HIV is a retrovirus that uses its RNA and the host’s DNA to make viral DNA. It has a long incubation period.
HIV consists of a cylindrical center surrounded by a sphere-shaped lipid envelope. The center consists of two single strands of RNA.
Host cells infected with HIV have a very short lifespan.
HIV continuously uses new host cells to replicate itself.
During the first 24 hours after exposure, the virus attacks or is captured by dendritic cells (type of phagocyte) in mucous membranes and skin.
Phases: binding and entry, reverse transcription, replication, budding, and maturation
HIV (arrows) Infecting a T-lymphocyte
Methods of transmission:
Sexual transmission, presence of STD increases likelihood of transmission.
Exposure to infected blood or blood products.
Use of contaminated clotting factors by hemophiliacs.
Sharing contaminated needles (IV drug users).
Transplantation of infected tissues or organs.
Mother to fetus, perinatal transmission variable, dependent on viral load and mother’s CD 4 count.
Virus Transmission Introduction HIV can be transmitted through:
"Body Fluids" that HIV cannot be transmitted through:Saliva
Virus Transmission/Prevention Activities of HIV Transmission:
Unprotected sexual contact
Direct blood contact
Mother to baby
Primary HIV Syndrome
Mononucleosis-like, cold or flu-like symptoms may occur 6 to 12 weeks after infection.
no symptoms may be present
Laboratory Diagnosis of HIV Infection
Methods utilized to detect:
Viral nucleic acid
Virus in culture
ELISA Testing First serological test developed to detect HIV infection. Easy to perform. Easily adapted to batch testing. Highly sensitive and specific. Antibodies detected in ELISA include those directed against: p24, gp120, gp160 and gp41, detected first in infection and appear in most individuals
ELISA Testing ELISA tests useful for: Screening blood products. Diagnosing and monitoring patients. Determining prevalence of infection. Research investigations.
Different types of ELISA techniques used:
AVOID Sexual intercourse : HIV can infect the mucous membranes directly or when entered through cuts and sores during sexual intercourse. Unprotected Vaginal or Anal intercourse may result in receiving the virus. Oral sex : The risk of HIV transmission through the throat, gums or any other oral membranes has a lower risk then receiving it from the vaginal or anal area.Sharing injection needles: Injecting a needle and sharing it with another person can result to transmitting of the virus. Mother to Child: A woman who has HIV can pass the virus directly to her child before, or during birth, or through breast milk. Breast milk contains HIV, small amounts of breast milk doesn't effect adults, it can be transmitted to infants.
Treatment For HIV There is no cure for HIV yet. Medical professionals are working on a cure for it, but there are some treatments. Drug therapy for patients who are devoted to taking all off their medication and have A CD4 count lower than 350 mL, which shows their immune system is subdued. Pregnant women and people who have kidney or neurological problem related to HIV, probably need treatment regardless of their CD4 Count. It's important to take all of their medication or the virus will quickly become resistant to the drugs.Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs)
THANK H YOU Submitted by: Deepikatripathi BScBiotechnology