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WorkSpaces What is Excel Excel is a software for creating spread sheets. Spread sheets can be used for three purposes Undertake mathematical functions and calculations Create Charts Create simple data bases and manipulate data Excel workspace Getting Familiar with Microsoft Excel Excel opens in a workbook. The Book consists of a number of worksheets. Excel usually opens with three but you can add extra sheets or delete them.
Worksheets You can also name each worksheet by double clicking on the worksheet name at the bottom of the page and highlighting it. You can then type in a name. (Or right click on the name and click on RENAME)
Rows and Columns In a spreadsheet the COLUMN is defined as the vertical space that is going up and down the window. Letters are used to designate each COLUMN'S location. Rows In a spreadsheet the ROW is defined as the horizontal space that is going across the window. Numbers are used to designate each ROW'S location.
Cells Cells In a spreadsheet the CELL is defined as the space where a specified row and column intersect. Each CELL is assigned a name according to its COLUMN letter and ROW number. In the diagram the CELL labeled B6 is highlighted. When referencing a cell, you should put the column first and the row second. You can see the reference on the top left side of the screen under the toolbars. You move through the cells by clicking on the cell.
Highlighting Highlighting (creating a range) A range is a rectangular block of cells. Many things are accomplished in Excel using ranges. For instance, the format used to display values can be changed for an entire range. A range of cells can also be protected, which means the contents of the cells cannot be altered. Ranges can also be named.
To highlight A single cell Click the cell, or press the arrow keys to move to the cell. A range of cells Click the first cell of the range, and then drag to the last cell.
Click the first cell. Press the F8 key. This anchors the cursor. Note that EXT appears on the Status bar in the lower right corner of the screen. You are in the Extend mode. Click in last cell should now be highlighted. Click esc to finish A large range of cells Click the first cell in the range, and then hold down SHIFT and click the last cell in the range. You can scroll to make the last cell visible. All cells on a worksheet Click the EDIT SELECT ALL button. Or CONTROL A Nonadjacent cells or cell ranges Select the first cell or range of cells, and then hold down CTRL and select the other cells or ranges. An entire row or column Click the row or column heading. Adjacent rows or columns Drag across the row or column headings. Or select the first row or column; then hold down SHIFT and select the last row or column. Nonadjacent rows or columns Select the first row or column, and then hold down CTRL and select the other rows or columns. More or fewer cells than the active selection Hold down SHIFT and click the last cell you want to include in the new selection. The rectangular range between the active cell and the cell you click becomes the new selection. Cancel a selection of cells Click any cell on the worksheet
Entering Data In a spreadsheet there are three basic types of data that can be entered. LABELS CONSTANTS FORMULAE we use labels to help identify what we are talking about. The labels are NOT for the computer but rather for US so we can clarify what we are doing. We use them in spread sheets used to calculate formulae’s and databases and to set labels in charts Constants are entries that have a specific fixed value. In the example: the constants are 40,70,60, 15,10,12. Constants may be different types of numbers. Sometimes constants are referring to dollars, sometimes referring to percentages, and other times referring to a number of items.
Formula Bar the cell address displays on the left side of the Formula bar. Cell entries display on the right side of the Formula bar. ‘ This display can be text or formulae If the display is a formulae the cell will display the result of the formula, the forumlaebar will display the formulae itself. Formula always start with = New lines can be added to the formula bar by using ALT/ENTER
Entering Numbers If you have a numeric keypad, pressing the Num Lock key can make data entry easier. Num Lock enables you to enter numbers as if you were using a calculator. You can also use the Enter key located on the numeric keypad. If you highlight the rows and columns into which you are going to enter data, the cursor will automatically move up and down those columns.
Editing a Cell After you enter data into a cell, you can edit it in the cell as long as you have turned this option on in EXCEL OPTIONS. You can also edit the cell within the Formula bar.
Activity 8Working with Long Text Whenever you type text that is too long to fit into a cell, Microsoft Excel attempts to display all of the text in the next cell. However if the next cell contains text the cells that contain entries will cut off the long text.
Entering formulas Clicking on the cells Instead of typing in the cell reference it is more accurate to click on the cell.
Activity 9 Type in the following data to the work sheet formula
Activity 11Clicking on Cells Clicking on the cells Instead of typing in the cell reference it is more accurate to click on the cell.
The AutoSum Icon T he AutoSum icon on the Standard toolbar automatically creates a SUM function for consecutive numbers, provided there is no ‘empty’ row or column between the numbers The following illustrates using the SUM function to total the Widget Sales When you want to add up consecutive numbers, it is much more efficient to use a SUM function than to keep using the + sign. To add up every cell in Row 5 from column A to D from we could type =A5+B5+C5+D6. It is more efficient to type =SUM(A5:D6). To add every cell in Column A from row 2 to 4 we could type =A2+A3+A4. It is more efficient to type =SUM(A2:A4)
Activity 14Multiplication Multiplication You use the * key to indicate multiplication. If Assignment 3 is worth TWICE as many Marks we need to multiply Column F by 2. Multiply each person’s marks for assignment 3 by 2. Go back and change the Total for Jane Brown for the assignment so it reads
Assignment 15Division For Division we use the / sign To work out the percentage mark divide column J by 100 For Jane brown divide J6/100
Activity 16Fill Function Excel can repeat words figures and formulae in a cell Using Fill Function. This means writing headings such as months, repeating formulas and repeating lists are all very easy. You use fill function by dragging the words you want across consecutive cells. Fill function with words .
Activity 17 Linear Growth When you drag numbers along a row or down a column Excel looks for a lineal pattern to the growth For example if you put 3 in cell B14, then 6 in B!5 the highlight BOTH numbers, then drag the Fill Function across row B, every cell will increase by 3
Activity 18 Series Growth You can also Use the Fill Function for incremental increases such as percent. You need to go toFILL FUNCTION to do this. You cannot just drag. Complete this exercise
Lists Excel has several built in lists, including days and months and you use the FILL FUNCTION to create the lists. To create a list of names Enter the following data into cells:A1 - Gingerbread A2 - LemonA3 - Oatmeal Raisin A4 - Chocolate ChipE1 - The Cookie Shop D2 - Cookie Type: Click on cell E2 - the location where the results will be displayed. Click on the Data tab. Click on the Data Validation option from the ribbon to open the menu. Click on the Data Validation in the menu to bring up the dialog box. Click on Settings tab in the dialog box. From the Allow menu choose List. Click on the Source line in the dialog box. Drag select cells A1 - A4 in the spreadsheet. Click OK in the dialog box. A down arrow should appear next to cell E2. When you click on the arrow the drop down list should open to display the four cookie names. Lists allow you to create a selection of items to enter in each page. You can then copy those lists any where on the page
Activity 19Lists Create the opposite lists in worksheet PRACTICE
Create a custom list Type the list of words you wish to create a custom list. Highlight it Click on Excel options. Choose EDIT CUSTOM LISTS CLICK ON IMPORT
ACTIVITY 19Create a custom list Create the custom list in the previous slide in worksheet PRACTICE Type the word lemon in another cell Drag the cell to create a word list
Fill Function with Formulas Once you have created a formulae if you can use fill function. NOTE: If you drag to the RIGHT it adds one column to every cell reference. If you drag down EXCEL adds one row to every cell reference.
Activity 20Fill formulas To complete the Totals in column G drag the formula from G6 to G15. Formulas will change as shown Repeat for column I and Column J and Column K
Referencing When we are entering formulas into a spreadsheet we want to make as many references as possible to other cells because if we can reference that information we don't have to type it in again. AND if OTHER information changes, we DO-NOT have to change ALL the equations. When we are entering formulas into a spreadsheet we want to make as many references as possible to other cells because if we can reference that information we don't have to type it in again. AND that OTHER information changes, we DO-NOT have to change ALL the equations. In our formula we multiplied everything in Assignment 3 by 2 (g column) and subtracted the scores by 5. It would be better and more practical design if we use a cell Referenced rather than used the figures 2 Instead of multiplying everything in Assignment 3 (F Column) by 2 (F column) we should type the figure 2 in cell F3 and then in the F column multiply by the figure in the E column by cell F3 .
Activity 21Referencing Type the figure 2 In G3 Type F6*G3 in Cell G3 Hit Enter then drag that column down Something will not be right !!!!!
Activity 22Absolute Values We have already learnt that when you use the fill function and drag downward all formulae cell references change by ONE row (and One Column when you drag across) To Fix In this case you do not want to the formulae to change by one row or column. We always want to multiply from CELL G3 we still want to use the FILL FUNCTION. The solution is to make those cells ABSOLUTE VALUES. We do this by putting $ signs around any values we do not want to change when we use fill functions. Put a $ sign around G3 in G6 then drag You will see the F value changes but the G one does not.
Activity 23Pasting absolute values Sometimes when we enter a formula, we need to repeat the same formula for many different cells. In the spreadsheet we can use the copy and paste command. THE CELL LOCATIONS IN THE FORMULA ARE PASTED RELATIVE TO THE POSITION WE COPY THEM FROM. NOTE: If you COPY a formula with an absolute Value, the absolute value will NOT change. If you CUT a formula with a an ABSOLUTE value, the formula WILL change
Formatting Merging cells Cells In Excel regardless of how many cells you want changed. You must Highlight them and use either Icons in format tool bar or FORMAT CELLS Merge cell Centring Across Cells Numbers Toolbars. Percentage, Dollar signs Decimal Numbers Toolbars. Percentage, Dollar signs Decimal
FormattingColumns/Rows A question that everyone (who has ever worked on a spreadsheet) has asked at one time or another is, "Where did all my numbers go?" or same question, "Where did all of those ####### come from and why are they in my spreadsheet?" The problem is the number trying to be displayed in a particular cell does not have enough width to display properly. To clear up the problem we just need to make the column wider. You can do this many ways. Here are two ways to change the column width Select the column (or columns) with the problem by clicking on their labels (letters). Then you choose the MENU FORMAT. Go down to COLUMN and over to WIDTH and type in a new number for the column width. Move the arrow to the right side of the column label and click and drag the mouse to the right (to make wider) or left (to make smaller). Let up on the mouse button when the column is wide enough. Notice the cursor changes to a vertical line with arrows pointing left and right. Or go to EDIT columns, or EDIT rows and type in the width and height (Columns used characters e.g 1= 1character. Rows use points
Activity 24 Format the cells in Formula so that marks below 10 are highlighted in red
Data basesActivity 25 Excel has data Base functions. To Create a data base you type your headings then add your data. In this exercise we are going to track the reading skills of 3 classes of children NOTE: It is STRONGLY recommended that you always copy a data base to work on it and leave the original intact just in case anything goes wrong. Copy the data base in activities to your worksheet Data bases Excel has data Base functions. To Create a data base you type your headings then add your data. In this exercise we are going to track the reading skills of 3 classes of children
Activity 26Sort If you want to selectively look at data you can use a filter which allows you to see data by different headings.
Activity 27Filter Filter all the classes by number. Then unfilter them
Simple Functions Microsoft Excel has a set of prewritten formulas called functions. Functions differ from regular formulas in that you supply the value but not the operators, such as +, -, *, or /. Use an equals sign to begin a formula Specify the function name Enclose arguments within parentheses Use a comma to separate arguments Sum The SUM function is used to calculate sums. When using a function, remember the following: Here is an example of a function: =SUM(2,13,10,67) The equals sign begins the function SUM is the name of the function 2, 13, 10 and 67 are the arguments Parentheses enclose the arguments A comma separates each of the arguments The SUM function adds the arguments together. It is very useful to use this instead of AutoSum when the cells you want to add up are not together.
Activity 28Average Minimum Maximum Calculating an Average You can use the AVERAGE function to calculate an average from a series of numbers. Calculating Minimum You can use the MIN function to find the lowest number in a series of numbers.
Graphs/Charts Excel has a chart program built into its main program. The Chart Wizard will step you through questions that will (basically) draw the chart from the data that you have selected. There are many types of charts. The two most widely used are the bar chart and the pie chart. The BAR Chart is usually used to display a change (growth or decline) over a time period. You can quickly compare the numbers of two different bar charts to each other. The PIE Chart is usually used to look at what makes up a wholeSomething. If you had a pie chart of where you spent your money you could look at the percentages of dollars spent on food (or any other category). You can add legends, titles, and change many of the display variables. There are five general steps in defining a chart. Steps in Creating a Chart:
Choose either Chart Type from the Format menu or click on the ChartWizard button.
Define parameters such as titles, scaling colour, patterns, and legend.
Formatting a Chart When you activate a chart, the chart menu commands become available and the Chart toolbar is displayed. . To activate a chart sheet, select the chart sheet tab you want. Once a chart is active, you can use the mouse to select chart items one at a time. To confirm what you have selected, refer to the name box on the formula bar. Note that many items in a chart are grouped together. For some grouped items, such as data series, you click once to select the entire group, and then click the individual item you want to select within the group. The following list is an brief overview on how to select items in a chart using a mouse. Selecting Items In a Chart Using a Mouse To select one of the following items in an Excel chart: Data Series- click any data marker belonging to a data series. Pie slice- select the pie ring, and then click the slice. Data labels- click any data label associated with a data series. Single data label- select the data labels, and then click an individual label. Legend- click anywhere in the legend, or click its border. Single legend entry- select the legend, and then click the legend entry. Title- click the chart title, axis title, or text box. Axis- click the axis or a tick-mark label to format or modify the axis.
Activity 30Creating a pie chart Creating a Pie Chart Pie charts are used to show relative proportions of the whole, for one data series only. Data series are a group of related data points. A data point is a piece of information that consists of a category and value. Data series originate from single worksheet rows or columns. Each data series in a chart is distinguished by a unique colour or pattern. Using the information on Widgets, create a pie chart for this item Select the Titles tab and then enter "Widgets Region comparison Select the Legend tab and make and make sure SHOW LEGEND is clicked Select the Data Labels tab and select “CATEGORY NAME and PERCENTAGE Select the following options and then click the Finish button. Choose to save it as a Chart 1
Activity 31Creating a Column Chart Column charts use bars of varying lengths to indicate amount. The bars are of different colours or patterns to indicate the different type of data, and they run vertically across the data for your column chart. To Create a Bar Chart of averages in Semester 1 In worksheet DATA 2 Select E48 type Feb, Drag across to N48 to add the months Select E48:N52 three lines Insert the following on the titles tab and click the Next button. Title: Class average Semester 1 Category X Axis: Type :Month Category X Axis: Type: Number Re format the chart changing colours backgrounds etcetera
Activity 32Record a macro Macro To make a macro on the toolbar in Excel, the macro has to be recorded first then a custom button can be made (unlike word) Go to TOOLS> MACRO RUN MACRO Call the MACRO Library Leave Personal Macro Workbook in the Store Macro Box to make the macro available to all documents. Click on okay.
Record the macro Click on STOP RECORDING MACRO button Click on VIEWS. TOOLBARS. CUSTOMIZE. COMMANDS Click on Macros in the category section Click on Custom Button in the Commands list Click hold and Drag the Custom Button up the toolbar Click on Modify Selection Click on Change button image and choose a different icon. Click on the icon and chose the macro it relates to from the list of macros Click on okay Work through the tutorial in this page. Record the macro suggested. http://spreadsheets.about.com/od/advancedexcel/ss/080703macro2007.htm
Activity 33Print Set the database up to print with the top repeated on every page A header and footer with the page title and number and your name Adjusting the margin
Printing Page set up Headers and Footers Margins Printing Rows and Columns on Each Page Select and Print are part of the sheet.