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microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices
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microCreativity: History, Processes & Practices

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Module 3 of Creative Modeling for Tech Visionaries.

Module 3 of Creative Modeling for Tech Visionaries.

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  • 1. Creative Modeling for Technology Visionaries Qualitative & Simplified Quantitative Modeling for Product Creation Module 3: μ Creativity: History, Processes & Practices David E. Goldberg University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign Urbana, Illinois 61801 [email_address]
  • 2. Views of Creativity <ul><li>Variety of perspectives useful: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity as individual thought. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity as group activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creativity as complex, social psychology. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Be warned about seeking the answer because of creativity’s complexity. </li></ul><ul><li>Be warned against linguistic rigidity. </li></ul><ul><li>What other perspectives useful & can we extract & apply key principles? </li></ul>
  • 3. Roadmap <ul><li>Other views: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>C as history. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C as generative vision. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C as heuristic inventive process. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>C as eliminating resistance/blocks. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Brainstorming as a structured process. </li></ul><ul><li>Ricestorming as a shortcut when little time. </li></ul>
  • 4. Creativity as History <ul><li>See history as creative spirit or force reflecting larger collective. </li></ul><ul><li>Read some history of technology. </li></ul><ul><li>Particular effective account is Burke’s The Pinball Effect. </li></ul><ul><li>One darn invention enabling (bumping into) another. </li></ul><ul><li>One opportunity opens up another. </li></ul>G. W. F Hegel (1770-1831)
  • 5. From Perms to the Gold Rush <ul><li>Contingency and dependency of technological advance. </li></ul><ul><li>1911: Charles Nessler created permanent with curlers & borax paste. </li></ul><ul><li>Borax dirt cheap because of deposits in Death Valley, CA. </li></ul><ul><li>Yankee Clippers brought goods to East Coast & UK from California. </li></ul><ul><li>Brought immigrants to California that resulted in the 1849 Gold Rush. </li></ul>
  • 6. Creativity as Generative Vision <ul><li>Ferguson, E. S. (1992). Engineering and the mind’s eye. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Engineers produce set of drawings and specs: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Produce the object itself </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Precision of drawings hides informal choices and inarticulate judgments. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Artisan v. Engineering: No drawings v. drawings. </li></ul>
  • 7. Origins of Modern Engineering <ul><li>Strength of profession in breadth & depth of its foundation. </li></ul><ul><li>Hi-tech gets the buzz, but 80 percent around for decades or centuries or more. </li></ul><ul><li>Renaissance notebooks. </li></ul><ul><li>Duke of Savoy’s engineer, Francesco Paciotto da Urbino (1504-1576): fortress design. </li></ul><ul><li>No chicken or egg: Engineering starts with drawings not equations. </li></ul>
  • 8. Tools: Perspective <ul><li>Linear perspective: invention of the renaissance. </li></ul><ul><li>Alberti’s window. </li></ul>
  • 9. Orthographic Projection <ul><li>Durer’s use in 1525 for art. </li></ul><ul><li>Gaspard Monge introduced in textbook late 1700s, but examples exist before then. </li></ul><ul><li>Other types of projections. </li></ul><ul><li>Sketches: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Thinking sketch: clarifying to self </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Prescriptive sketch: directing the drafter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Talking sketch: napkin talk between engineers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>When we remove drawing from engineering do we remove creativity? </li></ul>http://www.engr.uvic.ca/~engr150/Graphics/Lab2/ortho_movie.gif
  • 10. C as Inventive Heuristic Process <ul><li>Koen, B. (2003). Discussion of the method: Conducting the engineer’s approach to problem solving. New York: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Weber, R. J. (1992). Forks, phonographs, and hot-Air balloons: A field guide to inventive thinking. New York: Oxford University Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Goldberg, D. E. (2002). The design of innovation: Lessons from and for competent genetic algorithms. Boston, MA: Kluwer Academic Publishers. </li></ul><ul><li>Various works on TRIZ: Russian system of invention due to Genrich Altshuller: www.altriz.org . </li></ul>
  • 11. Process of Selection & Variation <ul><li>Like natural selection and genetics. </li></ul><ul><li>Choose the good designs following applying heuristic operators that may yield improvement. </li></ul><ul><li>For example, selection + recombination or crossover. </li></ul><ul><li>Literary descriptions versus computational-mathematical. </li></ul>
  • 12. Types of Heuristics <ul><li>Addition of variables </li></ul><ul><li>Change of variables </li></ul><ul><li>Tweak variables </li></ul><ul><li>Recombine combinations of variables </li></ul><ul><li>Transform variables </li></ul><ul><li>Change by analogy to another field/domain. </li></ul><ul><li>Heuristics associated with physical laws. </li></ul>
  • 13. Possibilities w/ Billions of Variables http :// www3.interscience.wiley.com/cgi-bin/abstract/114068026/ABSTRACT?CRETRY=1&SRETRY=0
  • 14. C as Removing Blocks <ul><li>Other approaches positively prescriptive. </li></ul><ul><li>Approaches that remove negativity or obstacles fairly common: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Adams, J. L. (1986). Conceptual blockbusting: A guide to better ideas (3rd ed.). Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Pressfield, S. (2002). The war of art. New York: Rugged Land. </li></ul></ul>
  • 15. What Steven Pressfield Knows <ul><li>Writing isn’t hard. </li></ul><ul><li>Sitting down to write is hard. </li></ul><ul><li>Resistance prevents us from sitting down to write (or design, or start a company, or invent, or ???). </li></ul>
  • 16. The Unlived Life vs. the Life We Live <ul><li>What Pressfield knows: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Writing isn’t hard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sitting down to write is hard. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resistance prevents us from sitting down to write (or design, or start a company, or invent, or ???). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Resistance is the distance between the two. </li></ul><ul><li>Ever </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Quit a diet? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stop exercising? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give up on a dream? </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The “what if I got cancer tomorrow?” test. </li></ul>
  • 17. Resistance’s Greatest Hits <ul><li>Writing, painting, dance, music. </li></ul><ul><li>Entrepreneurial activity. </li></ul><ul><li>Diet or health regime. </li></ul><ul><li>Program of spiritual advancement. </li></ul><ul><li>Program to overcome addiction. </li></ul><ul><li>Education. </li></ul><ul><li>Act of moral or political courage. </li></ul><ul><li>Commitments of the heart. </li></ul>
  • 18. Resistance is <ul><li>Insidious: it lies. </li></ul><ul><li>Implacable: like Jaws. </li></ul><ul><li>Impersonal: Just business. </li></ul><ul><li>Infallible: More important, more resistance. </li></ul><ul><li>Universal: Happens to all. </li></ul><ul><li>Fueled by fear: Like Star Trek episode. </li></ul><ul><li>More powerful at the finish line: </li></ul>
  • 19. Combating Resistance <ul><li>Turning Pro: Sit down regularly to do what’s necessary. </li></ul><ul><li>Difference between urgent and important. </li></ul><ul><li>Do the important. </li></ul><ul><li>Pro’s already: At our jobs. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Show up everyday. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Show up no matter what. Don’t over-identify with </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stay all day. Learn technique </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Committed for long haul. Have sense of humor. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stakes high and real. Accept remuneration. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accept praise or blame in the real world. </li></ul></ul>
  • 20. Why Brainstorming is Useful <ul><li>Trying to solve a problem, what happens? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Some makes a suggestion. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Someone else says why that can’t be done. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Go to step 1. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Leader announces his/her solution. </li></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Inadequate discussion of facets of the problem. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Premature criticism of partial solutions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mixed discussion of criteria, solutions, and objectives. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inhibition of full exploration by leader-follower dynamic. </li></ul></ul>
  • 21. Structured Brainstorming <ul><li>Overcomes these problems through meeting process design. </li></ul><ul><li>Osborn (1953) developed brainstorming technique. </li></ul><ul><li>Many variants, but principle is sound. </li></ul><ul><li>Create first, criticize later. </li></ul><ul><li>Need props, roles, and process. </li></ul>
  • 22. Props & Roles <ul><li>Props </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Large flip charts: for recording transactions. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Adhesive tape: for posting flip charts around. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Large, felt-tip marker: for writing on flip charts. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Roles: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Scribe: not a leader; records transactions, w/ little interpretation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Participants: scribe can hand off marker to participate. </li></ul></ul>
  • 23. Process <ul><li>Discuss the mess. </li></ul><ul><li>Define the problem. </li></ul><ul><li>Generate solution alternatives. </li></ul><ul><li>Generate and select solution criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Rate alternatives according to criteria. </li></ul><ul><li>Select proposed solution or solutions. </li></ul>
  • 24. Hints and Kinks <ul><li>No war stories: Make your point. </li></ul><ul><li>No arguing merits during mess, idea generation, or criteria generation. </li></ul><ul><li>Absolutely do criteria after idea generation (avoids filtering of novelty). </li></ul><ul><li>Can shortcut rating with sticker voting. </li></ul>
  • 25. Ricestorm: From Thinkertoys <ul><li>Michalko, M. (1991). Thinkertoys: A Handbook of Business Creativity. Berkeley, CA: Ten Speed Press. </li></ul><ul><li>Steps (for problem understanding or solution): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader expresses area of concern. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Each person writes facts (one per card) on cards related to concern. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Redistribute cards. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Leader picks and reads one card. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Others select related facts. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Give grouping a name. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Continue until all words in name sets. </li></ul></ul>
  • 26. Bottom Line <ul><li>Creativity treated as mystery. </li></ul><ul><li>Not explained by differential equations. </li></ul><ul><li>Do know something about it. </li></ul><ul><li>Key point is conflict between critical thinking and creative thought. </li></ul><ul><li>Create first, criticize later. </li></ul><ul><li>Can draw from many sources for creative inspiration, solutions, & overcoming resistance. </li></ul>

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