mozilla                                                                                         LEARNING,Learning and the ...
Learning Freedom and the Web
Acknowledgements:This book reflects the work of hundreds     This book has been made possibleof people, but would not have ...
Written by:Anya Kamenetz                and the participants of the                Mozilla Drumbeat Festival
4
ContentsForeword by Mark Surman            16Learning, Freedom, and the Web:The Convergence                    24How-to: C...
Learning x Freedom                    50Storming the Academy             54“Joyful insurgency” tactics for creating open, ...
Learning Everywhere             80Informal learning leaps thewalls of the classroom andshows up in libraries, parks,museum...
106The Web x LearningProfile:Joi Ito                               110Open Content                          116Open license...
Webcra                  150What if web educationworked like the web?Profile:Chris Mills             152Profile:Pippa Buchana...
Freedom x the Web                   168Hacking                       172Making things with yourhands is one of the best wa...
Open Video                     190Open, hackable video hasuntapped potential as alearning resource.Profile:Brett Gaylor    ...
Learning x Freedom x the Web        208Profile:Free Knowledge Institute      212Badges                        216Cracking a...
The Future                        234What is the future of learning,freedom, and the web?How To:Create Your Own How To    ...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB14
HOW TO USE THIS BOOKLegendHow to use this book:This book is made up of various types of content. Referto this handy guide ...
ForewordMozilla is about the future of the web. But it’s alsoabout a certain ethos: an ethos of tinkering, hackingand maki...
Of course, the experiment itself has yielded muchmore than what you will see in this snapshot. Barcelonahelped Mozilla find...
18
LearningThe natural, unstoppable process of acquiringknowledge and mastery. The vast majority of thelearning in your life ...
20
The WebA set of building blocks that anyone can use to invent,build, connect, and bend things in the digital world.Rules, ...
22
FreedomThe right to access, remix, copy, and share, generatingnew ideas from the old. These are the foundingfreedoms of th...
24
Learning, Freedom and the Web:The ConvergenceBarcelona, Fall 2010:Learning and the Web. Two powerful forcesof change conve...
The Web: A set of building blocks that anyone can use to invent,     build, connect, and bend things in the digital world....
Freedom: to access, remix, copy, and share knowledge—basic tolearning, and the basis of the web.In the stories I’ve been t...
Mitchell Baker, Mozilla’s founder and “chief lizard wrangler,” never takes a     stage without thanking the volunteers tha...
If it’s not open all the way down,it’s not the web.These overlapping definitions set forth ideals have yet to be fully real...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB30
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB                           31
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB32
HOW TO: CREATE YOUR OWN FESTIVALHow To:Create Your Own FestivalPurpose: start solving problems together andbuild a broader...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB     1Step 1Identify broadthemes of shared,vital concern forall participants, i.e.Learning, F...
HOW TO: CREATE YOUR OWN FESTIVAL                              35
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB     2Step 2Invite “spacewranglers” to hostspaces or “tents”relating to one,two, or three of ...
HOW TO: CREATE YOUR OWN FESTIVAL                              37
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB     3Step 3                  Step 3cAdopt Allen Gunn        “Focus on jargon” to(“Gunner’s”)...
HOW TO: CREATE YOUR OWN FESTIVAL                              39
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB     4Step 4For scheduling,draw on free-form“bar camps” and“unconferences”popular in the webc...
HOW TO: CREATE YOUR OWN FESTIVAL                              41
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB     5Step 5Give each space adeadline to presentprogress to thegroup by the endof the festiva...
HOW TO: CREATE YOUR OWN FESTIVAL                              43
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB     6Step 6Celebrate anddocument!44
HOW TO: CREATE YOUR OWN FESTIVAL                              45
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB46
HOW TO: CREATE YOUR OWN FESTIVALBy the NumbersParticipants430                     30+                      40participants ...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB48
HOW TO: CREATE YOUR OWN FESTIVALHow you’ll know when you succeeded:feedback from participants, such as:• Chechar:         ...
50
Learning x FreedomLearning happens naturally when individualspursue their passions among peers and guides.Restrictions on ...
52
“Virtually every feature of traditional formal education was created between1850 and 1919 to support the IndustrialAge. Th...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB54
STORMING THE ACADEMYStorming the Academy“Joyful insurgency” tactics for creating open, tech-aware learning inside the acad...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB56
STORMING THE ACADEMY“What? The greatest revolution in how humans create and share knowledge, how they read and write, how ...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB58
STORMING THE ACADEMYSession Notes: Storming the Cloud/CrowdOne recurring concern for future learners is how to remake the ...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB                    Session Notes: 21st Century Literacies                    If our ideal fu...
STORMING THE ACADEMYProcedural Literacy:                            Advocacy:  What are the new tactics and strategies of ...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB62
STORMING THE ACADEMYWe’re going from an industrial age toa digital one/ These ages are nothingcompared to how long people ...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB64
CATHY DAVIDSONProfile:Cathy DavidsonNo one at the Festival could have missed Cathy Davidson andher FutureClass students, ho...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEBWhat do you think is the relationship              Do you think institutions (like Duke, forb...
CATHY DAVIDSON“We are dedicated to three interconnected goals: creative development of new media and new tools; thinking c...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB                         One of Davidson’s FutureClass students came away with her own ideas ...
STORMING THE ACADEMYAfter the fest, Cathy Davidson reflected:    Learn Intellectual Property By Doing It    by Cathy Davids...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB70
HOW TO: CONTRACT GRADINGHow To:Contract GradingPurpose: A method of grading that allows students                          ...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB72
DAVID HUMPHREYProfile:David HumphreyAs a professor at Seneca College in Toronto and an “educational li-ason” for Mozilla, D...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEBWhat do you think is the relationship             What would you tell other colleges thatbetw...
DAVID HUMPHREY“When all our work for students is canned, and when everything is rated in terms of grades, we miss so much ...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB76
ISMAEL PEÑA-LÓPEZProfile:Ismael Peña-LópezIsmael Peña-López teaches at the Open University of Catalonia, avirtual universit...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEBAnd who are the students?                         My research is also about the digital divid...
ISMAEL PEÑA-LÓPEZDigital technologies in knowledge-intensive areas (such as teaching andlearning) have cut down to the min...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB80
LEARNING EVERYWHERELearning EverywhereInformal learning leaps the walls of the classroomand shows up in libraries, parks, ...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB82
LEARNING EVERYWHEREQuestion: What do you think of when you hear the world “library”?Some cite the traditional role of libr...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB84
HACKASAURUSIN THE AFTERMATH of “Learning, Freedom and the Web,” a teamformed around a new project dubbed Hackasaurus.  “It...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB86
HOW TO: HOLD A HACK JAM FOR TEENSHow To:Hold a Hack Jam for TeensPurpose: Ge ing young people excited about               ...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB88
JACK MARTINProfile:Jack MartinJack Martin is a radical librarian. He’s been working in the librarysince his mom made him vo...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEBCan you give some examples from your               How old were the kids?experience with the ...
JACK MARTIN“Traditional public libraries’ primary focus has been on cra ing and games and things that are book-related. I ...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB92
LEARNING EVERYWHERE                 93
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB                    “LOCAL LEARNING” was a unique track at “Learning, Freedom and            ...
LEARNING EVERYWHERE“It is particularly interesting to note that a century ago, right here in Barcelona, the“Escuela Modern...
LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB                          Open Raval’s co-coordinator was Ingrid Erickson of the New Youth Ci...
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  1. 1. mozilla LEARNING,Learning and the Web. Two powerful forces of LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEBchange converge in a public square. Their dimensionsare unpredictable, and many of the outcomes of theirconvergence will be unintended, but this experimentis not entirely uncontrolled. This group of scholars,hackers, and activists has calculated the likelyconditions, wired in all the right connections.When lightning strikes, they’ll be ready. FREEDOM Anya Kamenetz AND THE mozilla WEBPublished by: Supported by:mozilla Written by: Anya Kamenetz and the participants of the 2010 Mozilla Festival
  2. 2. Learning Freedom and the Web
  3. 3. Acknowledgements:This book reflects the work of hundreds This book has been made possibleof people, but would not have come to by the generous support of thepass without the talents and countless MacArthur Foundation.hours of work by designer Chris Appletonand Mozillians Ben Moskowitz and MattThompson.
  4. 4. Written by:Anya Kamenetz and the participants of the Mozilla Drumbeat Festival
  5. 5. 4
  6. 6. ContentsForeword by Mark Surman 16Learning, Freedom, and the Web:The Convergence 24How-to: Create Your Own Festival 32 5
  7. 7. Learning x Freedom 50Storming the Academy 54“Joyful insurgency” tactics for creating open, tech-aware learning inside the academy.Profile:Cathy Davidson 64How To:Contract Grading 70Profile:David Humphrey 72Profile:Ismael Peña-López 766
  8. 8. Learning Everywhere 80Informal learning leaps thewalls of the classroom andshows up in libraries, parks,museums—wherever we are.Project:Hackasaurus 84How To:Hold a Hack Jam for Teens 86Profile:Jack Martin 88How To:Have a Digital Gymkhana 98Profile:Carolina Botero 100 7
  9. 9. 106The Web x LearningProfile:Joi Ito 110Open Content 116Open licenses provide theintellectual and practicalframework for a world ofunlimited learning resources.Profile:Hal Plotkin 120Project:Creative Commons Attribution Tool 128How To:Create an Open Educational Resource 130Profile:Meena Hwang 132How To:Teach and Learn with Wikipedia 142Profile:David Wiley 144How To:Adopt an Open Textbook 1488
  10. 10. Webcra 150What if web educationworked like the web?Profile:Chris Mills 152Profile:Pippa Buchanan 160How To:Start a P2PU Course 166 9
  11. 11. Freedom x the Web 168Hacking 172Making things with yourhands is one of the best waysto learn by doing. Hactivists letprogramming escape the screenand move into the public square.Profile:Johannes Grenzfurthner 180How To:Learn and Play with Arduino 18810
  12. 12. Open Video 190Open, hackable video hasuntapped potential as alearning resource.Profile:Brett Gaylor 192Project:Web Made Movies 204How To:Do a Book Report with Butter 206 11
  13. 13. Learning x Freedom x the Web 208Profile:Free Knowledge Institute 212Badges 216Cracking assessment is thenext major frontier of the openlearning revolution.Project:Badge Backpack 226Profile:Philipp Schmidt 228How To:Create and Award Badges 23212
  14. 14. The Future 234What is the future of learning,freedom, and the web?How To:Create Your Own How To 244 13
  15. 15. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB14
  16. 16. HOW TO USE THIS BOOKLegendHow to use this book:This book is made up of various types of content. Referto this handy guide to discover the types of content youcan expect to explore throughout this book.Profile: Project: How To:Questions and Profiling the ongoing Step by step DIYanswers from some work from the ideas guides exploringof the leading minds that emerged at the interesting ideasinvolved in learning, festival. around learning,freedom and the freedom and theWeb. Web.Session Notes: Blog Content:Summarized notes Content from acrossfrom sessions the Web reflectingcollected during the on ideas aroundfestival. learning, freedom and the Web. 15
  17. 17. ForewordMozilla is about the future of the web. But it’s alsoabout a certain ethos: an ethos of tinkering, hackingand making. Making things for others to build on. Thisis a big part of what brought me to Mozilla a few yearsback. So, when I first started asking: “what can we dobeyond Firefox to shape the future of the web?”I looked around for others with this ethos. I quickly found them in the world of learning. Peopletinkering with the academy. Hacking accreditation.Building new tools and paths to help all of us learn.People who looked a lot like Mozillians. Inspired, wedecided to do an experiment: gather 400 tinkerers,hackers and makers in Barcelona, half from the worldof the web and half from the world of learning, to seewhat they might build. We called it the Mozilla LearningFreedom and the Web Festival. We asked Anya Kamenetz – and the participantsof the Mozilla Festival – to take a snapshot of thisexperiment in action. The result is this book and theaccompanying web app. Almost a year later, it’s amazingto look back at this snapshot. The ideas, inventions andfriendships sparked in that Barcelona square are morethan we could have hoped for.16
  18. 18. Of course, the experiment itself has yielded muchmore than what you will see in this snapshot. Barcelonahelped Mozilla find a clear focus on learning that bothtypifies and encourages this ethos: helping people learnhow to be makers on the web. Mozilla’s Hackasaurus web literacy program, theSchool of Webcra , the HiveNYC learning network andthe Open Badges platform are all part of this. Learningby making, and learning about making the web, is nowsomething Mozilla is now commi ed to in a major way. Even bigger: Barcelona sparked a conversation abouthow the future of learning and the future of the webare intertwined, and about the role both play in fuelingcreativity, innovation and common wealth. This is aconversation that is growing as we speak. Hopefully, this book will help you find an entry pointinto this conversation. A place to grab hold so you cantinker, hack and make the future of learning in yourown way. – Mark Surman Executive Director, Mozilla Georgian Bay, August, 2011 17
  19. 19. 18
  20. 20. LearningThe natural, unstoppable process of acquiringknowledge and mastery. The vast majority of thelearning in your life doesn’t happen when you’re a kidin school. We do it everywhere, all day long, by reading,writing, conversing, tinkering with the world around us,playing around, solving problems, asking questions, andmessing up. A teacher can’t make you learn, any morethan a coach can run a race for you. It’s something thelearner drives and seeks. We’re all teachers and learners. 19
  21. 21. 20
  22. 22. The WebA set of building blocks that anyone can use to invent,build, connect, and bend things in the digital world.Rules, protocols, and languages like TCP/IP, HTML,JavaScript, and more. Like any language, or like therules of mathematics, they are owned by no one,and available to anyone who wants to create online.Like a set of Legos, they are fixed pieces that can bereassembled into anything you imagine. This systemhas helped us create wealth, beauty, and humanconnection of a nature and scale that was barelyimaginable 25 years ago. And we’ve all done it.Everyone. Together. 21
  23. 23. 22
  24. 24. FreedomThe right to access, remix, copy, and share, generatingnew ideas from the old. These are the foundingfreedoms of the digital world—“free” as in “freeso ware.” The web doesn’t function without the abilityto look under the hood, get your hands dirty, and fixwhat doesn’t work. But these kinds of freedoms weren’tborn in the 20th century. They are central elementsfor the flourishing of all intellectual life. And learners,especially, could use a li le more freedom. 23
  25. 25. 24
  26. 26. Learning, Freedom and the Web:The ConvergenceBarcelona, Fall 2010:Learning and the Web. Two powerful forcesof change converge in a public square. Theirdimensions are unpredictable, and many of theoutcomes of their convergence will be unintended,but this experiment is not entirely uncontrolled.This group of scholars, hackers, and activists hascalculated the likely conditions, wired in all the rightconnections. When lightning strikes, they’ll be ready.Learning: The natural process of acquiring knowledge and mastery.As a journalist, I’ve spent the last three years covering a change in theworld of education. Seismic waves are rumbling from the basement of theivory tower and the schoolhouse down your block. The demand for accessto both existing and new models of learning is rising as uncontrollably asthe average temperature throughout the globe. Our society faces seriousexistential threats, and the answers aren’t written in books. So there’s agrowing urgency to shift toward models of learning that foster naturalcreativity and innovation to produce new knowledge, new answers. Yetthe educational ecosystem is edging toward collapse—50 million univer-sity students in 2000 will become an estimated 250 million by 2025, evenas educational costs rise at two to three times the rate of inflation. Anestimated 400 million children around the world have too little access toformal schooling. No government in the world has a plan to fix this. Meanwhile, informal learning–the kind we do all day every day, as longas our eyes are open and we’re not in school–is going through a Cambrianexplosion in hackerspaces, libraries, museums, basements and garages.“How-to” is one of the top searches on Google. An entire generation of webgeeks is functioning more or less self-taught, because traditional curriculacan’t keep up with the skills they need. All of which brings me to the second force, now arcing overhead—aninvisible mesh of electrical signals that connect the people in this squarenot only to each other, but the world. 25
  27. 27. The Web: A set of building blocks that anyone can use to invent, build, connect, and bend things in the digital world. Twenty-five years ago, computer engineers Tim Berners-Lee and Robert Caillou first introduced their creation: “The World Wide Web was devel- oped to be a pool of human knowledge and human culture, which would allow collaborators in remote sites to share their ideas and all aspects of a common project.” Today, the web’s open and interoperable standards make it possible for 1.75 billion people around the world to build, access, connect, and alter 240 million unique sites, not to mention for millions of people to create and upload 35 hours of video to YouTube, the most popu- lar video site, every minute. The web allows for the creation of wealth, beauty, and human connection on an unprecedented scale. Yet, as more and more of us live, work, create, socialize, shop, bank, and, yes, learn online, the architects of the web are increasingly drawing the parameters of private and public life, and often for corporate profit or political control rather than public benefit. The very principle that has made the web so vast and so powerful—the open structure, held in common, that allows anyone to access and contrib- ute—is under threat as never before. The threat is hydra-headed: zealous enforcement of copyright and intel- lectual property, governments that stifle dissent by disabling servers or censoring keywords, the increasing trade in personal data, legal and illegal infringements on privacy, and public discourse and private relationships that are increasingly funneled through a very small number of commercial web platforms. The response is to assert freedom.26
  28. 28. Freedom: to access, remix, copy, and share knowledge—basic tolearning, and the basis of the web.In the stories I’ve been telling about the future of learning and the web,freedom is the missing link. That’s what I started to realize last summerwhen Philipp Schmidt, of Peer 2 Peer University, put me in touch withMark Surman, executive director of the Mozilla Foundation. Surmaninvited me to be a part of the first Mozilla “Learning, Freedom, and theWeb” Festival. Mozilla, as I was then dimly aware, is a giant nonprofit open sourcesoftware project. Together, thousands of people, employees but mostly vol-unteers, create Firefox (the second biggest web browser by market share),which is used by 400 million people worldwide. This is open source —anew way of organizing creative work with broad participation, all enabledby transparency. And the work has built a worldwide alliance of peoplededicated to keeping a part of the web transparent, held in common, andfreely remixable by individuals. Oh yeah—and awesome. 27
  29. 29. Mitchell Baker, Mozilla’s founder and “chief lizard wrangler,” never takes a stage without thanking the volunteers that make it all possible. As she ex- plained onstage in Barcelona, “Mozilla is about trying to build a part of the web that allows individuals to move from consumption to creation. We’re nonprofit not because it’s easy, but because it represents what we’re trying to do. The Internet is so important that we believe that part of it should be a public asset.” Their successes in open-source led Mozillians to ask: What else can openness do? Beyond the realm of hackers, programmers and develop- ers, who are our natural allies? Who else believes in openness, innovation, sharing, democracy, participation, and preserving culture as a public asset? And who can be convinced to fight for it? There are many possible answers to that question: journalists, artists, filmmakers, and political activists, to name but a few. The decision to start by rallying the avant-garde of teachers, scholars, and learners was by no means arbitrary. There is alchemy in the meanings and meetings of Learning, Freedom, and the Web: Learning Web x Learning Freedom x Web Learning x Freedom The web can lower The public, open, x Freedom x Web Learning happens barriers, cut costs, participatory, Learning will be naturally when blow open access transparent, more agile, more individuals pursue to knowledge. remixable nature active, more their passions It enables— of the web has participatory, more among peers and and demands— been integral to its like the web. The guides. Restrictions new models of growth and must be web will strengthen on learning—red teaching, learning, revealed, defended, its public mission tape, time, place, assessment, and celebrated. If it’s and its place in cost, or others— accreditation. not open all the way human history. should be minimized down, it’s not Everyone gets to so more people the web. invent his or her own around the world end to the story. are free to join together to face hard problems and learn new things in new ways.28
  30. 30. If it’s not open all the way down,it’s not the web.These overlapping definitions set forth ideals have yet to be fully realizedor safely established. Which is fortunate, because working and creatingtogether is, generally speaking, the best way to form relationships, to buildcommunities, and, yes, to learn. So here’s the Mozilla Festival formula for catching lightning: throwtogether educators and techies, both committed to innovation in the publicinterest; guzzle coffee, snarf tapas, chat, and make friends; but also, actu-ally make stuff using open-source technology. The goal is to develop newtools and practices that can supplement, optimize, and/or replace the tra-ditional trappings of the education system, from diplomas and textbooks tolectures and lesson plans–the better to serve learners’ needs. And amidst the code sprints, why not brainstorm a wish list, too: Whattools remain to be developed to allow learners of all ages to form the ques-tions, find or create the answers, build skills, and participate in communi-ties? What allies and teams need to form to make these things happen? “chaordic” Finally, if successful, the manifesto of two days becomes the manifest (Wikipedia: “a system ofof a much longer voyage: A call for all those who care to spread webcraft governance [thatliteracy, to play with technology, to learn by making stuff together, to is] a harmoniouskeep the web free by making it ourselves, to shape society through more coexistence ofdemocratic design, to pull learning out of the 15th or 19th century and into chaos and order.”)the 21st, to find strength in diversity, and to think critically about–and tell “Collabtastic!”joyful stories about–all this doing and building and learning and making (from a Festivaland sharing, all the better to get more people involved. participant So lightning struck the clock tower, two worldviews faced each other evaluation)in a public square, and “Learning, Freedom and the Web” was born. Or, inthe opening-night words of Mark Surman, as he shouted over the crowd,cheeks shining with sweat, in the high, echoey atrium of Barcelona’sMuseum of Contemporary Art: “The future of the web and future oflearning are intertwining. People here are creating that future.” I came to Barcelona to witness this experiment. I left as a participant.I hope that reading this will make you want to participate, too. 29
  31. 31. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB30
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  33. 33. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB32
  34. 34. HOW TO: CREATE YOUR OWN FESTIVALHow To:Create Your Own FestivalPurpose: start solving problems together andbuild a broader movement for change.Difficulty: Time:Easy! No, wait, DIFFICULT. No, wait, Easy! 9 months to plan; 2 days to pull off.Who: Materials:40 to 1,000 people with different skills Space (for example: the contemporary artand interests, including group facilitators. and design museums, plaza and surroundingA mix of idea people and hands-on people, cafes, restaurants, and tapas bars ofseasoned leaders and eager beginners. Barcelona’s Raval district). Whiteboards.The 2010 Learning, Freedom and the Web Laptops. Markers. Post-it notes. Wi-Fi.Festival featured 430 participants, including Coffee. Pastries. Wine.40 volunteers, from 40 countries and 30+participating organizations. 33
  35. 35. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB 1Step 1Identify broadthemes of shared,vital concern forall participants, i.e.Learning, Freedom,and the Web.34
  36. 36. HOW TO: CREATE YOUR OWN FESTIVAL 35
  37. 37. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB 2Step 2Invite “spacewranglers” to hostspaces or “tents”relating to one,two, or three of themain themes. Eachshould be dedicatedto prototyping,designing, andbuilding solutions.36
  38. 38. HOW TO: CREATE YOUR OWN FESTIVAL 37
  39. 39. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB 3Step 3 Step 3cAdopt Allen Gunn “Focus on jargon” to(“Gunner’s”) make the dialoguemodel for group as accessible asfacilitation, possible. Makeinformed by the translation availablecivil-disobedience when participantstraining of the speak differentRuckus Society languages.and other left-wingorganizing and Step 3dconsensus-based “Love-bomb”models. Gunner participantssays: whenever appropriateStep 3a with clapping“A bunch of people and cheering.sitting and listening Conversely, maketo one person talk one person, notis one step below someone witha crime against direct logisticalhumanity.” Minimize responsibility,plenary sessions to a designated“take the head off “lightning rod”the event.” for complaints so negative energyStep 3b is channeled“Focus on respect” constructively.for all participants,volunteers, andorganizers. “Ifyou are the mostknowledgeable yourjob is to do the mostlistening.”38
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  41. 41. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB 4Step 4For scheduling,draw on free-form“bar camps” and“unconferences”popular in the webcommunity. Includeopen sessions withagendas definedby participants.Make the schedulean updatable-in-real-time wikiand/or eraseablewhiteboard.40
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  43. 43. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB 5Step 5Give each space adeadline to presentprogress to thegroup by the endof the festival—creative is good!Support those whowant to join a teamor continue workingon a project, andpublicize theirefforts.42
  44. 44. HOW TO: CREATE YOUR OWN FESTIVAL 43
  45. 45. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB 6Step 6Celebrate anddocument!44
  46. 46. HOW TO: CREATE YOUR OWN FESTIVAL 45
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  48. 48. HOW TO: CREATE YOUR OWN FESTIVALBy the NumbersParticipants430 30+ 40participants participating countries organizations representedMedia13 Too manystories published in blog posts, tweets, pics, andthe traditional press videos to properly countTeam40 240 + 6volunteers hours of volunteer people on the work on site core staffEvaluation113 4.28 85.62%evaluations On a 1-5 scale We can safely saysubmitted (disappointing- the the Festival was to-awesome), the at least 85.62% Festival earned an awesome! average score of 4.28 47
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  50. 50. HOW TO: CREATE YOUR OWN FESTIVALHow you’ll know when you succeeded:feedback from participants, such as:• Chechar: • en hastac: chess todavía en estado de shock cultural y Yes!!! <3 RT @li_ar: What did you learn admiración profunda… y eso que apenas he yesterday? I’ve learnt hackers care about tenido tiempo de pisarlo. mañana, a tope :-) education. Does education care about hackers? I’m still in a state of culture shock and profound admiration... And I still haven’t • Want MOAR! Don’t make me wait for a full had time to take the first step. Tomorrow, year before the next one! the toe :-) • artists + technology + academics =• JeremiePat: awesome. We practice brain sharing and Cette première journée a été bien dense et collaborative hacking. bien épuisante (exhausting)... par contre, j’ai toujours du mal à comprendre le but de • Very intense, enlightening, awesome tous ça ! It’s brilliant to see the connections made between different worlds The first day was really dense & really exhausting; I’m still at a loss to understand • ADHD (in a good way!) the point of all this! • Do it again! Go forth and prosper. This is• Too many good sessions but I have only one such a better model for collaboration and corporeal presence #humancloning networking compared with conferencing• kwissoker: • Inspiring in a practical way. Not airy-fairy RT @sveinns: I didn’t realise the magnitude theories and ideas but real things you can of what was happening here. I am officially do to affect change. awestruck, and in utter information overload. • A FRIGGIN GOOD START 49
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  52. 52. Learning x FreedomLearning happens naturally when individualspursue their passions among peers and guides.Restrictions on learning—red tape, time, place, cost,or others—should be minimized so more peoplearound the world are free to join together to facehard problems and learn new things in new ways. In this Section: Page 54 Page 80Storming the LearningAcademy Everywhere“Joyful insurgency” Informal learning tactics for creating leaps the walls open, tech-aware of the classroom learning inside the and shows up in academy. libraries, parks, museums— wherever we are. 51
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  54. 54. “Virtually every feature of traditional formal education was created between1850 and 1919 to support the IndustrialAge. The whole basis of assessment isthe standard deviation, the invention of Francis Galton! A eugenicist who believed the English poor should be sterilized! We’re stuck with Henry Ford’s assembly line from kindergarten through grad school! But our world has changed!With the Internet we don’t need the same kind of hierarchical structures.” – Cathy Davidson, Festival Keynote Learn more about the work Davidson is doing with HASTAC in her profile on page 64 53
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  56. 56. STORMING THE ACADEMYStorming the Academy“Joyful insurgency” tactics for creating open, tech-aware learning inside the academy.WHAT ROLE will traditional educational institutions play in the future oflearning? As we call for change, it’s easy to dwell on their limitations, or tobrush past them altogether in the eagerness to hack shiny, newalternatives. This would be a fatal error. As we swing out over uncharted territory,learners continue to need institutions, just as institutions need learners. At the very least, traditional institutions convene communities of peoplewho love learning—and sign many of their paychecks. The existing school-ing infrastructure from kindergarten to state university is a crucial publicasset to leverage toward the future of open learning. For a thousand years,at least some learning has taken place inside formal institutions, and itmight benefit the future of learning to figure out how free and open learn-ing might emerge from that history. Plus, the best institutions maintain ananarchic and decentralized structure that allows for all kinds of researchand innovation to take place—like the early stages of the Internet, for one.Why not take advantage of them to innovate learning itself? “Although our universities, colleges and traditionally run schools are outdated and in desperate need of change, they are still institutions Laura Hilliger of the of learning, innovation and stimulation. We, the educators and web Knight Digital Media Center wrote in nerds who make up “Learning, Freedom and the Web,” aren’t looking to response to a draft destroy the infrastructure we have in place, we’re looking to change how of this work: that infrastructure is used. I’m thinking about the innovation that comes http://multimedia. from the FREE and OPEN learning within these institutions, like Marie journalism.berkeley. Curie having access to a lab, or, to use an example which both pisses me edu/people/ LauraHilliger/ off and also changed the world, Mark Zuckerberg being inspired by his social surroundings to come up with Facebook. We are going to need that space for our learning revolution.” 55
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  58. 58. STORMING THE ACADEMY“What? The greatest revolution in how humans create and share knowledge, how they read and write, how they communi- cate and interact in all human history— and there’s no space there for the human and social sciences?”Making that space is the work, in part, of Cathy Davidson and her network HASTACof edge-seeking scholars. [Humanities, Arts, Science “In 2002, I was at a national meeting of directors of humanities insti- and Technologytutes around the country and one after another said that the humanities Advancedand social sciences were “antithetical to the Information Age,” Davidson Collaboratory).explains. “What? The greatest revolution in how humans create and share Pronouncedknowledge, how they read and write, how they communicate and interact “haystack”: it is an internationalin all human history—and there’s no space there for the human and social network ofsciences?” educators and One other person in the room, David Theo Goldberg, who directs the digital visionariesthe system-wide University of California Humanities Research Institute, committed toagreed. We stepped out of the meeting and created HASTAC.” the creative development Davidson is famous—sometimes notorious—for her experiments in and criticalboth pedagogy and research, many of which have the effect of dethroning understanding ofherself as a teacher that presides at the front of a classroom. For example, new technologiesshe uses “contract grading,” by which students commit to a certain level of in life, learning, andwork in a class and are also responsible for evaluating peers’ work. society] Davidson and members of FutureClass, her “collaborative independentstudy,” including seven students from Duke University and one fromUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, held court in a tent on thesquare at the Festival, running it as cross between a graduate seminar anda dorm-room bull session. With sessions such as “Storming the Gradebook”and “Storming the Syllabus,” her team brought a sense of what she likes tocall Joyful insurgency into the hallowed traditions of the academy. 57
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  60. 60. STORMING THE ACADEMYSession Notes: Storming the Cloud/CrowdOne recurring concern for future learners is how to remake the traditionalclassroom into a more participatory, lively place. One “Storming theAcademy” conversation focused on this topic:Activity Leader: Anne Balsamo, University of Words from the crowd:Southern California Serendipity, discomfort, introduction, open, confusion, engagement, empathy, andAn interactive, collaborative performance respect.and tag cloud activity designed to explorethe ethics of the crowd, cross-disciplinary Imagine an app where what is privileged iscollaboration, and minority expression. the minority voice, not the loud, crowd voice. What about the inverse, or privileging theTools: index cards, pens, large sheets of fringe voice?paper, a couple of helpers, a crowd. The open web isn’t always a level playingTechnology is about the way cultures are field. There are hierarchies and assumptionsmade. Cultures of the moment, cultures of encoded in the technology (i.e. in a tag cloud)the future, tinkering (“ways of the hand”). Curation and collection canEach member of the audience selects three reiterate dominant opinion.words that best describe their experiencewith collaboration. They then pair with Balsamo and some FutureClass participantssomeone they don’t know, share their three are working on developing tech tools to runwords, and together pick ONE word that better class discussions, like the Classroomdescribes a quality of collaboration across Attention Barometer, to allow for real timedifference they feel is important. The feedback.sociality reality check! 59
  61. 61. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB Session Notes: 21st Century Literacies If our ideal future state is to help our students be the best possible partici- pants in the free and open web, then what literacies are most important for reaching that goal? What resources are best for understanding and master- ing each literacy? What methods are best for teaching/learning? Attention: Global Consciousness: What are the new ways that we pay How does the World Wide Web change attention in a digital era? How do we need our responsibilities in and to the world we to change our concepts and practices of live in? attention for a new era? How do we learn and practice new forms of attention in a Civic Responsibility: digital age? How can we be good citizens of the Internet when we are off line, working Participation: towards real goals in our communities and How do we encourage meaningful using the community practices of sharing, interaction and participation? What is its customizing, and contributing online purpose on a cultural, social, or civic level? towards responsible civic action off line? Collaboration: Design: Collaboration can simply reconfirm How is information conveyed differently, consensus, acting more as peer pressure effectively, and beautifully in diverse than a lever to truly original thinking. digital forms? How do we understand and HASTAC has cultivated the methodology practice the elements of good design as of “collaboration by difference” to inspire part of our communication and interactive meaningful ways of working together. practices? Network Awareness: Narrative, Storytelling: How we both thrive as creative individuals How do narrative elements shape the and understand our contribution within information we wish to convey, helping a network of others? How do you gain a it to have force in a world of competing sense of what that extended network is information? and what it can do?60
  62. 62. STORMING THE ACADEMYProcedural Literacy: Advocacy: What are the new tactics and strategies of How do we turn collaborative, procedural interactive games, where the multimedia thinking on line into activism in the real narrative forms changes because of our world? success or failure? Preservation:Critical Consumption of Information: What are the requirements for preserving Without a filter (editors, experts, and the digital world we are creating? Paper professionals), much information on the lasts. Platforms change. Internet can be inaccurate, deceptive, or inadequate. How do we learn to be critical? Sustainability: What are the standards of credibility? What are the metrics for sustainability in a world where we live on more kilowattsDigital Divides, Digital Participation: than ever before? How do we protect the What divisions still remain in digital environment in a plugged-in era? culture? Who is included and who excluded? How do basic aspects of Learning, Unlearning, and Relearning: economics and culture dictate not only Alvin Toffler has said that, in the rapidly who participates in the digital age but how changing world of the 21st century, the we participate? most important skill anyone can have is the ability to stop in one’s tracks, seeEthics: what isn’t working, and then find ways to What are the new moral imperatives of our unlearn old patterns and relearn how interconnected age? to learn. 61
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  64. 64. STORMING THE ACADEMYWe’re going from an industrial age toa digital one/ These ages are nothingcompared to how long people have lived/It’s a flicker/ What really has changed inthe grand scheme of things?/ It looks tome more like we’re returning to what hasbeen cultivated as human faculties formillions of years before the industrialrevolution/ tribal communicative/collaborative even if not cooperative/we can’t help but learn peer to peer it’sautomatic and to say that’s nothappening is a huge fallacy/ I questionthat we’re seeing anything new/ wemight be seeing something extremely old/We’re disconnected partly because theEthnosphere is deterioriating/ Thingsthat are deep down inside of us might becoming out again/ they are terrifying buthave always been there/ 63
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  66. 66. CATHY DAVIDSONProfile:Cathy DavidsonNo one at the Festival could have missed Cathy Davidson andher FutureClass students, holding a heady nonstop seminar inthe white tent next to the Hackbus on the square. Davidson, thefounder of HASTAC (The Humanities, Arts, Science, andTechnology Advanced Collaborative), nominated to Obama’sNational Council on the Humanities, and author of theforthcoming book “Now You See It: How the Brain Science ofA ention Will Transform the Way We Live, Work, and Learn.”Davidson has been called “one of the most famous, prolific,and hated academics in the world.”What is your background and why are How does HASTAC work? How manyyou interested in the free sharing and people are participating? What kinds ofreuse of knowledge? projects are they working on? What are the goals?As a kid, I was math all the way. I assumedI’d go into artificial intelligence and was HASTAC is a network of networks. We’revery excited by computational philology. about 4,800 strong now, including nearly 200But there were no women at all in that field undergraduate and graduate students (HAS-and I wanted to support myself so I began to TAC Scholars) from over 70 institutions. Weindulge my love of writing and veered into are dedicated to three interconnected goals:English. But I’ve always written about infor- creative development of new media and newmation technologies and how they change our tools; thinking critically about the role ofinteractions. technology in society, education, and social life; and participatory forms of learning.What would you say is your mainmotivation for working on free andopen education?We’re only beginning to imagine what struc-tures we need to educate students for the 21stcentury. There are many lessons from openweb development that need to be transferredto traditional education. 65
  67. 67. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEBWhat do you think is the relationship Do you think institutions (like Duke, forbetween free so ware and open example) will largely adapt to the neweducation? Why is it that so many people reality or will educational innovatorswho are interested in one, are working on have to find workarounds?building the other? Every educational innovator strives forIf you believe that the best way to develop major change while also figuring out thesoftware is for free, collaboratively, and led workarounds.by community interests, then you have toquestion a form of industrial education that Why did you bring eight students tois based almost entirely on credentialing, on Mozilla’s “Learning, Freedom and thecertifying, on one person granting a degree of Web” Festival?excellence to another, rather than in the wayswe, collaboratively, demonstrate excellence by For HASTAC to have a tent here underscoresperforming well. how many of us in the academy are look- ing for a new way. We want to be able toWhat are the main obstacles standing show that “thinking” is an activity and thatin the way of an entirely affordable, “interaction” can occur with notecards andaccessible, high-quality, and open world of markers as well as on a computer. We wanthigher education? Are they technological, to be inspired by open universities and opensocial, ma ers of government policy or sources of knowledge to push the transfor-the conduct and structure of institutions? mations in higher education and we know there are lessons in excellence to learn fromTradition dies hard. Once you establish a the highest forms of collaborative researchhierarchy of what counts as the pinnacle of and work.excellence (with Oxford and Cambridge inEngland, Harvard in the U.S., Tokyo Univer- Anything else you’d like to say about thesity in Japan) it is hard for those who have future of education? What will educationprofited within that system of hierarchy to look like in 2020?admit that reputation is not always equal toexcellence, that esteem does not necessarily If we do not take stock of the systems of edu-lead to innovation. So institutional resistance, cation, K-12 and 12-20, we will not be able todeeply nestled within the class system and prepare for the future. We need to rethinkreward systems, would top the list. There are how we test, how we measure ability andalso billions of dollars resting in the current disability, the different ways we can combinesystem, so there is much resistance to talents and collaborate.major change. I believe that we will have very different forms of testing by 2020, that disciplines will be more merged, that school will be more project-based and more integrated into com- munities, with less separation of town and gown, of the theoretical and the practical.66
  68. 68. CATHY DAVIDSON“We are dedicated to three interconnected goals: creative development of new media and new tools; thinking critically about the role of technology in society, education, and social life; and participatory forms of learning.” 67
  69. 69. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB One of Davidson’s FutureClass students came away with her own ideas and questions. Jade Davis is a doctoral student in Communication Studies at UNC Chapel Hill. Her research areas of interest focus primarily on issue of identity and how identity is performed and engaged by diasporic popula- tions in digitally mediated spaces. Currently, her focus is on global black populations. Jade Davis: Learning, Freedom and the Web by Jade Davis | November 8, 2010 I arrived with one question: How do you imagine the involvement of traditional forms of higher education in the future of Freedom, Learn- ing and the Web? I actually had responses from everyone I spoke with http://jaded.web. other than “but how are we going to credential” which is not some- unc.edu/ thing that has happened yet in academic settings. Most people there were in agreement that the approach to learn- ing and spaces of learning needs to be more holistic. However, people were still unwilling to completely let go of some of the ideals of industrialized education. They are just re-imagining them and making them more flexible. I would have to do more reflecting and exploring to determine if I think that is a good thing or a bad thing.68
  70. 70. STORMING THE ACADEMYAfter the fest, Cathy Davidson reflected: Learn Intellectual Property By Doing It by Cathy Davidson | November 10, 2010 The Mozilla mode of learning is doing. Have a problem managing at- tention? Work on an app for it. Trying to wrangle a 200-person class- room into small affinity groups? Create a tool that facilitates it. Want to authenticate who is writing a productive or a trollish comment or contribute great code but with bad spyware embedded in it? Create a badge system that credentializes not by your degree but by what and how you have contributed to the open web in the past. Want to make all video machine readable, able to grab supplementary material, instantly subtitled into any language you wish? There’s an app for that, too. What about us, here at FutureClass, the collaborative inde- pendent study tutorial I’m guiding at Duke, and newly returned from an exhilarating and eye-opening Learning, Freedom and the Web Festival in Barcelona? We’ve been set the challenge to complete some work on the prototype of a classroom attention device that everyone talked about, that one student firestarted with a stunningly subtle idea, and that another, working with a friend not in the class, actually developed independently into an app. Now the Mozilla developers have pledged to help us bring this to full fruition. That’s a fabulous learning experience by any estimation, but the HASTAC way is to not just create new technologies but to think critically about those technologies—what they mean, how they apply to society or to individual rights and aspirations. It is also important to transform creating and critiquing into pedagogical practice. So I would say that the “development phase” we are in now, post the ex- hilarations of the Festival, is the truly humbling part of this program. 69
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  72. 72. HOW TO: CONTRACT GRADINGHow To:Contract GradingPurpose: A method of grading that allows students Difficulty: Mediumto determine their own learning goals, while incor-porating peer learning and peer assessment, and Time: 3 monthsremoving the teacher as the sole point of authority. Who: Many learners, 1 facilitatorStep 1: Step 4:Lay out all the requirements of a course: Each week, have two student leaders makeassignments, class participation, blogging, specific reading and production (writing oretc. multimedia) assignments, read assignments, and assess the students’ contributions,Step 2: setting (and discussing) what constitutesSuccessful completion of all course satisfactory work and also working torequirements is an automatic A. Students improve contributions if they are notwho have other obligations during the term satisfactory.and don’t need an A can choose to do lesswork to earn a B or C grade. Step 5: The next week, those two student leaders areStep 3: back in the class, producing work that theHave students sign contracts committing next two student leaders read, assess, giveto a particular grade, with consequences feedback on.spelled out. No matter what level of gradecontracted for, missing assignments orunsatisfactory completion lead to automaticgrade penalties. 71
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  74. 74. DAVID HUMPHREYProfile:David HumphreyAs a professor at Seneca College in Toronto and an “educational li-ason” for Mozilla, David Humphrey helps beginning programmingstudents learn by participating in Mozilla and their open-sourceso ware development. This means he’s living the complexities oflearning, freedom, and the web like few others. “It’s not that mystudents are the smartest in the world; it’s that I believe they cando great things. I put them in an environment where they cansee others doing it, and they do,” he says. At the Festival, he spentmost of his time up on the third floor, sequestered in the VideoLab, making one of the most productive collaborations at thefest happen.What is your background and why are How do you assess work within ayou interested in open education, free collaborative se ing such as buildingsharing and reuse of knowledge? open source so ware? How do you ready students to work independently on real-I am a professor specializing in software world projects and to seek help?development, and in particular Mozilla andthe open web. I’m interested in open educa- I grade things like blog posts, bugzillation and the free sharing of knowledge from a involvement, IRC [chat room] involvement,philosophical point of view. etc. And instead of just marking the finished product, I grade the process as much orCan you describe Seneca’s work with more. In open source, the code evolves littlethe Mozilla Foundation? What kinds of bit by little bit, and if you’re willing to markprojects are they working on? What are that slow evolution on a regular basis, it’sthe goals? pretty easy to do assessments. I throw students into a real project beforeI have been an active contributor to the they are ready, then teach them the skillsMozilla project for six years, and have they need as they need them. If I just taughtbrought hundreds of students with me them the theory of open source, they wouldinto Mozilla. I teach students how to work never have the need for much of it. But byon something as large and complicated as having them engage early, they are hungryFirefox, and also how to cope in a community for knowledge, introductions to people, etc.like Mozilla. My students work on everything Also, I use my personal connections atMozilla does. I try to let students work on Mozilla to find mentors and get people to(and discover) their passions through Mozilla help my students. The reason this works inversus having them all work in one area. an ongoing way is that I also get my students to help these people. It has to be two-way or the open source community will tire quickly. 73
  75. 75. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEBWhat do you think is the relationship What would you tell other colleges thatbetween free, and/or open-source are interested in incorporating programsso ware and open education? Why is it like those at Seneca?that so many people who are interested inone, are working on building the other? You have to become an active member in an open source community for this to work.Open source is built on community, and in Unless you have connections and knowledgeparticular, on communities of people who yourself, you can’t do this.help each other. They teach each other, helpeach other fix things, extend each other’s What are the main obstacles standingwork. Every one of us working on a project in the way of an entirely free andlike Mozilla is dependent on others to help us open world of education? Are theyunderstand things in the code that we don’t technological, social, ma ers ofknow. The free exchange of knowledge is how government policy or the conductopen source works, and how the Internet and structure of institutions?works. It’s natural that people who do this allday long will become interested in teaching The institutional approach to educationand education, since much of their work is is dehumanizing in its desire to deal withabout engaging new contributors and helping grades versus people. I am heavily influencedexisting ones. The key to succeeding here is by the ideas of Ivan Illich here, and believeto make your students look like new contribu- that open source in the classroom is one waytors—then the open source community knows to step outside (literally) the institution andwhat to do with them. into a world of real people and real collaboration. When all our work for students is canned, and when everything is rated in terms of grades, we miss so much of the richness of real learning, which relies on failure, trial and error, getting to know people, and reach- ing for things you didn’t think were possible.74
  76. 76. DAVID HUMPHREY“When all our work for students is canned, and when everything is rated in terms of grades, we miss so much of the richness of real learning, which relies on failure, trial and error, ge ing to know people, and reaching for things you didn’t thinkwere possible.”Do you think institutions will adapt Anything else you’d like to say about theto the new reality or will educational future of education? What will educationinnovators have to find workarounds/ look like in 2020?build new kinds of institutions? I hope that the approach I’ve adopted willI think the school as such will fade. As a pro- become less of a novelty and more the wayfessor working on and with Mozilla, I could many people work. I also hope to be engageddo my work from anywhere in the world, and with more students outside my ownI could be teaching students from anywhere. institution. I’d like to teach from myI’ve helped students in Spain, France, Japan, basement by 2020. :)Australia, all over the U.S. and Canada,England, India, and a dozen other countries.It didn’t matter that we were in differentlocations, or at different schools. Projects likeMozilla cut across educational institutionalboundaries. 75
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  78. 78. ISMAEL PEÑA-LÓPEZProfile:Ismael Peña-LópezIsmael Peña-López teaches at the Open University of Catalonia, avirtual university based in the region surrounding Barcelona, andmaintains an insightful and incredibly lucid blog about the“de-institutionalization of education” at ictology.net. He has asolemn, sleepy demeanor that breaks easily into laughter.Tell me about the Open University So how is this model doing?of Catalonia. It’s growing, popular—but people are threat-We started in 1994. It’s like the U.K.’s Open ened by the popularity of e-learning.University, fully virtual. The founding presi- The president of the university was a vision-dent didn’t want to have all the binds and ary man: he began from scratch. No facul-structures of a traditional university. So what ties—no people trying to get small kingdomshe created is a tiny core of people. In our case for themselves. We created a cooperative soit’s 200 professors for 50,000 students—these students could buy their own computers.are coordinators of subjects. We create the At first, there was a lot of reluctance. It wassyllabus, teaching materials, design what’s understandable: We were very new, verygoing to happen in the four months of the different.semester. And then there are 2,000 to 2,500 By 2000, e-learning had become moreteaching assistants—these are online mentors normalized and so we had some pressurewho enter the classroom. If we have some- to offer Spanish courses [rather than justthing synchronous or in-person, it’s not com- Catalan, the regional language], which arepulsory and it’s mandatory that an abstract or now available.a video is put online. On our Microweb youcan find all the books as HTML PDFs. Now So how do the fees work out, and howthat people are getting more DSL we have about the actual costs?video, audio, multimedia. It works out to 400 to 700 euros a semester for Catalan courses. For courses in Spanish, it’s three to four times more because the Catalan government won’t subsidize teach- ing in Spanish. As far as the costs, we have a much lower payroll than a traditional institution. We charge the students the same, but the gov- ernment subsidizes us at 40 to 50 percent. For a normal university they pay 75 to 80 percent. 77
  79. 79. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEBAnd who are the students? My research is also about the digital divide or e-empowerment, e-poverty. It’s a big thingFor 15 years we had the profile of any other that is interrelated. If you can change theOpen U—Netherlands, U.K. Dropouts, people transmission of knowledge, that’s one of thewho want to study for the sake of it, 98 per- huge axes of development. ICTs (informa-cent are working, 70 percent have a partner tion and communication technologies) canand a kid. My former president used to say empower people to get their own food, theirwe were the most successful university in the own health, why not their own learning? ICTworld in having students working—because is about decentralization and bringing thethey already had the job when they came in! knowledge back to the people.But that’s changed? So it’s really about justice for you. And itJust now, in the last semester, 25 percent of changes teaching and learning practicenew students came directly from high school. too, right?That’s really new. The average before was likeone percent—people who wanted to study Yes. The teacher becomes a mentor—engag-something like multimedia, which wasn’t ing and monitoring, curating more thanbeing offered anywhere else. Our average age just concentrating the knowledge. We canhas dropped from 45 to 35. transform education into learning instead of teaching. We have lots of possibilities—whyWow! Why do you think that is? stick to old ways of lecturing? The university has proved that a switch is possible but not aOne reason is this digital next generation. huge transformation of the whole system.They have lives online so why not study People normally think that face-to-face isonline? It’s much cheaper. They don’t have to rich because you can engage in a conversa-commute or rent a flat. They can study and tion with peers and your teacher/savior. Youwork at the same time. can talk, you can reflect. They are thinking about the Greeks and Aristotle and thoseTell me about your interest in free so - disciples going around the cloister. This isware and open education. only true for good learning, which hap- pens .00001% of the time—maybe at a poshAlong with my students, I started an Harvard seminar for 12 graduate students.E-learning for Development nonprofit. We One of the things we did well in the indus-use free people (volunteers), free software trial revolution was to democratize access to(our learning platform), and free content— knowledge and education. But the tradeoffto teach either NGOs or people who are in was about personalization and being able todeveloping countries like Morocco or post- monitor people very closely.conflict countries like Bosnia-Herzegovina. Online learning is doing very well in that.We have all kinds of courses like human de- I have dialogue with my students. On chatvelopment, economics, web development. We boards they can contribute without havingcan do lots of things for free. We need lots of to raise their hand. There’s no time con-ways to circumvent the huge structure that’s straint—we’re not rushing off because classnormally very slow in adapting. is finishing.78
  80. 80. ISMAEL PEÑA-LÓPEZDigital technologies in knowledge-intensive areas (such as teaching andlearning) have cut down to the minimumthe cost of building, testing, trying,simulating, of being wrong.With all the materials online, you can So what do you think will happen incustomize the experience to the max. European education, with all theseThe only thing that’s blocked in e-learning budget pressures and things like theis this sense of humanity, where I get to look Bologna process?*you in the eyes. I think the Bologna process is a good step,So how do you overcome that? even if it’s got a lot of opposition from the students. We’re ringing alarms about 24I like the blended classroom where people percent of our students being 18. Why shouldwork a lot at home with lots of access and they have to commute an hour to Barcelonainteraction, a rich and intensive debate, and to listen to a boring guy, go home, ask some-they just meet face-to-face once a week or body for the notes, and end up looking it uponce a day, to check that people are people on Wikipedia? Maybe this will push face-and are able to access the social part of the to-face, not to go online, but to have richerlearning. At the same time, we have such rich learning experiences.experiences online with streaming video con-ference and Twitter. It’s a tradeoff—if I have *Starting with theto spend two days to go to my campus to meet Bologna Declaration of 1999, the Bolognapeople, it means during these two days that process is a broadI’m missing out on this ongoing conversation reform effort totaking place online. streamline and I’d rather have Wi-Fi without the confer- integrate the higherence than a conference without Wi-Fi. I’d education systems of 29 EU countries.rather have no human contact but rich con-tact with all the people online.Wow. That’s a bold statement.I’ve taught face-to-face and online. I like theadrenaline of teaching offline. I used to gigwith a sax so I’m a stage animal. But I findthat I get closer to the students online. I canstretch them and force them to think more. 79
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  82. 82. LEARNING EVERYWHERELearning EverywhereInformal learning leaps the walls of the classroomand shows up in libraries, parks, museums—wher-ever we are. With the recognition that Learning isEverywhere, the future of learning is finding safespaces at the margins and in between the lines.THE FLIP SIDE of storming the walls of the academy is opening up tothe learning that goes on everywhere else. Increasingly, cities are beingrecognized as places where innovation happens at an intensified pace inan organic, distributed fashion. Cities themselves can be the most amaz-ing teachers, giving new meaning to the words “street smarts.” There’s ahum of conversation going on amongst people from libraries, museums,hackerspaces, computer labs, bookmobiles, afterschool programs, com-munity gardens, and other spaces for informal learning, who, thanks to theInternet, are increasingly seeing themselves as part of a global community. “A lot of people perceive museums and libraries as “sacred spaces”where you get a crafted experience,” says Jess Klein of the New Youth CityLearning Network, a community of such institutions in New York Cityconvened and sponsored by the MacArthur Foundation, and now operatedby Mozilla as part of the Hive Network. “More and more museums, librar-ies, and community organizations are trying to let people self-curate andself-educate. It’s about taking your learning into your own hands.” Free from worries about tests and grades, supported by peers, followingcuriosity and passion, young people can hack, explore, and drive their ownlearning in such settings. The outstanding questions: how to share best practices across networksthat are nascent and informal, how to surface and make visible the value ofthis kind of learning, and how to set even more learning free. Fred Mednick, the founder of Teachers without Borders, a nonprofit“global community of teachers who are working to enhance education andhuman welfare,” in 180 countries, was a visiting scholar at the Festival. Hewrote afterwards: “I particularly loved the gathering of those interested inthe future of the library and the ease with which the facilitators helped ustell and gather stories of libraries in several countries: libraries as book-mobiles on donkeys, libraries as community centers, libraries as informa-tion hubs. My jet lag downright evaporated when we collaborated on newdesigns that validated the need for accessibility, availability, affordability,and adaptability. It was electric, rather than electronic.” 81
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  84. 84. LEARNING EVERYWHEREQuestion: What do you think of when you hear the world “library”?Some cite the traditional role of libraries as “book warehouses,” where the http://www.librarian is responsible for checking out books and cataloguing the books. fastcodesign. com/1662561/They’re now thought of as more of a knowledge center—a space where what-happens-to-people from community can come and learn, create, and use resources. libraries-in-the-There were examples cited from around the world that the definition of post-print-eraz}}libraries is changing.1. Chicago: 4. Berlin, Georgia: Goodreads API for teenagers to share A library bus comes by every Tuesday. what they’re reading, swap copies, or list books they don’t want anymore for 5. Colombia: their friends to pick up. “The library is A library got a ARS Technica award for not only related to books, it’s more about giving workshops to teach kids about connection.” blogging, online games, etc. It now has community of bloggers who are telling2. Chile: story about experiences in Medellin .A Connecting family members during an blog called Sector X allows people to earthquake—geographically long and publish their own stories, do workshops on narrow country, with a lot of cultural graffitti, fashion shows, and things people differences and many disconnected people. are interested in. During earthquake, libraries were central part of community, where individuals were 6. 826 Valencia, 826 National: interested in reaching out and being a part Features a pirate store in San Francisco of their community. and a super-hero supply store in Brooklyn, NYC.3. Rio: Building a library in the middle of the 7. Amsterdam: seven most violent favelas in Rio. Tiny, A Library Designed for the Post-Print Era dingy houses between the sewage and (Dutch example). Library books are not on DMV, no one goes there. What people do shelves but on stacks on the floor. Lockers in poor communities is get wagons to where people can store their own stuff. collect books, bring it out in the street and kids and families will come out and read the books. Issues with language because it’s the only Portuguese country in Latin America. Kids can’t read English; only an informal use of English. 83
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  86. 86. HACKASAURUSIN THE AFTERMATH of “Learning, Freedom and the Web,” a teamformed around a new project dubbed Hackasaurus. “It started at the Festival with Atul (Mozilla’s Atul Varma), Jack (TheNew York Public Library’s Jack Martin) and Taylor (YouMedia’s TaylorBayless) and from there the conversation grew more and more,” explainsJess Klein. “Basically the idea is that the web isn’t just static—that it’sreally a canvas that can be remixed and reviewed and reconstructed andre-envisioned. Not everybody really understands that, particularly kids.They see the web as something they search and where they’re activelybeing advertised to.”HackasaurusWHO WHY YouMedia (Taylor Bayless), New Youth City Create a generation of webmakers. Make Learning Network (Jess Klein), Mozilla it easy for millions of youth to learn about, (Atul Varma), New York Public Library explore, and redesign the web. Help digital (Jack Martin), Mozilla (Ben Moskowitz), natives see the web as something they Indiana University (Rafi Santo), New York actively make and shape (like Lego or Public Library (Chris Shoemaker). magic ink). Instead of something they just passively consume (like TV).WHAT Digital literacy through tinkering and WHAT’S NEXT messing around with the online spaces Further developing tools, games and kids already hang out in. “X-ray Goggles local “hack jams” around the world at software,” local workshops, and an online Hackasaurus.org. community for kids will allow youth to play with the web and HTML like Lego. How to get involved in Hackasaurus www.hackasaurus.org • Play around with the amazing X-Ray Goggles • Host your own hack jam for kids • Help create learning curriculum, online games and more • Develop Hackasaurus tools and software 85
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  88. 88. HOW TO: HOLD A HACK JAM FOR TEENSHow To:Hold a Hack Jam for TeensPurpose: Ge ing young people excited about Difficulty: Moderateopening up the web and messing around insidebuilds valuable skills. Plus it’s the best way to Time: 1 afternoonensure that the web stays open – and it’s fun! minimum, 2 day maximum Who: Many facilitators, many youthStep 1: Step 4:Decide the topic of the jam: HTML re-mixing, Let teens work together in teams, and Materials:game design, music production, video. throughout the jam encourage them to Venue, computers take on specific roles on their project (i.e., with InternetStep 2: visual designer, coder, project manager, access, yummyInvite youth and facilitators who have documentarian). snacks, permissionexperience in the field and/or with kids and slipswork with them in advance to develop a Step 5:game plan or curriculum for the day of Have the youth present what they did,the jam. encouraging conversation about process and techniques!Step 3:The goal of every jam is to make something.Set expectations for outcomes: user testingand project development (for example, ofHackasaurus), or building new projects (likean Arduino robot). 87
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  90. 90. JACK MARTINProfile:Jack MartinJack Martin is a radical librarian. He’s been working in the librarysince his mom made him volunteer there at age 13. Today, he’sassistant director for public programs and lifelong learning at TheNew York Public Library. He also teaches future librarians at Praabout 21st century learning and social media, and he’s focused onthe kind of learning that goes on outside of school.How did you get involved with the Mozilla So what do libraries have to do with theuniverse? future of learning?I first got involved through the New York Public libraries have always been a placePublic Library’s relationship with the New where kids can discover themselves—artisti-Youth City Learning Network, sponsored by cally, educationally, technologically, and in-MacArthur Foundation. The idea is to pull spirationally. So I think we’re a natural fit fortogether cultural and educational institutions this new 21st century learning. We just haveand organizations around the city to provide to figure out where we can learn from analogkids with a seamless learning experience, to and take it to the online environment.create learning pathways. Learning has changed in the 21st century The MacArthur Foundation sent me to and social media plays a really big role, andChicago to meet with Mark Surman, and we I’m very interested in finding out everythinghad a really exciting day of brainstorming to from baby steps to big picture ideas on howfind out what kind of open source cool tool libraries and other public organizations canMozilla could create that could be used in support that, whether on the local hackerlibraries and new media centers across the level, or a widespread system that spreadscountry to support kids hanging out, messing across a whole infrastructure.round, and geeking out online. [This becameHackasaurus, above]. And the Festival is thesecond phase of that. 89
  91. 91. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEBCan you give some examples from your How old were the kids?experience with the New Youth CityLearning Network? 8th grade and up.Sure. We’ve recently finished a 10-week proj- Cool! So lots of times informal learningect with an organization called Global Kids. doesn’t get the same respect or centralityThey explored social and global issues using as the kind of learning that goes on insocial media. They made online comics about school. How can that be changed? Howsocial issues, interactive Google maps, and can we make this kind of learning moreeven built some serious video games. visible?http://www.olpglobalkids.org/social_media/ Traditional public libraries’ primary focus Kids are already learning after school—therehas been on crafting and games and things are studies out there that show they’re on-that are book-related. I think there’s been a line, finding interests from peer circles andfear in some libraries that these intense levels becoming experts and reaching mentors. Soof learning after school might be off-putting all that we really need to do is for librariesfor kids, but by blending the technology and and schools and other like-minded agen-gaming and social media, we’re discovering cies to realize how they can be a part of thatthat kids are interested in engaging with learning, which is already happening.serious content.90
  92. 92. JACK MARTIN“Traditional public libraries’ primary focus has been on cra ing and games and things that are book-related. I think there’s been a fear in some libraries that these intense levels of learning a er school might be off-pu ing for kids, but by blending the technology and gaming and social media,we’re discovering that kids are interested in engaging with serious content.” 91
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  94. 94. LEARNING EVERYWHERE 93
  95. 95. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB “LOCAL LEARNING” was a unique track at “Learning, Freedom and the Web.” It was the strongest attempt (if not completely successful) to connect the Festival with its setting in the heart of historic Barcelona, skateboarders zooming by in the graffittied square between the MACBA (Contemporary Art Museum) and the FAD (Art and Design Foundation). It was the one place where actual young people interacted with the festival programming, field-testing a lot of the theories that were floating around about the best way to engage people in learning that is alive, awake, and aware of its surroundings. Several local organizations collaborated to bring local learning to the festival and to follow up, most notably with the “OpenRaval” project, to leverage the Raval—a diverse, historic, artistic and sometimes notorious district—as a kind of open classroom. “The local learning incubator focuses on the possibilities that the urban environment can bring to learning. We all have similar interests in youth or citizens learning and teaching each other, and working around smaller de- vices when they are not in the classroom,” says Enric Senabre Hidalgo, the coordinator of projects at CitiLab-Cornellà (http://citilab.eu), a “citizens’ lab” or “experimental center for active diffusion of technological culture” in Barcelona. Activities include Arduino, Scratch animation, music editing, Legos, video, and more. He helped coordinate the local learning incubator at the Festival. Youth participants came from TEB, a center that encour- ages young people to develop digital skills that play to their passions.94
  96. 96. LEARNING EVERYWHERE“It is particularly interesting to note that a century ago, right here in Barcelona, the“Escuela Moderna” (Modern School) was founded by free-thinker Francesc Ferrer i Guàrdia. The school’s stated goal was to“educate the working class in a rational, secular and non-coercive se ing” and is, at the present, a main milestone in the critical pedagogy ideas and in the history of education.”—Free Technology Academy. 95
  97. 97. LEARNING, FREEDOM AND THE WEB Open Raval’s co-coordinator was Ingrid Erickson of the New Youth City Learning Network. As she explained in a Q&A on the Festival website: http://www. “The New Youth City Learning Network is a group of museums, li- drumbeat.org/ braries, and afterschool programs working together to create learning content/qa-ingrid- opportunities for middle and high school-aged kids in New York City erickson around a set of integrated projects and programs that focus primar- ily on design, citizen science, civic engagement, urban ecology, and sustainability. It’s based on the notion that kids are motivated by their own interests and encouraged by their peer groups to try new things and explore the world around them. We’re sort of taking that literally by developing opportunities for ‘structured autonomy’ by using the city as the context for learning—city streets as game board, for example. I am personally a big believer in the idea: If we can understand, expand, and control the means to author and create, we can do just about anything. The web is really just a playground for exploration and learning, if you look at it this way. Even cooler since the web is a network, once you learn one small part of it you’re always going to be connected to many more parts as well. The connections are endless! “I’m particularly interested in using the web in physical contexts to add a layer of meaning to the world around us. So we also need open tools for mobile web to really bring the notion of an OPEN Internet of Things to its fullest potential.” Like the Open Web, we consider the city to be a sparking point for acquiring significant knowledge, but also a platform for gathering and sharing what has been learned or is understood. The urban environ- ment is a playground for discovering places and people, often aided by the use of digital tools, but also for teaching in a distributed way using public spaces as platforms or stages. The intersection between being a digital citizen and an urban learner provides a wide path for exploring, thinking, and showing one’s views about sustainability, conflict, context, aesthetics, and feelings. Via the screens of mobile devices or computers, in particular, urban streets can be discovered by learners in an entirely new way: as being full of data that is waiting for meaning.”96
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