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  • Biological oil agents help break down the oil so it degrades faster and does less damage to the environment.
  • Chemistry slideshow

    1. 1. CHEMISTRY<br />Chemical Reactions<br />
    2. 2. Spills from oil tankers damage the environment by contaminating water and shorelines, killing birds and aquatic life. <br /> <br />Many different methods are used to deal with oil spills, including booms, skimmers, biological and gelling agents. Each has a function to help cleanup and increase the speed with which the waters and the environment can be returned to a pre-spill state. <br />
    3. 3. GELLING AGENTS<br />A chemical used to solidify spilled oil<br />Using the motion of the sea, the gelling agent turns the oil into a rubbery substance that can be easily removed from water with nets, suction devices or skimmers. <br />The problem  quantity. (3 times as much gelling agent as oil)<br />
    4. 4. BIOLOGICAL AGENTS<br />Increase the rate at which oil naturally biodegrades.<br />Breaks oil down into a simpler and more easily removed compound. <br />Problem  biodegradation is a time-consuming process that can take years.<br />
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    6. 6. FERTILIZATION<br />Nutrient enrichment<br />Nutrients like nitrogen and <br />phosphorus are added to the oil spill. <br />There are generally limited supplies of these nutrients in nature which controls the growth of the native microorganism population. <br />When more nutrients are added, the native microorganisms rapidly increase, increasing the rate of biodegradation of the spilled oil. <br />
    7. 7. Sorbent Materials<br />Used in small spills or to remove the final traces of a large spill. <br />Problem  materials must be retrieved3 distinct types:Natural organic sorbents can soak up 3-15 times their weight, but may sink as a result (ie. peat moss, straw, sawdust, feathers)Natural inorganic sorbents can soak up 4-20 times their weight in oil. Inexpensive and available in large quantities, although they are not used on the water's surface. (ie. clay, perlite, glass wool, sand or volcanic ash)Synthetic sorbents are similar to plastics, designed to soak up liquids into their surface, and can absorb liquids into their solid structures that causes the material to swell. Can absorb up to 70 times their weight in oil. <br />
    8. 8. Manual/Mechanical Cleanup<br />Used in nearly every oil spill<br />Workers on the coast, armed with shovels, rakes and gloves collect oil that has run ashore. <br />Requires heavy machinery and is used in areas that are plagued by heavy oiled beaches, or areas which are thick in debris. <br />Although time-consuming, manual cleanup is preferred, as unskilled workers with minimal training can be employed in large numbers to clean affected areas. <br />
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    10. 10. Surface Dispersants<br />Sprayed by boats, aircraft and workers on the shore<br />Pull apart oil particles suspended in water, reducing the oil slick to droplets that can be degraded by naturally occurring bacteria<br />Major benefit  can be applied over a large area . When the chemicals are applied, dispersed oil is significantly less toxic. <br />Problem  Because the chemical properties of leaked oil will change over time, dispersants may lose their ability to break apart the oil. Dispersants can also be toxic, damaging the environment. <br />
    11. 11. RESOURCES:<br />
    12. 12. Website #1<br /><br />
    13. 13. This website’s purpose was to educate people on the 17 most effective ways to clean up an oil spill and was published when the Gulf of Mexico oil spill took place (the worst in US history). This website focuses in on the traditional and the non-traditional ways of cleaning up oil spills. What I enjoyed most about this website was that for every sub-topic there was a picture that allowed me to better understand the certain method at hand, and had quick facts about each method, not pages of useful information. I would definitely recommend this website to anyone doing research about chemicals used to clean up the mess of oil spills.<br />
    14. 14. Website #2<br /><br />
    15. 15. This website provided valuable information on using biological and gelling agents on oil spills. I liked how this website had sub-headings which narrowed my attention to each chemical method that was being discussed. Although this website was plain, with no graphics what so ever, I liked it because it was right to the point and didn’t include useless information. I found this website moderately useful, and I would recommend this website to others that are wanting to learn about the different chemicals that are used to help clean up oil spills. <br />
    16. 16. Book<br />
    17. 17. This on-line book about oil spills captured my attention because of all the graphics included and it was easy to summarize key information because it was easy to understand. This book provided useful information about oil spills, the damage it causes to the environment, the animals that are effected, and the information I used most focused in on the most popular solutions to cleaning up oil spills and how. I like how this book covered immense information about oil spills; starting with diagrams of how spills from oil tankers occur, to efforts big and small going into successfully returning waters and the environment to a pre-spill state. I would recommend this on-line book to anyone wanting to learn about oil spills in general.<br />
    18. 18. Thank you for watching!<br />Delaney Forsyth<br />