Metaphors In It(2003)
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Metaphors In It(2003)




Metaphors in IT
Computer System
Computer Organization
Input-output devices
Internet WWW



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    Metaphors In It(2003) Metaphors In It(2003) Presentation Transcript

    • IMAGINIZATION as Metaphors used in IT By Gul Sanga Khan
    • Contents
      • Imaginization
      • Metaphors
      • Metaphors in IT
      • Computer System
      • Computer Organization
      • Input-output devices
      • Internet WWW
      • Image : A representation of anything to the mind; a picture drawn in mind; a conception; an idea
      • Imagine: To think, To suppose, To form in the mind a notion or idea of; to form a mental image of; to conceive; to produce by the imagination.
      • Imagination : Power of the mind to imagine
    • "Imagination is more important than knowledge. To raise new questions, new possibilities, to regard old problems from a new angle, requires creative imagination". - Albert Einstein
      • This concept was originated by Gareth Morgan in 1993.Imaginization is a concept of understanding things through innovative ideas, through different angles concerned with improving our ability and developing a capability of finding new ways of self-organizing.
      • Metaphors are the words used to indicate something different from their literal meaning.
      • A metaphor is a tool for seeing something in terms of something else.
      • When someone tells you to “bite the bullet,” they are not requesting that you actually put a bullet in between your teeth. In fact, they are asking you to bravely face up to something unpleasant just as many soldiers were asked to clench a bullet in between their teeth to transfer the pain of the amputation or surgery (something very unpleasant indeed) that they were about to undergo
      • A metaphor is defined as a figure of speech, or something that we use to replace "normal" words in order to help others understand or enjoy our message. For example, we use the phrase "a blanket of snow" to describe a snowfall that covers the ground evenly, as if the snow were a fabric.
    • Metaphors in information technology
      • Not only metaphors are very common and useful in our everyday lives, but they are also important in technology. In fact, the use of metaphors in Information Technology has shaped the industry of today. Without metaphors, computers would not be as widely understood, and therefore not as widely used which would be a tragic misuse of valuable technology.
    • Basic Metaphors in IT
      • There are two main metaphors in Information Technology
      • Computer System :
      • In this area i will provide you with an overview of the basic design of a computer. You will know how different parts of a computer are organized and how various operations are performed between different parts to do a specific task. The internal architecture of computer may differ from system to system, but the basic organization remains the same for all computer systems.
      • Computer system consists of two different components :
      • It is the term given to the machinery itself and to the various individual pieces of equipment.
      • Now let us identify the physical components that make the computer work.
      • 1. Central Processing Unit (CPU)
      • 2. Computer Memory (RAM and ROM)
      • 3. Data bus
      • 4. Ports
      • 5. Motherboard
      • 6. Hard disk
      • 7. Output Devices
      • 8. Input Devices
      • All these components are inter-connected for the personal computer to work.
      • A set of computer program‘s or procedures concerned with operations of data processing.
      • System software consists of all the program's that tie together and coordinate the devices that makeup the computer system.
      • There are two types of software's :
      • System software
      • Application Software
    • Basic computer Operations
      • Input: This is the process of entering data and programs in to the computer system. You should know that computer is an electronic machine like any other machine which takes as inputs raw data and performs some processing giving out processed data. Therefore, the input unit takes data from us to the computer in an organized manner for processing.
      • Storage:
      • The process of saving data and instructions permanently is known as storage. Data has to be fed into the system before the actual processing starts. It is because the processing speed of Central Processing Unit (CPU) is so fast that the data has to be provided to CPU with the same speed.
      • The storage unit performs the following major functions:
      • All data and instructions are stored here before and after processing.
      • Intermediate results of processing are also stored here.
      • Processing:
      • The task of performing operations like arithmetic and logical operations is called processing. The Central Processing Unit (CPU) takes data and instructions from the storage unit and makes all sorts of calculations based on the instructions given and the type of data provided. It is then sent back to the storage unit.
      • Output:
      • This is the process of producing results from the data for getting useful information. Similarly the output produced by the computer after processing must also be kept somewhere inside the computer before being given to you in human readable form.
      • The computer system is divided into three separate units for its operation. They are 1) arithmetic logical unit, 2) control unit, and 3) central processing unit.
      • Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU)
      • The actual processing of the data and instruction are performed by Arithmetic Logical Unit
      • Control Unit (CU)
      • The next component of computer is the Control Unit, which acts like the supervisor seeing that things are done in proper fashion. The control unit determines the sequence in which computer programs and instructions are executed. Things like processing of programs stored in the main memory, interpretation of the instructions and issuing of signals for other units of the computer to execute them. Thereby it coordinates the activities of computer’s peripheral equipment as they perform the input and output. Therefore it is the manager of all operations.
      • Central Processing Unit (CPU)
      • The ALU and the CU of a computer system are jointly known as the central processing unit. You may call CPU as the brain of any computer system. It is just like brain that takes all major decisions, makes all sorts of calculations and directs different parts of the computer functions by activating and controlling the operations.
      • A computer is only useful when it is able to communicate with the external environment. When you work with the computer you feed your data and instructions through some devices to the computer. These devices are called Input devices. Similarly computer after processing, gives output through other devices called output devices.
      • Keyboard
      • Mouse
      • Scanner
      • VDU (Monitor)
      • Terminals
      • Printer
      • The Development of the Internet The Internet evolved from a US Department of Defense project in 1969 called Advanced Research Project Agency Network (ARPANET) . The main objective of ARPANET was to produce a data network that would continue to operate even if parts of the network were destroyed or malfunctioning. This objective was achieved by the development of a network protocol called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP) .
    • The Internet
      • An Internet:
      • A network of networks of computer hosts able to seamlessly communicate - usually through the Internet Protocol (IP) and services.
      • Enterprise Internet:
      • An Internet within an organization.
      • Public Data Internet:
      • Internet services made available to the public.
      • More than50,000 Internets connected together
    • Internet Standard Domain Names
      • A set of standard top-level domain names that form the basis of both a geographical and non-geographical naming system.
      • . com commercial organizations
      • . edu educational organizations
      • . gov government institutions
      • . mil military groups
      • . net major network support centers
      • . org organizations other than the above
      • Domains and Sub Domains
      • A Domain represents a country name , network , organization etc.
      • .in , .edu, .jp, .gov
      • A Sub Domain indicates a sub categorization as a province , sub network , department etc.
      • The Internet 
      • Local Area Network (LAN)
      • Typically refers to a network of computers within a limited area, usually a single building.
      • Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
      • Is a connection between building to building, two or more buildings.
      • Wide Area Network (WAN)
      • Is a combination of two or more LANs, with a connection between them operating over some form of telecommunications link. The Internet can be viewed as the largest WAN; it not only spans the world but also has links to operations taking place in space.
      • The diversity of information held on the Internet is extraordinary; some examples include:
      • Technical computer information
      • News and current affairs
      • Financial and commercial information
      • Arts and entertainment
      • Sport and leisure
      • Uniform Resource Locator
      • Every piece of information on the Internet has a unique name known as a URL (Uniform Resource Locator). A URL contains all the information necessary to connect to and load a piece of information:
    • Web browsers
      • A Web Browser is required to access Web pages. A Web browser is a software package that can retrieve and display information.
      • There are many browsers to choose from, but the two most popular PC packages are :
      • Netscape Navigator
      • Microsoft Internet Explorer .
      • Electronic Mail (E-mail) E-mail is a messaging system that can be used to transmit text messages and file attachments such as word processing documents, graphics, video and sound.
      • HOTMAIL
      • YAHOO
      • GMAIL