“What we already knowdetermines to a greatextent what we will payattention to, perceive,learn, remember, andforget.”(Woolfolk, 1998)
WORKSHOP GOALS:∙To understand the difference betweenphonological awareness, phonemicawareness, and phonics∙ To become familiar with the five levels ofphonological awareness∙ Learn new methods to increase andenhance listening comprehension ofnarratives and expository texts
PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS…∙ Is the conscious sensitivity to the sound structure oflanguage.∙ Includes the ability to auditory distinguish parts ofspeech, such as syllables and phonemes.∙ The ability to blend and segment phonemes which iscritical to the development of decoding spellingskills.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonological_awareness.
PHONEMIC AWARENESS…∙ Is a subset of phonological awareness in which listenersare able to distinguish phonemes, the smallest units ofsound that can differentiate meaning.∙ Is the ability to hear the sounds and distinguish betweenthem∙ Is required prior to trying to learn phonicshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonemic_awareness
SO, WHAT IS THE DIFFERENCE?The distinction between phonemic andphonological awareness is often confusedsince they are interdependent. "Phonologicalawareness" refers to an awareness that wordsare made up of sounds which are likeinterchangeable parts. More specifically, thatthey consist of syllables, onsets and rimes,and phonemes. This is often taught with wordgames for rhyming and sound matching .http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonemic_awareness
PHONICS…∙ Refers to an instructional design for teaching children toread. Phonics involves teaching children to connectsounds with letters or groups of letters (e.g., that thesound /k/ can be represented by c, k, or ck spellings).∙ Requires children to learn connections between letterpatterns and the sounds they represent.http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Phonics
5 LEVELS OF PHONOLOGICAL AWARENESS1-The size of the phonological unit (e.g., it is easier to break sentencesinto words and words into syllables than to break syllables intophonemes).2- The number of phonemes in the word (e.g., it is easier to breakphonemically short words such as no, see and cap than snort,sleep or scrap).3-Phoneme position in words (e.g., initial consonants are easier thanfinal consonants and middle consonants are most difficult).4- Phonological properties of words (e.g., continuant such as /s/ and/m/ are easier than very brief sounds such as /t/).5- Phonological awareness challenges. (e.g., rhyming and initialphoneme identification are easier than blending andsegmenting.)http://www.ldonline.org/article/6280
5 LEVELS OF PHONEMIC AWARENESS1 – To hear rhymes and alliteration as measured by knowledge ofnursery rhymes2 – To do oddity tasks (comparing and contrasting the sounds ofwords for rhyme and alliteration)3 – To blend split syllables4 – To perform phonemic segmentation (such as counting out thenumber of phonemes in a word)5 – To perform phoneme manipulation tasks (such as adding,deleting a particular phoneme and regenerating a word from theremainder.
PHONEMIC AWARENESS ACTIVITIES∙ Keep a sense of playfulness and fun, avoid drill and rotememorization.∙ Use group settings that encourage interaction amongchildren.∙ Encourage children’s curiosity about language and theirexperimentation with it.∙ Allow for and be prepared for individual differences.∙Make sure the tone of the activity is not evaluative butrather fun and informal.http://www.indiana .edu/~reading/ieo/digests/d119.html
SUGGESTED TEACHING METHODS∙ At the preschool level, engage children in activities that direct theirattention to the sounds in words, such as rhyming and alliterationgames.∙ Teach students to segment and blend.∙ Combine training segmentation and blending with instruction in letter-sound relationships.∙ Teach segmentation and complementary processes∙ Systematically sequence examples when teaching segmentation andblending.∙ Teach for transfer to novel tasks and contexts.http://www.indiana .edu/~reading/ieo/digests/d119.html
QUESTIONS REGARDING PHONOLOGICALAWARENESS, PHONEMIC AWARENESS OR PHONICS?
COMPREHENSIONReading comprehension is what allows the reader to interactwith the text in a meaningful way. Comprehension of atext turns passive reading into active reading -- fromletters and words to characters and contexts. Readingcomprehension is the crucial link to effective reading.Harvey, S. and Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies That Work (Second Edition).York, MA: Stenhouse Publishers.
WAYS TO INCREASE LISTENING COMPREHENSION OFEXPOSITORY TEXTS∙ Use K-W-L charts and graphic organizers before, during, andafter reading.∙ Have clue words∙ Construct well-structured comparative statements both orallyand written∙ Make sure children are familiar with vocabulary∙ Provide anticipation guides prior to the readingHarvey, S. and Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies That Work (Second Edition). York,MA: Stenhouse Publishers.
WAYS TO INCREASE LISTENING COMPREHENSION OFNARRATIVES∙ Develop the concepts in the text by promoting discussion thatties the concepts to the students backgrounds∙ Establish a purpose for listening∙ Use visual aids while reading aloud to help the students focusattention and to reinforce concepts∙ Ask questions that promote both literal and interpretive orcritical responsesHarvey, S. and Goudvis, A. (2007). Strategies That Work (SecondEdition). York, MA: Stenhouse Publishers.
IN CONCLUSION:∙ Although phonological awareness, phonemicawareness, and phonics are different, they allbuild upon one another in the foundation ofreading.Increasing listening comprehension will in turnbuild independent comprehension.∙ Remember to make all reading fun!!!
Questions orsuggestions relatingto readingcomprehension ofexpository text andnarratives???