What is GIS?

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What is GIS?

  1. 1. What is a G eographic I nformation S ystem?
  2. 2. A GIS is any manual or computer based system designed to store and manipulate spatially referenced data
  3. 3. A GIS or Geographic Information System is a system designed for storing, analyzing, and displaying spatial data. Manage Data Manipulate Data Analyze Data
  4. 4. Typical questions include: <ul><li>What is at ......? </li></ul><ul><li>Where is ......? </li></ul><ul><li>What has changed since ......? </li></ul><ul><li>What spatial patterns exist......? </li></ul><ul><li>What if ......? </li></ul>
  5. 5. GIS ~ CAPABILITIES AND USES Digitizing Address Matching Event Mapping Thematic Mapping Join and Merge Tables Tabular and Spatial Queries Thematic Mapping
  6. 6. The ultimate purpose of a GIS is to answer spatial questions... ...NOT necessarily to make ‘PRETTY’ maps!
  7. 7. What Makes up a GIS?
  8. 8. A GIS consists of Data Layers or Themes . . . . . . . . + + Species locations Land cover type Roads GIS
  9. 9. Data Vector Data vs. Raster Data
  10. 10. Vector Data Points Lines Polygons Raster Data Cells or Pixels
  11. 11. Vector Data Raster Data
  12. 12. What makes up spatial data? Where each feature is located What each feature represents Relationships among features Physical shape of the feature Coordinates Attributes Topology Shape
  13. 13. Who makes spatial data? <ul><li>EVERYBODY! </li></ul><ul><li>Emergency Services: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Accident (police) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Burglary (police) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crime (police) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fires (fire fighters) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Health outbreaks (hospital) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typhoon damage (EMO/CUC) </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. An important thing to remember… the questions must be asked before the data are developed !
  15. 15. A GIS can be VERY FRUSTRATING! So have patience .... We’re here to help!!!
  16. 16. What is ArcGIS? An integrated collection of GIS software products for building a complete GIS. The ArcGIS framework enables you to deploy GIS functionality—in desktops, servers (including the Web), or mobile devices. Who is ESRI ? Environmental Systems Research Institute, Redlands, CA http://www.esri.com
  17. 17. What’s the difference between: ArcGIS? ArcView? ArcInfo? Versions 1.0 – 3.3 Originally developed for non-GIS specialists - Biologist, Managers, Planners . GUI. User-friendly. Proprietary Programming Language - Avenue. Reads Shape files and Coverages. Versions 1.0 – 8.0 High end developers tool – High geek factor. Hosted on a Unix, IBM mainframe. Command line – Arc. Proprietary Programming Language - AML. Not user-friendly or for the casual user! A collection of GIS products - Desktop, Server, Embedded, Mobile. Based on Visual Basic. Designed for the Individual or a large Corporation. Versions 9.0 – 9.2
  18. 18. ArcMap ArcCatalog ArcToolbox View GIS data (graphically or in tables) & create maps. Manage & organize GIS files Convert GIS file formats (re-project & transform)
  19. 19. Familiarizing with the software Start software Add data layers Zoom around Assign symbols Save project

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