RESPONSIVEResponsive The exteriorarchitecture could be responsive to- responding the wind, sun, rain, temperatureto climate, etc (macro);using nature While the interior could interactas an digitally with the users (micro);example
CLIMATE . . . ? ? ?Climate encompasses the statistics of• Temperature• humidity• atmospheric pressure• wind• precipitation• atmospheric particle count and other meteorological elemental measurements in a given region over long periods.
DEFINITION IN SHORT!• Climate (from Ancient Greek klima, meaning inclination) is commonly defined as the weather averaged over a long period.• The standard averaging period is 30 years
CLIMATE AND WEATHER• The difference between weather and climate is a measure of time.• Weather is what conditions of the atmosphere are over a short period of time, and climate is how the atmosphere "behaves" over relatively long periods of time.
CLIMATE & COMFORT• The climate of a location is affected by its latitude, terrain and altitude, as well as nearby vegetation, water bodies and their currents.• Climate affects the indoor climate and human thermal comfort.
THERMAL COMFORT. . ? Comfort is defined as the sensation of complete physical and mental well being. Thermal neutrality, where an individual desires neither a warmer nor a colder environment, is a necessary condition for thermal comfort. The factors affecting comfort are divided into personal variables: activity Clothing and environmental variables, air temperature, mean radiant temperature air velocity air humidity
THERMAL COMFORT – ENVIRONMENTAL VARIABLES Temperature The average air temperature from the floor at a height of 1.1 m. Mean Radiant Temperature The average temperature of the surrounding surfaces, which includes the effect of the incident solar radiation. Air Velocity Which affects convective heat loss from the body, i.e. air at a greater velocity will seem cooler. Air Humidity Which affects the latent heat losses and has a particularly important impact in warm and humid environments
ELEMENTS OF CLIMATE The most important elements of climate and weather parameters that affect human comfort and are relevant to building design are:• Solar Radiation• Long wave Radiation• Temperature• Humidity• Wind• Precipitation
Building height combinations to control winds(a), (b) and sunlight (c), (d) along streets.
WINDExamples of different wind strategies in building design forcold (a), (b) and hot (c) and (d) climates
6 CLIMATE FACTORSI. Latitude IV. Mountain BarriersII. Altitude V. Ocean CurrentsIII. Land - Water VI. Prevailing Winds Relationship
LatitudeI. Latitude - Distance north or south of the equator A. Low - Warm to hot B. Middle - Seasonal C. High - Polar (cool to cold)
*Latitude impacts EVERY PLACE on the Earth*
AltitudeII. Altitude - Height above sea level A. In mountain areas, there are major climatic differences from the bottom to the top. B. As air rises, it loses the ability to hold heat. It gets 1 F colder for every 300-400 ft. you go up.
Altitude Snow Cap Tree LineSea Level * Altitude impacts if over 5,000 ft*
Land-Water RelationshipIII. Land-Water Relationship A. A large body of water tends to cause a mild or moderate climate. (Very little change) B. A body of water heats up and cools down slower than a land mass C. Wind assumes the temp. of the surface it passes over and carries that temp. with it.
Land-Water Relationship LANDOCEAN
Mountain BarriersIV. Mountain Barriers - Cause different climates on opposite sides of mountain. A. Moisture carrying winds must rise to get over mountains. B. Air cools as it rises, losing ability to hold water causing rain on the windward side C. This leaves no moisture for the leeward side creating a desert.
Mountain Barriers NO RAIN WINDWARD SIDE Less rain LEEWARD SIDE Less Rain Rain WIND Cascade Mts 5,000 ft. Dry Spokane, WAOcean Seattle, WA 12 in. Rain per Year (80 in. Rain per Year)
Ocean CurrentsV. Ocean Currents - Rivers of water that move through the ocean. A. They assume the temperature of the water that they pass over and carry that temperature. B. Wind passing over the current must pass near the land mass to have an impact.
Warm CurrentsLAND OCEANCauses Warm And MoistClimate (RainForest)
Cold Currents OCEANLANDCauses Cool And DryClimate(Desert)
Prevailing WindsVI. Prevailing Winds - Winds that blow most often in different parts of the Earth. A. Wind blows because: 1. Air over warm land rises 2. Cooler air moves in from surrounding areas to replace rising air 3. The cool air is heated and process repeats
Prevailing Winds Low Pressure High Pressure L H Cool Air DescendsWarm Air RisesWarm Land Mass Cool Land Mass or Water
CLIMATE RESPONSIVE DESIGN• Climate responsive design is based on the way a building form and structure moderates the climate for human good and well being.• Climate responsive design in buildings takes into account the following climatic parameters which have direct influence on indoor thermal comfort and energy consumption in buildings: • The air temperature, • The humidity, • The prevailing wind direction and speed, • The amount of solar radiation and the solar path. • Long wave radiation between other buildings and the surrounding environment and sky also plays a major role in building performance.
PROJECT CLIMATE EVALUATION• Every project starts with a careful evaluation of what a project’s climate capital provides.• We need to understand the resources available for us to protect against and take advantage of – whether that is solar, wind, temperature, humidity or rainfall.
1.PERFORM A SITE ANALYSIS• Determine the weather patterns, climate, soil types, wind speed and direction, heating degree days and path of the sun. Look at the water flows, habitat and geology of the site. Document each with a qualified team of professionals to understand the ramifications of building in that specific place.
2.LAYOUT THE BUILDING ON THE SITE.• Using the general program, through an integrative team process, use a basic massing of the building layout to determine specifically on site the most optimal location for the building to be situated. Factors to consider here are access to infrastructure, staying at least 100 feet clear of any watershed, not building within a floodplain and/or in a habitat with endangered species. Ask: what trees and other existing geological features should be avoided? How does the water flow across the site dictate the location of the building?
IT’S ALL ABOUT THE SUN - ORIENT THE BUILDING BASED UPON CARDINAL DIRECTIONS.• The goal here is to maximize the amount of sun that heats the space in the winter (hence using less energy to mechanically heat) and decrease the amount of sun that cooks in the summer (hence using less energy to mechanically cool).
Select the appropriate window areas and glazing types based on orientation • South facing facades should utilize a window area appropriate to its orientation and glazing should utilize a double or triple paned glass with a low- e coating to minimize the amount of heat transmitted into the space in the hottest months, while keeping heat inside during the cooler winter months. • For example, a south facing glass window wall will cook the occupants inside during the hot summer months if care is not taken on this façade.
Building envelope design varies greatly by geographic area.• When designing the envelope of the building, factors such as insulation, vapour barriers and air barriers will vary radically depending on whether the project is in the cold, snowy north, the hot and humid south or the arid desert.
Design for natural ventilation.• Since warm air rises, a building can be cooled by designing for stack ventilation by drawing cooler air from openings low in the building, while carrying heat away through openings in the top of the space.• The rate at which the air moves is a function of the vertical distance between the inlets and outlets, their size and the difference in temperature over the height of the room.
BIDANI HOUSE FARIDABAD
SITE ADDRESS/ LOCATION :FaridabadCLIMATIC ZONE :CompositeBUILDING TYPE :ResidentialARCHITECTS :Dr Arvind Krishan and Kunal JainPROJECT STATUS :Completed
Very often it is stated that it is possible to design climatically responsivebuildings on a larger site, but in most urban situations where the sites areconstrained by their small size and of fixed orientation, it is not possible todevelop such a design. The Bidani House is a project that demonstrates a situation where aclimate -responsive form and design was achieved in an existingurban situation with a fixed site size and orientation.Faridabad, located in the ‘composite climate’ zone, haslarge climatic swings over the year, i.e. very hot and dry period ofalmost two and a half months and a colder period of a shorterduration. The hot dry period is followed by a hot humid, monsoonperiod of about two months with intervening periods of milderclimate.
KEY SUSTAINABLE FEATURES•House form developed around courtyard (acts as heat sink)•Large volumes of spaces coupled with courtyard for ventilation•Buffer spaces located on the overheated south-western exposure•Form of the building allows solar penetration according to seasonalchanges•Pergola and louvers cut off unwanted radiation•Local stone used as major construction material, which providesthermal mass for attenuation of diurnal swings in temperature