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World History Midterm

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  • 1. Caballero 1Delaney CaballeroMr. SmithAP World History12 September 2010 World Religion Midterm AssignmentHinduism Section 1- Current Information Hinduism has about nine hundred million adherents worldwide and, in 2001, theARIS study found about 1.1 million adherents in the United States. Hindus are foundmostly inIndia, theUnited States,and GreatBritain. Hinduism has greatly impacted modern India in many good and bad ways. Positiveimpacts of Hinduism on modern India are the religious tolerance in the country and thesuccess of democracy for India. Some negative impacts are the occurrence of a castesystem among the population, the disregard and denigration of women, and the causeof poverty in the country.
  • 2. Caballero 2 The Beatles are the greatest revolution of music of all time. It is odd that Hinduismowes so much to these four men, but because George Harrison was a Hindu from hismid 20s up until his death in 2001, the religion has greatly spread all around the world,especially the United States, through the lyrics and messages of The Beatles. Harrisonwas one of the most spiritual of popular musicians of our times. In the summer of 1969,The Beatles produced the single "Hare Krishna Mantra", written and performed byHarrison and the London Radha-Krishna Temple devotees. The song topped the 10 best-selling record charts throughout America, Europe, and Asia. The same year, he and JohnLennon met Swami Prabhupada, the founder of the global Hare Krishna Movement. Section 2-Origins of Faith Hinduism originated in India and the earliest known date of foundation wasaround 2000 BC. Hinduism is the oldest known religion and the third largest in the world. There is no known founder of Hinduism. Hinduism spread slowly through different tribes adapting it and migrating to other places and spreading the culture. Section 3- Basic Beliefs and Customs
  • 3. Caballero 3 Hindus believe many things. Like all religions, the more devoted you are the moreyou believe. There are certain general beliefs that Hindus think of as the guidelines ofbeing a Hindu. These beliefs that are so fundamental to the Hindus are the authority ofthe oldest sacred Indian texts, the Vedas, the authority of the Brahmans, priests,reincarnation, and the law of karma. Hindus have many celebrations, rituals, and ceremonies. A few major rituals areMahashivarati, Holi, and Diwali. Mahashivarati is the festival of Shiva. It is especiallyimportant to devotees of Shiva, but is celebrated by most Hindus. It takes place in mid-February to early March. The day is spent meditating and fasting. Prayers made bydevotees are constantly being made in temples or at home shrines of Shiva. Offeringsconsist of fruits, Bilva leaves, and other specially prepared foods. Holi, the Festival ofColors, is a yearly festival celebrated on the day after the full moon in early March. Holiwas originally an agricultural festival celebrating the arrival of spring. Holi is the leastreligious of Hindu holidays. Diwali is a Hindu festival of light that lasts for five days. For alot of Hindus, Diwali is also considered their New Years Eve. Because the Hindu calendaris a lunar calendar, the dates of Diwali on the Gregorian calendar differ betweenOctober and November. There are three major denominations in Hinduism. They are Vaishnavism,Shaivism, and Shaktism. Vaishnavism is the largest of the four and the god Vishnu is theworshipped as the Supreme God. Vaishnavism regards the existence of many lower godsbelow Vishnu as manifestations or powerful entities that are ruled under him. TheVaishnavas strongly believe in their god as someone you can know and have a personal
  • 4. Caballero 4relationship with. Vaishnavas identify themselves by painting a white U, T, or Y on theirforeheads and bodies. Vaishnavas distinguish the importance of meditation in religiouspractice, but their main focus is on the heart instead of the head. Shaivism followers worship Shiva as the Supreme God. Shaivism is widely likedacross India, but is especially popular in Sri Lanka and Southern India. Saints fromSouthern India are mostly responsible for the development of Shaivism in the MiddleAges. Shaktism is based on worship of the Divine in the form of the Supreme Mother ofthe Universe, most often called Devi. She is worshipped mostly as the consort of Shiva,but has been moved up to the status of the Supreme God. Although some books equateShaktism with all major female deities, Shaktas specifically worship Devi. Because Shivaembodies the male principle and Devi embodies the female, the two aspects of Shaivismand Shaktism are alike.Judaism Section 1 Current Information Judaism has 14million adherentsworldwide and about 6.5million in the UnitedStates. Judaism is most
  • 5. Caballero 5commonly found in Israel, Europe, and the United States. Judaism is the main religion inIsrael. The Jewish religion impacts the lives of its worshipers in many ways. Strict Jews follow the kosher diet code, study the religion as part of their education, and it impacts their lives socially in ways such as marriage, naming your baby, coming of age, entertainment, andpolitics. Impacts of Judaism on the United States are all the Jewish movie directors andwriters, comedians, and restaurants in the country. Most movies nowadays are eitherwritten or directed, or both, by a Jew. Jews have made a huge impact on the comedyindustry. Some of the funniest and highest rated comedians are of the Jewish religion.An example of this is Chelsea Handler and her highly rated show, Chelsea Lately. Out ofeverywhere in America, Jews are most commonly found in New York City. They havehelped make New York culturally divine with their delis.
  • 6. Caballero 6 Section 2 Origins of Faith Judaism is one of the oldest surviving religions in the world today. It was foundedin 1300 BC in Mesopotamia by Abraham. Abraham originally lived in a northernMesopotamian town called Harran. He moved to the region of Canaan, in modern dayIsrael and Lebanon, under God’s command. Living in Mesopotamia, the ancient Hebrewpeople were semi nomadic herdsman and farmers, organized into tribes. Judaism spread through the migrations of the Hebrews. The Jews were forced tomigrate to Egypt because of a famine. In Egypt they were enslaved and were only freefrom the enslavement when God afflicted the Egyptians with plagues and drowning theEgyptian army in the Red Sea while the Hebrews escaped. God established the nation ofIsrael at Mount Sinai as his own and gave the Hebrews the terms of his covenant withthem. Moses played very important leadership roles throughout these times. Section 3 Basic Beliefs and Customs There are no official requirements to be a Jew, unlike in Christianity and Islam.However, a very important Jewish rabbi made the 13 Articles of Faith and, even thoughit is not required to believe or adhere to these rules, and most Jews don’t or don’t agreewith some of them, they are generally accepted as the guidelines of Judaism. The 13 Articles of Faith are these: God exists, God is one and unique, God isincorporeal, God is eternal, prayer is to God only, the prophets spoke truth, Moses wasthe greatest of the prophets, the Written and Oral Torah were given to Moses, there will
  • 7. Caballero 7be no other Torah, God knows the thoughts and deeds of men, God will reward thegood and punish the wicked, the Messiah will come, and the dead will be resurrected. Jewish life is manned by a number of occasions in which individuals and familiestake time out of their everyday lives to focus on God and his commandments. Examplesof this are daily prayer, Sabbath services, and holidays. As mentioned, Jews have many traditions when it comes to marriage, death, andbirth. After a Jewish child is born, on the first Sabbath, the child’s father is called to thefront at the synagogue to recite the aliyah and make blessings for the health of themother and child. If the child is female, she is named at this time. As part of the rite ofcircumcision, boys are named on the eighth day after birth. Marriage is highly revered inJudaism because of its view of the home and family as the center of religious life. youcan only become a rabbi if you are married. Death is seen as a part of life and a part ofGods plan. The long and extensive mourning rituals in Judaism show the great value itplaces on life and the life of each individual person. Mourning in Judaism shows respectfor the dead, comforts those left behind, discourages excessive mourning, and helps thefamily to return to normal life. Mourning is observed for 30 days after burial, mostlywithin the first seven days after. Holidays are a very important part of Jewish life. They are this important becausethey help keep traditions, they give you a sense of community and belonging, and theyremind believers of important historical events. Some of most important holidays to theJews are Sabbath, Rosh Hashanah, Passover, Yom Kippur, and Hanukkah. Almost all
  • 8. Caballero 8people know Sabbath as they day of the week when Jews are not allowed to work. ToJews, however, Sabbath is about celebration and rest from the hardships of the week.The restrictions on work are stricter for the Sabbath than for other holidays that don’tallow work to be done. The rabbis who wrote the Talmud made 39 categories of workthat cannot be performed on the Sabbath, according to the Hebrew Bible. Some ofthese are cooking, washing clothes, constructing, etc. The Sabbath does not restricteverything that takes effort. Jews are encouraged to play games, take walks, study theTorah, sing, and so on. It is laboring work that is forbidden on the Sabbath. Fun is verymuch encouraged. Rosh Hashanah is the Jewish New Year and translates to “head of the year”. RoshHashanah is a holy time. It falls in September or October. Rosh Hashanah is also knownas the Day of Judgment, because it is believed that on Rosh Hashanah God judges all ofhis people and decides on their fate in the next year. Passover is a holiday celebrating the liberation of the Hebrews from slavery inEgypt in the time of Moses. The name “Passover” comes from the last of the TenPlagues brought to the Egyptians before the Exodus. All of the firstborn male childrenwere killed, but the Hebrew houses that slaughtered a lamb and marked their doorpostswith its blood were "passed over." It is also an agricultural holiday celebrating thebeginning of the harvest season, but this part of Passover is not greatly emphasized.Passover is celebrated in spring. Yom Kippur is the most is the most important and solemn of the Jewish holidays.During Yom Kippur, even the most non devoted Jews will attend a synagogue service,
  • 9. Caballero 9not work, and fast. The name Yom Kippur translates to "Day of Atonement." It is said tobe the last chance to change Gods judgment of your exploits in the previous year andchange his decision of your fate for the coming year.Hanukkah is probably most well-known Jewish holiday among non- Jews due to itscloseness to Christmas. However, it is not the "Jewish Christmas". Historically, it pre-dates Christmas and is a very different celebration. It commemorates the rededicationof the Temple in 164 BCE and the post-biblical event of the victory of the Maccabeesover the Syrian-Greek rulers of Jerusalem. It also celebrates a miracle that accompaniedthe rededication of the Temple. When the temple was rededicated, God made the onedays worth of oil burn for eight days. This is one of the reasons Hanukkah is consideredthe Festival of Lights. Hanukkah is celebrated for eight days in mid to late December.The only important ritual of Hanukkah is the lighting of candles. The Hanukkah candlesare held in a chanukkiah, candelabra that holds nine candles. The candle in the middleof the chanukkiah is used to light the others.Buddhism Section 1 Current Information Buddhism is the fourth largest religion in the world with 360 million worshipersworldwide andabout two millionadherents in theUnited States. The
  • 10. Caballero 10greatest concentration of Buddhists are found in China, Japan, Korea, and SoutheastAsia. During World War II, most Buddhist schools, strongly supported Japansremilitarization. After World War II, there was a high demand for Buddhist priests whoglorified fallen soldiers, causing a strong revival. However, due to secularization andmaterialism, Buddhism and religion in general, have declined. In China, constant research in meditation has led to discover that within only 11 hours of practice, you can regulate brain behavior. Yoga and meditation has also has an impact on the United States. Non-Buddhist Americans practice yoga and meditation frequently to calm their nerves, getaway from daily life, and to get into shape. There are many yoga classes at gyms andfitness studios to help work the muscles in the body and to keep you in healthy state. Section 2 Origins of Faith Buddhism was founded in Northeast India. Siddhartha Gautama, an Indian prince,founded Buddhism around 520 BCE. He is the original Buddha. Buddha was a god in theTushita heaven who, after looking down upon the Dark Ages, vowed to come to theearth realm and relieve the people of their suffering. Buddha chose the family he wouldbe born into and chose parents of the royal status knowing that priests weren’t veryhigh in the caste system and he could make a bigger impact on the world if he were of
  • 11. Caballero 11higher social status. Because Siddhartha was the son of the king, he received the besteducation and was a master of all lessons taught to him. After Emperor Asoka fought in a battle that had such a loss of life he wasovercome with grief and converted to Buddhism. He applied Buddhist principles to theway he ruled his empire. After his conversion to Buddhism, Emperor Asoka stopped allmilitary conquest and violence. Instead, he focused his efforts on building schools,hospitals, and wells for his people. He went on pilgrimages to Buddhist holy sites, anddirected thatmonuments bebuilt in Buddhashonor. He sentemissaries tospread Buddhismbeyond India.Also, Asoka carved edicts on pillars and rocks throughout the empire promotingBuddhist values. Buddhism also spread through trade on the Silk Road where it traveledto Japan and China. Section 3 Basic Beliefs and Customs In 1966, leading monks from the two major Buddhists sects met in Sri Lanka withthe hope of ending the differences between the two groups and identifying the essentialpoints of agreement. They approved the "Basic Points Unifying the Theravada andMahayana". The most important of the beliefs and the major beliefs that all Buddhists
  • 12. Caballero 12follow are that Buddha is the only master, they should always take refuge in Buddha,the Dharma and the Sangha, and that they do not believe that this world is created andruled by a God. Buddhism has many holidays, ceremonies, and rituals. The most importantholidays have something to do with the important events in the life of Buddha. Two ofthe most important Buddhist holidays are the Buddhist New Year and Vesak. TheBuddhist New Year is celebrated on different days in the Buddhist world. In Theravadacountries, New Year is celebrated from the first full moon day in April for three days. InMahayana countries, the New Year usually starts on the first full moon day in January,and Tibetan Buddhists generally celebrate in March. Vesak is the most important festivalin Buddhism. It is the birthday of the Buddha. It is celebrated on the first full moon dayin May. Buddhists all over the world celebrate the birth, enlightenment, and death ofthe Buddha all in one day. Buddhists mainly practice meditation, mantras, and mudras. Meditation is thecentral focus of Zen Buddhism and the only way to achieve liberation in TheravadaBuddhism. Mantras are sacred sounds that are said to possess supernatural powers.Mantras are especially practiced in Tibetan Buddhism. They are believed to embody thepower and attributes of particular deities. Mudras are symbolic gestures, mostly handgestures, used in images of Buddha and in practice to evoke particular ideas or Buddha’sin the mind during Buddhist meditation or ritual.
  • 13. Caballero 13 There are many denominations of Buddhism, but most can be classified into thetwo major branches of Theravada and Mahayana. The Theravada form of Buddhism ismost common in southern Asia, especially in Sri Lanka, Burma, Thailand, Cambodia andLaos. Because of this it is sometimes referred to as Southern Buddhism. In Pali,Theravada means "The Way of the Elders". This reflects their belief that they mostclosely follow the original beliefs and practices of the Buddha and the early monasticElders. Mahayana Buddhism is the main form of Buddhism in North Asia, China, Japan,Korea, Tibet and Mongolia. For this reason it is sometimes known as NorthernBuddhism. Mahayana Buddhists accept the Pali Canon as sacred scripture with theTheravadans, but also the Sutras and many other works. Theravada and MahayanaBuddhists differ in their perspective on the ultimate purpose of life and the way in whichit can be achieved. Theravada Buddhists strive to become arhats; perfected saints whohave attained enlightenment and nirvana. This is considered to only be possible formonks and nuns, who devote their entire lives to the task. Likewise, MahayanaBuddhists hope to become boddhisatvas, saints who have become enlightened but whodelay nirvana to help others attain it as well, just like Buddha did.Islam Section 1 Current Information
  • 14. Caballero 14 Islam is the second largest religion in the world with about 1.3 billion adherentsworldwide and about 2.5 million in the Untied States. Muslims are mainly found in theMiddle East and North Africa. Some impacts of Islam on the Middle East are the dress code, education, anddemocracy. Islam has become an important reference point in debates about how theArab world should be governed. As far as democracy is concerned, some people say thatdemocracy and Islam are contradictory. Where democracy requires openness,competition, pluralism, and tolerance of diversity, Islam, encourages intellectualconformity and acceptance of authority. Islam is said to be undemocratic because itendows sovereignty in God, who is the sole source of political authority and from whosedivine law must come all regulations governing the religious devotees. An impact of Islam on the United States is the attack on 9/11 and the War onTerror that followed the attack. The War on Terror has been a constant scare for manyAmericans since 2001 when 9/11 occurred. The War has put President George W. Bushand President Barak Obama through a mess of confusion, headaches, and difficultdecisions. The War has killed many an American and Muslim. Section 2 Origins of Faith The Islamic religion is a monotheistic faith founded the prophet Muhammad in 622BC in Mecca, Saudi Arabia. Muhammad was born in Mecca in 570 AD. His father diedbefore his birth, and his mother died when he was six. After being orphaned,
  • 15. Caballero 15Muhammad was raised mostly by his uncle. When Muhammad was 25 he married hismentor and employer. She was 15 years his senior. When Muhammad was in his late30s he frequently visited a cave in Mount Hira to relax and have quiet time to think. In610, Muhammad returned from one particular visit telling his wife he had either gonearound the bend or become a prophet, because he had been visited by the AngelGabriel. After this incident, with the support of his wife and more visits from the Angel,Muhammad began to spread the message command by the Angel and God.
  • 16. Caballero 16 Within the first three years of his preaching’s Muhammad converted only 40people. Muhammad and his followers were harshly persecuted with verbal and physicalviolence. After the persecutions became worse, Muhammad heard news that in a citycalled Yathrib 280 miles north of Mecca, he had followers. Hearing that the town was inneed of a leader, and adelegation from Yathribproposed that Muhammadtake the job, Muhammadand his followers escapedMecca. Yathrib wasrenamed Medinat al-Nabi,"the City of the Prophet,"and is now known simplyas Medina, meaning, "the City." The year Muhammad and his follower’s evaded beingcaught escaping Mecca was 622 BC. This is the date on which the Muslim calendarbegins. Eight years after escaping from Mecca, settling himself in Medina, and becomingthe leader there, Muhammad returned to Mecca with an army and defeated it easily. ByMuhammads death the entire Arabian Peninsula was under Muslim control. Within 100years of Muhammads death, the Muslim empire had reached the Atlantic Ocean in thewest and the borders of China in the west. This empire was bigger than the RomanEmpire.
  • 17. Caballero 17 Section 3 Basic Beliefs and Customs The single most important belief in Islam is that there is only one God. The nameof God is Allah, meaning “the God”. Also, many Muslims believe that one must adhereto the Six Articles of Faith to be considered a Muslim. The Five Pillars of Islam are fivepractices regarded by all sects as extremely important to the Muslim faith. Islam has relatively few holidays compared to most other religions. Generally,Muslims celebrate two major festivals, and a month of fasting. The two major festivalsare Eid al-Fitr and Eid al-Adha. Eid al-Fitr marks the end of Ramadan and is celebratedduring the first three days of the month of Shawwal. Eid al-Fitr is Arabic for "Festival ofthe Breaking of the Fast". Eid al-Adha is celebrated by Muslims throughout the world tocommemorate the faith of Abraham. Eid Al-Adha begins on the 10th day of the lastmonth of the Islamic calendar and lasts for fours days. Ramadan is the holy month of fasting. It takes place in the ninth month of theIslamic calendar. Ramadan is similar to Yom Kippur in the Jewish religion in that bothconstitute a period of atoning of sins. However, Ramadan is seen less as atonement andmore as an obedient response to a command from God. During Ramadan, you must notdo anything or thinking anything evil or sinful, eating and drinking, and having sex fromdawn until nightfall. When Ramadan falls in the summer months it is harder to gothrough the whole day without water.
  • 18. Caballero 18 Islamic sects don’t really like each other and have shown outward violence in somecases. The major Islamic sects are Sunni and Shia (Shiite). The Sunni sect is the largest ofthe Muslim sects with 940 million worshipers out of 1.3 billion Muslims. Sunnis historicalroots come from the group who followed Abu Bakr as Muhammads successor insteadof the Prophets son-in-law Ali. Shiites are considered the Muslims who are not Sunnis.The Shiites are the Muslims who followed Ali as Muhammads successor after his death.Today there are approximately 120 million Shiite Muslims in the world.Christianity Section 1 Current Information Christianity is thelargest religion inthe world and hasabout 2 billionadherentsworldwide and 159million in theUnited States alone.Christians are mainly found in North America, Europe, and South America. Christianityhas had a major affect on North America and Europe.
  • 19. Caballero 19 In Europe, Christian Democracy became very popular in the 19th century. Christiandemocracy is a political ideology that aims to apply Christian principles to public policy.It came about in Europe under the influence of conservatism and Catholic socialteachings. It continues to be influential in Europe and Latin America, though in numberof countries have become secular. Christian Democrats are usually socially conservative,and many Christian Democrats are opposed to abortion and gay marriage, althoughsome Christian Democratic parties have accepted the legalization of both, within certainlimitations. A major impact of Christianity on the United States is the controversy overabortion and gay marriage. The sixth commandment states “You shall not murder.”With the case of abortion, Christians strongly believe that it is considered murderbecause you are killing an innocent child. While the Bible does talk abouthomosexuality, it does not outwardly mention gay marriage. However, it is clear thatthe Bible condemns homosexuality as an immoral and unnatural sin.
  • 20. Caballero 20 Section 2 Origins of Faith Christianity wasfounded in 33 AD inPalestine by Jesus Christ.Jesus was born to devoutJews named Mary andJoseph. He was conceivedby a miracle of the HolySpirit before the couplehad had any sexualrelationship. Most of Jesus’childhood is not written inthe Gospels so we havehardly any knowledge of it.He reenters the Gospels at the Age of 30. The four gospels agree that Jesus first act wasto be baptized by John the Baptist. The baptism marks the beginning of Jesus ministry.After the baptism, several of Johns followers left to follow Jesus. After, Jesus selectedseveral others until he had established a group of 12 disciples. While Jesus teachingswere fundamentally Jewish, they retreated from the Jewish law of the time. Perhapsmost astounding of all was that he taught on his own authority. Jesus was betrayed byone of his disciples, questioned by Jewish chief priests, taken to the Roman governor for
  • 21. Caballero 21punishment, and sentenced to death. Jesus was badly beaten, given a crown of thornsand a fake royal-purple robe to wear, and crucified. Within 20 years after Jesus death, his followers had spread the Christian faith asfar as Rome. The Apostle Pauls influence is so great in the spread of Christianity thatsome scholars have attributed the founding of "Christianity.” His letters to new churchesare the earliest Christian writings known and they make up over half of the NewTestament. Paul did not know Jesus personally; he was a devoted Jewish teacher whopersecuted Christians up until he received a blinding vision of the risen Christ on theroad to Emmaus. Paul was responsible for spreading Christianity over a major portion ofthe Roman Empire.Section 3 Basic Beliefs and Customs The biggest belief with all Christians is that there is one God who created theworld and takes an interest in the humans who inhabit it. Christians also believe thatthere is just one God, but that three distinct beings constitute the one God: the Father,the Son, and the Holy Spirit. Holidays have always been a big part of the Christian religion from thefoundation of it. Christmas and Easter are the two biggest holidays. Christmascelebrates the birth of Jesus Christ. Christians have been celebrating Jesus birth onDecember 25 since at least the early fourth century. There are special worship serviceshelp on Christmas all over the Christian world. Christmas carols are sung and a tree with
  • 22. Caballero 22lights is put up. Easter is festival held in spring that celebrates the resurrection of Christthree days after his death by crucifixion. Easter is the oldest Christian holiday and themost important day of the church year. The Catholic and Protestant churches celebrateEaster on the first Sunday following the first full moon after the spring equinox. Sunday is the day of rest and worship in Christianity. Most Christians attendworship services at a church on Sundays. The service usually includes singing, prayer,and sermon. Almost all Christians will have been baptized and regularly participate incommunion. Baptism and communion are regarded as sacraments. For the first thousand years of Christian history, there were no denominationswithin the Christian church. Today there are a lot. From the beginning of Christianitythrough the Middle Ages, there was only one the universal church, the Catholic Church.The first split in the Church occurred in 1054 with the Great Schism between the Easterand Western Churches. After this the two branches of Christianity were the CatholicChurch and the Orthodox Church. The next big split came in the 16th century with theProtestant Reformation. This started the Protestant denomination. The maindenominations in Christianity are Roman Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, and Protestant.There are many sub-divisions within the Protestant denomination.