Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Hiv
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Hiv

708

Published on

Published in: Education
1 Comment
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • thanks .. Its a great help to us
       Reply 
    Are you sure you want to  Yes  No
    Your message goes here
  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
708
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
0
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
45
Comments
1
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. HIV
    Human Immunodeficiency Virus
  • 2. Human Immunodeficiency Virus
    • HIV is a retrovirus that uses its RNA and the host’s DNA to make viral DNA. It has a long incubation period.
    • 3. HIV consists of a cylindrical center surrounded by a sphere-shaped lipid envelope. The center consists of two single strands of RNA.
  • hiv virus
  • 4. HIV Lifecycle
    • Host cells infected with HIV have a very short lifespan.
    • 5. HIV continuously uses new host cells to replicate itself.
    • 6. During the first 24 hours after exposure, the virus attacks or is captured by dendritic cells (type of phagocyte) in mucous membranes and skin.
  • HIV Lifecycle
    • Phases: binding and entry, reverse transcription, replication, budding, and maturation
  • HIV (arrows) Infecting a T-lymphocyte
  • 7. Viral Replication
    • Methods of transmission:
    • 8. Sexual transmission, presence of STD increases likelihood of transmission.
    • 9. Exposure to infected blood or blood products.
    • 10. Use of contaminated clotting factors by hemophiliacs.
    • 11. Sharing contaminated needles (IV drug users).
    • 12. Transplantation of infected tissues or organs.
    • 13. Mother to fetus, perinatal transmission variable, dependent on viral load and mother’s CD 4 count.
  • Virus Transmission Introduction
    HIV can be transmitted through:
    "Body Fluids" that HIV cannot be transmitted through:Saliva
  • Transmission
  • 20. Virus Transmission/Prevention
    Activities of HIV Transmission:
    • Unprotected sexual contact
    • 21. Direct blood contact
    • 22. Mother to baby
  • Primary HIV Syndrome
    • Mononucleosis-like, cold or flu-like symptoms may occur 6 to 12 weeks after infection.
    • 23. lymphadenopathy
    • 24. fever
    • 25. rash
    • 26. headache
    • 27. Fatigue
    • 28. diarrhea
    • 29. sore throat
    • 30. neurologic manifestations.
    • 31. no symptoms may be present
  • symptoms
  • 32. Laboratory Diagnosis of HIV Infection
  • ELISA Testing
    First serological test developed to detect HIV infection.
    Easy to perform.
    Easily adapted to batch testing.
    Highly sensitive and specific.
    Antibodies detected in ELISA include those directed against: p24, gp120, gp160 and gp41, detected first in infection and appear in most individuals
  • 37. ELISA Testing
    ELISA tests useful for:
    Screening blood products.
    Diagnosing and monitoring patients.
    Determining prevalence of infection.
    Research investigations.
  • 38. ELISA Testing
    • Different types of ELISA techniques used:
    • 39. indirect
    • 40. competitive
    • 41. sandwich
  • ELISA Sandwich
  • 42. AVOID
    Sexual intercourse : HIV can infect the mucous membranes directly or when entered through cuts and sores during sexual intercourse. Unprotected Vaginal or Anal intercourse may result in receiving the virus. Oral sex : The risk of HIV transmission through the throat, gums or any other oral membranes has a lower risk then receiving it from the vaginal or anal area.Sharing injection needles: Injecting a needle and sharing it with another person can result to transmitting of the virus. Mother to Child: A woman who has HIV can pass the virus directly to her child before, or during birth, or through breast milk. Breast milk contains HIV, small amounts of breast milk doesn't effect adults, it can be transmitted to infants.
  • 43. Treatment For HIV
    There is no cure for HIV yet. Medical professionals are working on a cure for it, but there are some treatments.
    Drug therapy for patients who are devoted to taking all off their medication and have A CD4 count lower than 350 mL, which shows their immune system is subdued. Pregnant women and people who have kidney or neurological problem related to HIV, probably need treatment regardless of their CD4 Count. It's important to take all of their medication or the virus will quickly become resistant to the drugs.Antiretroviral drugs (ARVs)
  • 44. THANK H YOU
    Submitted by: Deepikatripathi
    BScBiotechnology

×