The Mammalian Heart

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Mammalian heart for A Level Biology

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The Mammalian Heart

  1. 1. The Mammalian Heart External and Internal Structure Mass = 300 g Muscle = Cardiac muscle ALBIO9700/2006JK
  2. 2. Cardiac muscle ALBIO9700/2006JK
  3. 3. A mammalian heart seen from the front (External) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  4. 4. Coronary arteries ALBIO9700/2006JK
  5. 5. Vertical section through a mammalian heart (Internal) ALBIO9700/2006JK
  6. 6. Vertical section through a mammalian heart (Internal) <ul><li>septum </li></ul><ul><li>papillary muscle </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK (mitral)
  7. 7. Atrio-ventricular valves ALBIO9700/2006JK
  8. 8. Difference in thickness of the walls of different chambers and their functions? ALBIO9700/2006JK
  9. 9. Mammalian circulatory system Closed double circulation ALBIO9700/2006JK
  10. 10. Cardiac cycle ALBIO9700/2006JK * Sequence of events which makes up one heart beat
  11. 11. Heart action control <ul><li>Myogenic – naturally contracts and relaxes, not needing to receive impulses from a nerve to make it contract </li></ul><ul><li>Important components: </li></ul><ul><li>i) sinoatrial node (SAN/pacemaker) – sets the rhythm of contraction for all other cardiac muscle cells </li></ul><ul><li>ii) atrio-ventricular node (AVN) – picks up the excitation wave as it spreads across the atria and passes it on to Purkyne tissue </li></ul><ul><li>iii) Purkyne tissue – conducting fibres that transmits excitation wave through ventrical walls </li></ul><ul><li>Fibrillation – heart wall flutters rather than contracting as a whole and then relaxing as a whole (started by electric shock or by damage to large areas of muscle in the walls of the heart) </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  12. 12. Fibrillation ALBIO9700/2006JK
  13. 13. Heart action control ALBIO9700/2006JK Purkyne tissue
  14. 14. Electrocardiogram (ECG) <ul><li>Electrodes placed over opposite sides of the heart and the electrical potentials generated recorded with time </li></ul><ul><li>ECG – graph of voltage against time </li></ul>ALBIO9700/2006JK
  15. 15. ALBIO9700/2006JK
  16. 16. ALBIO9700/2006JK

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