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What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
What is Creativity?
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What is Creativity?

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Module 2 of Creative Modeling for Tech Visionaries. Discusses different theories and definitions of creativity.

Module 2 of Creative Modeling for Tech Visionaries. Discusses different theories and definitions of creativity.

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    1. Creative Modeling for Technology Visionaries Qualitative & Simplified Quantitative Modeling for Product Creation Module 2: What is Creativity? David E. Goldberg University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois 61801 [email_address]
    2. “Creative” is Common Term <ul><li>“Creative” and “creativity” commonly used: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>He/she is creative . </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That was a creative design. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wasn’t that a creative presentation that was? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>He/she has creative ideas. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But not always clear what we mean. </li></ul><ul><li>What is creativity? Explore different senses of the term. </li></ul>
    3. Roadmap <ul><li>What is creativity? Class’s viewpoint. </li></ul><ul><li>Dictionary definition. </li></ul><ul><li>Aside on linguistic rigidity and naiveté </li></ul><ul><li>Other views: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C as individual thought process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C as group brainstorming. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C as socially enabled/mediated process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C as history. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C as generative vision. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C as heuristic inventive process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C as eliminating resistance/blocks. </li></ul></ul>
    4. What is Creativity to You? <ul><li>What does it mean to be creative? </li></ul><ul><li>Who are creative people? Exemplars. </li></ul><ul><li>What do they do? </li></ul><ul><li>Do they think differently? </li></ul><ul><li>Do they act differently? </li></ul><ul><li>How do you know creativity when you see it? </li></ul>
    5. Web Definitions: Creativity <ul><li>Not the right answer. </li></ul><ul><li>A “standard” answer. Where do dictionary definitions come from? </li></ul><ul><li>Web definitions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The ability to solve problems that are worth solving. It is the ability to create knowledge. Creativity is subject-specific: it is the meta-knowledge of how to solve a specific class of problems. So there is no such thing as “raw”, undifferentiated creativity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The experience of thinking, reacting, and working in an imaginative and idiosyncratic way which is characterized by a high degree of innovation and originality, divergent thinking, and risk taking. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One can define creativity as the mental phenomena, skills and/or tools capable of originating (and subsequently developing) innovation, inspiration or insight. Pop psychology generally may associate it with right or forehead brain activity or even specifically with lateral thinking. </li></ul></ul>
    6. Merriam-Webster: Creative <ul><li>Main Entry: 1cre·a·tive Pronunciation: krE-'A-tiv, 'krE-&quot; Function: adjective 1 : marked by the ability or power to create : given to creating <the creative impulse> 2 : having the quality of something created rather than imitated : IMAGINATIVE <the creative arts> 3 : managed so as to get around legal or conventional limits < creative financing>; also : deceptively arranged so as to conceal or defraud < creative accounting> </li></ul>
    7. Merriam-Webster: Create <ul><li>Main Entry: 1cre·ate Pronunciation: krE-'At, 'krE-&quot; Function: verb Inflected Form(s): cre·at·ed ; cre·at·ing Etymology: Middle English, from Latin creatus, past participle of creare; akin to Latin crescere to grow -- more at CRESCENT transitive verb 1 : to bring into existence <God created the heaven and the earth -- Genesis 1:1(Authorized Version)> 2 a : to invest with a new form, office, or rank <was created a lieutenant> b : to produce or bring about by a course of action or behavior <her arrival created a terrible fuss> < create new jobs> 3 : CAUSE , OCCASION <famine creates high food prices> 4 a : to produce through imaginative skill < create a painting> b : DESIGN < creates dresses> intransitive verb 1 : to make or bring into existence something new 2 : to set up a scoring opportunity in basketball < create off the dribble> </li></ul>
    8. Aside on Linguistic Rigidity/Naiveté <ul><li>Math, science & engineering training encourages precision. </li></ul><ul><li>Look for “the” definition of a term. </li></ul><ul><li>Story: Use of the term “swap.” </li></ul><ul><li>Terms are like overloaded operators in programming languages. </li></ul><ul><li>Different meanings in different contexts. </li></ul><ul><li>X is Y versus X as Y. </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity demands flexibility & associative power. </li></ul><ul><li>Rigidity not good, early in the process. </li></ul><ul><li>Weak perspectivism: Useful to think in terms of perspective of others. </li></ul>
    9. Creativity as Individual Thought <ul><li>Early classic in creativity literature. </li></ul><ul><li>Wallas, G. (1926). The art of thought. New York: Harcourt, Brace & Co. </li></ul><ul><li>Professor of Political Science, University of London. </li></ul><ul><li>Chapters: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Psych & Thought </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Consciousness & will </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thought before art </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stages of control </li></ul></ul>
    10. 4 Stages of Control <ul><li>preparation </li></ul><ul><li>Incubation </li></ul><ul><li>Illumination </li></ul><ul><li>verification. </li></ul>
    11. Preparation <ul><li>“Our mind is not likely to give us a clear answer to any particular problem unless we set it a clear question, and we are more likely to notice the significance of any new piece of evidence, or new association of ideas, if we have formed a definite conception of a case to be proved or disproved.” </li></ul>
    12. Incubation <ul><li>First part, “…we do not voluntarily or consciously think on a particular problem” </li></ul><ul><li>Second, “..is the positive fact that a series of unconscious and involuntary mental events take place during that period.” </li></ul><ul><li>We can operate in the preparation phase of a thought, while in the incubation phase of another, to make more effective use of time. </li></ul>
    13. Illumination <ul><li>The proverbial “light bulb” or “click” as the idea come to fruition. </li></ul><ul><li>“ I find it convenient to use the term ‘Intimation’ for that moment in the Illumination stage when our fringe-consciousness of an association-train is in the state of rising consciousness which indicates that the fully conscious flash of success is coming.” </li></ul>
    14. Verification <ul><li>Period where the validity of an idea is tested. </li></ul><ul><li>The new idea is expounded upon to come up with the final solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Whole process may iterate. </li></ul>
    15. Creativity as Group Brainstorming <ul><li>Much creative activity takes place in groups or teams. </li></ul><ul><li>Social rather than individual process. </li></ul><ul><li>Osbornian brainstorming: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Practice </li></ul></ul>Alex Osborn (1888-1966)
    16. Day in a Life of a Meeting <ul><li>Trying to solve a problem, what happens? </li></ul><ul><li>Unproductive loop: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some makes a suggestion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone else says why that can’t be done. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go to step 1. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Meeting going nowhere, so leader announces solution he/she wanted to begin with. </li></ul>
    17. Structured Brainstorming <ul><li>Overcomes these problems through meeting process design. </li></ul><ul><li>Osborn (1953) developed brainstorming technique. </li></ul><ul><li>Many variants, but principle is sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Create first, criticize later. </li></ul><ul><li>Much in common with good writing and presentation prep. </li></ul><ul><li>Need props, roles, and process. </li></ul>
    18. Socially Mediated/Enabled Process <ul><li>Creativity as a complex social psychological phenomenon. </li></ul><ul><li>Two major proponents of this view: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Theresa Amabile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mihaly Csikszentmihalyi </li></ul></ul>
    19. Amabile’s Definition <ul><li>Teresa Amabile, Social Psychology of Creativity, Springer, 1983. </li></ul><ul><li>Creativity: A response will be judged as creative to the extent that (a) it is both a novel and appropriate, useful, correct, or valuable response to the task at hand and (b) the task is heuristic rather than algorithmic. </li></ul>Teresa Amabile
    20. Creativity: Flow & the Psychology of Discovery and Invention <ul><li>Csikszentmihalyi, M. (1996). Creativity: Flow and the psychology of discovery and invention. New York: HarperCollins. </li></ul><ul><li>Was professor of psychology at University of Chicago. Now at Claremont College. </li></ul>Mihály Csíkszentmihályi (b. 1934)
    21. Creativity Too Big a Term <ul><li>Three senses: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who express unusual thoughts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who experience world in novel ways. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Those who have changed culture in some important respect. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Two other terms: “talent” and “genius.” </li></ul>
    22. Process <ul><li>1990-1995 Videotaped interviews with 91 exceptional individuals </li></ul><ul><li>Make a difference to culture and >60 years old. </li></ul><ul><li>275 contacts. 1/3 declined, 1/3 accepted, 1/3 did not respond </li></ul><ul><li>14 Nobel prizes. </li></ul><ul><li>Rejections as interesting. </li></ul><ul><li>Too good to be true? </li></ul>
    23. Creative Process <ul><li>Where is creativity? </li></ul><ul><li>The creative personality </li></ul><ul><li>The work of creativity </li></ul><ul><li>The flow of creativity </li></ul><ul><li>Creative surroundings </li></ul>
    24. Systems Model of Big C Creativity <ul><li>3 elements: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Domain: symbolic rules and procedures. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Field: individuals who are gatekeepers to the domain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Person: the creative one. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Creativity defined: Creativity is any act, idea, or product that changes an existing domain, or that transforms an existing domain into a new one. </li></ul>
    25. Consequences of the Theory <ul><li>Not a personal theory. Domain + Field + Person important. </li></ul><ul><li>Must know the domain. </li></ul><ul><li>Must take place in extant domain-field. </li></ul><ul><li>Field acts as filter (consider art or music). </li></ul>
    26. Creative Personality <ul><li>Genetic predisposition doesn’t hurt. </li></ul><ul><li>Curiosity, wonder, and interest. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to a domain. </li></ul><ul><li>Access to a field: Bottlenecks. </li></ul><ul><li>Complexity as key. </li></ul>
    27. 10 Dimensions of Creative Complexity <ul><li>Physical energy versus quiet at rest </li></ul><ul><li>Smart and naïve </li></ul><ul><li>Disciplined and playful. </li></ul><ul><li>Fantasy versus reality. </li></ul><ul><li>Extroversion versus Introversion </li></ul><ul><li>Humble and proud </li></ul><ul><li>Masculine and feminine. </li></ul><ul><li>Conservative and rebellious </li></ul><ul><li>Objective and passionate. </li></ul><ul><li>Suffering and enjoyment </li></ul>
    28. Work of Creativity <ul><li>Extended Wallas framework: preparation, incubation, insight, evaluation, elaboration. </li></ul><ul><li>Emergence of problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Sources: personal, domain requirements, social pressures. </li></ul><ul><li>Presented versus discovered problems </li></ul><ul><li>Incubation as the mysterious time. </li></ul>
    29. Theories of Incubation <ul><li>Freudian: pursuit of acceptable versus unacceptable sexual desire. </li></ul><ul><li>Cognitive theories: associative and parallel processing. </li></ul><ul><li>Field, domain, and unconscious thought: Need to take stand against received wisdom. </li></ul>
    30. The Flow of Creativity <ul><li>The joy of invention. </li></ul><ul><li>Flow experience: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Clear goals </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Immediate feedback </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Balance between challenge and skills </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Actions and awareness merged. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Extractions excluded </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No worry of failure. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Self-consciousness disappears. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Distortion of time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Activity feeds on itself (autotelic). </li></ul></ul>
    31. Pleasure in the Right Things <ul><li>Flow and complexity. </li></ul><ul><li>Aristotle’s definition of the good. </li></ul><ul><li>Living a life of intricate complexity. </li></ul><ul><li>Richness of variety. </li></ul>
    32. Creative Surroundings <ul><li>Place matters. </li></ul><ul><li>Pager experiments: Most creative when walking, driving, or swimming. Semiautomatic state. </li></ul><ul><li>Complex sensory stimuli as diversion. </li></ul><ul><li>Rhythm: patterns of work can be important. </li></ul>
    33. Bottom Line <ul><li>Creativity is a Rorschach test. </li></ul><ul><li>Defined for ourselves. </li></ul><ul><li>“Standard” definitions. </li></ul><ul><li>Linguistic naiveté, rigidity & perspectives. </li></ul><ul><li>Individual  group  social process. </li></ul><ul><li>Next up: Historical, then micro-perspectives & some exercise. </li></ul>

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