Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
Preparing research proposal icphi2013
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×

Introducing the official SlideShare app

Stunning, full-screen experience for iPhone and Android

Text the download link to your phone

Standard text messaging rates apply

Preparing research proposal icphi2013

359
views

Published on

Published in: Technology, Health & Medicine

0 Comments
0 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

  • Be the first to like this

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
359
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
49
Comments
0
Likes
0
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide

Transcript

  • 1. Preparing a Research Proposal: AnOverviewDr.Murali VallipuranathanMBBS, PGD, MSc, MDBoard Certified Specialist in Community Medicine5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 1
  • 2. Why should one plan for a research• To obtain an academic degree• To get research allowance• To establish evidence based new knowledge• To obtain experience in research: stepping stone• To get recognition from peers, colleagues and otherresearchers• To get academic promotions (universities, PGIM and certainposts in MoH)• Self satisfaction• Part of the duty• CPD activity5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 2
  • 3. What are the common issues?• Where can I get the idea for research?• How can I prepare the research proposal?• Do I need to get ethical clearance? If so where can I get theethical clearance?• Where can I get the funding for my research?• Who can be my co-authors?5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 3
  • 4. What are the common issues? (continued)• Where can I collect data?• How can I analyze my data?• How can I write a budget proposal?• How can I manage my research project?• How can I disseminate my study findings?5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 4
  • 5. Where can I get the idea for research?Common sources• Observation.• Literature reviews.• Professional conferences.• Experts.5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 5
  • 6. How can I get started with simple research?• Study what others have done before and redo in differentcircumstances; mainly descriptive studies• Assess what is routinely done in wards/clinic and comparewith standard protocol : Medical Audit• Discuss problems with colleagues, other staff and clients:every observed problem is a nidus for research• Testing for associations (example: risk factors and outcome)5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 6
  • 7. 1. Identification of Area of Interestis by• Observation in• The hospital• The Community• Place of work• Reading journal articles• Discussion with• Friends• Colleagues, supervisor, teachers, other researchers• Following a “hunch”• A feeling• intuition7
  • 8. The research question• All studies should start with a research question thataddresses what the investigator would like to know• Goal is to find an important research question that can bedeveloped into a feasible and valid study plan
  • 9. Criteria for selection of research• Relevant• No duplication• Feasibility• Applicability• Ethical considerations (harm Physical or mental orpsychological)• Is Permission possible?9
  • 10. Hypothesis• A prediction regarding the outcome of a study that ofteninvolves the relationship between two variablesHypothesis Testing:• The process of determining whether a hypothesis is supportedby the results of a research study
  • 11. 11Stages of a Research Process11IDENTIFY AREA OF INTERESTIDENTIFY PROBLEMCARRY OUT LITERATURE SEARCHCONSTRUCT HYPOTHESISDEVELOP RESEARCH DESIGNIDENTIFY & CONSTRUCT RESEARCH INSTRUMENT
  • 12. 12Stages of a Research Process (CONTINUED)12IDENTIFY AND CONSTRUCT RESEARCH INSTRUMENTDETERMINING SAMPLING DESIGNPREPARE BUDGET PROPOSALETHICAL CLEARANCEEXECUTION OF PROJECTDATA COLLECTION
  • 13. 13Stages of a Research Process (CONTINUED)13DATA COLLECTIONDATA ENTRY AND ANALYSISHYPOTHESIS TESTINGGENERALIZATIONS AND INTERPRETATIONSPREPARING RESEARCH REPORTDISSEMINATION OF RESULTS
  • 14. Is it necessary to prepare a research proposal atthe early stages?5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 14
  • 15. Is it necessary to prepare a researchproposal at the early stages?5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 15
  • 16. Preparing research proposal• Why should we prepare a research proposal?1. To get ideas clarified2. To get ethical clearance3. To get funding5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 16
  • 17. Components of a research proposal• Introduction/ Background• Justification• Literature review• Research Question and Hypotheses• Objectives• Method- Settings- Sample- Study design- Study instrument- Ethical clearance- Statistical analysis• Budget• Time frame• Limitations• Conflicts of interest ICPHI 2013 17
  • 18. Rationale: Describe within the context ofpresent knowledge Justify in terms of demographic,social or health impact Policy, service or programmerelevanceRelevance to activities andobjectives of the funding agency185/2/2013 ICPHI 2013
  • 19. Objectives General and specific objectivesState clearly in measurable terms195/2/2013 ICPHI 2013
  • 20. Review of literatureDescribe the most relevantstudies published205/2/2013 ICPHI 2013
  • 21. Design and methodology Brief description of study designJustify choice of design in relation to theobjectives of the research Brief description of the sourcepopulation Sample sizeDescribe method of computationjustify assumptions underlyingcalculation of sample sizeStatistical power215/2/2013 ICPHI 2013
  • 22. Selection of sample Sampling procedure including typee.g. simple random, stratified, cluster etc Where and how sample would berecruited Inclusion criteria Exclusion criteria225/2/2013 ICPHI 2013
  • 23. Selection of comparison groupsmatching criteriaAllocation of subjects in to indexand comparison groups (whereapplicable)method of allocation235/2/2013 ICPHI 2013
  • 24. What is conflict of interest in research?• A conflict of interest in research occurs when there is adivergence between researcher’s private interests and his orher professional obligation as a researcher.• Most commonly due to ties between the researcher andindustry (pharmaceutical, medical device, medical supply andinsurance companies)• Researcher should declare not only his conflict of interest butalso his spouse’s and other family members’ conflict ofinterests.5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 24
  • 25. Ethical clearance• Studies not requiring ethical clearance- Medical Audit- Desktop studies conducted from published secondary data- Most of the studies not directly involving humans or liveforms (example: ecological studies)5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 25
  • 26. Ethical Clearance (continued)• From where should I get the ethical clearance?- University ethical review committees- SLMA ethical review committee- Hospital ethical review committees?Local clearance should be obtained in multi centre studies.5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 26
  • 27. Funding• Who will fund my research?- Self- Co-authors- NGO/ INGO- University/ Government- Grants5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 27
  • 28. Co-authorship• Co-authorA person contributes with the main author in any substantial wayto a publication, with advice, planning, or analysis, then he orshe is entitled to be a co-author• Avoid inappropriate authorshipExamples: Including the name of Head of the Department orConsultant without any real contribution to the paper,interviewers• Co-authors should be consulted before sending the draft forpublication or presentation5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 28
  • 29. Data CollectionDefine study population and select appropriate sample.• Secondary data- Registers- Records- Annual Health Bulletins- Surveys already done (Examples: DHS surveys, Census)• Primary data- Hospital (ward, clinic or OPD)- Special groups (examples: students, occupationalcategories)- Community5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 29
  • 30. Data collectionVariables to be studiedData collection instrumentsValidationTraining of investigatorsLogistics of data collectionSupervision30ICPHI 20135/2/2013
  • 31. Analyzing data• Knowledge in statistical software ( example: SPSS)• Consult a statistician or a senior researcher with statisticalknowledge• Select the appropriate statistical tests• Statistical advice should be obtained in early planning stagesto avoid disappointments (example: appropriate sample size)5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 31
  • 32. How can I manage my project?How the work would be co-ordinated andsupervisedProblems anticipateddifficulties which may interfere with successfulcompletion within time and costs proposedExpected outcomesadvancement of knowledgehow results would be utilizedmeans of dissemination of results 32ICPHI 20135/2/2013
  • 33. Activities June2012July2012Augus2012Sept2012Oct2012Nov2012Dec2012Jan2013PreparingproposalX XLiteraturereviewX X X X X X X XEthicalclearanceX XDevelopment ofdata collectioninstrumentsXPreparingfundingproposalX XDuration of study – time plan33ICPHI 20135/2/2013
  • 34. Activities Oct2012Nov2012Dec2012Jan2013Feb2013March2013April2013May2013Pre testing ofinstrumentsXValidation ofmethods /instrumentsXData collection& EntryX XData analysis XFinal report &DisseminationX XDuration of study – time plan34ICPHI 20135/2/2013
  • 35. How can I prepare a budget proposalPersonnel costsSuppliese.g. chemicals, reagents, test kits,stationeryEquipmentSubject costse.g. reimbursement of bus fares ,compensation for time lost35ICPHI 20135/2/2013
  • 36. TravelData analysisBudget summaryBudget justification36ICPHI 20135/2/2013
  • 37. Budget1st year 2nd yearPersonnelprofessional / scientificstaffN – personmonthsTechnical staffOtherEquipmentSuppliesstationary375/2/2013 ICPHI 2013
  • 38. Budget summary – for each year of durationof project provide sub totals under each budget item1st year 2nd yearPersonnelEquipmentSuppliesTravelData analysisDissemination of findingsGrand Total38ICPHI 20135/2/2013
  • 39. Budget justificationProvide justification for theamounts asked for under eachbudget item in detail395/2/2013 ICPHI 2013
  • 40. 5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 40
  • 41. 5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 41
  • 42. Disseminating Research findings• Presenting abstracts at the academic forum• Publishing as journal article• Publishing as research report• Press conference• Mailing or communicating research findings to relevantstake holders5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 42
  • 43. Produce a good abstract• Standard format should be followed• It has 4 Essential parts1. Why the study was done: Objectives2. What was done: Methods3. What was found: Results4. Conclusions/Interpretation• Stick to prescribed word limit• Be clear and concise and avoid superfluous detail5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 43
  • 44. SLMA requirement on Abstractssubmission• The text of the abstract should notexceed 250 words. It should bestructured as follows:1. Objectives2. Design, setting and methods ( including statisticalmethods where relevant)3. Results4. Conclusions5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 44
  • 45. Where can one submit his or herabstract?• Regional clinical societies/ Medical Associations• Sri Lanka Medical Association• Professional Colleges/ Universities• Other academic societies• International Conferences5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 45
  • 46. Where can one submit his or her abstract?(continued)Cautions• Study the criteria for submission of abstracts• How relevant is my study to the session/ conference themeand participants• Ensure publication of the abstract• Include co-authors• Declare presentation in another forum• Declare conflicts of interest• Acknowledgements5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 46
  • 47. Oral presentation or poster?Oral• Cheap presentation• Prominence• Have to present in thepodium• More opportunities forcritical evaluationPoster• Expensive poster• Less prominence• Have to stay with theposter during “intervals”• Less opportunities forcritical evaluation5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 47
  • 48. 5/2/2013 ICPHI 2013 48