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21 mar 2011 learning is more than abc part 2
 

21 mar 2011 learning is more than abc part 2

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This presentation, given at Pearson Digital Learning's 2011 Pacific Executive Briefing in Desert Sands, CA, focuses on how well-designed instructional technology can be used to assist educators in ...

This presentation, given at Pearson Digital Learning's 2011 Pacific Executive Briefing in Desert Sands, CA, focuses on how well-designed instructional technology can be used to assist educators in creating learning experiences aligned to CAST's Universal Design for Learning framework. This is part 2 of 2.

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  • Zone of Proximal Development Students have gaps in different areas and so the first task of well-designed instructional technology is the determine each student’s ZPD.
  • Next, good software will have a mechanism for personalizing instruction via embedded formative assessment.
  • Individualized intervention curriculum based on student needs Like its own feedback model. Constantly screening, checking for understanding, reviewing, and branching based on student interaction.
  • And it should have the ability to flexibly branch the presentation of content based on student readiness, compacting the curriculum if needed for student at and approaching mastery and providing scafolded support for those struggling with specific skills or content.
  • Waterford Early Reading Program Example – Phonics Objective (ch) Objectives ordered in a hierarchy (easy to difficult or intermediate to culminating) Several paths objective-based sequencer may follow to ensure student masters objective Go to foundational objective/activity (Letter Sound Screening, Rascal Presents a Word) Go to extra remedial objective/activity (Spell and Blend, Readable Walk Through) Repeat Objective Postpone Objective Notify Teacher
  • Waterford Early Reading Program Example – Phonics Objective (ch) Compacting the curriculum automatically for Advanced learners
  • Recognition networks – differentiate the process Gathering facts. How we identify and categorize what we see, hear, and read. Identifying letters, words, or an author's style are recognition tasks—the "what" of learning. Multiple means of representation to give learners various ways of acquiring information and knowledge To support diverse recognition networks: Provide multiple examples Highlight critical features Provide multiple media and formats Support background context http://cast.org/
  • Close your eyes. Fold your paper in half and tear off the top right hand corner. Fold your paper in half again and tear off the bottom right hand corner Fold your paper in half again and tear off the top left hand corner Now unfold your paper, open your eyes, and look around the room Almost everyone’s “snowflake” looks different even though you all heard the same instructions.
  • If you’ve ever wondered why results differ from student to student in the same classroom, remember this exercise. How often is classroom teaching limited to verbal instruction?
  • The one to many approach to instruction has many challenges. Well-designed instructional software should be able to differentiate based on student readiness (content), but also needs to provide various ways for learners to acquire or take in new information and skills.
  • Learning Efficiency (Cognitive Load Theory) is related to Recognition Networks Cognitive Load In essence, cognitive load theory is all about organizing information in such a way to prevent information overload and promote efficiency in learning, all of which is based on scientific evidence accumulated over 25 years. What it boils down to is that there a few different types of cognitive load: Intrinsic: We have no control over this, it is basically due to the complexity of the content (tangent vs. 2+2) Germane: So based on that, the germane cognitive load is the relevant cognitive load from the learning activities, basically what is required for the learner to meet the outcome Extraneous: As instructional designers, this is always under our control and refers to the irrelevant cognitive load which wastes mental resources. So what we are going for is to eliminate the extraneous load and augment the germane load.
  • Multimodal Learning – Best Practices ( http://www.cisco.com/web/strategy/docs/education/Multimodal-Learning-Through-Media.pdf) Multimedia Principle: Retention is improved through words and pictures rather than through words alone. Spatial Contiguity Principle: Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented near each other rather than far from each other on the page or screen. Temporal Contiguity Principle: Students learn better when corresponding words and pictures are presented simultaneously rather than successively. Coherence Principle: Students learn better when extraneous words, pictures, and sounds are excluded rather than included. Modality Principle: Students learn better from animation and narration than from animation and on-screen text. Redundancy Principle: Students learn better when information is not represented in more than one modality – redundancy interferes with learning . I ndividual Differences Principle: Design effects are higher for low-knowledge learners than for high-knowledge learners (increase comprehensible input) Individual Differences Principle: Design effects are higher for high-spatial learners rather than for low-spatial learners. Direct Manipulation Principle: As the complexity of the materials increase, the impact of direct manipulation of the learning materials (animation, pacing) on transfer also increase. (e.g. the more complex the more interactive the learning design should be).
  • Waterford Early Math & Science Program Example - Physical Science>Matter and Materials>Solid Liquid Gas Interactive whiteboard to enhance whole group insruction Support recognition networks (Know): Provide multiple examples Highlight critical features Provide multiple media and formats Support background context Gagne’s Nine Events of Instruction or Multimodal Learning Gaining attention . Activating motivation: Informing the learner of the objective . Stimulating recall of prerequisite learning . Presenting stimulus material . Providing learning guidance . Eliciting the performance . Providing feedback . Assessing the learner's performance . Promoting retention and transfer .
  • Strategic Networks The “How” of learning Planning and performing tasks, How we organize and express or ideas (Do) Provide multiple means of action and expression Goal: Strategic, goal-directed learners Affective Networks The “Why” of Learning How learners get engaged and stay motivated. How they are challenged, excited, or interested. (Differentiate based on interest) Provide multiple means of engagement and multiple means of representation Goal – Purposeful, motivated learners Practice (Process) and Assessment (Product) – Strategic and Affective Strategic networks – differentiate the product Planning and performing tasks. How we organize and express our ideas. Writing an essay or solving a math problem are strategic tasks—the "how" of learning. Multiple means of action and expression to provide learners alternatives for demonstrating what they know To support diverse strategic networks: Provide flexible models of skilled performance Provide opportunities to practice with supports Provide ongoing, relevant feedback Offer flexible opportunities for demonstrating skill Affective networks – differentiate the learning environment How students are engaged and motivated. How they are challenged, excited, or interested. These are affective dimensions—the "why" of learning. Multiple means of engagement to tap into learners' interests, challenge them appropriately, and motivate them to learn To support diverse affective networks: Offer choices of context and tools Offer adjustable levels of challenge Offer choices of learning context Offer choices of rewards http://cast.org
  • Keller’s Theory of Learner Motivation related to Affective Networks (ARCS) Multiple means of engagement to tap into learners' interests, challenge them appropriately, and motivate them to learn To support diverse affective networks: Offer choices of context and tools Offer adjustable levels of challenge Offer choices of learning context Offer choices of rewards
  • Adjustable levels of Challenge – Waterford Early Math & Science Logic Games
  • Waterford Early Math & Science Program Example – Abstract Math Concepts>Data Analysis>Probability Interactive whiteboard as independent student center for small group collaboration or individual student work Keller’s ARCS Theory of Learner Motivation Attention Offer choices of learning context - Relevance Offer adjustable levels of challenge and choice of tools - Confidence Offer choices of rewards – Satisfaction Six Cs Choice Control Collaboration Challenge Construct Meaning (Connect new ideas with current ones) Consequence (Product)
  • How smart are you vs how are you smart? Differentiate product Strategic networks – http://cast.org To support diverse strategic networks: Provide flexible models of skilled performance – embedded (things like Problem Solving sctivities in EMS) Provide opportunities to practice with supports - embedded Provide ongoing, relevant feedback - embedded Offer flexible opportunities for demonstrating skill - offline
  • Howard Gardner 1.1 Spatial – Image Smart 1.2 Linguistic – Word Smart 1.3 Logical-mathematical – Logic Smart 1.4 Bodily-kinesthetic – Body Smart 1.5 Musical – Sound Smart 1.6 Interpersonal – People Smart 1.7 Intrapersonal – Self Smart 1.8 Naturalistic – Nature Smart 1.9 Existential *
  • Convergent - the person is good at bringing material from a variety of sources to bear on a problem, in such a way as to produce the "correct" answer. Source: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/converge.htm#ixzz1GlqsciyJ
  • Divergent - student's skill is in broadly creative elaboration of ideas prompted by a stimulus Source: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/converge.htm#ixzz1GlqsciyJ
  • Find example of item from Land and Jarman study for whole group exercise? "What we have concluded," wrote Land, "is that non-creative behavior is learned." n 1968, George Land distributed among 1,600 5-year-olds a creativity test used by NASA to select innovative engineers and scientists. He re-tested the same children at 10 years of age, and again at 15 years of age. Test results amongst 5 year olds: 98% Test results amongst 10 year olds: 30% Test results amongst 15 year olds: 12% Same test given to 280,000 adults: 2% http://www.creativityatwork.com/articlesContent/Currency.html
  • Choice of product to demonstrate understanding – DO Show student how to complete activity, then it becomes a choice going forward Varied complexity to allow all students access Flexible models of skilled performance* Partners, Individuals, Small Groups, or Whole Class What do we typically do? Worksheets, lists, multiple choice test, etc – all of these are convergent thinking tasks What could we do instead?
  • How do schools successfully integrate technology and universal design for learning?
  • Tech integration is a process – Implement with fidelity and understanding Not a layer on top of what you’re already doing, but a replacement for practices that aren’t really producing results (not in addition to a workbook pages and seat work, but instead of)
  • Differentiate the learning environment for students
  • Why well-designed instructional technology is so effective… Core-like approach to content + Best practices in instruction and instructional design – based on cognitive sciences (how people learn) and neuroscience (how the brain works) + Principles of multimodal learning Even as you build teacher capacity in these areas – students are available to benefit now
  • Founder of the Effective Schools Movement Champion for public schools Helped convince the field of education and many practitioners in the field, that schools could be changed - re-formed- to become effective schools for all students.

21 mar 2011 learning is more than abc part 2 21 mar 2011 learning is more than abc part 2 Presentation Transcript

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  • Personalized
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  • Learning Efficiency
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  • “ How are you smart?” “ How smart are you ?”
  • Which of the objects below do people use to stay warm:
    • a barrel
    • a paper clip
    • a tin of boot polish
    • a brick
    • a blanket
    Source: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/converge.htm#ixzz1GlqsciyJ
  • List as many different uses as you can for one of the objects below:
    • a barrel
    • a paper clip
    • a tin of boot polish
    • a brick
    • a blanket
    Source: http://www.learningandteaching.info/learning/converge.htm#ixzz1GlqsciyJ
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