Indian Railway : An Introduction


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Indian Railway : An Introduction

  2. 2. Scheme of presentation ♦ History of rail roads ♦ Evolution of IR ♦ Organizational structure and management ♦ Staffing pattern ♦ Management of staff – Welfare activities – Negotiating machineries – Grievance redressal mechanisms
  3. 3. History of Rail roads ♦ 1550 AD – – Roads of rails called wagon ways used in Germany— wooden rails, horse drawn carriages ♦ 1776 AD – Rails now of metal. Wheels metal—called tram ways— horse drawn-spread all over Europe ♦ 1789AD – William Jessop- invented the flanged wheel ♦ 1803 AD – Steam engine built by Richard trevethick
  4. 4. History of rail roads ♦ RAILROADS –feasible due to invention of steam engine – 1789- first flanged wheels designed –Jessop – 1804 –first tramway steam engine built and used –R. Trevithick – 1825-Stockton and Darlington railways functional – 1814-George Stephenson –built first rail engine – 1826- john Stevens- first American railroad – 1857 –first sleeping car built –Pullman – 1869-george Westinghouse –invention of air brakes – 1970’s –high speed technology
  5. 5. HISTORY OF RAILRODSINDIA – 1832 first proposed in madras—bangalore – 1836-survey carried out – 1840- lord Hardinge decides to support building of railways—irrespective of commercial viability – 1845-two companies EIR and GIPR operating – Dec 22 1851—roorkee functional railway system to haul construction material – April 16 1853- Bombay –thane first passenger train run – 15 august 1854 –Howrah to hoogly
  6. 6. History of railroads in India ♦ The British government encouraged the setting up of railways by private investors under a scheme that would guarantee an annual return of 5% during the initial years of operation. Once completed, the company would be passed under government ownership, but would be operated by the company that built them. ♦ 1862-Howrah –benaras ♦ 1870- East and west network linked –6400 kms and 95 million pounds investment
  7. 7. History of railroads –India ♦ By 1880 the network had a route mileage of about 14,500 km ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ (9,000 miles), mostly radiating inward from the three major port cities of Bombay, Madras and Calcutta. By 1895, India had started building its own locomotives, and in 1896 sent engineers and locomotives to help build the ugandan railways . In 1900, the GIPR became a government owned company. The network spread to modern day states of Assam, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh and soon various independent kingdoms began to have their own rail systems. 1901 –railway board constituted 1907 –most companies taken over by government—first electric locomotive 1914-1918—impact of world war I 1920– 61000 kms network—independent railway budget 1940-44—impact of second world war
  8. 8. History of IR –pre independence ♦ IRCA – The Indian Railway Conference Association came into existence in the year 1902. AT that time railway network in India consisted of 19 privately owned separate railways systems covering a total of 8,475 miles. Each company had formulated its own rules and regulations regarding charging, booking and carriage of Passengers and Goods. Due to multiplicity of rules the user was very much inconvenienced. With a view to overcome the difficulties in regard to different rules and regulations and to frame rules regarding movement of wagons of one railway system over the other, the Indian Railway Conference Association was formed in the year 1902. Initially the Association was constituted to frame rules and regulations for booking of traffic and interchange of trains between railways, to act as a consultative Committee and as a Board of Arbitration. Subsequently the Committees for prescribing common standards for wagon maintenance and Classification were formed and by 1926 it was decided to have permanent Committees and Technical sections covering all spheres of Railway working under IRCA.
  9. 9. History of IR –post independence ♦ 1946 –all company railways taken over by government. 40% railways in Pakistan ♦ 42 separate systems (32 Princely state railways); 55000 KMS—Multi gauge ♦ 1951- reorganization and merger of all company railways—6 Zones ♦ 1952—BG standard, indigenous production units; electrification ♦ 1986-steam phased out ♦ Metro built in Calcutta ♦ 1998-konkan railway built
  10. 10. EAST INDIAN RAILWAY -1860
  11. 11. Some company railways ♦ BBCI— – The Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway (BB&CI) was a company incorporated in 1855 to undertake the task of constructing a railway line between Bombay and Vadodara in India. BB&CI completed the work in 1864. The first suburban railway in India was started by BB&CI started between Virar and Colaba, a station in Bombay Backbay in the 1867 – The Colaba-Borivali section (37.8 km) was eletrified on 5 January, 1928 on the 1.5 kV DC system. – 1936– electrification of churchgate-virar – On 5 November 1951 the Bombay, Baroda, and Central India Railway was merged with the Saurashtra, Rajputana and Jaipur railways to give rise to the Western Railway.
  12. 12. Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway ♦ The Madras and Southern Mahratta Railway was a railway company that operated in southern India. It was founded on January 1, 1908, by merging the Madras and the southern mahratta railways. Initially, its headquarters was at Royapuram in Madras but later shifted to a newly constructed building at Egmore, which was inaugurated on December 11, 1922. On April 1, 1944, its management was taken over directly by the Government of India.[1] On 14 April, 1951, the Madras and South Mahratta Railway, the South indian railway and the mysore state railway were merged together to form the Southern Railway, one of the 16 zones of the Indian Railways
  14. 14. Nam e of R ailway (i) G aekwar's Baroda St at e Railway* (ii) Bikaner St at e R ailway (iii) Cut c h St at e Railway (iv) Dholpur St at e R ailway (v) Jaipur St at e R ailway (vi) Jodhpur R ailway (vii) Mysore St at e R ailway (viii) Nizam 's St at e R ailway (ix) R ajast han R ailway (x) Saurasht ra R ailway (w) Sc india St at e R ailway a) Madras and Sout hern Maharast ra R ailway (b) Sout h Indian R ailway (c ) Mysore St at e R ailway (a G reat Indian Peninsula R ailway (b) Nizam 's St at e R ailway (c ) Dholpur St at e R ailway Sc india St at e R ailway a) Bom bay Baroda and Cent ral India R ailway (less D elhi- R ewari- Fazilka and Kanpur- Ac hnera Sec t ions). (b) Saurasht ra R ailway (c ) Jaipur St at e R ailway (d) R ajast han Railway (e) Cut c h St at e R ailway (e) Marwar- Phulad sec t ion of Jodhpur R ailway a) Bengal Nagpur R ailway (b) East India R ailway (Exc ept port ion t ransferred t o Nort hern R ailway ) East ern Punjab R ailway (b) Bikaner St at e R ailway (c ) Jodhpur R ailway (Expec t MarwarPhulad Sec t ion) (d) Moradabad, Luc know & Ellahabad Division of East Indian R ailway (e) Delhi- R ewari –Fazilka Sec t ion of Bom bay & Cent ral Indian R ailway Oadh-Tirhut Railway (b) As sam Railway (c) Kanpur-Ac hnera section of Bombay, Baroda and Central India Railway Mileage 736 883 72 56 253 807 712 1396 179 1274 294 2,939 2,349 729 3,617 1,461 56 294 3,522 1,363 291 197 72 72 3,388 2,279 1,915 883 795 2,101 313 2,741 1,774 252
  15. 15. History of IR –post independence ♦ 1946 –all company railways taken over by government. 40% railways in Pakistan ♦ 42 separate systems (32 Princely state railways); 55000 KMS—Multi gauge ♦ 1951- reorganization and merger of all company railways—6 Zones ♦ 1952—BG standard, indigenous production units; electrification ♦ 1986-steam phased out ♦ Metro built in Calcutta ♦ 1998-konkan railway built
  16. 16. Route Kilometrege opened on Railways 3lst March 1986 (1) Central 6,486.32 (2) Eastern 4,281.25 (3) Northern 10,976.67 (4) North Eastern 5,163.31 (5) North East Frontier 3,763.01 (6) Southern 6,728.66 (7) South Central 7,137.54 (8) South Eastern 7,075.05 (9) Western 10,224.40 Total 61836.21
  17. 17. Network zones
  18. 18. IR –zonal RAILWAYS ON DATE Sl. No Name 1 Central 2 East Central 3 East Coast 4 Eastern 5 North Central 6 North Eastern 7 North Western 8 Northeast Frontier 9 Northern 10 South Central 11 South East Central 12 South Eastern 13 South Western 14 Southern 15 West Central 16 Western Abbr. Date Established Headquarters Divisions CR 5-Nov-51 Mumbai Mumbai, Bhusawal, Pune, Solapur, Nagpur ECR 1-Oct-02 Hajipur Danapur, Dhanbad, Mughalsarai, Samastipur, Sonpur ECoR 1-Apr-03 Bhubaneswar Road, Sambalpur, Visakhapatnam Khurda ER April, 1952 Kolkata Howrah, Sealdah, Asansol, Malda NCR 1-Apr-03 Allahabad Allahabad, Agra, Jhansi NER 1952 Gorakhpur Izzatnagar, Lucknow, Varanasi NWR 1-Oct-02 Jaipur Jaipur, Ajmer, Bikaner, Jodhpur NFR 1958 Guwahati Alipurduar, Katihar, Lumding, Rangia, Tinsukia NR 14-Apr-52 Delhi Delhi, Ambala, Firozpur, Lucknow, Moradabad SCR 2-Oct-66 Secunderabad Secunderabad, Hyderabad, Guntakal, Guntur, Nanded, Vijayawada SECR 1-Apr-03 Bilaspur, CGBilaspur, Raipur, Nagpur SER 1955 Kolkata Adra, Chakradharpur, Kharagpur, Ranchi SWR 1-Apr-03 Hubli Hubli, Bangalore, Mysore SR 14-Apr-51 Chennai Chennai, Madurai, Palakkad, Salem, Tiruchchirapalli, Thiruvanathapuram WCR 1-Apr-03 Jabalpur Jabalpur, Bhopal, Kota WR 5-Nov-51 Mumbai Mumbai Central, Vadodara, Ratlam, Ahmedabad, Rajkot, Bhavnagar
  19. 19. Productivity over time
  20. 20. Railway medical services
  21. 21. Railway medical services
  22. 22. Staff welfare ♦ Staff Benefit Fund is an important channel for providing additional facilities to railway employees and their families in the spheres of education, recreation, medicare, sports, scouting and cultural activities. Dispensaries under the indigenous systems of medicine, viz. Ayurvedic and Homeopathic, are run with the help of this Fund.
  23. 23. Important statistics ♦ Approximately 42% staff have been provided with railway quarters. ♦ 253 canteens served subsidized meals and refreshments to employees during the year at their work-places. ♦ Co-operative societies of various types are encouraged as a part of welfare programme for employees.
  24. 24. Important activities ♦ 171 registered Railwaymen's Consumer Co- operative Societies, 19 Railwaymen's Cooperative Housing Societies and 29 Labour Contract Cooperative Societies were functional on IR during 2007-08. ♦ IR attaches due importance to recreation for its employees and provides excellent facilities through Institutes/Clubs for sports, libraries, etc. and Holiday Homes to enable the employees and their families to enjoy holidays at nominal expenses.
  25. 25. Railway Minister's Welfare and Relief Fund The Fund provides financial assistance and relief to railway employees and their families in times of distress. Voluntary contributions from the employees and Railway Women's Welfare Organizations constitute the primary source of the Fund. Life Line Express, with all medical facilities, runs under the aegis of Rajiv Gandhi Foundation, New Delhi for
  26. 26. ♦ Railway Schools ♦ IR runs and manages 365 railway schools which include nearly 100 Senior/Secondary/High Schools. These schools provide quality education at subsidized cost to about one lakh children of railway employees and about 30,000 nonrailway wards. There are about 5,500 teachers and about 1,100 nonteaching staff employed in these railway schools. IR also supports 62 Kendriya Vidyalayas for the benefit of wards of railway employees.
  27. 27. Empowerment, Welfare, and Development of Women ♦ IR is the largest employer in the country with 13,94,520 ♦ ♦ ♦ ♦ employees of which 82,712 are women employees as on March 31, 2008. Various privileges are also available to women railway employees like maternity leave, special leave for promoting family welfare and most significantly Child Care Leave for a period of 2 years which has been introduced recently. Complaint redressal system under gender discrimination Handicraft centres and Mahila Samities have been instituted to impart skills necessary for pursuing income generating vocations. A specific outlay is earmarked under Staff Benefit Fund towards Women Empowerment Activities. This is for women family members Women Welfare Organisations are also being run by wives of Railway Officers who are also promoting the cause of women through activities like nursery schools, crèches, institutions for mentally challenged children, promoting talent amongst wards of the employees and rendering necessary financial assistance
  28. 28. Other major activities ♦ Sports ♦ Help to differently abled persons – Concessions – Facilities at stations and in coaches – Reservation in posts-3% ♦ Staff grievance redressal system ♦ Pension adalats ♦ Permanent negotiating machinery
  29. 29. Undertaking under IR ♦ CONCOR – Set up in 1989 – 3500 crores turn over – 22% profit ♦ Center for railway information system – Responsible for creation and implementation of major IT systems on IR ♦ Dedicated freight corridor corporation of India – – Set up 2006 November
  30. 30. Undertakings under IR ♦ IRCON – Set up 1976 – Internationally spread – Construction company – 2100 crores turnover ♦ IRCTC – Manages catering, tourism and e-ticketing ♦ IRFC – Facilitates market mobilization of finances for railways
  31. 31. Undertakings under IR ♦ KRCL – Started in 1998 – Runs 760 km long railway line ♦ PRCL ♦ RAILTEL ♦ RITES – TECHNICAL, ECONOMIC AND CONSULLTANCY SERVICES
  32. 32. Undertakings under IR ♦ RVNL – to raise non budgetary resources –SPV – Construction activities ♦ Advisory boards – Rail users committees – Research advisory board ♦ Our heritage – 3 heritage railways – Rail museum