ASSIGNMENT ON PAPER – I
Deepen P. Upadhyaya
6th – Year 2013
Mrs. Komal Shah
Date of submission : -
22 Nov 2013
Communication is a process which enables a person to express his/ her ideas,
thoughts, problems or needs to people on the other end. It is exchange of the above
between two or more people in order to get some output. It is an effective way to
show our needs, demands, and idea to reach people via various modes through
speech, visuals, sign, written form, behavior or even cartoons & Logos.
It’s basically divided into three steps.
First: Arrangement of message and ideas in mind of sender.
Second: Packaging, Encoding the same message or idea and delivering
it to the receiver.
Third: Interpretation or Decoding of the message by the receiver by his/
her point of view.
Meaning of Communication:Communication means to exchange ideas, thoughts and information through
mediums like Sound, Visuals, Signe, Gestures, Behavior and Texts. Where one use
all the 6 senses to deliver and interpret any message.
It is based on L-S-R-W format Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing.
Importance of communication:Communication is so important because it lets the other person or persons know
what you are feeling. If we didn't say anything to each other we would not know what
was going on inside. It lets you understand what the other person is saying or
thinking at a given time.
It is also important to expressing our thoughts, our ideas, our feelings, our views
For connecting with others
Writing rules and laws
For expressing our creativity
For expressing our life philosophy
Sharing the findings of our research work
Selling goods and services
Publicity and advertising
Networking with people with common interests
Functions of communication:1. Disseminating factual information:As per the concept of Sadharanikar, communication is to bring people into a common
level i.e. it’s done to share information in a common level. Various types of mass media
can be useful in order to broadcast information or message to bigger audience through
TV, Radio, and Web.
2. Assisting the public in understanding this information:The theories of two step and multistep flow suggests that there are opinion leaders or
suggestion maker who has strong influence on the mass and they perform the duty of
interpreting the message to the receiver by making it common and simple to
Example: - If a foreigner from china comes to India then there will be a person acting as
interpreter to both the Indian delegate and Chinese visitor in their communication
3. Entertaining the public (News, analysis & entertainment):In today’s time communication also practiced to inform, update and entertain people
via News (Paper & Audio-Video), Theater, Ads, Logos, Banners, Hoardings, Movies,
Songs, Radio, Website etc. It deals in giving public a choice of what they want to watch
and what they want to ignore.
It also functions in following
i) Information function: The basic requirement of adapting and adjusting oneself to the
environment is information. There must be some information about what is going on in the
environment which concerns the people. The receiving or giving of information underlines
all communication functions, either directly or indirectly.
ii) Command or instructive function: Those who are hierarchically superior in the family,
society or organization, often initiate communication either for the purpose of informing their
subordinates or for the purpose of telling them, what to do, how to do when to do etc.
iii) Influence or persuasive function: According to Berlo (1960), the sole purpose of
communication is to influence people. Persuasive function of communication i.e. to induce
people is extremely important for extension in changing their behavior in the desirable
iv) Integrative function: A major function of communication is integration or of
continuously offsetting any disintegration at the interpersonal or at the organizational level.
This helps in maintaining individual, societal or organizational stability and identity.
Also for Knowledge management Decision making Coordinating work activities fulfill other
work related needs Passing Information Imparting Education for persuading others for
giving advice for warning others
Features of Communication
2.Transfer of message
3.Two or more persons
At a Glance
6. Specific objectives
1. Information/Messages: Information or message is the basic element of all types of
communication. Communication takes place to transfer particular informational
2. Transfer of message: The main function of communication is to transfer particular
message or information.
3. Two or more persons: Basically communication is a two way process. One person
cannot make successful communication. At least two persons are required to
complete the communication process.
4. Media: Without a media communication cannot take place. Information can be
transferred through written, verbal or non-verbal media.
5. Feedback: Communication experts think that ‘no feedback-no communication’.
Infect the communication cycle ends with feedback. For effective communication
there must be a feedback from the receiver.
6. Specific objectives: Communication always made to satisfy a predetermined
objective(s). That is in any type of communication there must be a specific purpose.
7. Understanding: Communication must include both the transfer and understanding
of messages. Only transfer of message cannot complete the communication process.
To be effective the transferred message must be understood by the receiver.
8. Barriers: where there is communication there must be some kind of barriers. In real
world we cannot think of communication without barriers. In fact we are to make
communication by overcoming the barriers.
9. Dynamic Process: Communication is not a static process; rather it is a dynamic
process which has different steps.
10. Indispensable: Perhaps the most important feature of communication is, if is an
indispensable part of human life or social life. Without communication will be static.
Elements of Communication
The basic elements of communication are:
a) Communicator: The sender, speaker or writer who intends to convey a message.
b) Message: The subject matter of communication.
c) Transmission: The act of conveying the message.
d) Channel: The medium used to transmit the message.
e) Receiver: The person to whom the message is meant
f) Response: Replying or reaction of the receiver.
Types of Communication:The communication can be divided into following types
Verbal & non verbal
Interpersonal & intra personal
Small group & mass communication
Verbal: - By speaking or sound medium. TV, Radio, Speech etc.
Non Verbal: - Where there is exchange of info without sound i.e. Letters, Hoardings,
News Papers, Cartoons, and Comics etc.
Interpersonal: - Here the sender and receiver are two different individuals. The
process of communication taking place between or among a small or large group in
Formal/ informal way on Personal/ impersonal level and One on one or face to face.
You communicate with yourself in a closed system type of communication. The
speaker is the listener or sender itself is the receiver.
Small group:- Limited of a selected group of people, generally those who
has a common ground in interacting and exchanging information. It has
scope of feedback, less noise and more effective in interpretation.
Mass Communication: - It is generally practiced in bigger mass. There is no specific
group division. Use of Modern Technology is more in this type than small group. E.g.
a Minister gives election speech to public through channels like Speaker, Mike, TV
Barriers to effective communication
Barriers to effective communication can hinder or misrepresent the message and
intention of the message being conveyed which may result in failure of the
communication process or an effect that is unwanted. These include filtering, selective
perception, information overload, emotions, language, silence, communication
apprehension, gender differences and political correctness
1. Personal barriers
2. Mono-logical communication
(Self – Speaking practice)
Losing touch with audience
3. Ideological – political barriers
4. Language difference
5. Sociocultural barriers
Physical barriers: - Location, Distance, Medium of communication.
Misinterpretation: - Wrong Words, Sentence, Example failing to understand
Individual linguistic ability: - The Speaker and Listener’s language skills,
knowledge and difference in intonations.
Physiological barriers: - These may result from individuals' personal uneasiness,
caused due to prejudice, ill health, and poor eyesight or hearing difficulties.
Presentation of information: - Improper designing, packaging or framing of the
message. This results in misunderstanding and unclear decoding of the message.
Basic Communication Process
The Process of communication involves
Sender :- Who sends message
Encoding: - Packaging of Message.
Channel: - Medium of message to send and receive.
Noise: - Disturbance while sending, encoding, decoding & receiving message.
Decoding: - interpretation of message.
Feedback: - Giving response to the received message.
Effective communication is when a desired result of received through the process of
communication. Not only is the desired effect received but it also is made to last and
influence the potential increase after the message is passed and interpreted.
Making Communication Effective
Use actual than intellectual words wherever possible.
The content has to be made meaningful to the receiver
The message should be framed according to the capability of the receiver.
There should be a proper blend of verbal and non-verbal communication
Eye contact should be maintained
Speak at a moderate rate and Communicate a little at a time.
Create rapport with the receiver
Select appropriate channel
Encourage listening & feedback
Avoid communicating in extreme emotional states
Know your audience, your purpose, your topic.
Achieve credibility with your audience.
Follow through on what you say.
Present information in several ways.
Develop a practical, useful way to get feedback.
Use multiple communication techniques.
Make the message
Communication involves a number of skills and no one is a complete – effective
Communicator. Each individual can become a better communicator by sharpening his/her
skill through learning and practice.
Verbal and non-verbal
Technological and non-technological
Mediated and non-mediated
Participatory and non-participatory
Formal Communication:Formal communication is a type of communication which is used in the context of
organization where a large group of employees work together to accomplish goals of
organization. Formal communications usually take place in the form of written
communication, which follows the lines of authority or scalar chain of command.
Following are the chief characteristics of the formal communication:
(1) Written and Oral:
Formal communication can both be written and oral. Daily works are handled through oral
communication, while the policy matters require written communication.
(2) Formal Relations:
This communication is adopted among those employees where formal relations have been
established by the organization. The sender and the receiver have some sort of organizational
(3) Prescribed Path:
The communication has to pass through a definite channel while moving from one person to another.
For example, to convey the feelings of a worker to the manager, the foreman’s help has to be sought.
(4) Organizational Message:
This channel is concerned with the authorized organizational messages only and the personal
messages are out of its jurisdiction.
(5) Deliberate Effort:
This channel of communication is not established automatically but effort has to be made for its
creation. It is decided keeping in view the objectives of the organization.
The formal communication has the following advantages:
(1) Maintenance of Authority of the Officers:
Formal communication maintains constant relations among the superiors and the subordinates as a
result of whom the dignity of the line superiors is maintained. Consequently, it is convenient to
control the subordinates and fix their responsibility which is absolutely needed for effective and
(2) Clear and Effective Communication:
In formal communication, there is a direct contact among the managers and the subordinates. Both
understand the capability, habits, feelings, etc. of one another. Managers know as to when and under
which conditions their subordinates need information. In this way, this communication is capable of
making available timely information. Hence, it is clear and effective.
(3) Orderly Flow of Information:
The information has to pass through a definite route from one person to another. Hence, the flow of
information is systematic.
(4) Easy Knowledge of Source of Information:
In this type of communication, the source of each information can be easily located.
Following are the disadvantages or limitations of the formal communication:
(1) Overload of Work:
In a modern business organization much information, many messages and other things have to be
communicated. Under formal communication, they are routed through a definite channel and this
consumes much of the time of the superiors and thus some other important works are left
(2) Distortion of Information:
This method can be a hindrance in the flow of information. Sometimes the distance between the
sender and the receiver is so big that the information has to pass through many hands and by the time
it reaches the receiver it is distorted. Thus it fails to serve its purpose.
(3) Indifferent Officers:
The officers do not pay much attention to the suggestions and complaints of the subordinates. In
such a case a subordinate may come lose his faith in the effectiveness of communication.
Informal communication refers to the gossip or informal talks that take place among the various
groups of people working in an organization that don’t follow organizational line of authority or
Communication is upward if it passes from subordinates to their chief, as from the rank and file to
supervisors from general manager. Communications downward are highly directive-that is they
initiate actions by subordinates.
Communications going upward are primarily non-directive that is they report result or give
information but cannot initiate activity by superiors.
Downward communication is that which flows from a superior to subordinate as from the board of
directors to executives, from a general manager to departmental foreman to his workers.
Linear Model of Communication
It is a one way model to communicate with others. It consists of the sender encoding a message and
channeling it to the receiver in the presence of noise. Draw backs – the linear model assumes that
there is a clear cut beginning and end to communication. It also displays no feedback from the
• For example; a letter, email, text message, lectures.
Nonlinear model is a two way process in which the presenter identify the feedback of the
receiver, it is also called as circular model. Helical model is non-linear model:
Principles of Communication
In a complete message, the audience has everything they need to be informed and, if applicable, take
Does your message include a "call to action", so that your audience clearly knows what you want
them to do?
Have you included all relevant information – contact names, dates, times, locations, and so on?
When you're concise in your communication, you stick to the point and keep it brief. Your audience
doesn't want to read six sentences when you could communicate your message in three.
Are there any adjectives or "filler words" that you can delete? You can often eliminate words like
"for instance," "you see," "definitely," "kind of," "literally," "basically," or "I mean."
Are there any unnecessary sentences?
Have you repeated the point several times, in different ways?
When your message is concrete, then your audience has a clear picture of what you're telling them. There
are details (but not too many!) and vivid facts, and there's laser like focus. Your message is solid.
Courteous communication is friendly, open, and honest. There are no hidden insults or passive aggressive tones. You keep your reader's viewpoint in mind, and you're empathetic to their needs.
When your communication is coherent, it's logical. All points are connected and relevant to the main
topic, and the tone and flow of the text is consistent. NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF MASS COMMUNICATION
When your communication is correct, it fits your audience. And correct communication is also error-free
Do the technical terms you use fit your audience's level of education or knowledge?
Have you checked your writing for grammatical errors? Remember, spell checkers won't catch
Are all names and titles spelled correctly?
When writing or speaking to someone, be clear about your goal or message. What is your purpose in
communicating with this person? If you're not sure, then your audience won't be sure either.
To be clear, try to minimize the number of ideas in each sentence. Make sure that it's easy for your
reader to understand your meaning. People shouldn't have to "read between the lines" and make
assumptions on their own to understand what you're trying to say.
Verbal Communication and Nonverbal Communication
Verbal communication is an act of conveying messages, ideas, or feelings through the
use of mouth. Verbal communication is the main way of communicating face-to-face.
Among the key components of the verbal communication are words, sound, speaking, and
language. When the sender conveys information, facts, and opinion either verbally or in
writing to the receiver using different channels of communication, it is known as verbal
Nonverbal communication takes place without the use of words. Nonverbal
communication involves the unconscious mind acting out emotions related to the verbal
content, the situation, and the environment. The sender uses the body language, facial
expression, hand movements, eye movements, etc. to convey the feelings, emotions, and
other information to the receiver. This type of the communication can be useful when both
the sender and the receiver don’t have an understanding of a common language. This
technique of communication is especially useful when you are dealing with a client who is
deaf and dumb.
Body Language and Posture
Distance or spatial territory
Position or posture
Listening Skills for Communication
A good listener will listen not only to what is being said, but also to what is left unsaid or
only partially said.
Effective listening involves observing body language and noticing inconsistencies between
verbal and non-verbal messages. By following we can improve listening skills.
Maintain eye contact with the instructor.
Focus on content, not delivery.
Avoid emotional involvement.
Avoide personal prejudice
Treat listening as a challenging mental task.
Avoide disturbing the speaker
Ask question when in doubt
Let the speaker speak first. Don’t disturbe in between.
Give proper response when ever needed.
Interpersonal communication is exchange of information between two or more people. It
is also an area of study. Related skills are learned and can be improved. During
interpersonal communication there is message sending and message receiving. This can
be conducted using both direct and indirect methods. Successful interpersonal
communication is when the message senders and the message receivers understand the
Four Principles of Interpersonal Communication
These principles underlie the workings in real life of interpersonal communication. They are
basic to communication. We can't ignore them
Interpersonal communication is inescapable
We can't communicate. The very attempt not to communicate communicates something.
Through not only words, but through tone of voice and through gesture, posture, facial
expression, etc., we constantly communicate to those around us. Through these channels,
we constantly receive communication from others. Even when you sleep, you
communicate. Remember a basic principle of communication in general: people are not
mind readers. Another way to put this is: people judge you by your behavior, not your
Interpersonal communication is irreversible
You can't really take back something once it has been said. The effect must inevitably
remain. Despite the instructions from a judge to a jury to "disregard that last statement the
witness made," the lawyer knows that it can't help but make an impression on the jury. A
Russian proverb says, "Once a word goes out of your mouth, you can never swallow it
Interpersonal communication is complicated
No form of communication is simple. Because of the number of variables involved, even
simple requests are extremely complex. Theorists note that whenever we communicate
there are really at least six "people" involved: 1) who you think you are; 2) who you think
the other person is; 30 who you think the other person thinks you are; 4) who the other
person thinks /she is; 5) who the other person thinks you are; and 6) who the other person
thinks you think s/he is.
We don't actually swap ideas, we swap symbols that stand for ideas. This also complicates
communication. Words (symbols) do not have inherent meaning; we simply use them in certain
ways, and no two people use the same word exactly alike.
If communication can fail, it will.
If a message can be understood in different ways, it will be understood in just that
way which does the most harm.
There is always somebody who knows better than you what you meant by your
The more communication there is, the more difficult it is for communication to
Small Group Communication
What is a small group?
Consists of 3-15 people who share a common goal or purpose and who influence
Must have at least 3 people to be a group, no more than 15 (ideal groups are 5-7)
In order to be a group we must be united by a common goal—we aren’t a group if
we do not have a goal and a plan to accomplish the goal
We must realize we are members of a group and feel as if we belong to that group
Group members are also interdependent—what one says or does affects the entire
Characteristics of Small Groups
1) Interdependence: Each group member influences other group members and
is, in turn, influenced by them. Group members influence each other's values,
goals, and attitudes. As groups become closer, members depend more and more
on each other for advice, favors, and so on. This is probably the single most
important characteristic of groups.
2) Common perceptions: Group members must think of themselves as being
members of the group. They must share decisions in the group and present
themselves to others as a group. The group may have a name (for example, the
Planning Committee), which makes the perception of the group members stronger.
3) M otivation: Group members must have some reason for belonging to the
group. There must be some need that is met through membership.
4) Goals: The group must have certain goals. Groups might to plan parties,
discuss an issue, and so on. This task might be assigned by someone else, as in
the case of a committee formed by a company to deal with worker complaints.
5) Systematic: Groups must have a system. They have communication networks
and patterns within the group. In a group where each member is assigned an
individual part of the group's entire task, for example, preparing a section of a
report that the group is working on, members might communicate more with the
leader than with each other.
6) Complex: The interaction within groups is extremely complicated. Group
members deal with each other on at least three levels. They deal with each other
as individuals, according to their roles in the group, and according to their roles in
society and/or the larger organization that the small group is part of.
7) Dynamic: Group interaction changes over time. The individual group members
change, and so do their roles in the group. Group members ge t to know each other
better, both as individuals and according to the way they function in the group.
Conflicts also arise over time, and this influences the group interaction.
Organizational communication is a sub field of the larger discipline of
communication studies. Organizational communication, as a field, is the
consideration, analysis, and criticism of the role of communication in
Life span of a corporate communicator
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3 E’s of Corporate Communicator
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Experience – learning the knowhow of the corporate
Expertise – becoming well versed in the corporate sector.
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Roll No - 15
NIMCJ – Batch 6
SEM – I, Sec - B