Creative Modeling for Technology Visionaries Qualitative & Simplified Quantitative Modeling for Product Creation Module 7:...
Engineering Creativity as Visual <ul><li>Modern engineering education hung up on science and math. </li></ul><ul><li>Impor...
Roadmap <ul><li>Napkintalk & napkinthink. </li></ul><ul><li>Ferguson’s distinction between engineer and artisan. </li></ul...
Napkintalk <ul><li>Napkintalk/think:  2 engineers in a  restaurant. </li></ul><ul><li>Ode to the paper  napkin:  http://ww...
Drawing as Distinction  <ul><li>Ferguson makes distinction between artisans and engineers on the  basis  of engineer’s dra...
Short History of Demise of Drawing <ul><li>World War2 mobilized engineers and scientists on war effort. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Why Visual Thinking Matters <ul><li>Four good reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every pen stroke a creation. </li></ul></ul><...
Every Mark of Pen Creates <ul><li>For most people, most common creative act is to put pen to paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Writ...
Learning to See & Represent <ul><li>Brains have become symbolically dominated, but need to get in touch with what is. </li...
Upside Down Exercise <ul><li>Take exercise sheet. </li></ul><ul><li>Half class right side up. </li></ul><ul><li>Half class...
What’s the Point? <ul><li>Upside down  drawings tend to  be better. </li></ul><ul><li>Less “symbol”  thinking. </li></ul><...
More Typical Sketch <ul><li>Useful  ≠ work of art. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers represent designs w/ sketches. </li></ul><u...
Diagramming <ul><li>Sketching is about representing things. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagramming is about representing concepts a...
Organizational Chart <ul><li>Boxes represent roles & people. </li></ul><ul><li>Lines represent reporting relationship. </l...
Social Network <ul><li>Who is links to whom in the blogosphere? </li></ul><ul><li>Other relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>C...
Flow Chart <ul><li>Lays out procedure or process in step-by-step manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities & decisions. </li></...
System Dynamics Diagram <ul><li>Grew out of Jay Forester’s work. </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative use of control theory. </li...
System Dynamics Diagram Jay W. Forrester (b. 1918)
Schedules <ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPM: critical path methods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PERT: program evalua...
PERT Chart <ul><li>Arc as activity. </li></ul>
Bar Chart or Gantt Chart
Ishikawa or Fishbone Diagram <ul><li>Look for root causes of difficulty. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive of problem difficul...
Orbit Diagrams <ul><li>Inside to outside. </li></ul><ul><li>Drawn wrt insider. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: DISCUS. </li></u...
Venn Diagram <ul><li>Explicit representation of overlap or intersection. </li></ul><ul><li>John Venn introduced 1881. </li...
Architectural Layers
Back to Aristotelian Data Mining <ul><li>Have different dimensions of product/customer/org space from ADM. </li></ul><ul><...
Quad Chart
Stokes Quadrants <ul><li>D. E. Stokes (1997).  Pasteur's Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation.  Washington...
Positioning Diagram <ul><li>From discrete to continuous. </li></ul><ul><li>Often used in marketing to explore notion of ni...
Radar Diagram <ul><li>Multiple dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful to measure wrt ideal. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality exampl...
Bottom Line <ul><li>Visual thinking is a companion to verbal thinking for the engineer. </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps even mor...
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Napkintalk

  1. 1. Creative Modeling for Technology Visionaries Qualitative & Simplified Quantitative Modeling for Product Creation Module 7: Napkintalk David E. Goldberg University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois 61801 [email_address]
  2. 2. Engineering Creativity as Visual <ul><li>Modern engineering education hung up on science and math. </li></ul><ul><li>Importance of language. </li></ul><ul><li>Much engineering creativity is visual. </li></ul><ul><li>Ability to think visually important in early stages of product development. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual thinking often key to category creation and enhancement. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Roadmap <ul><li>Napkintalk & napkinthink. </li></ul><ul><li>Ferguson’s distinction between engineer and artisan. </li></ul><ul><li>Learning to see & the mind’s eye. </li></ul><ul><li>Sketches: representation of what is or what should be. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagrams: representation of thoughts or abstractions and their relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Quad charts: conceptual dimensions in 2D. </li></ul>
  4. 4. Napkintalk <ul><li>Napkintalk/think: 2 engineers in a restaurant. </li></ul><ul><li>Ode to the paper napkin: http://www.elecdesign.com/Articles/Index.cfm?AD=1&AD=1&ArticleID=4588 </li></ul><ul><li>Napkin goes back and forth. </li></ul><ul><li>Deconstruct: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Social process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Verbal exchange (dialectic). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual exchange of sketched images. </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Drawing as Distinction <ul><li>Ferguson makes distinction between artisans and engineers on the basis of engineer’s drawing and artisan’s lack! </li></ul><ul><li>Design is a contingent process. </li></ul><ul><li>Visual thinking is important throughout. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineering education also involved shop classes. </li></ul><ul><li>Hands dirty & understood connection between drawings and things made. </li></ul>
  6. 6. Short History of Demise of Drawing <ul><li>World War2 mobilized engineers and scientists on war effort. </li></ul><ul><li>Led by engineer, Vannevar Bush. </li></ul><ul><li>The Endless Frontier created NSF and devaluation of visual thinking began. </li></ul><ul><li>Few electrical engineers or computer scientists take engineering graphics. </li></ul><ul><li>Other disciplines dropping it. </li></ul><ul><li>Sketching a lost art. </li></ul>Vannevar Bush (1890-1974)
  7. 7. Why Visual Thinking Matters <ul><li>Four good reasons: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Every pen stroke a creation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Represent world as it is. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Create world that might be. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Enhance thought process by representing thoughts and relationships between them in pictures. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Every Mark of Pen Creates <ul><li>For most people, most common creative act is to put pen to paper. </li></ul><ul><li>Writing a word or sketching a figure creates something that did not exist. </li></ul><ul><li>By definition, a creative act. </li></ul><ul><li>Think of pens and pencils as creative tools. </li></ul><ul><li>Buy them, try different ones. </li></ul><ul><li>Find some favorites. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Learning to See & Represent <ul><li>Brains have become symbolically dominated, but need to get in touch with what is. </li></ul><ul><li>Drawing class a place to start. </li></ul><ul><li>Exercises from Betty Edwards. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Upside Down Exercise <ul><li>Take exercise sheet. </li></ul><ul><li>Half class right side up. </li></ul><ul><li>Half class up side down. </li></ul><ul><li>Take short period to draw line drawing. </li></ul><ul><li>No tracing. </li></ul>
  11. 11. What’s the Point? <ul><li>Upside down drawings tend to be better. </li></ul><ul><li>Less “symbol” thinking. </li></ul><ul><li>Good results after 5 days of training. </li></ul><ul><li>You can learn to see and draw what you see. </li></ul>
  12. 12. More Typical Sketch <ul><li>Useful ≠ work of art. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers represent designs w/ sketches. </li></ul><ul><li>Convey conception or idea of invention. </li></ul><ul><li>Example Edison’s 1877 conception of the phonograph. </li></ul>
  13. 13. Diagramming <ul><li>Sketching is about representing things. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagramming is about representing concepts and their relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>What is being represented: people, activities, terms, concepts, combination?. </li></ul><ul><li>Prescriptive vs. descriptive vs. hybrid. </li></ul><ul><li>Form of representation: graph or other form. </li></ul><ul><li>People </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Organizational chart </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Social networks </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Activities </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Flow/process charts </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Schedules </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Systems dynamics </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Fishbone </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Ideas & terms </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Orbits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Venn diagram </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Semantic nets </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Quadrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positioning diagrams </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Organizational Chart <ul><li>Boxes represent roles & people. </li></ul><ul><li>Lines represent reporting relationship. </li></ul><ul><li>Generally hierarchical. </li></ul><ul><li>Prescriptive. </li></ul>East Bay Municipal Utility District
  15. 15. Social Network <ul><li>Who is links to whom in the blogosphere? </li></ul><ul><li>Other relationships. </li></ul><ul><li>Can move in quantitative direction here. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Flow Chart <ul><li>Lays out procedure or process in step-by-step manner. </li></ul><ul><li>Activities & decisions. </li></ul><ul><li>Oftentimes simple linear process flow. </li></ul><ul><li>Can be prescriptive or descriptive. </li></ul>
  17. 17. System Dynamics Diagram <ul><li>Grew out of Jay Forester’s work. </li></ul><ul><li>Qualitative use of control theory. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider structure of feedback loops to think qualitatively about system response. </li></ul>
  18. 18. System Dynamics Diagram Jay W. Forrester (b. 1918)
  19. 19. Schedules <ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CPM: critical path methods. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>PERT: program evaluation and review technique. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Gantt or bar chart: visual representation of schedule. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Precedence descriptive, timing prescriptive. </li></ul>
  20. 20. PERT Chart <ul><li>Arc as activity. </li></ul>
  21. 21. Bar Chart or Gantt Chart
  22. 22. Ishikawa or Fishbone Diagram <ul><li>Look for root causes of difficulty. </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive of problem difficulty. </li></ul><ul><li>Purpose: diagnosis & prevention. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality management keen on visual representation. </li></ul>
  23. 23. Orbit Diagrams <ul><li>Inside to outside. </li></ul><ul><li>Drawn wrt insider. </li></ul><ul><li>Example: DISCUS. </li></ul><ul><li>Prescriptive. </li></ul>
  24. 24. Venn Diagram <ul><li>Explicit representation of overlap or intersection. </li></ul><ul><li>John Venn introduced 1881. </li></ul>VennDiagram.ppt Link to image
  25. 25. Architectural Layers
  26. 26. Back to Aristotelian Data Mining <ul><li>Have different dimensions of product/customer/org space from ADM. </li></ul><ul><li>Consider theory or experiments in two or more dimensions at a time. </li></ul><ul><li>Types: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quadrants </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Positioning diagrams </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Radar diagrams </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Quad Chart
  28. 28. Stokes Quadrants <ul><li>D. E. Stokes (1997). Pasteur's Quadrant: Basic Science and Technological Innovation. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press. </li></ul>
  29. 29. Positioning Diagram <ul><li>From discrete to continuous. </li></ul><ul><li>Often used in marketing to explore notion of niche. </li></ul><ul><li>Un- or under-exploited market opportunities. </li></ul>Econobox Luxury Price Conservative Sporty Lifestyle American Family Sedans German Sports Sedans
  30. 30. Radar Diagram <ul><li>Multiple dimensions. </li></ul><ul><li>Useful to measure wrt ideal. </li></ul><ul><li>Quality example. </li></ul><ul><li>Point in n-space represented by pattern. </li></ul>http://www.mmo.org.tr/endustrimuhendisligi/2003_3/a_field_studyofmeasuring_dosyalar/image008.gif
  31. 31. Bottom Line <ul><li>Visual thinking is a companion to verbal thinking for the engineer. </li></ul><ul><li>Perhaps even more central to engineering thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Sketching to learn to see & invent. </li></ul><ul><li>Diagramming to relate concepts. </li></ul><ul><li>Variety of ways to do. </li></ul><ul><li>Quadrants tie verbal dimensions to the visual. </li></ul>

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