Cardiac development & fetal circulation (2)

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Cardiac development & fetal circulation (2)

  1. 1. CARDIAC DEVELOPMENT & FETAL CIRCULATION
  2. 2. CARDIAC DEVELOPMENT  Cardiac morphogenesis  Looping  Septation  Molecular development  Functional development
  3. 3. CARDIAC MORPHOGENESIS 18 DAYS - vasculogenesis .. Cell clusters on either side of embryonic axis 22 days – fuse –primitive heart Splanchnic mesoderm forms myocardium& myocardial jelly Migrating mesothelial cells-epicardium HEART STARTS TO CONTRACT
  4. 4. LOOPING 22-24 days to 28 ndays Heart bends ventrally and toward right Outside appearance similar to our heart
  5. 5. CARDIAC SEPTATION  Inside appearance  26 days
  6. 6. Atrium Septum primum Septum secundum Ostium primum , ostium secundum S.P + O.S = foramen ovale
  7. 7.  VENTRICLES  INLET – primitive ventricle  OUTLET – bulbus cordis  conotruncal septum  spiral septum aorta & pulm artery
  8. 8. MOLECULAR DEVELOPMENT CARDIAC DIFFERENTIATION ENDODERM- INDUCTION OF MESODERM SIGNALS FGF ACTIVIN INSULIN TRANSCRIPTIONS FACTOR S GATA4 MEF2 NKX BHLH RETIONOIC ACID RECEPTOR FAMILY RECEPTO RS
  9. 9. MYOCYTE MYOCYTE • SIMILAR ISOFORMS • MLC , ANP VENTRICULAR • MLC 2v ATRIAL • MLC2a • ANP
  10. 10. FUNCTIONAL DEVELOPMENT
  11. 11. FETAL CIRCULATION
  12. 12.  the dorsal aortae develop at the same time as the early heart tubes. These connect to the heart tubes prior to fusion via the first aortic arch arteries. Other arches develop, which go on to form the arteries of the head and neck. We also previously saw the way in which the aorta and pulmonary trunk form. The dorsal aorta gives off branches which supply blood to the rest of the embryo:  Gut (ventral/front) branches  Lateral (side) branches  Intersegmental arteries  Fetal Circulation  As the embryo progresses to a fetus the vasculature is still remarkably different to that of the adult, including the presence of three vascular shunts:  foramen ovale (seen previously) - blood travels from the right atrium to the left atrium  ductus venosus - blood from the umbilical vein bypasses the liver to enter the inferior vena cava  ductus arteriosus - blood passes from the pulmonary trunk into the aorta  These shunts allow blood to bypass the lungs, liver and kidneys, whose functions are performed by the placenta while in utero.  The following diagram shows the movement of blood throughout the fetal circulation. The main flow of blood is as follows:  Placenta → umbilical vein → ductus venosus → inferior vena cava → right atrium → foramen ovale → left atrium → left ventricle → aorta → hypogastric arteries → umbilical arteries → placenta. Blood that passes from the right atrium to the right ventricle travels:  Right ventricle → pulmonary trunk → ductus arteriosus → aorta

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