Ticket Vending Machine


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Ticket Vending Machine

  1. 1. Redesigning the Metro Rail Ticket Vending Machine Presenter: Deepti Patil Target Audience: WMATA Authorities
  2. 2. What is wrong with it? <ul><li>Almost everything… </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Menus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Layout </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Size </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Inconsistent functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>USABILITY ISSUES! </li></ul></ul>
  3. 3. How can you say that? <ul><li>Research and analysis methods: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Observing: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Users </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Flow of operation </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Interviewing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Commuters on site </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Station manager </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Survey </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Daily / Occasional travelers </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tourists </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Literature / Studies </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Basic vending machine design principles </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Blogs and diaries </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Comparison with other local and international machines </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. <ul><li>Most of the data was gathered during observation. </li></ul><ul><li>Watching commuters use the machine at the stations. </li></ul><ul><li>Hearing one user explain another user how to use the system. </li></ul><ul><li>Watching the station manager attending to people’s problems. </li></ul><ul><li>Noting people’s comments and reactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Self-studying the working and flow of the system. </li></ul><ul><li>A survey sent out to a small group of users proved helpful as a source of feed back on the machine and its usage. </li></ul><ul><li>Some of the questions I put to the users and the station manager were: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What are the common problems faces using this system?”, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Do you like this ticket machine?” </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ What would you like to change in it?” etc. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Blogs/Online information confirmed the above findings and helped during analysis. </li></ul>DATA GATHERING
  5. 5. RESEARCH DATA <ul><li>Aggregation </li></ul><ul><li>Direction towards Problems </li></ul>
  6. 6. Data on Users <ul><li>Residents were from diverse language-preference backgrounds. </li></ul><ul><li>Some users used the metro system daily. </li></ul><ul><li>Some used it occasionally (bi-weekly/ monthly/ 6-monthly/ rarely) </li></ul><ul><li>Lots of tourists come in visiting DC. </li></ul><ul><li>Came across very few disabled users (almost no-one). </li></ul><ul><li>Fair section of commuters were senior citizens. </li></ul>
  7. 7. Aggregating: Machine Layout Problems <ul><li>A lot going on. </li></ul><ul><li>Users always had trouble in deciding where to start. </li></ul><ul><li>Users had themselves moving their eyes and arms all over. </li></ul><ul><li>It is almost 2 times the size of an average human being. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions often confused users. </li></ul><ul><li>Using different shades of the same color (blue) din’t seem to serve any purpose. </li></ul><ul><li>People found it difficult to identify the slot for cards to a slot for bills. </li></ul><ul><li>The SmarTrip beeper was often mistaken as a button. </li></ul>
  8. 8. Main Menu Troubles <ul><li>Not really “main” considering the loss of a focal point. </li></ul><ul><li>Buttons not aligned with the instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Has only some instructions; the rest lie all over the machine. </li></ul><ul><li>Instructions like: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Do you want a receipt?” even before any transaction is carried out, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>“ Press when done” (press what where?) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are confusing. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Terms like “ Smart Benefits” are unknown to most of the users. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>No error messages. People never knew where they went wrong. </li></ul><ul><li>No ‘Help’ option. Almost always asked other customers or the station manager. </li></ul><ul><li>Inconsistency in the flow. </li></ul>
  9. 9. Ticketing Structure Issues <ul><li>Various ticket options </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Pass </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single Farecard </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple Farecards </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SmarTrip card </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>No immediate information available on the above. </li></ul><ul><li>Many users consider the price of $5 for a SmarTrip card quite an amount. </li></ul><ul><li>The SmarTrip card has an RF-id unlike the rest of the options – So you ‘beep’ a smartrip card while you punch-in the regular card - No consistency. </li></ul><ul><li>The RF-id could get damaged for various reasons and all your money on it could just vanish without your knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Too many ‘hidden’ functions - Trading a fare card to transfer balance to your smartrip card or ‘Smartbenefits’ etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Users are expected to calculate the fare based on the destination and time of the day. </li></ul>
  10. 10. Payment Challenges <ul><li>Users expected to be super fast at this stage. </li></ul><ul><li>You insert the card horizontally and pull it out unlike the usual manner of swiping. </li></ul><ul><li>The credit/debit card transaction were almost never successful. </li></ul><ul><li>The credit company logos were mistaken as buttons by a user. </li></ul><ul><li>The machine does not accept ‘old’ bills. No message to informed the user about this. Only the station manager knew this secret. </li></ul><ul><li>Bills would be swallowed and stored in the “smartbenefits” section without the user’s knowledge. </li></ul><ul><li>Machine would run out of coins and failed to return the user’s balance. </li></ul>
  11. 11. The Positives <ul><li>There are some users who are okay with the current system. My survey had 2 out of 9 who had such an opinion. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular commuters can actually carry out a transaction in less than 20 sec. (smartrip card users) </li></ul><ul><li>Verifying balance on smartrip card takes almost only 1 second. (Beep card – Read balance – Get going) </li></ul>
  12. 12. DATA ANALYSIS <ul><li>Design Considerations </li></ul>
  13. 13. Which USERS are we targeting? <ul><li>Everyday commuters </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Who are use to the current system. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SmarTrip card users. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Take less than 20 sec for a transaction. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly in a hurry. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Would like to leave smiling </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occasional Commuters </li></ul><ul><li>Who rarely use the system </li></ul><ul><li>Would have preferred the SmarTrip card if it wouldn’t have been for its $5 value and de-magnetization. </li></ul><ul><li>Also be a Tourist who is not interested to learn the benefits of the SmarTrip card. </li></ul><ul><li>All would like to leave smiling </li></ul>Distinct user groups divided into 2 broad categories
  14. 14. The new MACHINE should … <ul><li>Be Less intimidating in size – sleek, not larger than a average human being </li></ul><ul><li>Have a focal point which should be the main screen </li></ul><ul><li>Group items smartly – 1a)payment items (input), 1b)non-payment (input),3) Output – ticket/card, change, receipts. </li></ul><ul><li>Have colors with obvious differences to ease identification – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Green for money </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blue from the current SmarTrip card </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Red for the final ticket dispensing slot </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Include the SmarTrip card dispenser within itself. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintain the Audio button to address the disabled (from legacy) </li></ul><ul><li>Be flexible to accommodate future updates. </li></ul>
  15. 15. New Main Screen should… <ul><li>Have simple and clear instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Allow smooth flow of operation </li></ul><ul><li>Include helpful error messages </li></ul><ul><li>Calculate the fare for the user – simple to implement with system time, source and destination of travel. </li></ul><ul><li>Have bigger and better fonts (senior citizens) </li></ul><ul><li>Provide Language options (diverse Americans) </li></ul><ul><li>Use standard terms ( for tourists) </li></ul><ul><li>Be consistent in terms of button placements e.g.:- “<<Back” on the bottom left corner “Cancel” on the bottom right corner on all screens. </li></ul><ul><li>Be extremely user friendly </li></ul><ul><li>Allow the screens to guide users. No need to recollect nor remember. </li></ul><ul><li>Have few screens – we want to target the less than 20 sec users </li></ul><ul><li>Have the Motto : Happy Journey! – happy screens </li></ul>
  16. 16. Modified Ticket Structure needs: <ul><li>Practical simplification as follows: </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Single Ride </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valid for one Rail or Bus journey </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>SmarTrip Card </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No charge for the card </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Good for an individual or a group </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Allows multiple entries and multiple journeys </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Valid for Bus, Rail and Parking </li></ul></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Consistency in ticket usage – neither punch-in nor beep Now SWIPE </li></ul><ul><li>Both Ticket types to have the same size and usability – having the map on it will be a great idea. </li></ul>
  17. 17. New Payment Considerations <ul><li>Swiping credit/debit cards instead of insert-pull action. </li></ul><ul><li>Good co-ordination with main screen to maintain patience while the customer deals with his hard-earned money. </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining only one source of output for change/receipt and tickets. </li></ul><ul><li>Following error messages would definitely guide users in the right direction. </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Please insert bill/note the other way” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Card not accepted, try another one” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Please use new bills/notes, fails to recognize old ones..” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Etc. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Design Prototypes <ul><li>The Main Screen </li></ul><ul><li>The Machine </li></ul>
  19. 19. New Machine Design
  20. 20. Zooming in on the Interface
  21. 21. Ticket / Card Designs
  22. 22. EVALUATION <ul><li>Methods </li></ul><ul><li>Results </li></ul>
  23. 23. What to Evaluate and why? <ul><li>The key aspect of the new machine: </li></ul><ul><ul><li> MAIN SCREEN. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>It contains all the functions and instructions. </li></ul><ul><li>It’s the heart of the machine. </li></ul><ul><li>The primary guide to the user. </li></ul><ul><li>Basis of all transactions. </li></ul><ul><li>Source of most of the interaction. </li></ul>
  24. 24. When did I Evaluate? <ul><li>Early during the design stages – more like an iterative procedure. </li></ul><ul><li>A final evaluation of the working prototype. </li></ul>
  25. 25. Evaluation Procedure <ul><li>Usability Testing </li></ul><ul><li>User information: </li></ul><ul><li>No.: 10 </li></ul><ul><li>Type: 3 non-residents </li></ul><ul><li> 2 resident occasional users </li></ul><ul><li> 5 daily commuters </li></ul><ul><li>Age: 23 to 64 </li></ul><ul><li>Occupation: Architects, Office administrators, Students, Engineers and MBAs. </li></ul>
  26. 26. Methods <ul><ul><li>Step 1: Browsing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Initially asked them to imagine the following scenario: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You reach the metro station and find the prototype being tested in place of the old machine. Proceed as you would do otherwise. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 2: Tasks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>I assigned 2 tasks: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Buy a ticket to go to White Flint </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Make sure you have $33 in your SmarTrip Card </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Step 3: Interview </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Put forward some of the following questions: </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ How was the experience?” </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>“ Any changes you would suggest?” </li></ul></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Outcome <ul><li>Map v/s List </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Initial evaluation – Users were happy to learn about the inclusion of the map. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Final evaluation – 2 Scenarios came up. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During the browsing test most users selected the Map option. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>During the task test all of them selected the List option to buy a ticket for ‘White Flint’. </li></ul></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>The “<<Back” button </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Tests revealed the need to place the ‘Back’ button even on payment screens. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>This allowed the user to try out multiple payment options without canceling current transaction. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>“ Add Value to SmarTrip Card” screen </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Problem screen </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>50% of the users misinterpreted it and the rest spend more time on it than expected. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Modifications were received better than previous versions. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Problem Screen Original Screen:
  29. 29. Next Version…
  30. 30. Latest Version…
  31. 31. Trends <ul><ul><ul><li>Ease of Usage </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Fast completion of tasks </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>No major surprises </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Mostly predictable. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Limitations <ul><li>Mid-tech prototype had limited functionality. </li></ul><ul><li>Real-time credit/debit card transactions could not be tested. </li></ul><ul><li>Testing the complete package would have helped further. </li></ul><ul><ul><li> Screen + Machine + On-site </li></ul></ul>
  33. 33. Future Updates <ul><li>Book ticket online </li></ul><ul><li> take print out </li></ul><ul><li> get it read at the machine’s bar code reader </li></ul><ul><li> collect ticket/card </li></ul><ul><li> get going </li></ul><ul><li>Cell phones screens could be read as tickets. </li></ul><ul><li>Instead of having machines of different heights installed, every machine could have a sensor that would automatically adjust to the person’s height. </li></ul>
  34. 34. Miscellaneous Changes <ul><li>Placement of Ticket machine near parking exits. </li></ul><ul><li>The payment for parking should not be restricted only to SmarTrip cards. </li></ul><ul><li>In addition to having ‘+’ and ‘-’ sign to indicate enter and exit respectively, the entire panel should be painted with green for enter and red for exit. </li></ul><ul><li>If further research indicate a rise in disabled users at a specific station a new machine especially designed for disability should installed. </li></ul>
  35. 35. What next? <ul><li>Another cycle of Research, Prototyping and Testing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>High-tech prototypes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>On-site tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Card readers/slots functionality tests </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Moving from Module testing to System testing </li></ul></ul>
  36. 36. Resources <ul><li>Time: 6 - 8months </li></ul><ul><li>Money: $10000 - $15000 </li></ul><ul><li>People: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-3 Interaction Designers (coders/artists) – Prototyping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>6 Usability Testers – Testing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Machine Manufacturers. </li></ul></ul>
  37. 37. References: <ul><li>http://db79.com/2007/10/mass-transit-ticket-machine-user-interfaces/ (london ticket machine) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/plasticbag/578303/ (criticizing the original) </li></ul><ul><li>http://electronicmuseum.wordpress.com/2007/08/02/ticket-to-ride-just/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.uie.com/brainsparks/2007/07/13/mbtas-charlie-card-interface/ -boston-&quot;Without knowing any of this, I approached one of the new machines and was immediately taken aback. There was so much going on, I didn’t know where to look.&quot; </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.tc.umn.edu/~hause011/article/transit_usability.html - transit usability links </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.cs.swan.ac.uk/~csharold/presson/tvm/index.html - web based simulation of a ticket vending machine </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.yes-no-cancel.co.uk/2007/07/24/train-ticket-machines-uk-vs-germany/ -comparison of germany n UK machines </li></ul><ul><li>http://koray.siyah.net/pdf/meth1.pdf - design requiremnts document </li></ul><ul><li>http://ui4all.ics.forth.gr/UI4ALL-97/maguire.pdf (design tips) </li></ul><ul><li>(comment on the smartrip machine): </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/vanderwal/2215821/ </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/vanderwal/2186148/in/photostream/ (blue machine) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/vanderwal/2215805/ (black machine) </li></ul><ul><li>http://www.flickr.com/photos/8102234@N04/1206017974/in/set-72157601606175815/ (total confusion) </li></ul><ul><li>Survey Results </li></ul>