1<br />Separation of Mixtures<br />1<br />
Recap..	<br />2<br /><ul><li>What is a mixture?</li></ul>A mixture consists of two or more different substances that are m...
Why separate mixtures?<br />3<br />Many mixtures contain useful substances that we want to single out.<br />Some common mi...
Separation Methods:<br />4<br />Magnetic attraction <br />Filtration<br />Evaporation<br />Distillation<br />Paper chromat...
Separation Methods:<br />5<br />Physical methods<br />Chemical methods<br />vs<br />New substance(s) formed.<br /><ul><li>...
Using chemical properties</li></ul>No new substance formed.<br /><ul><li>No change in chemical nature
Using physical properties</li></li></ul><li>1. Magnetic Attraction<br />6<br />separate magneticmaterials from non-magnet...
Nickel
Cobalt
Some alloys of rare earth metals</li></li></ul><li>1. Magnetic Attraction<br />7<br />Fun stuff!<br />Research online for ...
1. Magnetic Attraction<br />8<br />Uses:<br />Scrapyards use strong electromagnets to salvage scrap iron and steel from ot...
1. Magnetic Attraction<br />9<br />Let’s see a magnetic crane in action!<br />
Filtration <br />10<br />
Different filters..<br />11<br />
Different filters..<br />12<br />Similarity between the filters?<br />
13<br />
What is Filtration then?<br />14<br />Used to separate an insolublesolid from a liquid in a solid-liquid mixture.<br />res...
Other forms of filtration<br />15<br />
16<br />
More on kidney and ultrafiltration<br />17<br />
Kangaroo rats have powerful kidneys!<br />18<br />
Other examples<br />19<br />Baleen whale and its baleen plates<br />
Other examples<br />20<br />
Inner surface of beak has rows of keratinous plates (lamellae), covered with tiny hairs (cilia) through which food is stra...
Evaporation <br />22<br />
Uses of Evaporation<br />23<br />To obtain salt from sea water<br />
24<br />Devil’s Golf Course, Death Valley National Park, California. Evaporated salt has formed into gnarled, complex crys...
Evaporation<br />25<br />Used to separate a dissolved solidfrom a liquid in a solid-liquid mixture.<br />residue<br />mixt...
Distillation<br />26<br />Arnold Bochmove (1235 - 1310) gave recipes for liqueurs based on distilling wine with spices and...
Laboratory setup<br />27<br />
Laboratory setup<br />28<br />
Distillation<br />29<br />A process where a pure liquid is separated from a solid-liquid or liquid-liquid mixture.<br />mi...
Industrial distillation plants<br />30<br />
Uses of Distillation<br />31<br />To make perfumes<br />Desalination plant<br />
What is this?<br />32<br />Oil refinery on Jurong Island<br />
Fractional Distillation<br />33<br /><ul><li>A process where more than two liquids can be separated from a mixture of misc...
Application:
Oil refineries use fractional distillation to separate crude oil into useful product such as petrol, diesel and kerosene</...
How can we help?<br />Ahmad the fisherman wishes to use salt to make some salted fish. But he has run out of salt supply!<...
How can we help??<br />How can Ahmad get pure water from the seawater?<br />Ahmad spotted some shimmering specks in the sa...
Chromatography <br />37<br />
38<br />
39<br />
Paper Chromatography<br />40<br />Used to separate small amounts of mixtures<br />Makes use of the fact that different sub...
Paper chromatography is used to identify the contents of a mixture or to test the purity of a liquid.<br />41<br />Differe...
Uses of Paper Chromatography<br />42<br />Can be used to separate mixtures of coloured substances such as ink and dyes. e....
Chromatography art!<br />43<br />
Food for thought	<br />44<br />How do you think forensic scientists make use of tiny amount of DNA available to make ident...
Reverse osmosis <br />45<br />
What is “osmosis”?<br />46<br />Move of water molecules<br />across a partially permeable membrane<br />from a region of h...
47<br />
Partially permeable membrane<br />48<br />does not allow large molecules or ions through the pores<br />but allows smaller...
Partially permeable membrane<br />49<br />
Reverse osmosis<br />50<br />
Reverse osmosis<br />51<br />a filtration method <br />removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by ap...
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Separating mixtures

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Separating mixtures

  1. 1. 1<br />Separation of Mixtures<br />1<br />
  2. 2. Recap.. <br />2<br /><ul><li>What is a mixture?</li></ul>A mixture consists of two or more different substances that are mixed but not chemically combined.<br />
  3. 3. Why separate mixtures?<br />3<br />Many mixtures contain useful substances that we want to single out.<br />Some common mixtures:<br />air <br />sea water<br />freshwater in reservoirs<br />crude oil<br />
  4. 4. Separation Methods:<br />4<br />Magnetic attraction <br />Filtration<br />Evaporation<br />Distillation<br />Paper chromatography<br />Physical methods<br />
  5. 5. Separation Methods:<br />5<br />Physical methods<br />Chemical methods<br />vs<br />New substance(s) formed.<br /><ul><li>Changes inchemical nature
  6. 6. Using chemical properties</li></ul>No new substance formed.<br /><ul><li>No change in chemical nature
  7. 7. Using physical properties</li></li></ul><li>1. Magnetic Attraction<br />6<br />separate magneticmaterials from non-magnetic materials (those that are not attracted by magnets)<br /><ul><li>Iron
  8. 8. Nickel
  9. 9. Cobalt
  10. 10. Some alloys of rare earth metals</li></li></ul><li>1. Magnetic Attraction<br />7<br />Fun stuff!<br />Research online for “ferrofluid” and find out how it works!<br />
  11. 11. 1. Magnetic Attraction<br />8<br />Uses:<br />Scrapyards use strong electromagnets to salvage scrap iron and steel from other junk materials<br />separating magnetic ores from non-magnetic ones in mining<br />food processing<br />
  12. 12. 1. Magnetic Attraction<br />9<br />Let’s see a magnetic crane in action!<br />
  13. 13. Filtration <br />10<br />
  14. 14. Different filters..<br />11<br />
  15. 15. Different filters..<br />12<br />Similarity between the filters?<br />
  16. 16. 13<br />
  17. 17. What is Filtration then?<br />14<br />Used to separate an insolublesolid from a liquid in a solid-liquid mixture.<br />residue<br />filtrate<br />
  18. 18. Other forms of filtration<br />15<br />
  19. 19. 16<br />
  20. 20. More on kidney and ultrafiltration<br />17<br />
  21. 21. Kangaroo rats have powerful kidneys!<br />18<br />
  22. 22. Other examples<br />19<br />Baleen whale and its baleen plates<br />
  23. 23. Other examples<br />20<br />
  24. 24. Inner surface of beak has rows of keratinous plates (lamellae), covered with tiny hairs (cilia) through which food is strained out of water. <br />21<br />
  25. 25. Evaporation <br />22<br />
  26. 26. Uses of Evaporation<br />23<br />To obtain salt from sea water<br />
  27. 27. 24<br />Devil’s Golf Course, Death Valley National Park, California. Evaporated salt has formed into gnarled, complex crystalline shapes in on the salt pan, one of the largest in the world. The shapes are constantly evolving as occasional floods submerge the salt concretions before receding and depositing more salt. <br />
  28. 28. Evaporation<br />25<br />Used to separate a dissolved solidfrom a liquid in a solid-liquid mixture.<br />residue<br />mixture<br />
  29. 29. Distillation<br />26<br />Arnold Bochmove (1235 - 1310) gave recipes for liqueurs based on distilling wine with spices and herbs.<br />Distillation of wine to produce gin and liqueurs became known in Paris by 1332 and spread throughout Europe.<br />
  30. 30. Laboratory setup<br />27<br />
  31. 31. Laboratory setup<br />28<br />
  32. 32. Distillation<br />29<br />A process where a pure liquid is separated from a solid-liquid or liquid-liquid mixture.<br />mixture<br />distillate<br />
  33. 33. Industrial distillation plants<br />30<br />
  34. 34. Uses of Distillation<br />31<br />To make perfumes<br />Desalination plant<br />
  35. 35. What is this?<br />32<br />Oil refinery on Jurong Island<br />
  36. 36. Fractional Distillation<br />33<br /><ul><li>A process where more than two liquids can be separated from a mixture of miscible liquids.
  37. 37. Application:
  38. 38. Oil refineries use fractional distillation to separate crude oil into useful product such as petrol, diesel and kerosene</li></li></ul><li>34<br />
  39. 39. How can we help?<br />Ahmad the fisherman wishes to use salt to make some salted fish. But he has run out of salt supply!<br />He knows that seawater contains salt. How can we help him obtain pure salt from seawater containing sand and pebbles?<br />Dried Salted Fish<br />
  40. 40. How can we help??<br />How can Ahmad get pure water from the seawater?<br />Ahmad spotted some shimmering specks in the sand mixture which he thinks is iron metal. How can Ahmad get the iron?<br />Ahmad accidentally spilled his bottle of wine(alcohol) into a pail of seawater. How can he obtain the wine again? <br />
  41. 41. Chromatography <br />37<br />
  42. 42. 38<br />
  43. 43. 39<br />
  44. 44. Paper Chromatography<br />40<br />Used to separate small amounts of mixtures<br />Makes use of the fact that different substances<br />dissolve to different extent in a solvent<br />move at different rates through any particular solvent/medium.<br />
  45. 45. Paper chromatography is used to identify the contents of a mixture or to test the purity of a liquid.<br />41<br />Different substances in the mixture are separated on the chromatography paper.<br />
  46. 46. Uses of Paper Chromatography<br />42<br />Can be used to separate mixtures of coloured substances such as ink and dyes. e.g. <br />dyes used in ink<br />dyes used in food<br />
  47. 47. Chromatography art!<br />43<br />
  48. 48. Food for thought <br />44<br />How do you think forensic scientists make use of tiny amount of DNA available to make identifications?<br />Hint: the method uses similar principle as paper chromatography. Do some research online!<br />
  49. 49. Reverse osmosis <br />45<br />
  50. 50. What is “osmosis”?<br />46<br />Move of water molecules<br />across a partially permeable membrane<br />from a region of high water potential (in other words, low solute concentration)<br />to a region of low water potential (i.e. high solute concentration).<br />
  51. 51. 47<br />
  52. 52. Partially permeable membrane<br />48<br />does not allow large molecules or ions through the pores<br />but allows smaller components of the solution (such as the solvent) to pass freely.<br />
  53. 53. Partially permeable membrane<br />49<br />
  54. 54. Reverse osmosis<br />50<br />
  55. 55. Reverse osmosis<br />51<br />a filtration method <br />removes many types of large molecules and ions from solutions by applying high pressure to the solution when it is on one side of a partially permeable membrane. <br />Solutes are retained on the pressurized side of the membrane and the pure solvent is allowed to pass to the other side. <br />
  56. 56. Applications of Reverse Osmosis<br />52<br />Can be used for desalination<br />Sea water is pre-treated to remove debris and contaminants<br />pumped at high pressure through partially permeable membranes<br />removes all traces of bacteria, viruses, chemicals and dissolved minerals<br />
  57. 57. 53<br />
  58. 58. Reverse Osmosis<br />54<br />Singapore has a limited freshwater supply, so desalination of seawater is one good way to supplement freshwater supply.<br />
  59. 59. Recap: desalination <br />55<br />What other separation method(s) you have learned can be used for desalination?<br />

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