The Cell


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The Cell

  1. 1. The Cell Prepared by: Mrs. Claudia Rodriguez
  2. 2. Instructions  The themes on this module will be organized in a main menu with links to each theme  The navigation icons will be on the bottom of each slide Next slide Previous slide Main Menu
  3. 3. Objectives At the end of this module the students should be able to: Know the functions of the cell. Name and recognize each part of the cell.
  4. 4. Main Menu Reticulum Plasma Membrane I. Smooth Endoplasmic Functions IV. I. Reticulum Components II. Golgi Apparatus I. Integral Proteins V. Lysosomes II. Peripheral Proteins VI. III. Cholesterol Peroxisomes VII. Movement Microtubules III. VIII. I. Passive Cilia IX. II. Active Flagella X. III. Vesicular Nucleus IV. Cytoplasm II. Diagram of the cell V. Cytosol I. Post Test VI. Organelles III. Glossary VII. Mitochondria I. References VIII. Ribosome II. Rough Endoplasmic III.
  5. 5. Plasma Membrane The plasma membrane is called The Fluid Mosaic Model. Composed of a double layer of lipid molecules and proteins. The lipid bi-layer has a hydrophilic head and an hydrophobic head. 1/3
  6. 6. Plasma Membrane Lipid bi-layer 2/3
  7. 7. Plasma Membrane 3/3
  8. 8. Functions of the Plasma Membrane Regulate passage of substances in and out of the cell. Flexible boundary that give shape to cell and protection of extra cellular content. 1/2
  9. 9. Functions of the Plasma Membrane Communicates with other body cells, foreign cells. Maintain a chemical and electrical gradient between the inside and the outside of the cell. 2/2
  10. 10. Integral Proteins Proteins that extend across the lipid bi-layer that move substances from one side of the membrane to the other. Integral Proteins
  11. 11. Peripheral Proteins Proteins that attach to the inner or outer surfaces of the membrane to support the membrane. Peripheral Protein
  12. 12. Cholesterol It strengthens the plasma membrane but decreases its flexibility. Cholesterol
  13. 13. Passive Movement Substances move across the membrane without the use of ATP. They move from high concentration to low concentration to reach equilibrium.
  14. 14. Active Movement Substances move across the membrane with the use of ATP. It moves substances against their concentration gradient.
  15. 15. Vesicular Transport Vesicles that transport large particles into the cell by endocytosis or outside of the cell by exocytosis. Incoming vesicle
  16. 16. Cytoplasm Cellular material located between the nucleus and the plasma membrane. Site for most cellular activities. Where the organelles are located.
  17. 17. Cytosol  Watery substance in the cytoplasm that contains proteins, salts, sugars and other solutes.
  18. 18. Organelles Metabolic machinery of the cell. Each organelle carries out an specific function to maintain life of the cell.
  19. 19. Mitochondria Power plant of the cell, provides the ATP to cell. It has two membranes. The outside membrane is smooth and the inner membrane folds inward, called cristae. 1/2
  20. 20. Mitochondria Cristae Outside membrane 2/2
  21. 21. Ribosome’s Organelle where proteins are produced. Free ribosome's float in the cytoplasm and produce proteins for use inside of the cell. 1/3
  22. 22. Ribosome’s Attached ribosome's attach to the endoplasmic reticulum & are involved in the production of proteins to be exported from the cell. 2/3
  23. 23. Ribosomes Attached Ribosome’s Free Ribosome’s 3/3
  24. 24. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum with Ribosome’s. Attached Manufacture all the proteins secreted from the cell. Synthesize and package all the molecules that will be secreted from the cell. 1/3
  25. 25. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Createsall the integral proteins and phospholipids that form the plasma membrane. 2/3
  26. 26. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum 3/3
  27. 27. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum They catalyze reactions involved with: synthesis of steroids; detoxification of drugs, alcohol, pesticides, and carcinogens; absorption, synthesis, and transport of fats. 1/3
  28. 28. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum Continuation of the Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum. Has no attached ribosome’s. 2/3
  29. 29. Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum 3/3
  30. 30. Golgi Apparatus Processes, sorts, packages, and delivers proteins and lipids to the plasma membrane. Form lysosomes and secretory vesicles. 1/2
  31. 31. Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum 2/2
  32. 32. Lysosomes  Cells demolition crew.  Sacs formed in the Golgi apparatus that contain enzymes.  Disarms ingested bacteria, viruses, and toxins. 1/3
  33. 33. Lysosomes  Degrades worn-out or non functioning organelles.  Break down non-useful tissue and glycogen. Lysosomes 2/3
  34. 34. Lysosomes 3/3
  35. 35. Peroxisomes Disarm highly reactive chemicals with unpaired electrons that can have devastating effects on the cell. Peroxisomes
  36. 36. Microtubules Hollow tubes that determine the overall shape of the cell Move organelles around Microtubules
  37. 37. Cilia Hair like cellular extensions that move substances in one direction Cilia
  38. 38. Flagella Long projections that moves the cell and not substances.
  39. 39. Nucleus  Containhereditary unit of the cell (genes) & genetic code (DNA). the activity of the cell.  Controls  Has a membrane of its own called nuclear envelope, that separates the nucleus from the cytoplasm. 1/2
  40. 40. Nucleus Nuclear Envelope Nucleus 2/2
  41. 41. Parts of The Cell Nucleus Mitochondria Plasma Membrane Ribosome Lysosome Rough ER Peroxisomes Smooth ER Golgi Apparatus Microtubules Cilia
  42. 42. Post Test  Read each question and choose the best answer  Click on the desired letter Go back to answered question
  43. 43. What is the purpose of the plasma membrane? A Protection B Control center C Waste removal D Create energy 1/10
  44. 44. Which of the following is the control center of the cell? A Cytoplasm B Plasma membrane C Nucleus D Golgi Apparatus 2/10
  45. 45. Which of the following is the cells demolition crew? A Cilia B Plasma membrane C Lysosomes D Golgi Apparatus 3/10
  46. 46. A long projection that moves the cell Around. A Cilia B Flagella C Lysosomes D Golgi Apparatus 4/10
  47. 47. Which is of the following is the power plant of the cell? A Mitochondria B Ribosome's C Lysosomes D Nucleus 5/10
  48. 48. The Ribosome’s are involved in the production of proteins? A True B False 6/10
  49. 49. The Nucleus is also called the Fluid Mosaic Model? A True B False 7/10
  50. 50. Which of the following disarm highly reactive chemicals that may harm the cell ? A Mitochondria B Ribosome's C Lysosomes D Peroxisomes 8/10
  51. 51. __ determine the overall shape of the cell. A Microtubules B Cilia C Flagella D Nucleus 9/10
  52. 52. Which of the following form lysosomes and vesicles ? A Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum B Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum C Golgi Apparatus D Plasma Membrane 10/10
  53. 53.
  54. 54.
  55. 55. Glossary ATP: Adenosine Tri-phosphate, energy molecule Endocytosis: Going into the cell Exocytosis: Going out of the cell Hydrophilic: Water loving Hydrophobic: Water hating
  56. 56. References Seeley, R. R., Stephens, T. D., & Tate, P. (2005). Essentials of Anatomy & Physiology. New York: McGraw-Hill. Marieb, E. N. (2001). Human Anatomy & Physiology. New York: Benjamin Cummings.