A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs
Research school: Foundations and Challenges of Change in Ontologies and
Databases 2...
What we will see

The paper:
Alessandro Artale and Enrico Franconi. A survey of temporal extensions of
description logics....
Outline

Overview
Running Example
A Survey on Existing Solutions
State-change based DLs
Temporal DLs with internal approac...
Temporal extensions of DLs
How can time be modelled?

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Tempor...
Temporal extensions of DLs
How can time be modelled?
Point-based notion of time

Interval-based notion of time

Daniele De...
Temporal extensions of DLs
How can time be modelled?
Point-based notion of time

Interval-based notion of time

How can th...
Temporal extensions of DLs
How can time be modelled?
Point-based notion of time

Interval-based notion of time

How can th...
Temporal extensions of DLs
How can time be modelled?
Point-based notion of time

Interval-based notion of time

How can th...
Classification of the DL temporal extensions

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Temporal Extens...
Classification of the DL temporal extensions

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Temporal Extens...
Classification of the DL temporal extensions

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Temporal Extens...
Classification of the DL temporal extensions

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Temporal Extens...
Classification of the DL temporal extensions

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Temporal Extens...
Outline

Overview
Running Example
A Survey on Existing Solutions
State-change based DLs
Temporal DLs with internal approac...
Running example
How to become a doctor:
Be a PhD student for some years (3-4)
Defend a thesis
Become a doctor

Let’s try t...
Outline

Overview
Running Example
A Survey on Existing Solutions
State-change based DLs
Temporal DLs with internal approac...
C LASP [DL96]

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs

9 – 39
C LASP [DL96]

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs

9 – 39
C LASP [DL96]

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs

9 – 39
C LASP [DL96]

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs

9 – 39
C LASP [DL96]

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs

9 – 39
C LASP [DL96]

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs

9 – 39
C LASP [DL96]

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs

9 – 39
C LASP

A system to reason about plans, proposed by Devambu and Litman (first half of
90s)

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darar...
C LASP

A system to reason about plans, proposed by Devambu and Litman (first half of
90s)
Two formalisms
The C LASSIC DL t...
C LASP

A system to reason about plans, proposed by Devambu and Litman (first half of
90s)
Two formalisms
The C LASSIC DL t...
C LASP considerations

Actions are instantaneous
The temporal expressivity of Clasp is implicit in the language
Alternativ...
C LASP considerations

Actions are instantaneous
The temporal expressivity of Clasp is implicit in the language
Alternativ...
Outline

Overview
Running Example
A Survey on Existing Solutions
State-change based DLs
Temporal DLs with internal approac...
T-R EX [WL92]

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs

13 – 39
T-R EX [WL92]

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs

13 – 39
T-R EX [WL92]

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs

13 – 39
T-R EX [WL92]

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs

13 – 39
T-R EX
A system to represent and reason about plans developed by Weida and Litman
(90s)

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari ...
T-R EX
A system to represent and reason about plans developed by Weida and Litman
(90s)
Like C LASP, two different formali...
T-R EX
A system to represent and reason about plans developed by Weida and Litman
(90s)
Like C LASP, two different formali...
T-R EX considerations

T-Rex conceptual model captures the actions
States are not represented

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz D...
T-R EX considerations

T-Rex conceptual model captures the actions
States are not represented
T-Rex is an example of exter...
T-R EX considerations

T-Rex conceptual model captures the actions
States are not represented
T-Rex is an example of exter...
Time as Concrete Domain [BH91]

Idea:
Abstract individuals are related to values in a concrete domain
.. via features
Tupl...
Example [AF00]
.
Poor-Manager = Manager

∀MONTHLY-BALANCE.∃(INCOME, EXPENSES). ≤

INCOME and EXPENSES are features from ∆I...
ALC(D) [BH91]

ALC extended with concrete predicates
I
I
(∃(u1 , . . . , un ).P)I := {a ∈ ∆I | u1 (a), . . . , un (a) ∈ P ...
Running Example
Postdoc

PHD-STATE : PhD-Student

DOC-STATE : (Doctor

¬PhD-Student)

∃(PHD-STATE ◦ HAS-TIME, DOC-STATE ◦ ...
Considerations

ALC(D), ALCF (D)
concept satisfiability, subsumption, and ABox consistency
PSPACE-complete
.. under the ass...
Outline

Overview
Running Example
A Survey on Existing Solutions
State-change based DLs
Temporal DLs with internal approac...
Combining Description Logics and Tense Operators: ALCT [Sch93]

Combination of ALC with point-based modal temporal connect...
Running Example

Every doctor has been a PhD student in the past
Doctor

3P PhD-Student

Every thesis defender is a PhD st...
Running Example

Every doctor has been a PhD student in the past
Doctor

3P PhD-Student

Every thesis defender is a PhD st...
Running Example
Every doctor has been a PhD student in the past
Doctor

3P PhD-Student

Every thesis defender is a PhD stu...
Considerations

ALCT
Empty Abox
Linear, unbounded and discrete time structure
PSPACE-complete for statisfiability checking
...
Outline

Overview
Running Example
A Survey on Existing Solutions
State-change based DLs
Temporal DLs with internal approac...
Interval-based Temporal DLs

Schmiedel’s Formalism
Idea
Examples
The Undecidable Realm
Idea
Examples
Towards Decidable Log...
Interval-based Temporal DLs: Characteristics

Interval-based

Explicit, eg: alltime, 3TE
Follows the external approach, eg...
Schmiedel’s Formalism: Idea

The first of such an interval-based temporal DL (made in 1990)
Underlying DL = F LEN R− (no
on...
Schmiedel’s Formalism: Examples
Concept: PhD students during 1993
(at 1993 PhDStudent)
Terminological Axiom: Doctors were ...
The Undecidable Realm: Idea

Developed by Bettini
Variable-free extension with existential and universal temporal quantific...
The Undecidable Realm: Examples

Concept: Persons who become a doctor sometime
3after.Doctor ,
eg: 1990, michael belongs t...
Towards Decidable Logics: Idea

Developed by Artale and Franconi
Decidable: Expressivity is reduced, universal quantificati...
Towards Decidable Logics: Examples
Terminological Axiom: Doctors were PhD students
Doctor
3(x)(# metBy x).PhDStudent@x
Ter...
Outline

Overview
Running Example
A Survey on Existing Solutions
State-change based DLs
Temporal DLs with internal approac...
Hot Topics: Temporal DLs for OBDA

OBDA over temporal data with validity time
Ontologies capable of temporal conceptual mo...
Hot Topics: Stream Query Processing
Query language for RDF streams

Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti
A Su...
A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs
Research school: Foundations and Challenges of Change in Ontologies and
Databases 2...
[AF00] Alessandro Artale and Enrico Franconi.
A survey of temporal extensions of description logics.
Annals of Mathematics...
[WL92] Robert A. Weida and Diane J. Litman.
Terminological reasoning with constraint networks and an application to
plan r...
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A Survey of Temporal Extensions of Description Logics

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Presentation for the research school: Foundations and Challenges of Change in Ontologies and Databases 2014 at the Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy

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A Survey of Temporal Extensions of Description Logics

  1. 1. A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs Research school: Foundations and Challenges of Change in Ontologies and Databases 2014 Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy Group 6: Daniele Dell’Aglio DEIB – Politecnico di Milano daniele.dellaglio@polimi.it Fariz Darari ` KRDB – Universita di Bolzano fadirra@gmail.com Davide Lanti ` KRDB – Universita di Bolzano davide.lanti.sersante@gmail.com Mentor: Michael Zakharyaschev Birkbeck College Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 1 – 39
  2. 2. What we will see The paper: Alessandro Artale and Enrico Franconi. A survey of temporal extensions of description logics. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 30(1-4):171-210, 2000. Outline: Overview Running Example A Survey on Existing Solutions Current Hot Topics, Future Directions Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 2 – 39
  3. 3. Outline Overview Running Example A Survey on Existing Solutions State-change based DLs Temporal DLs with internal approach Point-based temporal DLs Interval-based temporal DLs Current Hot Topics, Future Directions Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 3 – 39
  4. 4. Temporal extensions of DLs How can time be modelled? Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 4 – 39
  5. 5. Temporal extensions of DLs How can time be modelled? Point-based notion of time Interval-based notion of time Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 4 – 39
  6. 6. Temporal extensions of DLs How can time be modelled? Point-based notion of time Interval-based notion of time How can the temporal dimension be handled? Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 4 – 39
  7. 7. Temporal extensions of DLs How can time be modelled? Point-based notion of time Interval-based notion of time How can the temporal dimension be handled? Implicit notion of time: sequences of events through state-change representations Explicit notion of time: definition of temporal operators and new formulae Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 4 – 39
  8. 8. Temporal extensions of DLs How can time be modelled? Point-based notion of time Interval-based notion of time How can the temporal dimension be handled? Implicit notion of time: sequences of events through state-change representations Explicit notion of time: definition of temporal operators and new formulae Internal point of view: different states of an individual are modelled as different individual components External point of view: an individual has different states in different moments Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 4 – 39
  9. 9. Classification of the DL temporal extensions Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 5 – 39
  10. 10. Classification of the DL temporal extensions Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 5 – 39
  11. 11. Classification of the DL temporal extensions Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 5 – 39
  12. 12. Classification of the DL temporal extensions Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 5 – 39
  13. 13. Classification of the DL temporal extensions Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 5 – 39
  14. 14. Outline Overview Running Example A Survey on Existing Solutions State-change based DLs Temporal DLs with internal approach Point-based temporal DLs Interval-based temporal DLs Current Hot Topics, Future Directions Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 6 – 39
  15. 15. Running example How to become a doctor: Be a PhD student for some years (3-4) Defend a thesis Become a doctor Let’s try to model it with different temporal logics! Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 7 – 39
  16. 16. Outline Overview Running Example A Survey on Existing Solutions State-change based DLs Temporal DLs with internal approach Point-based temporal DLs Interval-based temporal DLs Current Hot Topics, Future Directions Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 8 – 39
  17. 17. C LASP [DL96] Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 9 – 39
  18. 18. C LASP [DL96] Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 9 – 39
  19. 19. C LASP [DL96] Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 9 – 39
  20. 20. C LASP [DL96] Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 9 – 39
  21. 21. C LASP [DL96] Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 9 – 39
  22. 22. C LASP [DL96] Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 9 – 39
  23. 23. C LASP [DL96] Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 9 – 39
  24. 24. C LASP A system to reason about plans, proposed by Devambu and Litman (first half of 90s) Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 10 – 39
  25. 25. C LASP A system to reason about plans, proposed by Devambu and Litman (first half of 90s) Two formalisms The C LASSIC DL to define states, actions, plans and relation among them A set of operators to specify the plan expressions SEQUENCE, LOOP, TEST, OR, . . . The plan expression is converted in a finite automata Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 10 – 39
  26. 26. C LASP A system to reason about plans, proposed by Devambu and Litman (first half of 90s) Two formalisms The C LASSIC DL to define states, actions, plans and relation among them A set of operators to specify the plan expressions SEQUENCE, LOOP, TEST, OR, . . . The plan expression is converted in a finite automata C LASP performs Plan subsumption Plan recognition: determines if a scenario belong to a given plan Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 10 – 39
  27. 27. C LASP considerations Actions are instantaneous The temporal expressivity of Clasp is implicit in the language Alternatives can be expressed through disjunctions (OR) Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 11 – 39
  28. 28. C LASP considerations Actions are instantaneous The temporal expressivity of Clasp is implicit in the language Alternatives can be expressed through disjunctions (OR) Explicit temporal constraints are not expressible The terminological representation of states: is not as expressive as the predicate calculus representation used in STRIPS avoids doing general theorem proving when computing state subsumption Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 11 – 39
  29. 29. Outline Overview Running Example A Survey on Existing Solutions State-change based DLs Temporal DLs with internal approach Point-based temporal DLs Interval-based temporal DLs Current Hot Topics, Future Directions Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 12 – 39
  30. 30. T-R EX [WL92] Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 13 – 39
  31. 31. T-R EX [WL92] Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 13 – 39
  32. 32. T-R EX [WL92] Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 13 – 39
  33. 33. T-R EX [WL92] Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 13 – 39
  34. 34. T-R EX A system to represent and reason about plans developed by Weida and Litman (90s) Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 14 – 39
  35. 35. T-R EX A system to represent and reason about plans developed by Weida and Litman (90s) Like C LASP, two different formalisms are used The K-R EP or the C LASSIC DLs to describe the actions A temporal constraint network to represent the plans Constraints defined through the Allen’s relationships before, meets, after, finishes, . . . Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 14 – 39
  36. 36. T-R EX A system to represent and reason about plans developed by Weida and Litman (90s) Like C LASP, two different formalisms are used The K-R EP or the C LASSIC DLs to describe the actions A temporal constraint network to represent the plans Constraints defined through the Allen’s relationships before, meets, after, finishes, . . . T-R EX performs the following reasoning tasks: subsumption plan recognition: the system determines if a set of observations are compatible with (i.e., could instantiate) the plan set plans are classified in possible, necessary and impossible Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 14 – 39
  37. 37. T-R EX considerations T-Rex conceptual model captures the actions States are not represented Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 15 – 39
  38. 38. T-R EX considerations T-Rex conceptual model captures the actions States are not represented T-Rex is an example of external notion of time with an internal approach It uses the Allen’s relationships to specify the constraints (explicit notion of time) Plans capture the time notion (internal approach) Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 15 – 39
  39. 39. T-R EX considerations T-Rex conceptual model captures the actions States are not represented T-Rex is an example of external notion of time with an internal approach It uses the Allen’s relationships to specify the constraints (explicit notion of time) Plans capture the time notion (internal approach) The plan subsumption is NP-Complete The crux is to determine the mappings between plans Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 15 – 39
  40. 40. Time as Concrete Domain [BH91] Idea: Abstract individuals are related to values in a concrete domain .. via features Tuples of concrete values identified by features can be constrained to belong to a predicate over the concrete domain Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 16 – 39
  41. 41. Example [AF00] . Poor-Manager = Manager ∀MONTHLY-BALANCE.∃(INCOME, EXPENSES). ≤ INCOME and EXPENSES are features from ∆I to the concrete domain R ≤ is a predicate defined over the concrete domain ∆I R IN ≤ EXP M-B M-B IN ≤ EXP Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 17 – 39
  42. 42. ALC(D) [BH91] ALC extended with concrete predicates I I (∃(u1 , . . . , un ).P)I := {a ∈ ∆I | u1 (a), . . . , un (a) ∈ P D } u1 , . . . , un are compositions of features D is called concrete domain Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 18 – 39
  43. 43. Running Example Postdoc PHD-STATE : PhD-Student DOC-STATE : (Doctor ¬PhD-Student) ∃(PHD-STATE ◦ HAS-TIME, DOC-STATE ◦ HAS-TIME).meets ∆I Intervals H-T meets P-S D-S H-T Recall: “different states of an individual are modelled as different individuals” Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 19 – 39
  44. 44. Considerations ALC(D), ALCF (D) concept satisfiability, subsumption, and ABox consistency PSPACE-complete .. under the assumption that satisfiability in the concrete domain is in PSPACE ALCRP(D) Undecidable Decidability if avoiding the interaction of complex roles with existential and universal restrictions Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 20 – 39
  45. 45. Outline Overview Running Example A Survey on Existing Solutions State-change based DLs Temporal DLs with internal approach Point-based temporal DLs Interval-based temporal DLs Current Hot Topics, Future Directions Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 21 – 39
  46. 46. Combining Description Logics and Tense Operators: ALCT [Sch93] Combination of ALC with point-based modal temporal connectives 3P , 2P , cP , UP , UP Time part of the semantic structure AI ⊆ T × ∆I R I ⊆ T × ∆I × ∆I Recall: “an individual has different states at different moments” Temporal connectives can be applied only to concepts 3CtI := {a ∈ ∆I | ∃t . t ≤ t ∧ a ∈ CtI } Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 22 – 39
  47. 47. Running Example Every doctor has been a PhD student in the past Doctor 3P PhD-Student Every thesis defender is a PhD student that has been a PhD student in the past Thesis-Defender Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs PhD-Student 3P PhD-Student 23 – 39
  48. 48. Running Example Every doctor has been a PhD student in the past Doctor 3P PhD-Student Every thesis defender is a PhD student that has been a PhD student in the past Thesis-Defender Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs PhD-Student 3P PhD-Student 23 – 39
  49. 49. Running Example Every doctor has been a PhD student in the past Doctor 3P PhD-Student Every thesis defender is a PhD student that has been a PhD student in the past Thesis-Defender Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs PhD-Student 3P PhD-Student 23 – 39
  50. 50. Considerations ALCT Empty Abox Linear, unbounded and discrete time structure PSPACE-complete for statisfiability checking Branching, unbounded and discrete time structure EXPTIME-hard Interval-based time structure Undecidable Open questions (still open?) Extending ALCT (N ) with past tense? Real numbers? Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 24 – 39
  51. 51. Outline Overview Running Example A Survey on Existing Solutions State-change based DLs Temporal DLs with internal approach Point-based temporal DLs Interval-based temporal DLs Current Hot Topics, Future Directions Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 25 – 39
  52. 52. Interval-based Temporal DLs Schmiedel’s Formalism Idea Examples The Undecidable Realm Idea Examples Towards Decidable Logic Idea Examples Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 26 – 39
  53. 53. Interval-based Temporal DLs: Characteristics Interval-based Explicit, eg: alltime, 3TE Follows the external approach, eg: C i, a for temporal concept assertions and R i, a, b for temporal role assertions Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 27 – 39
  54. 54. Schmiedel’s Formalism: Idea The first of such an interval-based temporal DL (made in 1990) Underlying DL = F LEN R− (no on roles, and role conjunction) , ⊥, ¬, but with cardinality restrictions Temporal operators = at, alltime, sometime Subsumption is argued to be undecidable Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 28 – 39
  55. 55. Schmiedel’s Formalism: Examples Concept: PhD students during 1993 (at 1993 PhDStudent) Terminological Axiom: Doctors were PhD students Doctor (sometime(x)(metBy now x).(at x (PhDStudent))) Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 29 – 39
  56. 56. The Undecidable Realm: Idea Developed by Bettini Variable-free extension with existential and universal temporal quantification Arbitrary relationships between more than two intervals can’t be represented Satisfiability and subsumption are undecidable Starting from the DL ALCN Two concept constructors: 3TE.C and 2TE.C Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 30 – 39
  57. 57. The Undecidable Realm: Examples Concept: Persons who become a doctor sometime 3after.Doctor , eg: 1990, michael belongs to this, if 1992, michael belongs to Doctor Terminological Axiom: Doctors were PhD students Doctor 3(metBy).PhDStudent Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 31 – 39
  58. 58. Towards Decidable Logics: Idea Developed by Artale and Franconi Decidable: Expressivity is reduced, universal quantification on temporal variables has been eliminated Underlying DL (most expressive): T L-ALCF Temporal variables are introduced by the temporal existential quantifier 3, excluding the predefined temporal var # Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 32 – 39
  59. 59. Towards Decidable Logics: Examples Terminological Axiom: Doctors were PhD students Doctor 3(x)(# metBy x).PhDStudent@x Terminological Axiom: PhD thesis defenders finish their PhDs PhDThesisDefender 3(x)(# finishes x).PhDStudent@x Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 33 – 39
  60. 60. Outline Overview Running Example A Survey on Existing Solutions State-change based DLs Temporal DLs with internal approach Point-based temporal DLs Interval-based temporal DLs Current Hot Topics, Future Directions Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 34 – 39
  61. 61. Hot Topics: Temporal DLs for OBDA OBDA over temporal data with validity time Ontologies capable of temporal conceptual modeling Developed TQL extending OWL 2 QL, still preserving FO rewritability Example: A fact with its validity time: givesBirth(diana, michael, 1970) A temporal axiom: 3p givesBirth Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs motherOf 35 – 39
  62. 62. Hot Topics: Stream Query Processing Query language for RDF streams Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 36 – 39
  63. 63. A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs Research school: Foundations and Challenges of Change in Ontologies and Databases 2014 Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy Group 6: Daniele Dell’Aglio DEIB – Politecnico di Milano daniele.dellaglio@polimi.it Fariz Darari ` KRDB – Universita di Bolzano fadirra@gmail.com Davide Lanti ` KRDB – Universita di Bolzano davide.lanti.sersante@gmail.com Mentor: Michael Zakharyaschev Birkbeck College Daniele Dell’Aglio, Fariz Darari and Davide Lanti A Survey of Temporal Extensions of DLs 37 – 39
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