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Environmental taxes in Denmark
 

Environmental taxes in Denmark

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A snapshot on Denmark's Pollution Taxes for a sustainable environment

A snapshot on Denmark's Pollution Taxes for a sustainable environment

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Environmental taxes in Denmark Environmental taxes in Denmark Presentation Transcript

  • Environmental Taxes in DenmarkDeepankar KapoorMBM 2011-13Department of Business Management,University of Calcutta
  • Denmark• Scandinavian country in North Europe• Constitutional Monarchy with a parliamentary system of government• Member of EU since 1973• Mixed market capitalist economy• Ranks as the World’s highest level of income quality
  • Environment Taxes – 3 General Groups
  • Finer Details
  • Taxes on Motor Fuels shown in terms of the highest tax rates by setting the tax rate applied in the UK equals 100
  • CO2 and SO2 Taxes
  • Air Pollution and Transport Taxes –Annual Motor Vehicle Tax (AMVT)
  • Water Related Taxes & Charges• Water services, like • The tax is levied on water provision of drinking water delivery of up to a and wastewater treatment, maximum of 300 m3 per are subject to VAT. connection per year and the• But the VAT rates applied in aim of the tax is to give a the different countries differ price signal for water in the sense that some saving. countries levy the standard • Denmark has implemented VAT rate on the user this type of tax so far, in charges (for example, 1994, with only households Sweden, Denmark and subject to the tax payment. Finland) compared to a reduced VAT rate in other countries like Belgium, Germany and France.
  • Waste Taxes• Different types of wastes can be subject to varied tax rates (Austria and Switzerland) and the rates can also depend on the type of waste disposal.• In Denmark the tax rates for waste delivered to an incinerator depend on energy recovery.• Waste Management Policy assesses landfilling as the least desired option and prefers waste recycling compared to incineration which is seen as the second least desired option, by considering the incentive effect of a tax: the recyclable stream of waste is subject to a tax rate of zero, incineration of waste is subject to a tax rate of more than 6.2 EUR /tonne.
  • Other Eco Taxes
  • Taxes/ Country and Country and Country andcharges Revenue Use Revenue Use Revenue use1) NOX S E Ftaxes and Refunded to useful energy production of firms on basis of Fund for environmental restoration (5% of revenues) – Abatement (66%) and monitoring (17%) equipment and R&Dcharges remainder to general budget (10%)2) Water NL DK Eabstraction General budget General budget Recovery of costs of water infrastructurecharges3) Waste DK NL DWater General budget, though a Hypothecated for identification Recycled for investments in substantial sum was devoted to and funding of investments in sewage treatment plantsCharges an independent Water Fund, to sewage treatment plants finance projects which protect groundwater resources4) S DK BPesticides General budget Initially 55% of revenues were Eco-tax: state budget used to reduce county land tax, New pesticides charge:Taxes and and around 10% was channelled Used to fund registrations etc.Charges back to farmers via support to organic farming. The remaining 35% of the revenue was used on research and on monitoring of pesticides in the environment5) Mineral NL FIN SSurpluses General budget Export subsidies Environmental charge: research and environmentally relatedand projects.Fertiliser Since 1994: state budget, but earmarked for environmental improvements in agriculture.6) Landfill F Ataxes Recycled to municipalities via Tax credits used to support Clean-up of contaminated sites funds/ investments and to a environmental projects and recycling to landfill sites for lesser extent, private (waste) environmental investments Source: ECOTEC 2000 sector & research activities A – Austria, B – Belgium, DM – Denmark,7) DK S FN – Finland,Aggregates General budget General budget New sustainability fund NL – the Netherlands,Tax NO – Norway,8) FIN DK SPackaging National Exchequer National Exchequer National Exchequer SW – Sweden,Taxes SL – Switzerland,9) Batteries I B HU UK – the United KingdomTaxes Revenue used to finance No information given Environmental protection. collection of batteries
  • Per cent of GDP A 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 us t ri Cz Be a ec lg h iu Re m pu b De lic nm ar Fi k nl an d Fr an G ce per cent of GDP er m an y G re e Hu c e ng ar y Ire la nd Ne It th aly er la nd No s rw ay Po la n Po d rtu ga l Sp a Sw in Sw ed en itz er al nd UK 1999 1997 1995 Revenues from environmentally related taxes inSource: OECD, Environmentally related taxes database
  • Per cent of total tax revenue Au 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 14 s t C ze Be ria ch lgi R um ep u D bl i en c m a Fi rk nl an Fr d a G n ce er m a G ny re e H ce un ga Ire ry la nd N et he Italy per cent of total tax revenue rl a n N ds or w Po ay la Po nd rtu ga Sp l Sw ain Sw ed itz en er al nd U K 1999 1997 1995 Revenues from environmentally related taxes inSource: OECD, Environmentally related taxes database
  • $US A 200 400 600 800 0 1000 1200 1400 1600 1800 us rt Cz Be ia ec l h gium Re pu b per capita De lic nm ar Fi k nl an Fr d an G c er e m an G y re e Hu c e ng ar y Ire la nd Ne I th taly er la nd No s rw ay Po la n Po d r tu ga l Sp a Sw in Sw ed itz en er al nd UK 1999 1997 1995 Revenues from environmentally related taxesSource: OECD, Environmentally related taxes database
  • Tax Shift in Denmark COUNTRY TAX SHIFT REVENUE SHIFTED FROM TO % OF TOTAL TAX REVENUE OR TAX REVENUE Denmark 1993, Personal Income, Various (electricity, 2.5 1995 and 19982 Employers’ Social water, waste, cars), CO2 (2.4 bil DKR; 340 mil Security Contributions, and SO2 EUR in 2000) Investment IncentivesSources: Recent Trends in the Application of Economic Instruments in EU Member States plusNorway and Switzerland, S. Speck, P. Ekins, Forum for the Future, London, July 2000
  • Thank YouBibliography:‘ENVIRONMENTAL TAXATION: THE EUROPEAN EXPERIENCE’ by AgnieszkaLaskowska and Frank Scrimgeour, Department of Economics, University of Waikato.