Care and handling ss


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  • Prior to 17th C., all paper made with cotton rags1680, Hollander beater was introduced to automate the pulping processMetallic traces in paper can contribute to foxing, either from pulping or water sourcePrior to 19th c., all paper made by handFourdrinier paper making machine invented in 1803Since the 1850s, we have been in “the era of bad paper”Wood pulp used which has higher acidity and more chemical additivesAlum rosin sizing applied directly to vat, introducing acidityMuch of the paper produced today has a life of less than fifty years
  • video is from 1976 and gives an idea of how this works
  • modern papermaking machines are based on the principles of the Fourdrinier Machine. It has been used in some variation since its inception. The Fourdrinier uses a specially woven plastic fabric mesh conveyor belt, known as a wire as it was once woven from bronze, in the wet end to create a continuous paper web transforming a source of wood pulp into a final paper product. The original fourdrinier forming section used a horizontal drainage area, referred to as the drainage table.Paper machines have four distinct operational sections: The forming section, commonly called the wet end, is where the slurry of fibers is filtered out on a continuous fabric loop to form a wet web of fiber. The press section where the wet fiber web passes between large rolls loaded under high pressure to squeeze out as much water as possible. The drying section, where the pressed sheet passes partly around, in a serpentine manner, a series of steam heated drying cylinders. Drying removes the water content down to a level of about 6%, where it will remain at typical indoor atmospheric conditions.Since the 1850s, we have been in “the era of bad paper”Wood pulp used which has higher acidity and more chemical additivesAlum rosin sizing applied directly to vat, introducing acidityMuch of the paper produced today has a life of less than fifty years
  • Consist of pigments or dyes to impart color in a carrier to transmit color to paper.The degree to which various inks are stable will have a bearing on their long-term effect on preservation
  • Leather, parchment, vellum all made from animal skinsLeather is naturally acidic due to tanning process, can result in “red rot”Calf: easily decorated, little grain. Often found on account books and ledgers.Goat: soft and pliable with texture ridges and furrows all overPigskin: strong and durable, suitable for large booksSheepskin: soft and durable, imitates higher-quality leathersSuede: buffed, often used for blank booksVellum and parchment not used much in the United States, but may be found in archives containing early legal documents, as well as in college and university archives
  • Variety often found in archival repositories, including:Flags, needlework, coverlets uniforms, ribbons, dressesDo not attempt to cleanLinen, silk, cotton, muslinUsed to support fragile paper documentsBookclothsSometimes embossed to look like leatherBuckram often usedStarch-filledPyroxylin-treatedAcrylic
  • What is a photograph, a support on which an image-bearing layer is applied
  • High temp speeds up reactions, for every 18 degrees, chemical activity doublesWith every 10 degree increase, life of paper cut in half Cold storage (at or below freezing)Cool storage (40-65 degrees)Recommend – 70 degrees (+/- 2 degrees)
  • Relative humidity: the amount of water vapor in a volume of air, expressed as a % of the maximum amount that the air could hold at that temperatureHigh humidity accelerates chemical reactions, such as acid hydrolysis which breaks down the molecualr structure of paperHigh humidity: water soluble inks offset and papers stick togetherLow humidity: paper can break and crumble; covering materail can shrink and warpDanger in fluctuatin materials because of shrinking and expansion
  • Notes about various tools that are available for this.Safco Steel Pack Archival Office ShelfAn archival office shelf with durable composite wood shelves and heavy gauge steel construction.Proper circulation and filtration systemsInternal policies and proceduresNo smokingStorage furnitureRenovationhousekeeping
  • All light damagingMost damaging source is ultra-violet radiation, found in sunlight and fluorescentHigh heat light sources also cause Damage is cumulative: brief exposure under high-intensity is just as damaging as long-term exposure under low-intensity Infared light also creates damage through temperature
  • Limit exposure to ultra-violet light, even in stacksCover windows; hang UV filters, paint blackFluorescent light recommendedMotion detectors recommended300-600 lux in reading rooms200-400 lux in storageExhibitions, complex calculation of time and light, but general rule is that the longer the exhibit, the lower the light – should do a survey prior to starting an exhibit
  • Fungi (mold and mildew)75 degrees and over 65%Mold grows at low tem with relative high humidityPoor air circulationFoxing (combined with iron salts)InsectsCockroaches, silverfish, termites, carpet beetles (book worms)Like dark, warm environmentsCorrosive droppingsRodentsRats, mice, squirrels Shredding materials by eating at it, using for nestsCorrosive droppings
  • No food or drink (dropping crumbs to attract rodents and insects)Fumigation, be sure that chemicals do not do further damage and not contact archival materialsKeep stacks and storage free of debris, no plants, nothing to attract dustRegular cleaning, dusting, vacuuming
  • People = largest threat to archival activityPolicies should be in place to mitigate rough handling, destructive photocopying, disfiguration of manuscripts, spilling substances, vandalism, theftMismanagement is in the realm of the archivist; our duty to think about everything we’ve talked about
  • Harbor Documents - Damage varies from record to record, but dirt-a possible combination of sediment carried by the water and soot from the fire-is quite common. Although the records examined so far do not show directo contact with fire, many have burned areas where the paper was in contact with or adjacent to the post hole fasteners used to add pages to the booklets when needed. Not only did these metal fasteners conduct heat to the documents but their exposure to the high humidity caused corrosion, resulting in rust.
  • Heavy duty and made of non-toxic materialsHeavy gauge, enamel-coated steelRounded cornersWood should be sealed or linedGood ventilationNot against exterior or basement walls to prevent excess moisture build-up
  • Boxes, folders, sleeves, envelopes and mats should be non-acidic, with alkaline between 8.5 and 10Available from archival supply companies, i.e. Gaylord, University Products, Metal EdgeNot always possible to replace everything, but basic principle = “any materials brought into contact with a collection must be non-damaging; suspect or untested materails should be kept away from valuable records. Records that show evidence of care and attention will elicit careful handling by users
  • Mylar: Crystal clear, rigid, inert film.„ Polypropylene: Like Mylar but not as stiff.„ Polyethylene: Inert, but less clear and stiff.PVC and Acetate: BAD!!! PVC will off-gas chlorine which forms hydrochloric acid and will cause serious damage. Common in cheaper sleeves / albums. Can become brittle/break.
  • Loose paper records should be stored in envelopes or folders, helps with arrangement as wellFolders/papers should fit in boxes (neither under-filled or over-stuffed)Crease folders to fit materialsMaterials should fit snugly togetherLegal-sized materials should be in legal-sized boxesPolyester film L-sleeves can help provide additional support for fragile materials
  • Flat boxes okay for those items that do not warrant map casesVery-large items (posters, maps, blueprints, architectural drawings, broadsides, prints, textile ribbons or banners, artwork) should be stored in heavy-weight folders in large map casesMatting and framing for storage can be done, though more often in museum environmentsFramed items should be housed to protect them from light and dirtSometimes VERY oversized materials can be rolled (around an alkaline cardboard tube) and placed inside another tube.
  • Can include letterpress books, diaries, ledgers, account books, journals, albums, and scrapbooks.Medium and small items can be stored upright on shelf – use bookendsOversized items can be stored flatBox items as necessaryTie broken books
  • When possible, store in individual enclosuresDecide if they should be stored with paper materials or stored separatelyWhen possible, separate stored prints and negativesPaper or plastic to enclose photographsPhotographs of the same size should be stored togetherOversized photographs should be stored flat (only rolled when necessary)Photographs mounted on acidic cardboard should be backed with alkaline board – do not removeCased photographs should be wrapped and placed flat in custom boxes or heavy duty wrappers. Do not repair, or removeGlass plate negatives should be stored upright, using buffered alkaline board between ever 5-10 images NEVER STACK
  • Care and handling ss

    1. 1. Northern New York Library Network,October 11 & 12 --Deirdre Joyce, Asst. Director & Regional Archivist, CLRC
    2. 2. • Name• Institution & Location• Expectations for Today’s Class
    3. 3. • Established in 1988• Administered by the New York State Archives• Preservation materials not supported in grant program
    4. 4. • Discuss the Characteristics of Common Archival Materials• Discuss Common Causes and Mitigating Factors for Damage• Discuss Proper Storage and Handling Techniques• Review the Role of Preservation in the Archival Workflow• Preservation Forms
    5. 5. What are we dealing with?
    6. 6. • Paper• Ink• Animal Skins• Textiles• Photographic Materials• Adhesives
    7. 7. • Most common type• Made of vegetable fibers • Cellulose • most important element • Longer fibers = stronger paper • Lignin • responsible for acidity
    8. 8. • Hollander beater, 1680
    9. 9. • Fourdrinier paper making machine
    10. 10. • Bond • Kraft• Carbon • Ledger• Carbonless copies • Manifold• Coated • Manilla• Colored paper • Newsprint• Copying paper • Onionskin• Cover • Parchment• Decorated • Text• Fax paper • Transparent or Tracing
    11. 11. • Carbon• Iron Gallotannate (iron gall)• Copying inks• Modern Manuscript inks• Porous Pens• Printing Inks• Typewriter Ribbon Inks• Non-Impact Printing Inks• Ballpoint Pen Inks• Graphite
    12. 12. • Leather • Parchment
    13. 13. • Prints• Negatives• Positive Transparencies
    14. 14. • Organic or synthetic substances• Often a concern in archival settings• Do not apply to archival materials• Do not remove
    15. 15. And what can be done to prevent or stop it?
    16. 16. • Temperature and relative humidity• Atmospheric pollutants• Light• Biological Agents• Abuse and mismanagement• Disasters
    17. 17. • High temp speeds up reactions• Cold storage (at or below freezing)• Cool storage (40-65 degrees)• Recommend: 70 degrees (+/- 2 degrees)
    18. 18. • Changes in relative humidity cause: • Chemical reactions • Physical reactions
    19. 19. • 45% +/- 2%• Low enough to avoid mold growth• High enough to keep materials from becoming too brittle
    20. 20. • Sulphur dioxide• Ozone• Smoking• Cooking• Off-gassing – especially wood• Dirt/dust/soot
    21. 21. • All light damaging, most damaging: • Ultra-violet radiation is most damaging • Infared light causes damage through heat • Light damage is cumulative
    22. 22. • Limit exposure to UV light, even in stacks• Cover windows; hang UV filters, paint black• Fluorescent light recommended• Motion detectors recommended
    23. 23. • Fungi (mold and mildew)• Insects• Rodents
    24. 24. • Temperature and humidity controls• Housekeeping practices • No food or drink • Fumigate with caution • Keep stacks and storage free of debris • Regular cleaning, dusting, vacuuming
    25. 25. Things to think about:• People• Policies• Mismanagement
    26. 26. • Floods, fires, wind storms• Have a Disaster Plan in place• NEDCC Disaster Plan
    27. 27. What do we need?
    28. 28. • Heavy duty and made of non-toxic materials• Good ventilation• Not against exterior or basement walls to prevent excess moisture build-up
    29. 29. Basic Rules• Non-acidic paper materials (alkaline 8.5 – 10.0)• Available from archival supply companies• Do no harm• Model good behavior
    30. 30. Basic Rules: Good Plastic vs. Bad Plastic• Use to protect • Mylar, Polypropylene, photographs from Polyethylene fingerprints • PVC & Acetate• Should not be used on materials in which the media is only loosely adhered• Labeling can be difficult
    31. 31. • Store loose papers in envelopes or folders• Everything should fit securely in boxes• Materials should fit snugly• Paper size should fit box size• L-sleeves provide additional support
    32. 32. • Flat boxes• Map cases• Matting and framing• Rolled materials
    33. 33. • Can include letterpress books, diaries, ledgers, account books, journals, albums, and scrapbooks.• Store medium and small items upright• Store oversized items flat• Use boxes when necessary• Tie broken books
    34. 34. • Store in individual enclosures• Make policy decision regarding storage places• Separate stored prints and negatives• Divide materials by size• Oversized photographs stored flat• Back acidic boards with alkaline boards• Cased photographs wrapped and stored flat• Glass plate negatives should be stored upright
    35. 35. • Appraisal• Accessioning• Arrangement and Description• Preservation• Provide Access• Reference
    36. 36. Field Survey Materials Transfer • Basic assessment • Decide who will pack • Form or checklist is • Who is in charge? useful • Moving security
    37. 37. Dedicated receiving room/areaPreliminary inventory • Discard packing materials • Triage • More detailed inventory, more helpful later
    38. 38. • Basic holdings maintenance• Rehousing• Labeling• MPLP – More Product Less Process
    39. 39. • Exhibitions policy • Exhibition environment • Conservation • Length of time • Inventory of materials • Agreement (if loaning outside of repository)
    40. 40. • Dusting• Mitigate damage to fragile materials• Assess materials• Deal with oversize materials• Count valuable materials• Clean hands• Security plan
    41. 41. • Specific procedures for each phase of the workflow• Enforce rules equally, internally and externally• Get management approval
    42. 42.