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Separating mixtures

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Separating mixtures Separating mixtures Presentation Transcript

  • 1
    Separation of Mixtures
    1
  • Recap..
    2
    • What is a mixture?
    A mixture consists of two or more different substances that are mixed but not chemically combined.
  • Why separate mixtures?
    3
    Many mixtures contain useful substances that we want to single out.
    Some common mixtures:
    air
    sea water
    freshwater in reservoirs
    crude oil
  • Separation Methods:
    4
    Magnetic attraction
    Filtration
    Evaporation
    Distillation
    Paper chromatography
    Physical methods
  • Separation Methods:
    5
    Physical methods
    Chemical methods
    vs
    New substance(s) formed.
    • Changes inchemical nature
    • Using chemical properties
    No new substance formed.
    • No change in chemical nature
    • Using physical properties
  • 1. Magnetic Attraction
    6
    separate magneticmaterials from non-magnetic materials (those that are not attracted by magnets)
    • Iron
    • Nickel
    • Cobalt
    • Some alloys of rare earth metals
  • 1. Magnetic Attraction
    7
    Fun stuff!
    Research online for “ferrofluid” and find out how it works!
  • 1. Magnetic Attraction
    8
    Uses:
    Scrapyards use strong electromagnets to salvage scrap iron and steel from other junk materials
    separating magnetic ores from non-magnetic ones in mining
    food processing
  • 1. Magnetic Attraction
    9
    Let’s see a magnetic crane in action!
  • Filtration
    10
  • Different filters..
    11
  • Different filters..
    12
    Similarity between the filters?
  • 13
  • What is Filtration then?
    14
    Used to separate an insolublesolid from a liquid in a solid-liquid mixture.
    residue
    filtrate
  • Other forms of filtration
    15
  • 16
  • More on kidney and ultrafiltration
    17
  • Kangaroo rats have powerful kidneys!
    18
  • Other examples
    19
    Baleen whale and its baleen plates
  • Other examples
    20
  • Inner surface of beak has rows of keratinous plates (lamellae), covered with tiny hairs (cilia) through which food is strained out of water.
    21
  • Evaporation
    22
  • Uses of Evaporation
    23
    To obtain salt from sea water
  • 24
    Devil’s Golf Course, Death Valley National Park, California. Evaporated salt has formed into gnarled, complex crystalline shapes in on the salt pan, one of the largest in the world. The shapes are constantly evolving as occasional floods submerge the salt concretions before receding and depositing more salt.
  • Evaporation
    25
    Used to separate a dissolved solidfrom a liquid in a solid-liquid mixture.
    residue
    mixture
  • Distillation
    26
    Arnold Bochmove (1235 - 1310) gave recipes for liqueurs based on distilling wine with spices and herbs.
    Distillation of wine to produce gin and liqueurs became known in Paris by 1332 and spread throughout Europe.
  • Laboratory setup
    27
  • Laboratory setup
    28
  • Distillation
    29
    A process where a pure liquid is separated from a solid-liquid or liquid-liquid mixture.
    mixture
    distillate
  • Industrial distillation plants
    30
  • Uses of Distillation
    31
    To make perfumes
    Desalination plant
  • What is this?
    32
    Oil refinery on Jurong Island
  • Fractional Distillation
    33
    • A process where more than two liquids can be separated from a mixture of miscible liquids.
    • Application:
    • Oil refineries use fractional distillation to separate crude oil into useful product such as petrol, diesel and kerosene
  • 34
  • How can we help?
    Ahmad the fisherman wishes to use salt to make some salted fish. But he has run out of salt supply!
    He knows that seawater contains salt. How can we help him obtain pure salt from seawater containing sand and pebbles?
    Dried Salted Fish
  • How can we help??
    How can Ahmad get pure water from the seawater?
    Ahmad spotted some shimmering specks in the sand mixture which he thinks is iron metal. How can Ahmad get the iron?
    Ahmad accidentally spilled his bottle of wine(alcohol) into a pail of seawater. How can he obtain the wine again?
  • Chromatography
    37
  • 38
  • 39
  • Paper Chromatography
    40
    Used to separate small amounts of mixtures
    Makes use of the fact that different substances
    dissolve to different extent in a solvent
    move at different rates through any particular solvent/medium.
  • Paper chromatography is used to identify the contents of a mixture or to test the purity of a liquid.
    41
    Different substances in the mixture are separated on the chromatography paper.
  • Uses of Paper Chromatography
    42
    Can be used to separate mixtures of coloured substances such as ink and dyes. e.g.
    dyes used in ink
    dyes used in food
  • Chromatography art!
    43
  • Food for thought
    44
    How do you think forensic scientists make use of tiny amount of DNA available to make identifications?
    Hint: the method uses similar principle as paper chromatography. Do some research online!
  • Reverse osmosis
    45
  • What is “osmosis”?
    46
    Move of water molecules
    across a partially permeable membrane
    from a region of high water potential (in other words, low solute concentration)
    to a region of low water potential (i.e. high solute concentration).
  • 47
  • Partially permeable membrane
    48
    does not allow large molecules or ions through the pores
    but allows smaller components of the solution (such as the solvent) to pass freely.
  • Partially permeable membrane
    49
  • Reverse osmosis
    50
  • Reverse osmosis
    51
    a filtration method
    removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying high pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a partially permeable membrane.
    Solutes are retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side.
  • Applications of Reverse Osmosis
    52
    Can be used for desalination
    Sea water is pre-treated to remove debris and contaminants
    pumped at high pressure through partially permeable membranes
    removes all traces of bacteria, viruses, chemicals and dissolved minerals
  • 53
  • Reverse Osmosis
    54
    Singapore has a limited freshwater supply, so desalination of seawater is one good way to supplement freshwater supply.
  • Recap: desalination
    55
    What other separation method(s) you have learned can be used for desalination?