International Parking Policy Lessons
for Bogotá (especially from Asia)
Paul Barter
http://www.reinventingparking.org/
Phot...
Summary
Three paradigms of parking policy
International perspective on key
parking policy choices for Bogotá
Paul Barter, ...
THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY
Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
Every site should
have it own
parking
Parking facilitie...
THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY
1. Conventional suburban:
Parking is infrastructure
(like the toilets in a building)
Eve...
THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY
‘Conventional suburban’
Expects low or zero price
People in Adelaide, Australia, are sho...
THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY
Conventional suburban:
Fears on-street parking chaos
and parking conflict (‘spillover’)
...
THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY
Conventional approach in
South and Southeast Asia
Off-street supply can’t
make up for la...
THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY
2. “Parking management”
Parking is infrastructure
(like streets and bus stops)
Mostly pl...
THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY
‘Parking management’
Many tools, various goals
Manages conflict
Tools: pricing, restrict...
THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY
Western (especially European)
inner-city parking
management
Public space improvements
Su...
THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY
3. Market-oriented
Parking is a real-estate based
service (with market prices, like
meet...
THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY
Market-oriented
Make prices responsive
- on-street occupancy target
- no price caps on o...
THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY
Donald Shoup’s market-
oriented proposals
i. Price on-street parking
for 85% occupancy
i...
THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY
Market-oriented (de facto)
in Japanese cities
and in many city centres world-wide
Tokyo
...
THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY
Why reject conventional
suburban approach?
‘Fertility drug for cars’
Unjust subsidies an...
THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY
Why reject conventional
suburban approach?
Hinders re-use, redevelopment,
infill of olde...
THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY
Why reject conventional
suburban approach?
Locked into automobile
dependence
Or pushed t...
THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY
Market-oriented:
Adaptive Parking
Share! (make most parking shared
or open to the public...
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE
Some important issues relevant to Bogotá
– Price controls
– On-street parking management
– Publi...
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:
Price controls
MOST cities do NOT control
private-sector parking prices
Exceptions in China, Vi...
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:
Price controls
Price controls:
Eliminate an important
parking management tool
Inhibit parking i...
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:
Price controls
Price controls:
Don’t fear sky-high prices (unless you
want them, in which case ...
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:
Public parking
Walkable grids with small blocks
suit ‘park-once districts’
In which most parkin...
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:
Public parking
Taipei and Seoul have incentives
for parking with buildings to be
open to the pu...
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:
Minimum parking requirements
Minimum parking requirements are being abolished
successfully in m...
Floor area threshold below which there are no
parking requirements
Tokyo
Yes (1,500 m2 or 2,000 m2). Above the threshold, ...
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:
On-street parking management
Example: Shenzhen, China
On-street parking is free and
almost unma...
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:
On-street parking management
All cities need at least the basics
of on-street management
Essent...
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:
On-street parking management
Clear rules and build enforcement
capacity (with supporting instit...
INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE:
On-street parking management
Best on-street price setting principle:
OCCUPANCY
Occupancy survey...
SUMMARY
Three paradigms of parking policy
International perspective on key
parking policy choices for Bogotá
– Price contr...
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Presentación en inglés de Guía Práctica para Estacionamientos para América Latina

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Barter bogota-parking-june-2013

  1. 1. International Parking Policy Lessons for Bogotá (especially from Asia) Paul Barter http://www.reinventingparking.org/ Photo: Zaitun Kasim http://beta.adb.org/publications/parking- policy-asian-cities
  2. 2. Summary Three paradigms of parking policy International perspective on key parking policy choices for Bogotá Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  3. 3. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Every site should have it own parking Parking facilities serve whole neighbourhoods Parking is “infrastructure” 1. conventional suburban 2. parking management Parking is a “real-estate based service” 3. market-oriented
  4. 4. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY 1. Conventional suburban: Parking is infrastructure (like the toilets in a building) Every site needs enough parking for its own demand Parking minimums key tool The median USA parking requirements for restaurants. Source Seth Goodman http://graphingparking.wordpress.com/ Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  5. 5. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY ‘Conventional suburban’ Expects low or zero price People in Adelaide, Australia, are shocked that some Westfield shopping centres have started to charge for parking (although parking is still free for the first 3 hours) This is where my elementary school once was Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  6. 6. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY Conventional suburban: Fears on-street parking chaos and parking conflict (‘spillover’) Assumes parking prices could never be high enough to encourage adequate private- sector off-street supply Dhaka, Bangladesh Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  7. 7. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY Conventional approach in South and Southeast Asia Off-street supply can’t make up for lack of on- street management Chaos on-street even when off-street under- used http://beta.adb.org/publications/parking-policy-asian-cities Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  8. 8. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY 2. “Parking management” Parking is infrastructure (like streets and bus stops) Mostly planned district by district, not site by site Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  9. 9. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY ‘Parking management’ Many tools, various goals Manages conflict Tools: pricing, restricted eligibility, time- limits, design, sharing, parking taxes, supply adjustments Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  10. 10. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY Western (especially European) inner-city parking management Public space improvements Supply also often restricted in city center Nyhavn in Copenhagen – before and after 1980 Source: Kristian Skovbakke Villadsen, May 2012
  11. 11. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY 3. Market-oriented Parking is a real-estate based service (with market prices, like meeting rooms) Each parking site serves area (within walking distance) Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Hong Kong
  12. 12. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY Market-oriented Make prices responsive - on-street occupancy target - no price caps on off-street parking Make off-street supply choices responsive to context Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking See http://www.seattle.gov/transportation/parking/paidparking.htm Central Seattle, USA
  13. 13. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY Donald Shoup’s market- oriented proposals i. Price on-street parking for 85% occupancy ii. Use revenue to please local stakeholders iii. Abolish minimum parking requirements Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  14. 14. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY Market-oriented (de facto) in Japanese cities and in many city centres world-wide Tokyo Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  15. 15. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY Why reject conventional suburban approach? ‘Fertility drug for cars’ Unjust subsidies and cross-subsidies Auckland, New Zealand Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  16. 16. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY Why reject conventional suburban approach? Hinders re-use, redevelopment, infill of older areas Harms housing affordability, especially for small units and small sites Obstacle to transit-oriented development Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Near the center of Houston, USA (via Google Maps) Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia
  17. 17. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY Why reject conventional suburban approach? Locked into automobile dependence Or pushed towards automobile dependence Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Los Angeles, USA
  18. 18. THREE PARADIGMS OF PARKING POLICY Market-oriented: Adaptive Parking Share! (make most parking shared or open to the public) Price! (price to prevent queues and cruising for parking) Sweeten! (make stakeholders happy) Relax! (about supply) Choice! (improve options and ensure competition in parking) For more information see www.reinventingparking.org Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  19. 19. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE Some important issues relevant to Bogotá – Price controls – On-street parking management – Public parking – Minimum parking requirements THEME: MAKE PARKING SYSTEM MORE RESPONSIVE AND LESS RIGID Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  20. 20. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Price controls MOST cities do NOT control private-sector parking prices Exceptions in China, Vietnam, Indonesia … and Bogotá Needlessly turns private sector parking prices into a political issue Don’t just raise the price cap: abolish it Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Bogotá
  21. 21. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Price controls Price controls: Eliminate an important parking management tool Inhibit parking investment Foster unjust cross-subsidy Reduce potential tax revenue from operators Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Bogor, Indonesia
  22. 22. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Price controls Price controls: Don’t fear sky-high prices (unless you want them, in which case you need to restrict parking supply) Operators do NOT want empty parking Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Ampang Park in Kuala Lumpur’s CBD RM2.00/hour = about US$0.60 Bangkok CBD shopping mall. Baht 20 = US$0.65 but free parking with receipt
  23. 23. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Public parking Walkable grids with small blocks suit ‘park-once districts’ In which most parking serves whole neighbourhood So suited to parking management and market-oriented approaches NOT suited to rigid parking minimums approaches Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Shared parking, like shared seating, is more efficient An inner area in Sydney
  24. 24. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Public parking Taipei and Seoul have incentives for parking with buildings to be open to the public Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Taipei Hong Kong Encourage this Discourage this
  25. 25. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Minimum parking requirements Minimum parking requirements are being abolished successfully in more and more cities For example, the whole of the UK, whole of Berlin, many US and Australian CBDs, several other German cities Most developments still have ample parking Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  26. 26. Floor area threshold below which there are no parking requirements Tokyo Yes (1,500 m2 or 2,000 m2). Above the threshold, parking requirements phase in gradually according to a formula. At full force only from 6,000 m2 floor area. Guangzhou Yes (500 m2) Taipei city Yes (300 m2 or 500 m2) INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: Minimum parking requirements Japanese cities have parking minimums but with very low rates and exempting small buildings Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
  27. 27. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: On-street parking management Example: Shenzhen, China On-street parking is free and almost unmanaged Low occupancy in most off-street parking Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Shenzhen, China
  28. 28. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: On-street parking management All cities need at least the basics of on-street management Essential in both ‘parking management’ and market- oriented approaches Essential even in conventional approach! Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Jakarta
  29. 29. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: On-street parking management Clear rules and build enforcement capacity (with supporting institutions) Trustworthy time-based fees system (contracts need care) Parking data collection capacities Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking Taipei Photo by Flickr user gregwake
  30. 30. INTERNATIONAL PERSPECTIVE: On-street parking management Best on-street price setting principle: OCCUPANCY Occupancy surveys or monitoring If >>85% full THEN increase price If <<85% full THEN lower price If occupancy in “sweet spot” THEN no change Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking D. Shoup, The High Cost of Free Parking Reduces traffic by reducing cruising not reducing trips Complements other reforms
  31. 31. SUMMARY Three paradigms of parking policy International perspective on key parking policy choices for Bogotá – Price controls – On-street parking management – Public parking – Minimum parking requirements Paul Barter, Reinventing Parking
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