The marvellous world of RADIATES


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The marvellous world of RADIATES

  1. 1. The marvellous world of RADIATES A Moorhead / Lunatics Anonymous Production MMVIII
  2. 2. 8 Groups of Radiates <ul><li>Radiate busts on Dupondii (27BC – AD 260) </li></ul><ul><li>(therefore not radiate denominations) </li></ul><ul><li>The introduction of the Radiate denomination by Caracalla (AD 211-17) </li></ul><ul><li>The silver radiate (AD 238-260) </li></ul><ul><li>(Reece Period 12) </li></ul>
  3. 3. 8 Groups of Radiates contd. <ul><li>The base Radiates, AD 260-75 </li></ul><ul><li>The most common of all (Reece 13) </li></ul><ul><li>a) Central Empire (Gallienus, Claudius II, Aurelian, etc) </li></ul><ul><li>b) Gallic Empire (Postumus, Victorinus, the Tetrici, etc.) </li></ul><ul><li>The reformed (often silver-washed radiate), AD 275-96 (Reece 14) </li></ul><ul><li>a) Tacitus, Probus, Carus, Diocletian etc. </li></ul><ul><li>b) Carausius and Allectus in Britain & Gaul </li></ul>
  4. 4. 8 Groups of Radiates contd. <ul><li>“ Barbarous Radiates”, c. AD 275-85, </li></ul><ul><li>(all in Reece 14) </li></ul><ul><li>Post-Reform (post-296) radiates of Diocletian, Maximian, Constantius and Galerius (do not really reach Britain) </li></ul><ul><li>(Reece 15) </li></ul><ul><li>8 4 th century nummi with radiate busts, AD 317-330 (Reece 16) </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Dupondii with radiate busts c. 27 BC – AD 260 </li></ul><ul><li>Radiate bust is a representation of Sol the Sun God </li></ul><ul><li>Radiate bust helps to differentiate between the Dupondius and the As </li></ul>Dupondius of Hadrian, AD 117-138
  6. 6. 2. The introduction of the Radiate <ul><li>Introduced by Caracalla (211-17 – used to be called the Antoninianus after him) </li></ul><ul><li>Weighed only 1.5 denarii, so was it actually a double denarius? </li></ul><ul><li>Only short-lived, AD 215-222 </li></ul>
  7. 7. 2. Introduction of the Antoninianus contd. <ul><li>Scarce Radiate of Elagabalus (218-22), Mint of Rome: </li></ul><ul><li>VICTOR ANTONINI AVG </li></ul><ul><li>Found in Pocklington area, East Yorks. </li></ul><ul><li>(YORYM-476B46) </li></ul>
  8. 8. 3 The Silver Radiates AD 238-60 (Reece Period 12) Re-introduced by Balbinus and Pupienus (238) – rare! Balbinus PIETAS MVTVA AVGG, Rome mint
  9. 9. 3 The Silver Radiates AD 238-60 (Reece Period 12) <ul><li>Gradually declining silver content, but still silver in appearance </li></ul><ul><li>Generally scarce as site-finds </li></ul><ul><li>Gordian III (238-44) the most common </li></ul>Silver radiate of Gordian III, AD 238-44, Rome, IOVI STATORI (IOW-ECEC22)
  10. 10. 3. Philip I and Philip II AD 244-9 Base silver radiate of Phillip I, LAET FVNDATA, mint of Rome, 244-7, Stogursey, Somerset (SOM-420972) Note: the Nose and beard! Base silver radiate of Philip II, as Caesar, PRINCIPI IVVENT, Mint of Rome, 245-6, Twycross, Leics. (LEIC-21A411) Note: more baby-faced!
  11. 11. 3. Otacilia Severa (wife of Philip I (244-9) Silver radiate of Otacilia Severa, Mint of Rome, CONCORDIA AVGG, c. 246-8. Note the crescent moon behind the bust; the female version of the radiate crown (Leics - LEIC-8C9CF7)
  12. 12. 3.Trajan Decius and family (249-51) Silver radiate of Trajan Decius, Rome, VICTORIA AVG; Chesterton, Oxon (Hamp422)
  13. 13. 3. Herennia Etruscilla, wife of Trajan Decius (249-51) PVDICITIA AVG, Rome mint
  14. 14. 3. Herennia Etruscilla, wife of Trajan Decius (249-51) Copper alloy plated-radiate contemporary copy of HERENNIA ETRVSCILLA, uncertain reverse, Rome, AD 249-51. Rudston, E. Yorks (YORYM-331DC3)
  15. 15. 3. Herennius Etruscus and Hostilian (sons of Trajan Decius) Herennius Etruscus, PIETAS AVGVSTORVM, Rome Mint Hostilian, MARTI PROPVGNATORI, Rome Mint
  16. 16. 3. Trebonianus Gallus and family (251-3) LIBERTAS PVBLICA, Rome mint
  17. 17. 3 Contd.: Volusian, son of Trebonianus Gallus, 251-3 CONCORDIA AVGG, Rome
  18. 18. 3: Aemilian, usurper who defeated Trebonianus Gallus, AD 253 MARTI PROPVGT, Rome
  19. 19. 3 Contd.: Valerian I and family, 253-60 ORIENS AVGG, Lyon Mint Coins from Lyon for Valerian and family are the most commonly found in Britain
  20. 20. 3: Mariniana, wife of Valerian CONSECRATIO, Rome
  21. 21. 3: Gallienus, Joint Reign, son of Valerian, 253-60 DEO MARTI, Lyon Coins from Lyon for Valerian and family are the most commonly found in Britain
  22. 22. 3: Salonina, wife of Gallienus (Joint Reign, 253-60) FELICITAS PVBLICA, Lyon Coins from Lyon for Valerian and family are the most commonly found in Britain
  23. 23. 3: Valerian II, son of Gallienus, 256-8 IOVI CRESCENTI, Rome
  24. 24. 3: Saloninus, son of Gallienus, 258-9 PIETAS AVG, Lyon mint Coins from Lyon for Valerian and family are the most commonly found in Britain
  25. 25. 4: Base Radiates of 260-75 (Reece Period 13) – The most common radiates – Two major groups: <ul><li>Central Empire: Gallienus and Salonina (sole reign), Claudius II, Divus Claudius, Quintillus and Aurelian </li></ul><ul><li>Gallic Empire: Postumus, Laelian, Marius, Victorinus, Domitian, </li></ul><ul><li>Tetricus I & II </li></ul>
  26. 26. Peak of 3 rd century Radiate hoards Why?
  27. 27. Cunetio Hoard of over 55,000 3 rd century coins: latest coin c. AD275 Largest hoard from Britain
  28. 28. Massive rise in coin loss in period 13 (AD 260-75): did small denominations provide access for all to the money economy?
  29. 29. 4 Contd.: Central Empire: Gallienus and Salonina (Sole Reign), 260-8 Note: GALLIENVS AVG is the most common obverse legend for Gallienus A coin from Gallienus’ Zoo, Mint of Rome: IOVI CONS AVG, Goat left – Delta = 4 th Officina or Workshop ABVNDANTIA AVG, Rome, B denotes the 2 nd Officina or Workshop Note: coins of the sole reign of Gallienus and Salonina are much more common than coins for the earlier Joint Reign
  30. 30. 4: Salonina (sole reign of Gallienus, 260-8) FECVNDITAS AVG, Rome, Delta = 4 th Officina / Workshop Note how more base the coins of Gallienus and Salonina are after AD 260
  31. 31. 4 Contd.: Central Empire: Claudius II Gothicus, AD 268-70 Note: most common obverse legend is IMP C CLAVDIVS AVG or IMP CLAVDIVS AVG AEQVITAS AVG, Rome FIDES EXERCI, Rome XI denotes the 11 th officina or workshop
  32. 32. 4. Contd.: Central Empire Divus Claudius, AD 270 (many are Barbarous Radiates, hence go into Period 14) CONSECRATIO, Altar, Milan T = 3 rd officina / workshop CONSECRATIO, Altar, Milan S = 2 nd officina / workshop
  33. 33. 4 Contd.: Central Empire: Quintillus, AD 270 (Note: curly hair) PROVID AVG, Milan T = 3 rd officina / workshop
  34. 34. 4 Contd. Central Empire: Aurelian and Severina, 270-5 ORIENS AVG, Rome, VI = 6 th Officina / Workshop IOVI CONSER, Rome, S = 2 nd Officina / Workshop
  35. 35. 5. Central Empire: Severina, 270-275 CONCORDIA AVGG, Rome, 6 th officina / workshop XXI = c. 5% silver
  36. 36. 4. Contd: Gallic Empire: Postumus, 260-69 <ul><li>These coins are often quite silver – more so than the contemporary issues of Gallienus </li></ul>
  37. 37. 5. Gallic Empire: Postumus 260-69 PAX AVG, Principal mint in Gaul
  38. 38. 4. Gallic Empire: Laelian, 269 Very rare as site-finds VICTORIA AVG, Gaulish Mint
  39. 39. 4. Gallic Empire: Laelian, 269 VICTORIA AVG; Bickmarsh, Worcs. WAW-05D402
  40. 40. 4 Contd.: Gallic Empire Marius, 269 – very scarce CONCORDIA MILITVM, Gaul Mint 1 VICTORIA AVG, Gaul Mint 2
  41. 41. 4 Contd.: Gallic Empire: Victorinus, 269-71: Mint 1 (note the nose and beard) INVICTVS, Sol, Gaul Mint 1 – Common type
  42. 42. 4. Gallic Empire: Victorinus, 269-71: Mint I contd common types FIDES MILITVM, Fides hdg 2 standards SALVS AVG, Salus stg. l. at altar, feeding snake PAX AVG, Pax stg l., hdg TRANSVERSE sceptre VIRTVS AVG, Virtus stg. r., hdg. shield and spear
  43. 43. 4. Gallic Empire: Victorinus, 269-71: Mint II common types AEQVITAS AVG, Aequitas hdg scales and cornucopiae SALVS AVG, Salus feeding snake held in arms PIETAS AVG, Pietas stg left at altar PROVIDENTIA AVG, Providentia l., hdg baton over globe, and cornucopiae
  44. 44. 4. Gallic Empire: Domitianus, 271 from the Chalgrove Hoard (Oxon) CONCORDIA MILITVM
  45. 45. 4. Gallic Empire:Tetricus I, 271-4, Mint I common types SPES PVBLICA, Spes adv l, hdg flower and lifting skirt VICTORIA AVG, Victory l, hdg wreath and palm COMES AVG, Victory l, hdg wreath and palm PAX AVG, Pax stg l., hdg VERTICAL Sceptre and branch
  46. 46. 4. Contd.: Gallic Empire: Tetricus I, 271-4, Mint I contd. VIRTVS AVGG, Virtus stg. l, hdg shield and spear HILARITAS AVG, Hilaritas stg l, holding palm and cornucopiae SALVS AVGG, Salus stg l, holding rudder and feeding snake entwined around altar
  47. 47. 5. Gallic Empire: Tetricus I, 271-4 Mint II common types FIDES MILITVM, Fides hdg two standards LAETITIA AVGG, Laetitia stg l, hdg purse and anchor LAETITIA AVGN, Laetitia stg l, hdg purse and anchor
  48. 48. 4 Contd.: Gallic Empire: Tetricus II (271-4) – no beard Mint I: PRINC IVVENT, Prince stg l, hdg branch and spear Mint I: SPES AVGG, Spes adv l, hdg flower and skirt Mint II: PIETAS AVGG, Sacrifical implements Mint II: PIETAS AVGVSTOR, Sacrificial implements
  49. 49. Group 5: Silver-Washed Radiates, AD 275-96 (Reece Period 14) (generally larger, rounder flans than Gallic Empire coins) <ul><li>Two main groups: </li></ul><ul><li>Central Empire: Tacitus, Florian, Probus, Carus, Numerian, Carinus, Magnia Urbica, Diocletian and Maximian </li></ul><ul><li>** All the above generally much scarcer than Reece Period 13 coins (Gallienus, Claudius II, Victorinus & Tetrici) </li></ul><ul><li>2. British Empire: Carausius and Allectus </li></ul>
  50. 50. 5: Central Empire: Tacitus, 275-6 Note the beard under chin PAX AVGVSTI, Siscia Mint PAX PVBLICA, Lyon Mint
  51. 51. 5: Central Empire: Florian, 276 VIRTVS AVGVSTI, Lyon Mint
  52. 52. 5: Central Empire: Probus, 276-82 TEMPOR FELICI, Lyon Mint
  53. 53. 5. Central Empire: Probus, 282-6 ADVENTVS AVG, Rome mint SOLI INVICTO, Rome
  54. 54. 5: Central Empire: Carus, 282-3 PAX AVGG, Lugdunum Mint
  55. 55. 5: Central Empire: Numerian, 283-4 PRINCIPI IVVENTVT, Ticinum -//VIXXI
  56. 56. 5. Central Empire: Carinus, 283-5 SAECVLI FELICITAS, Lugdunum
  57. 57. 6. Central Empire: Magnia Urbica (wife of Carinus), 283-5 VENVS GENETRIX, Lugdunum mint
  58. 58. 5: Central Empire: pre-reform radiate of Diocletian, 284-96 IOVI AVGG, Lugdunum mint
  59. 59. 5. Central Empire: Diocletian CONCORDIA MILITVM, Cyzicus
  60. 60. 5. Central Empire: pre-reform radiate of Maximian, 286-96 HERCVLI PACIFERO, Lyon
  61. 61. 5. British Empire: Carausius, 286-93 LAETITIA, London mint - F O//ML
  62. 62. 5. British Empire: Carausius, 286-93 PAX AVG (the most common type for Carausius), C Mint S P//C
  63. 63. 5. British Empire: Carausius for Diocletian, 286-93 Hinton on the Green, Worcestershire, WAW 747B03 PAX AVGGG, MLXXI
  64. 64. 5. British Empire: Carausius in the name of Maximian PAX AVGGG, London Mint - note: MLXXI
  65. 65. 5. British Empire: Allectus, 293-6 PAX AVG, London
  66. 66. 5. British Empire: Allectus, Q Radiates of London and C Mint VIRTVS AVG, Galley, London VIRTVS AVG, Galley, C Mint Note this type also LAETITIA AVG and Galley at both mints
  67. 67. 6. Barbarous Radiates, c. 275-85 (Reece Period 14) <ul><li>We generally date them all to c. 275-85 </li></ul><ul><li>Enter under ruler dropdown: ‘Radiate, Barbarous’, but include details of prototype in Description Box: </li></ul><ul><li>e.g. Copper alloy contemporary copy of a radiate (‘barbarous radiate’, copying a coin of Tetricus I (271-4), Pax reverse, struck c. 275-85. Cun. c.f. 2985 </li></ul>
  68. 68. 6. Barbarous radiate of Gallienus Copy of an AETERNITAS AVG coin of Gallienus Wallington, Herts. BH-EE4582
  69. 69. 6. Barbarous Radiate: Divus Claudius Barbarous DIVVS CLAVDIVS, Altar Issue from Ashwell, Herts BH-0AB7B7
  70. 70. 6. Barbarous Radiates, c. 275-85 : to make up for shortage of coins after reforms of Aurelian, 270-5, and fall of Tetricus, AD 274 Very base copy of a coin of Postumus. Shropshire HESH-8317C5 An official base silver radiate of Postumus, 260-269 Paulerspury, Northants NARC-393C97
  71. 71. 6. Official coin and copy of Victorinus
  72. 72. 6. Barbarous Radiates, c. 275-85 : to make up for shortage of coins after reforms of Aurelian, 270-5, and fall of Tetricus, AD 274. Barbarous radiate, copying coin of Tetricus II (271-4) Wallington, Herts. BH-EC16B8 Barbarous radiate, probably copying Victorinus or Tetricus I Clothall, Herts. BH-DD5B78
  73. 73. 6. Barbarous Radiates Barbarous radiate, Breedon on the Hill, Leics. DENO-D97B14 Pierced Barbarous radiate, prob copying Tetricus I, Victory or Spes type, Ashwell, Herts BH-8A4913 Roman or Anglo-Saxon re-use
  74. 74. 6. Probable copy of Allectus
  75. 75. 7. Post-Reform Radiates of Diocletian and Tetrarchs, post-296 <ul><li>I know of none found in Britain </li></ul><ul><li>Most common in </li></ul><ul><li>Italy and North </li></ul><ul><li>Africa </li></ul>VOT XX, Rome (296-7)
  76. 76. 8. Radiate busts on Nummi of the period 317-30 (House of Constantine) (Reece Period 16) Constantine II, VICTORIAE LAETAE PRINC PERP, London, 320-1
  77. 77. Ruler Dropdowns for uncertain and barbarous radiate coins <ul><li>1. Barbarous Radiates come under Ruler Dropdown, ‘Radiate barbarous’ (Reece 14) </li></ul><ul><li>2. Smaller or Gallic base radiates which are uncertain come under ‘Uncertain Ruler, 260-75’ (Reece 13) </li></ul><ul><li>3. Larger radiates which are uncertain come under ‘Uncertain Ruler, 275-96’ (Reece 14) </li></ul>