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  • Students will have their microscopes out, for reference as we go through each of the steps. As an introduction, students will be asked what kinds of things they can do with this tool.
  • Teacher demonstrates how to hold the microscope, where the lens paper is located and how to use it. Students will be invited to turn the knobs and observe the stage as it moves up and down. Teacher will demonstrate how to store the microscope.
  • Give students a slide from the “common things” set, each student will practice focusing and changing objectives.
  • Have students exchange slides so they can look at different things, walk them through using the high power objective to focus slides. Emphasize not using the coarse objective during this process, as it will crack the slides.
  • This is the exact version of the microscope used in class. Students will be identifying the parts on the microscopes at their desks as we go along and what their functions are.

Transcript

  • 1. Introduction to the Microscope Care Parts Focusing
  • 2. • • • • • Always carry with 2 hands Only use lens paper for cleaning Do not force knobs Always store covered Keep objects clear of desk and cords
  • 3. • Place the Slide on the Microscope • Use Stage Clips • Click Nosepiece to the lowest (shortest) setting • Look into the Eyepiece • Use the Coarse Focus
  • 4. • • • • Follow steps to focus using low power Click the nosepiece to the longest objective Do NOT use the Coarse Focusing Knob Use the Fine Focus Knob to bring the slide What can you find on your slide?
  • 5. • • • • Simple Compound Stereoscopic Electron
  • 6. Simple Microscope • Similar to a magnifying glass and has only one lense.
  • 7. Compound Microscope • Lets light pass through an object and then through two or more lenses.
  • 8. Stereoscopic Microscope • Gives a three dimensional view of an object. (Examples: insects and leaves)
  • 9. Electron Microscope • Uses a magnetic field to bend beams of electrons; instead of using lenses to bend beams of light.
  • 10. A Lense • Enlarges an image and bends the light toward your eye.
  • 11. Eyepiece Lense Usually has a power of 10 x
  • 12. Eyepiece Lense X Objective Lense = Total Magnification
  • 13. Low Power = 4 x Medium Power = 10 x High Power = 40 x
  • 14. CLASSIFICATIONS OF MICROSCOPE •OPTICAL •ELECTRON
  • 15. OPTICAL MICROSCOPE • MAGNIFICATION POWER IS LIMITED BY THE SMALLEST WAVE LENGTH ( 4000 ANGSTROMS) • 1 ANGSTROM= 1 X 10-10 m.
  • 16. • ANTON VAN LEEUWENHOEK• Invented the first optical microscope
  • 17. ELECTRON MICROSCOPE • USES ELCTRON TO LIGHT AN OBJECT. THIS TYPE OF MICROSCOPE CAN RSOLVE MUCH SMALLER OBJECTS DOWN TO A WAVELENGHT OF 0.5 ANGSTROM
  • 18. LOUIS DE BROGLIE • DEVELOPED ELECTRON MICROSCOPE • TOGETHER WITH GEORGE THOMSON
  • 19. ERNST RUSKA • MADE THE FIRST CRUDE ELECTRON MICROSCOPE .
  • 20. TYPES OF OPTICAL MICROSCOPE
  • 21. • 1. SIMPLE MICROSCOPE –TH SIMPLEST FORM OF MICROSCOPE WHICH CONSISTS OF ONE DOUBLE CONVS LENS WITH A SHORT FOCAL LENGTH . THE LENS IS CAPABEL OG MAGNIFYING AN OBJECT FROM 15 X TO 2000X
  • 22. COMPOUND MICROSCOPE • USES VISIBLE LIGHT TO PRODUCE A MAGNIFID IMAGE OF AN OBJECT • COMPOSED OF OBJECTIVE LENS AND OCULAR LENS.
  • 23. SPECIAL PURPOSE OF OPTICAL MICROSCOPE • STEOREOSCOPIC M ICROSCOPE – PRODUCES A 3DIMENSIONAL IMAGE THAT HAS ITS RIGHT SIDE UP
  • 24. ULTRAVIOLET MICROSCOPE • USES ULTRAVIOLET Wavelength OF THE SPECTRUM INSTAD OF VISIBLE WAVELENGTH.
  • 25. PETROGRAPHIC MICROSCOPE • USED TO IDENTIFY AND ESTIMATE THE MINERAL CONTENT OF IGNEOUS AND MTAMORPHIC ROCKS.
  • 26. DARK FIELD MICROSCOPE • USES LIGHTING IN THE FORM OF A HOLLOW INTENSE CONE OF LIGHT CONCENTRATD ON TH SPECIMEN.
  • 27. TYPES OF ELECTRON MICROSCOPE • 1. SCANNING ELECTRON MICROSCOPE - USING ELECTRONS TO MAGNIFY OBJECTS. - 100000 UP TO A MILLION TIMES.
  • 28. TRANSMISSION ELECTRON M ICROSCOPE • CAPABLE UP TO 1 MILLION TIMES MAGNIFICATION
  • 29. Eyepiece Body Tube Revolving Nosepiece Objective Lens Stage Clips Diaphragm Light Arm Stage Coarse Focus Fine Focus Base
  • 30. Microscope One or more lense that makes an enlarged image of an object.
  • 31. STAND • MADE OF HEAVY FOOT AND A HORSESHOE SHAPED BASE THAT SUPPORTS THE MICROSCOPE
  • 32. BODY TUBE • CYLINDRICAL PART WHERE THE LENSES ARE ATTACHED AND CAN BE RAISED OR LOWERED FOR BETTER FOCUSING.
  • 33. COARSE ADJUSTMENT KNOB • THIS IS DONE AFTR THE OBJECTIVE LENS IS LOWERE NEAR THE OBJECT.
  • 34. FINE ADJUSTMENT KNOB •FOR FURTHER FOCUSING OF AN OBJECT
  • 35. STAGE • A PLATFORM WITH AN OPENING TO LET THE LIGHT PASS WHERE THE SPECIMEN IN A GLASS SLID IS PLACED.
  • 36. STAGE CLIPS • KEEP THE GLASS SLIDE IN PLACE SO THAT IT WILL NOT MOVE.
  • 37. ARM • CONNECTS THE BAS AND STAGE WITH THE TUBE
  • 38. OPTICAL PARTS •1. DRAW TUBE •- HOLDS THE EYEPIECE
  • 39. EYEPIECE • LOCATED AT THE TOP OF THE BODY TUBE. IT IS THE PART WHER YOU PEEP DURING AN OBSERVATION
  • 40. OBJECTIVES • LENS LOCATED NEAR TH OBJCT MAGNIFIS UP TO 90 X
  • 41. • 4X- LOW POWRED • 10 X- MEDIUM POWERED • 40 X- HIGHPOWERED • 100X- OIL IMMERSION
  • 42. REVOLVING NOSE PIECE LOCATED AT THE BOTTOM OF THE BODY TUBE WHICH CARRIES THE MAGNIFYING LENSES OBJECTIVES
  • 43. MIRROR • USED TO FOCUS RAYS OF THE LIGHT SOURCE TOWARD THE OBJECT
  • 44. DIAPHRAGM • CONTROLS THE AMOUNT OF LIGHT THAT NTRS TH STAGE OPENING
  • 45. CONDENSER LENS • USED TO FURTHER CONTROL THE LIGHT AS NEEDED.
  • 46. • OTHER TOOLS USED IN SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS
  • 47. AUTOCLAVE • LIKE AN OVEN USED TO STRELIZE CONTAINERS , INSTRUMENTS AND OTHER MATRIALS USED IN EXPERIMENT
  • 48. CENTRIFUGE • A MACHINE USED TO SEPARATE COMPONENTS OF A MIXTURE SOLIDS AND LIQUIDS
  • 49. • IT ROTATES VERY FAST AND BY CENTRIFUGAL FORCE THE SOLIDS ARE EITHER PRECIPITATED OR SEPARATED FROM THE MIXTURE
  • 50. COMPUTER • THIS IS AN INDESPENSABLE TOOL IN ANY RESEARCH. IT CAN STORE DATA, ACQUIR INFORMATION FAST VIA INTERNET, MAKS INTRPRETS GRAPHS VERY FAST
  • 51. SPECTROPHOTOMETER • SPECTROMETER- PRODUCE LIGHT OF ANY COLOR • PHOTOMETER- MEASURES INTNSITY OF LIGHT