GOOD AFTERNOON!!!!!
FILLERS IN COMPOSITE
RESINS
DEEPTHI P.R.
FINAL YEAR BDS
 Introduction
 Materials used
 Types of Fillers
 Methods of Preparation
 Methods of Incorporation
 Functions of Fill...
 Advantages & Drawbacks of different
Materials
 Classification of Composite Resins
based on Fillers
 Recent Advances
 ...
INTRODUCTION
Composite
In materials and science, a solid formed
from two or more distinct phases that
have been combined t...
Dental Composite
Highly cross-linked polymeric materials
reinforced by a dispersion of glass,
crystalline or resin filler ...
Basic Components
Matrix
Filler
Coupling agent
FILLERS
‘The inorganic and/or organic resin
particles that are designed to
strengthen a composite, decrease
thermal expans...
FILLERS
 Dispersed phase of composite resins
 1950’s- Quartz in MMA filling materials
MATERIALS USED
 Quartz
 Amorphous Silica
 Glass fillers with metals
 Colloidal Silica
 Ceramics
 Organically modifie...
TYPES OF FILLERS
 3 filler categories- 35 years
Conventional
Microfine
Hybrid
CONVENTIONAL FILLER
 Irregular glass or ceramic
 4µm - 40µm
 Used in 1960’s- 1970’s
 First generation Composites: 1-50...
MICROFINE FILLER
 Pyrogenic silica: 0.01µm- 0.1µm
 Colloidal silica
 30-60 wt%
 Rare earth metal compounds-
Radiopacit...
HYBRID FILLER
 Conventional glass/ ceramic filler
particles
-Zirconia/ Silica: 0.5µm - 10µm
 Pyrogenic silica: 0.01µm - ...
MEGAFILLER
 Pieces of glass: 0.5mm – 2mm
 Inserts
 Composites at points of heavy
occlusal contact or high wear
METHODS OF PREPARATION
 Grinding or milling Quartz/ Glasses:
0.1µm-100µm
 Microfillers:
Pyrolytic or Precipitation proc...
METHODS OF PREPARATION
Colloidal particles of Sodium silicate to
water & HCl colloidal silica
Organic fillers:
 Pulver...
METHODS OF PREPARATION
Composite paste heat cured with
Benzoyl Peroxide
Cured composite : ground into
particles of size ...
METHODS OF INCORPORATION
CONVENTIONAL FILLER PARTICLES
Surface coating of ‘Coupling agent’
Then blended with resin
MICRO...
METHODS OF INCORPORATION
1. Homogeneous :
Microfiller loaded directly to the resin
2. Heterogeneous
Microfiller compress...
METHODS OF INCORPORATION
Increase Filler loading
 Sinter colloidal silica particles: Several
tenths of a µm
Reduces compr...
FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS
 Strengthen the composite
 Reduce the amount of matrix material
 Reinforcement of the matrix resin...
FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS
 Improved workability by increasing
viscosity
 Reduction in water sorption, softening
& staining
 ...
FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS
 Reduction in thermal expansion &
contraction
 Increased compressive strength,
tensile strength, mo...
FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS
 Enhances physical & mechanical
properties to the level of tooth tissue
 clinical performance & dur...
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE
FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS
FILLER SIZE
 Large : ‘plucking’ – rough surface
- increased wear
- reduced f...
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE
FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS
INCORPORATION OF RADIOPAQUE
COMPOUNDS
 Sr/Ba glass & other heavy metal
compo...
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE
FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS
FILLER CONTENT
As it increases:
 Reduced polymerization shrinkage
 Coeffici...
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE
FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS
 Increased color stability
 Increased depth of cure
 Increased stiffness
...
FACTORS INFLUENCING THE
FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS
FILLER SHAPE
Spherical shape:
 Incorporates more inorganic fillers
 Improve...
ADVANTAGES & DRAWBACKS
FILLER ADVANTAGES DRAWBACKS
Quartz .Clinically inert (insoluble)
.Strong & hard
.Difficult to grind...
CLASSIFICATION OF
COMPOSITES BASED ON
FILLERS
I. Based on the filler particle Size &
Size Distribution
 Traditional (larg...
 Hybrid (Minifiller/ Small Particle Filled):
(1) 0.1-2 µm glass
(2) 0.04 µm silica
 Packable Hybrid:
Midifiller/ Minifil...
 Homogeneous Microfill: 0.04 µm silica
 Heterogeneous Microfill:
(1) 0.04 µm silica
(2) Prepolymerized resin
particles c...
II. According to Skinner
 Traditional/Conventional: 8-12 µm
 Small Particle Filled Composites: 1-5µm
III. Philips & Lutz...
IV. Based on Mean Particle Size of
the filler
 Traditional Composite resins
 Hybrid Composite resins
 Homogeneous Micro...
V. According to Bayne & Heyman
 Megafill : 1-2mm
 Macrofill: 10-100µm
 Midifill: 1-10µm
 Minifill: 0.1-1µm
 Microfill...
VI. Williams Classification
 Densified Composite Midway filled
 Ultrafine Midway filled
 Fine Midway filled
 Ultrafine...
 Homogeneous Microfine Composite
 Heterogeneous Microfine Composite
 With splintered prepolymerized filler
 With agglo...
RECENT ADVANCES
NANOFILLED COMPOSITES
 Nanomers (5nm-75nm) &
‘nanocluster’ agglomerates
(0.6 µm -1.4 µm)
 Primary Zircon...
RECENT ADVANCES
PROPERTIES :Nanofilled vs Others
 Physical & mechanical- similar to
microhybrid
 Water sorption similar ...
RECENT ADVANCES
 Nanohybrid variety :
- properties similar to / better than
microhybrid
- inferior compared to nanofilled...
RECENT ADVANCES
FLAKE SHAPED GLASS FILLER(FSG)
 Thin glass platelet with a flat, smooth
surface
 Good transparency
 Inc...
RECENT ADVANCES
POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE
(PMMA) FILLER PARTICLES
 2wt% additional PMMA fillers
 Inhibit crack propagation
...
RECENT ADVANCES
SILANE COATED GLASS FILLERS
 Fluoroboroaluminosilicate glass
coated with
3- methacryloxypropyltrimethoxys...
RECENT ADVANCES
LEUCITE CONTAINING CERAMIC
FILLER
 IPS Empress ingots ball milled;
passed through an 800 mesh sieve
 Sig...
SUMMARY
 Fillers
– reduce curing shrinkage
-- improves physical properties
 Composite characteristics change:
- Material...
REFERENCES
 Philip’s Science of Dental Materials-
Anusavice,11th Edition
 Applied Dental Materials-John F
McCabe & Angus...
REFERENCES
 The Clinical Handing of Dental
Materials-Smith,Wright,Brown,2nd
Edition
 Clinical aspects of Dental Material...
REFERENCES
 Sturdevant’s Art & Science of
Operative Dentistry- 4th Edition
 Textbook of Operative Dentistry- Nisha
Garg ...
REFERENCES
 Constantinos Masouras et al
Dental Materials Vol 24 No.7 July 2008:
932-939
 Lim YK et al
Dental Materials V...
REFERENCES
 Kondo Y et al
Dental Materials J,2010 October
14;29(5): 596-601
 Itota T et al
Dental Materials J,2010 Augus...
REFERENCES
 H St.Germain et al
Journal of Dental Research Feb 1985
Vol64 No.2:155-160
 Dr Moraes RR et al
Operative Dent...
REFERENCES
 J. Mat.Sci.Mater Med.2007
Jun;18(6):1157-1162
Clinical Materials Review
Inside Dentistry July/August 2007 Vol...
REFERENCES
 Zhong –Yu- Xiu et al
Effects of Nanodiamond Filler on
Compressive strength &
Microhardness of Composite Resin...
Fillers in composite resins
Fillers in composite resins
Fillers in composite resins
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Fillers in composite resins

  1. 1. GOOD AFTERNOON!!!!!
  2. 2. FILLERS IN COMPOSITE RESINS DEEPTHI P.R. FINAL YEAR BDS
  3. 3.  Introduction  Materials used  Types of Fillers  Methods of Preparation  Methods of Incorporation  Functions of Fillers  Factors Influencing the Functions of Fillers
  4. 4.  Advantages & Drawbacks of different Materials  Classification of Composite Resins based on Fillers  Recent Advances  Summary  References
  5. 5. INTRODUCTION Composite In materials and science, a solid formed from two or more distinct phases that have been combined to produce properties superior to or intermediate to those of the individual constituents
  6. 6. Dental Composite Highly cross-linked polymeric materials reinforced by a dispersion of glass, crystalline or resin filler particles and/or short fibers bound to the matrix by silane coupling agents  Dr. Ray L. Bowen (1962)
  7. 7. Basic Components Matrix Filler Coupling agent
  8. 8. FILLERS ‘The inorganic and/or organic resin particles that are designed to strengthen a composite, decrease thermal expansion, minimize polymerization shrinkage and reduce the amount of swelling caused by water sorption’
  9. 9. FILLERS  Dispersed phase of composite resins  1950’s- Quartz in MMA filling materials
  10. 10. MATERIALS USED  Quartz  Amorphous Silica  Glass fillers with metals  Colloidal Silica  Ceramics  Organically modified Ceramics/ORMOCERS
  11. 11. TYPES OF FILLERS  3 filler categories- 35 years Conventional Microfine Hybrid
  12. 12. CONVENTIONAL FILLER  Irregular glass or ceramic  4µm - 40µm  Used in 1960’s- 1970’s  First generation Composites: 1-50µm  60-80 wt%  Currently: 1-5µm  Ba, Sr, Zn, Yb glasses- fine fillers -Radiopacity
  13. 13. MICROFINE FILLER  Pyrogenic silica: 0.01µm- 0.1µm  Colloidal silica  30-60 wt%  Rare earth metal compounds- Radiopacity  Homogeneous & Heterogeneous
  14. 14. HYBRID FILLER  Conventional glass/ ceramic filler particles -Zirconia/ Silica: 0.5µm - 10µm  Pyrogenic silica: 0.01µm - 0.1µm  Bariumaluminoborate & Sr glasses- Radiopacity  78-85 wt%
  15. 15. MEGAFILLER  Pieces of glass: 0.5mm – 2mm  Inserts  Composites at points of heavy occlusal contact or high wear
  16. 16. METHODS OF PREPARATION  Grinding or milling Quartz/ Glasses: 0.1µm-100µm  Microfillers: Pyrolytic or Precipitation process fumed silica - SiCl4 in O2 & H2  macromolecule chains of SiO2
  17. 17. METHODS OF PREPARATION Colloidal particles of Sodium silicate to water & HCl colloidal silica Organic fillers:  Pulverized precured resin:5µm-30µm Silane treated colloidal silica to the monomer at slightly elevated temperature
  18. 18. METHODS OF PREPARATION Composite paste heat cured with Benzoyl Peroxide Cured composite : ground into particles of size larger than traditional fillers
  19. 19. METHODS OF INCORPORATION CONVENTIONAL FILLER PARTICLES Surface coating of ‘Coupling agent’ Then blended with resin MICROFILLER PARTICLES Organic fillers + silane treated colloidal silica blended with monomer
  20. 20. METHODS OF INCORPORATION 1. Homogeneous : Microfiller loaded directly to the resin 2. Heterogeneous Microfiller compressed into clumps: Sintering, precipitation, silanization or condensation Fumed silica added to a heated resin at ~70 wt%
  21. 21. METHODS OF INCORPORATION Increase Filler loading  Sinter colloidal silica particles: Several tenths of a µm Reduces compromise in the rheology  Grinding prepolymerized composite highly loaded with colloidal silica particles Particles then incorporated
  22. 22. FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS  Strengthen the composite  Reduce the amount of matrix material  Reinforcement of the matrix resin: increased hardness, strength & decreased wear  Reduction in polymerization shrinkage
  23. 23. FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS  Improved workability by increasing viscosity  Reduction in water sorption, softening & staining  Increased radiopacity & diagnostic sensitivity
  24. 24. FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS  Reduction in thermal expansion & contraction  Increased compressive strength, tensile strength, modulus of elasticity  Increase in abrasion resistance  Increased fracture toughness
  25. 25. FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS  Enhances physical & mechanical properties to the level of tooth tissue  clinical performance & durability  Increases translucency  Improves handling properties
  26. 26. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS FILLER SIZE  Large : ‘plucking’ – rough surface - increased wear - reduced flexural strength  Size can’t be reduced beyond limits- technical problems
  27. 27. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS INCORPORATION OF RADIOPAQUE COMPOUNDS  Sr/Ba glass & other heavy metal compounds  Rare earth metal compounds
  28. 28. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS FILLER CONTENT As it increases:  Reduced polymerization shrinkage  Coefficient of thermal expansion- more like tooth structure  Increased hardness & abrasion resistance
  29. 29. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS  Increased color stability  Increased depth of cure  Increased stiffness  Reduced resistance to toothbrush abrasion & wear by hydroxyapatite SILANE COATING  Increased resistance to hydrolytic degradation
  30. 30. FACTORS INFLUENCING THE FUNCTIONS OF FILLERS FILLER SHAPE Spherical shape:  Incorporates more inorganic fillers  Improves fracture strength REFRACTIVE INDEX  Matches that of resin ~ 1.50  Translucency similar to the tooth structure
  31. 31. ADVANTAGES & DRAWBACKS FILLER ADVANTAGES DRAWBACKS Quartz .Clinically inert (insoluble) .Strong & hard .Difficult to grind into very fine particles .Adequate Refractive index .Highly esthetic .Difficult to polish .Potentially abrasive to opposing teeth or restorations Amorphous silica .Composition & Refractive index same as quartz .Less hard .Not crystalline Glass fillers with heavy metals .Adequate Refractive index .Provide radiopacity .Not as inert as quartz & amorphous silica .Leaches &weakens in acidic juices & oral fluids .More susceptible to wear .Shorter functional lifetime .Attacked by APF gels/solutions
  32. 32. CLASSIFICATION OF COMPOSITES BASED ON FILLERS I. Based on the filler particle Size & Size Distribution  Traditional (large particle) 1-50 µm  Hybrid (large particle) : (1) 1-20 µm glass (2) 0.04 µm silica  Hybrid (midifiller) : (1) 0.1- 10 µm glass (2) 0.04 µm silica
  33. 33.  Hybrid (Minifiller/ Small Particle Filled): (1) 0.1-2 µm glass (2) 0.04 µm silica  Packable Hybrid: Midifiller/ Minifiller Hybrid but with lower filler fraction  Flowable Hybrid: Midifiller Hybrid, but with finer particle size distribution
  34. 34.  Homogeneous Microfill: 0.04 µm silica  Heterogeneous Microfill: (1) 0.04 µm silica (2) Prepolymerized resin particles containing 0.04 µm silica
  35. 35. II. According to Skinner  Traditional/Conventional: 8-12 µm  Small Particle Filled Composites: 1-5µm III. Philips & Lutz Classification  Macrofiller Composites: 0.1- 100 µm  Microfiller Particles: 0.04 µm  Hybrid Composites: different sizes
  36. 36. IV. Based on Mean Particle Size of the filler  Traditional Composite resins  Hybrid Composite resins  Homogeneous Microfilled Composites  Heterogeneous Microfilled Composites
  37. 37. V. According to Bayne & Heyman  Megafill : 1-2mm  Macrofill: 10-100µm  Midifill: 1-10µm  Minifill: 0.1-1µm  Microfill: 0.01-0.1µm  Nanofill: 0.005-0.01µm
  38. 38. VI. Williams Classification  Densified Composite Midway filled  Ultrafine Midway filled  Fine Midway filled  Ultrafine cement filled  Fine cement filled
  39. 39.  Homogeneous Microfine Composite  Heterogeneous Microfine Composite  With splintered prepolymerized filler  With agglomerated prepolymerized filler  With spherical prepolymerized filler
  40. 40. RECENT ADVANCES NANOFILLED COMPOSITES  Nanomers (5nm-75nm) & ‘nanocluster’ agglomerates (0.6 µm -1.4 µm)  Primary Zirconia/ Silica nanoparticles(5nm-20nm) fused; infiltrated with silane  ‘Nanohybrid’ Composites: Incoporation of nanoparticles into composite formulations
  41. 41. RECENT ADVANCES PROPERTIES :Nanofilled vs Others  Physical & mechanical- similar to microhybrid  Water sorption similar to midifill & microfill Significantly better polish & gloss retention Lower solubility Reduced scattering of curing light
  42. 42. RECENT ADVANCES  Nanohybrid variety : - properties similar to / better than microhybrid - inferior compared to nanofilled Nanodiamond filler: Improve wear resistance & flexural strength in proportions of 0.005%-0.008%
  43. 43. RECENT ADVANCES FLAKE SHAPED GLASS FILLER(FSG)  Thin glass platelet with a flat, smooth surface  Good transparency  Increased hardness  Compressive strength ~ commercial composite  High flowability
  44. 44. RECENT ADVANCES POLYMETHYLMETHACRYLATE (PMMA) FILLER PARTICLES  2wt% additional PMMA fillers  Inhibit crack propagation  Enhance compressive strength  No significant change in water sorption/ water contact angle of the surface
  45. 45. RECENT ADVANCES SILANE COATED GLASS FILLERS  Fluoroboroaluminosilicate glass coated with 3- methacryloxypropyltrimethoxysilane Or 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane  Greater amount of fluoride release  Higher pH value
  46. 46. RECENT ADVANCES LEUCITE CONTAINING CERAMIC FILLER  IPS Empress ingots ball milled; passed through an 800 mesh sieve  Significant wear resistance
  47. 47. SUMMARY  Fillers – reduce curing shrinkage -- improves physical properties  Composite characteristics change: - Material - Size & size distribution - Load - Shape - Surface modifiers - Optical index
  48. 48. REFERENCES  Philip’s Science of Dental Materials- Anusavice,11th Edition  Applied Dental Materials-John F McCabe & Angus,W.G.Walls,8th Edition  Introduction to Dental Materials- Richard van Noort,2nd Edition  Tooth colored Restoratives, Principles & Techniques- Albers,9th Edition
  49. 49. REFERENCES  The Clinical Handing of Dental Materials-Smith,Wright,Brown,2nd Edition  Clinical aspects of Dental Materials- Gladwin&Bagby  Dental Materials-Carol Dixon,Hatrick,Eakle  Dental Materials- John M Prowers,John C.Wataha
  50. 50. REFERENCES  Sturdevant’s Art & Science of Operative Dentistry- 4th Edition  Textbook of Operative Dentistry- Nisha Garg & Amit Garg  Textbook of Dental Materials-Sharmila Hussain
  51. 51. REFERENCES  Constantinos Masouras et al Dental Materials Vol 24 No.7 July 2008: 932-939  Lim YK et al Dental Materials Vol 24 No.1 January 2008  Tahimoto Y et al Acta Biomaterials 2006 Nov;2(6): 633- 639
  52. 52. REFERENCES  Kondo Y et al Dental Materials J,2010 October 14;29(5): 596-601  Itota T et al Dental Materials J,2010 August 7;29(4):362-368  Arikawa H et al Dental Materials J,2007 Jan 26(1):38- 44
  53. 53. REFERENCES  H St.Germain et al Journal of Dental Research Feb 1985 Vol64 No.2:155-160  Dr Moraes RR et al Operative Dentistry 2009 Sep- Oct;34(5):551-557  Berger SB et al Brazil Dental Journal 2009;20(4):314- 318
  54. 54. REFERENCES  J. Mat.Sci.Mater Med.2007 Jun;18(6):1157-1162 Clinical Materials Review Inside Dentistry July/August 2007 Vol 3,Issue 7  Motohiro UO et al Journal of the Ceramic Society of Japan,Vol 118 (2010), No.1378 June :425-427
  55. 55. REFERENCES  Zhong –Yu- Xiu et al Effects of Nanodiamond Filler on Compressive strength & Microhardness of Composite Resins www.cnki.com.cn
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