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# Design principles

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• Visual Design Principles and Elements Project Lead The Way ® Copyright 2006 Introduction to Engineering Design Unit 3 – Lesson 3.1 – Visual Analysis There are many different lists of design principles used by various occupational areas.
• The rectangle has three lines of symmetry: Horizontal (blue), Vertical (red), Diagonal (yellow). The triangle has only one line of symmetry: center or, in this orientation, Vertical. You can draw two other lines of symmetry from any of the vertices to the center of the opposite side.
• Visual Design Principles and Elements Project Lead The Way ® Copyright 2006 Introduction to Engineering Design Unit 3 – Lesson 3.1 – Visual Analysis This principle is sometimes referred to as repetition.
• Visual Design Principles and Elements Project Lead The Way ® Copyright 2006 Introduction to Engineering Design Unit 3 – Lesson 3.1 – Visual Analysis Flagpoles, windows on buildings, stripes on awning, lights that illuminate awning all represent regular rhythm.
• Visual Design Principles and Elements Project Lead The Way ® Copyright 2006 Introduction to Engineering Design Unit 3 – Lesson 3.1 – Visual Analysis The shelves get smaller and smaller.
• ### Design principles

1. 1. Design Principles Graphic design principles are ways in which elements are used together. There are six principles that include an interesting design. • Balance •Movement • Rhythm • Emphasis • Proportion and Scale • Unity
2. 2. Balance Parts of the design are equally distributed to create a sense of stability. There can be physical as well as visual balance. Types •Symmetrical or Formal Balance •Asymmetrical or Informal Balance •Radial Balance •Vertical Balance •Horizontal Balance
3. 3. Balance Symmetrical or Formal Balance The elements within the design are identical in relation to a centerline or axis.
4. 4. 4 Symmetrical balance
5. 5. 5 Examples of symmetrical balance
6. 6. Balance Asymmetrical or Informal Balance Parts of the design are not identical but are equal in visual weight.
7. 7. 7 Examples of asymmetrical balance
8. 8. Balance Radial Balance Design Elements radiate outward from the center.
9. 9. 9 Examples of radial balance
10. 10. Balance Vertical Balance The top and bottom parts are equal.
11. 11. Balance Horizontal Balance The left and right parts are equal.
12. 12. 12 Movement • Movement is the use of lines, colour, and repetition to create the illusion of motion. – Curved forms or lines – Repetition of geometric forms – Fuzzy lines or outlines
13. 13. Rhythm Repeated use of line, shape, color, texture or pattern. Types •Regular rhythm •Graduated rhythm •Random rhythm •Gradated rhythm
14. 14. Rhythm Regular Rhythm A element is repeated at the same repetition each time.
15. 15. Rhythm Graduated Rhythm The beats of the element become closer or further apart as they move.
16. 16. Rhythm Random Rhythm The beats of the element are random or are at irregular intervals.
17. 17. Rhythm Gradated Rhythm The repeated element is identical with the exception of one detail increasing or decreasing gradually with each repetition.
18. 18. Emphasis •Points of attention in a design. •The feature in a design that attracts one’s eye. •The focal point. •Emphasis can be achieved through size, placement, color and use of lines. •The most personal aspect of a design.
19. 19. Emphasis by placement Emphasis by isolation
20. 20. Proportion and Scale •Comparative relationships between elements in a design with respect to size. •3:5 ratio is known as the Golden Mean. •Scale •The proportions or size of one part of the image in relationship to the other.
21. 21. Unity • Unity is applying consistent use of lines, color and texture within a design. • To be harmonious.
22. 22. Unity can be achieved through the use of similar shapes. Unity can be achieved through the use of a common pattern.
23. 23. Unity