of specific environment. And by taking Albert Esser, Ph.D., is the CEO and founder processing power. advantage of power and temperature of Econdius LLC, a company focusing on ■■ Virtualize to increase utilization: IT data accessed through instrumentation green IT, sustainable energy technology equipment in traditional data centers in 11th-generation Dell PowerEdge serv- solutions, and technology management typically runs at only a fraction of its ers with the Intel Xeon processor 5500 consulting and services. Previously, Albert capacity. At this level, servers are series, organizations can also manage served as vice president for data center extremely inefficient at converting elec- facility-level power and cooling based infrastructure at Dell, where he was respon- tricity into IT work—but increasing that on the actual requirements of the IT sible for enhancing Dell’s enterprise-class IT utilization can lead to major increases in equipment, helping significantly reduce solutions by sharing insights gained from efficiency. For example, as shown in operational costs. customers with the company’s server, stor- Figure 2, going from 10 percent proces- ■■ Update facilities: Moving a data center age, data center solutions, and services sor utilization (a typical level in non- from a “typical” DCiE value of 50 percent teams. Albert has an M.S. and a Ph.D. in virtualized environments) to 40 percent to a “better” value of 70 percent, as Electrical Engineering from the University utilization (typical of virtualized environ- defined in Figure 1—for example, by of Aachen. He holds 12 U.S. patents. ments) on a typical two-socket, 2U investing in improvements to existing server can increase the IT work output power and cooling systems or by deploy- of that server by a factor of four while ing new, state-of-the-art systems—can only consuming 17 percent more power— offer an immediate and significant resulting in a more than threefold improvement in IT efficiency. increase in ITUE, with the accompanying reductions in power consumption, oper- MaxiMizinG eFFiciency Quick linkS ating costs, and CO2 emissions. Dell throuGh Green it StrateGieS PowerEdge servers with the Intel Xeon This Dell methodology shows that green processor 5500 series can utilize Intel IT equals efficient IT—and that equals an The Efficient Enterprise: DELL.COM/Efficiency Virtualization Technology to significantly efficient and sustainable enterprise with a Dell Services: DELL.COM/Services 1 Based on Intel internal measurements in February 2009; for more information, see “Intel Xeon Processor 5500 Series: An Intelligent Approach to IT Challenges,” by Intel, Performance tests and ratings are measured using specific computer systems Dell Earth: and/or components and reflect the approximate performance of Intel products as measured by those tests. Any difference in system hardware or DELL.COM/Green software design or configuration may affect actual performance. Buyers should consult other sources of information to evaluate the performance of systems or components they are considering purchasing. For more information on performance tests and on the performance of Intel products, visit Reprinted from Dell Power Solutions, December 2009. Copyright © 2009 Dell Inc. All rights reserved. DELL.COM/PowerSolutions 33