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P-Rex - Quantity, Quality and Market aspects of potential P recycling routes in Europe

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EU project about phosphate recycling and re-use.

EU project about phosphate recycling and re-use.


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  • 1. Quantity, Quality and Market aspects of potential P recycling routes in Europe Christian Kabbe Berlin Centre of Competence for Water Wageningen, 6th February 2013 PHOSPHORUSRECYCLING FROMPROTOTYPETOMARKET www.p-rex.eu
  • 2. Phosphorus – bottleneck of life www.p-rex.eu Limited availability Strategic resource „We may be able to substitute nuclear power for coal, and plastics for wood, and yeast for meat, and friendliness for isolation – but for phosphorus there is neither substitute nor replacement“. - Isaac Asimov (1920 bis 1992) – First published 1959 (Life‘s bottleneck)
  • 3. - Wastewater/sewage sludge - Biowaste - Manure - Meat and bone meal The traditional, closed anthropogenic P cycle www.p-rex.eu Once upon a time, there was an unbroken circle … http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/phosphate- recovery/ceep11.htm Soil <-> life balance …
  • 4. The modern anthropogenic P „cycle“ www.p-rex.eu Disruption of P cycle: Urbanization Industrialisation Globalisation Problems: - Discoupling of food production and consumption - Pollutants/contamination - Inefficient use Challenges for the future: - Increasing P demand - Decreasing quality of fossil P rock - Limited availability - Separation of nutrients from pollutants for recycling Need of mineral fertilizer to compensate losses! EU needs to import 975,000 t of mineral P!!! http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research- curation/research/projects/ phosphate-recovery/ceep11.htm
  • 5. Building Bridges! EU FP7 Project Sustainable sewage sludge management fostering phosphorus recovery and energy efficiency PHOSPHORUSRECYCLING FROMPROTOTYPETOMARKET www.p-rex.eu
  • 6. Closing the loop, but where and how? www.p-rex.eu amended from: http://www.nhm.ac.uk/research-curation/research/projects/phosphate-recovery/ceep11.htm 210 Mt P rock (global mining 2012, USGS 2013) 90% 10%
  • 7. Germany‘s National P Reserves www.p-rex.eu Waste stream Quantity of waste stream P-Reserve (theoretical) Compared to Pmineral imported ~ 120.000 t/a wastewater (municipal) ~ 9,4 billion m³/a ~ 75.000 t P/a ~ 63 % sewage sludge (dry matter) ~ 2 million t/a ~ 67.500 t P/a ~ 57 % meat & bone meal ~ 180.000 t/a ~ 10.800 t P/a ~ 9 % animal excreta manure: ~ 190 Mio m3/a ~ 240.000 t P/a Completely but not efficiently used! solids: ? 6% of German cropland (12 million acres) short of P, whereas NS and NRW have surplus sufficient for 1 million acres from manure (Römer et. al. 2013) (Different sources DESTATIS)
  • 8. ,0 200000,0 400000,0 600000,0 800000,0 1000000,0 1200000,0 1400000,0 1600000,0 1800000,0 2000000,0 2200000,0 1998 2001 2004 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 sewagesludgeinmetrictonsdrymatter thermal agriculture landscaping landfill other interim storage Sewage sludge routes in Germany www.p-rex.eu (DESTATIS 2012) 55% 3% 13% 29% Obviously: insufficient reuse of P
  • 9. Sewage sludge routes in Europe 2010 www.p-rex.eu (DESTATIS 2012) Obviously: insufficient reuse of P 0 250000 500000 750000 1000000 1250000 1500000 1750000 2000000 AT BE BG CY CZ DE DK EE ES FI FR GR HU IE IT LT LU LV MT NL PL PT RO SE SI SK UK CH other landfill application to land incineration Drymatterinmetrictons European total quantity: ~ 11 million tons sludge (dry matter)
  • 10. WATERLOOP – Trinity of P Recycling www.p-rex.eu Food Humans Wastewater WWTP Agriculture Sewage sludgeDirectapplication onarableland Precoveryfrom aqueousphase(MAP) Precoveryfrom incinerationash EU: 11 million tons of sludge dry matter/a ~ 350,000 t P/a P Global P recycling from wastewater: End of 20th century only 30%! (Liu et al. 2008)
  • 11. Hot spots for P recovery in WWTP www.p-rex.eu (amended from Montag 2010)
  • 12. Some P recovery processes in Europe www.p-rex.eu PEARL MAP FULL Ash Sludge Sludge Liquor LEACHPHOS P-mineral DEMO Thermal Leaching P-bac (INOCRE) MAP PHOSTRIP MAP, CaP DEMO P-RoC CaP/CSH DEMO PASCH CaP MEPHREC P-slag DEMO SEPHOS AlP LYSOGEST MAP Full Electrochemical MAP, CaP PRISA MAP Gifhorn MAP, CaP DEMO AirPrex MAP FULL NuReSys MAP FULL Stuttgart MAP DEMO THERMPHOS P4 FULL AshDec (SUSAN) P-mineral DEMO RECOPHOS D P-mineral DEMO SESAL-PHOS CaP KREPRO FeP FULL Budenheim CaP DEMO RECOPHOS AT H3PO4 DEMO Crystalactor MAP, CaP FULL Aqua Reci H3PO4 ? FIX-PHOS CaP/CSH DEMO PHOXNAN H3PO4 REPHOS MAP Full Wet Oxidation With Leaching Low Chemicals Demand
  • 13. P recovery units - sludge www.p-rex.eu Process Operator/location Scale Output Contact P recovery from sludge AirPrex Waßmannsdorf (DE) BWB full MAP Berliner Pflanze BWB Dr. B. Heinzmann AirPrex MG-Neuwerk (DE) Niersverband full MAP P.C.S. W. Ewert AirPrex BS-Steinhof (DE) SE|BS / AVB full MAP/ Sludge P.C.S. W. Ewert AirPrex Wieden-Echten (NL) full MAP P.C.S. W. Ewert AirPrex Amsterdam (NL) planned full MAP P.C.S. W. Ewert CRYSTALACTOR Geestmerambacht (NL) full Ca-P DHV A. Giesen Gifhorn process Gifhorn (DE) ASG full MAP PFI Prof. J. Müller- Schaper Fix-Phos Hildesheim (DE) SEHi full Ca-P/ Sludge TU DA Dr. C. Schaum Stuttgart process Offenburg (DE) pilot MAP IAT Mr. Meier Budenheim process Mainz (DE) planned pilot Ca-P Budenheim Dr. R. Schnee
  • 14. P recovery units – process water www.p-rex.eu Process Operator/location Scale Output Contact P recovery from sludge liquor / process water REPHOS Altentreptow (DE) Remondis Aqua full MAP Remondis Dr. M. Lebek LYSOGEST Lingen (DE) SE Lingen full MAP P.C.S. W. Ewert PEARL (PEARL 500) Slough (UK) Thames Water full MAP Crystal Green™ OSTARA Jim Hotchkies NuReSys (prototype) Dairy processing (BE) full MAP BIOSTRU NuReSys Dr. Wim Noerman NuReSys Potato processing (BE) full MAP BIOSTRU NuReSys Dr. Wim Noerman P-RoC Neuburg (DE) pilot Ca-P at CSH KIT CMM Dr. R. Schuhmann PHOSTRIP Brussels-North (BE) Aquiris (Veolia Eau) pilot MAP or Ca-P Veolia Eau
  • 15. Process Operator/location Scale Output Contact P recovery during or after incineration MEPHREC Nürnberg (DE) SUN full P-fertilizer Ingitec J. Mallon SUSAN Koenigs Wusterhausen (DE) RETERRA full P fertilizer Outotec L. Hermann Thermphos Vlissingen (NL) full White P4 Thermphos Willem Schipper LeachPhos MSWI plant of Bern (CH) pilot MAP or CaP BSH S. Schlumberger RECOPHOS ?(DE) full P fertilizer RecoPhos Mr. Bohndick ? Tangermünde (DE) full P fertilizer Loser Chemie Mr. Loser P recovery units – during or after incineration www.p-rex.eu Undiluted incineration -> ash Highest recovery potential (> 90% P compared to influent) WhataboutAquafinandEcoPhos?
  • 16. P recovery - feasibility www.p-rex.eu dry matter content after deatering cost Fe-salt disposal cost sludge opex Air- Prex RockAway total cost TR (%) €/a €/a €/a €/a €/a Fe-salt 20 g/m³ Influent ß= 1,3 29 503.953 2.585.480 0 0 3.089.433 Bio-P with RockAway 20 0 3.176.366 0 150.000 3.326.366 Bio-P with AirPrex 25 0 2.537.942 314.153 0 2.852.095 Benefits due to AirPrex unit: - Reduced maintenance (no more clogged pipes), centrifuges run smoother - Improved dewaterability of sludge (+ ~5% dry matter ) -> reduction of disposal costs - Reduced chemicals consumption - Annual cost reduction: 474,000 € The practical example of WWTP Neuwerk (Niersverband): (Niersverband, Bäckler 2012)
  • 17. P recovery – next generation www.p-rex.eu WAS Thickening 6-7% DS Thermal Hydrolysis Lysotherm® (150°C, 30 Min.) Struvit pecipitation and recycling LysoPhos©- Process + Mg(OH)2 + NH4 Sludge dewatering Sludge water to bio- treatment (P- reduced) Struvit washer prim. sludge digestion WAS digestion Primary sludge only Lysotherm® - LysoPhos® = LysoGest® optimized energy and phosphate process by separate sludge treatment
  • 18. How to increase P-recovery rate from wastewater? www.p-rex.eu  Demonstration and systematic validation of technical processes at full-scale facilities  Systematic assessment and validation of the quality of obtained recycling products with regards to plant availability of phosphorus  Analysis of market barriers and market potential for novel recycling technology and recycling products  Development of strategies and recommendations for efficient and wide-spread phosphorus recovery and market penetration from the wastewater stream with regards to specific regional conditions -> policy brief, guidance document Project Goals  EU-wide implementation of P recovery/recycling from wastewater stream with respect to regional conditions and demands
  • 19. Key deliverables www.p-rex.eu  Integral guidance document and policy brief  Technical comparison of promising, available P-recovery/recycling technologies based on real life data (including detailed factsheets for every process, BAT)  Environmental impact and costs of compared technologies in relation to traditional valorization of sewage sludge and mineral fertilizers based on fossil P rock  Agreed methodologies for LCA and LCC to be used for other projects/assessment studies  Stakeholder workshops (market survey and regional conditions) -> broad base input  Educative film and summer school  Project website and e-market for P-recycling products (BWB) (BWB)
  • 20. P recoveredP recovered  Feasibility of joint application wastewater / manure? Infratructure?  What are the real market requirements besides the legal requirements (base line)? Market issues and synergies www.p-rex.eu P recovered LEGAL framework Nutrient concentration Pollutants Plant availability Eco-toxicity Hygiene Market framework Price Purity (MAP?) Quantity Shape Handling Operational benefits? Consumer concerns?
  • 21. Example: AirPrex® Berlin-Wassmannsdorf www.p-rex.eu  MAP ~ 60-70%  Moisture: 10%  Sand and organic matter: 10%  Approved fertilizer “Berliner Pflanze”  Sales price depends on package size:  The smaller the higher … (2.50€/kg)  Challenge and potential: improvement of yield and quality Raw product composition
  • 22. Outlook www.p-rex.eu  Struvite recovery is state of the art for P recovery/recycling (limited to Bio-P plants and recovery max 50%) -> already a growing market in terms of process technology, esp. when additinal benefits for operator -> still need to develop market for products (MAP, HAP etc.) several thousand tons per year within the next 2 years -> REACH!!! -> whereas legal requirements are quite clear, the real end user needs are still hidden  If recovery >80% -> mono-incineration incl. ash treatment to obtain marketable and useful products  Infrastructure or technology applicable for manure? -> what‘s better: separation and concentration of nutrients in solid phase and then treatment of aqueous phase (or irrigation?) -> or treatment of the manure in WWTP?
  • 23. The Metropolitan Case Study www.p-rex.eu WASTE/ WASTEWATER P-RECYCLING PRODUCT AGRICULTURE FOOD
  • 24. Outlook www.p-rex.eu  Still need to involve all stakeholders on equal eye level -> more efficient collaboration, more impact -> that‘s ressource efficiency by means! Science Policy Industry Policy Science Science Industry Industry Policy YES, TOGETHER WE CAN !!! I f w e w a n t t o ! ! ! P Platform
  • 25. Thank you for your kind attention! Christian.Kabbe@kompetenz-wasser.de www.kompetenz-wasser.de See you there: EU Sustainable P Conference in Brussels 6-7th March 2013 Global TraPs World Conference in Beijing 18-21th June 2013 PHOSPHORUSRECYCLING FROMPROTOTYPETOMARKET www.p-rex.eu