Chatakpat, Learning Aid for Children with Special Needs


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This is one of my major project for the final year of Mdes degree course in IDC, IIT Bombay. People who are interested in this subject can read the whole journey of this successful project 'Chatakpat'. This is not just about a final output, but also various alternative methods designed and tested with teachers and children. People those who work in this field and have taken this kind of project can understand these alternative methods, improve them and take this project forward.

The project focuses on repetition and encouragement to speak which will improve their speech and language skills. ‘Chatakpat’, a game was designed to encourage 4 to 8 year old hearing impaired children to speak. Guessing an answer and identifying letters is the game which can be played in the school or one senior moderator at home.

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  • I am working on developing a set of Tools to help develop Learning ability for Vocational Skills for Hearing Impaired people (2.5 to 35 yrs of age group). It is my humble request to, kindly furnish your research work, it may help me in this work. Your support & help will be duly acknowledge in my me. Kind Regards, Kunjesh Shrivastava (, Bhopal, India.
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Chatakpat, Learning Aid for Children with Special Needs

  1. 1. Submitted by Guided byDeepali Karanjavkar Prof. Mandar Rane
  2. 2. Learning Aid for Childrenwith Hearing Impairment
  3. 3. Visual CommunicationProject IIILearning Aid for Childrenwith Hearing ImpairmentSubmitted byDeepali KaranjavkarGuided byProf. Mandar RaneIndustrial Design Centre (IDC),Indian Institute of Technology Bombay,Mumbai, India. i
  4. 4. ‘चटकपत’- Learning Aid for Children with Hearing Impairment Project IIIApproval Sheet Submitted by Deepali C. Karanjavkar, 10625009 Guided by Prof. Mandar Rane Approved for the partial fulfilment of the Requirements for the degree of Masters of Design in Visual Communication at Industrial Design Centre, Guide’s signature: ................................ Internal Examiner ................................ External Examiner ................................ Chairman ................................ ii
  5. 5. I declare that this written submission represents my ideas in my own words and where others’ ideas or words have been included, I have adequately cited and referenced the original sources. I also declare that I have adhered to all principles of academic honest and integrity andDeclaration have not misrepresented or fabricated or falsified any idea/data/fact/source in my submission. I understand that any violation of the above will be cause for disciplinary action by the Institute and can also evoke penal action from the sources which have thus not been properly cited or from whom proper permission has not been taken when needed. Student’s signature: ................................ (Deepali C. Karanjavkar, 10625009) iii
  6. 6. I wish to express my deep sense of gratitude to my guide, Prof. Mandar Rane for considering me for this project. His valuable inputs always helped me to grow further in my project. His questioning style always helped me to accelerate thinking on this project. Clarity comesAcknowledgement with thinking and understanding by asking questions and giving answers on your own, this is what I learnt from this project. He was always there to show me the right path. Every design project needs a good understanding, but for the project on children with hearing impairment needs much more understanding of the psychological and physical needs with their surrounding. I interacted with teachers, speech therapist, parents and their children in Pragati Vidyalaya, Dadar. I would like to mention their names and thank them for their support. Principal Mr. Ravindra Dhawale of Pragati Vidyalaya for allowing me to do my study with their teachers and students. And also helping me to get contacts of children at the last moment. Mrs. Shubhada Aghor, for her suggestions and feedback. Also, for giving her valuable time to give answers to my each doubts at each stage Other teachers, Mrs. Sugandha Kachare, Mrs. Sanghamitra, Mrs. Deepali and speech therapist Mrs. Neeta Dhuri for their feedback and suggestion at each study with children. Lovely children, Karthik, Shubham, Naman, Ajit, Rishita, Sayma, Abdul, Puneet and their parents. iv
  7. 7. Neha Kulkarni (IDC, Jr.AN) and her mother Finally, yet importantly, I would like to expressMrs. Minakshi Kulkarni, Ronit Chakraborty (IDC, my heartfelt thanks to Manumama, my belovedPD Batchmate) for sharing their efforts parents and dada for their blessings.and experiences.Dr. Kalyani Manke (Audiogist, Pune) for sharingher experience with the hearing impaired.I take immense pleasure in thanking Prof. SudeshBalan and Prof. G.V. Sreekumar for their supportand feedback at each stage presentation.Prof. Anirudha Joshi (Faculty in IDC, IxD),his lectures on HCI (Human Computer Interaction)methods which helped me to understand anduse those in design projects.Dr. Girish Dalvi, Anisha Malhotra and Debjanifor giving feedback and suggestions as theirown project.I would like to thank all IDC staff and mentionfew names for their contribution in my growthin this design institute.Workshop Staff - George Sir, Patil Sir, KiniSir, Ahire Sir, Kundan, Navnath, Samarth andMawade Sir; Office Staff - Nancy Madam,Mr. Vinay Adhikary, Trupti, Anupama, Prashantand Desai Kaka; Library staff - Mr. Mohankumarsir and Mr. Upadhyay;Thanks to my friends Bimal, Aman, Konark,Shishir, Aditi, Abhinav, Jayamuthu, Ritika andthe batch 2012 their help and wishes for thesuccessful completion of this project.
  8. 8. I wanted to do a project on learning related field which would allow me to think differently. The project helped me to learn how to analyse problems and how to take wise decisions to give solutions.Abstract Children with hearing impairment always have speech problems and difficulties in constructing sentences and grammar. Keeping same level of interest is difficult for teachers while teaching. Parents don’t know how to train them at home and people in the surrounding are unable to understand what they say. I thought of many interesting ideas and tested some of them with children and got feedback from teachers as well. Their feedback helped me to select best concept to work upon. The project focuses on repetition and encouragement to speak which will improve their speech and language skills. ‘Chatakpat’, a game was designed to encourage 4 to 8 year old hearing impaired children to speak. Guessing an answer and identifying letters is the game which can be played in the school or one senior moderator at home. v
  9. 9. Introduction 1 I Background Knowledge 3 1 How Do Children Learn to Speak? 4 2 What is Hearing Impairment? 6 3 Treatments and Education Programs 8 4 Speech, Language and Communication 12Contents 5 Communication Modes 14 6 Work Done in this Field 15 II Contextual Inquiry 17 7 What is Contextual Inquiry? 27 8 Interviews 28, 48 9 Silent Observation 38 10 Experiments 52 III Clarity Towards Project 55 11 Insights 56 12 Design Opportunities 57 13 Problems Identification 58 14 Aim, Objective and Design Goal 59 IV Alternative Concepts 61 15 Brainstorming on Ideas 62 16 Experiments 64 17 Number of Concepts 68 18 Concept Comparison and Ratings 100 19 Choosing Final Concept 101 V Final Concept 103 20 Detailed Game-play 104 21 Name the Game 106 22 Final Execution 107 23 Prototype Development 114 24 Final Game-play and Protocol 140 VI Evaluation and Feedback 151 VII Summery and Conclusion 153 vi VIII References 155
  10. 10. Learning Aid for Childrenwith Hearing Impairment 1
  11. 11. I wanted to do my final Project in learning After finding out problems due to improvement areas. Initially, I was thinking hearing impairment, I narrowed down on many topics related this area; my focus on basic holistic problem that Prof. Mandar Rane suggested me project ‘they do not speak’. If we could encourage for hearing impaired children. The topic them to speak, they can acquire confidence was very new to me and challenging too. to speak; practice of speaking and listening It is challenging to understand children’s would improve their speech and ability to world. I enjoy being with children and for me express their thoughts with people. it is easy to interact with them, which made More you practice to listen and speak, it easy for me to communicate at different more you assimilate the language. We also stages. And when it comes to hearing use gestures, facial expressions, and body impairment, it becomes most challenging postures to send correct messages to people. Introduction to understand their problems and give solutions as per their needs. The solutions deal with tongue exercises, duration practices, daily activities, learning As a hearing person, I may not understand language, interaction between children, completely how they perceive the world, speech correction, speaking, identifying but I decided to take this up as my project letters and reading, hearing and listening to understand design problems and create practices. Number of solutions were given solutions. In contextual enquiry, I visited to compare with other solutions and one special school to observe how they learn, was selected which best solved the holistic what are the methods used while teaching problem. Other solutions could be done later them. After talking to teachers and parents, on. Or suppose, some other person works on I got to know learning problems like this project, they can work further on those Constructing sentences, using post-positions, Ideas in future. confusion in gender related sentences, speech problems; as well as the roots of the problems. Through various experiments, I understood how children enjoy learning through an interaction. My experience was good that I met these sweet children and I feel that they are very lucky that they have the ability to ‘off’ the sound anytime and ‘on’ whenever they want to. Other way, I feel myself lucky that I can hear the beautiful sounds in this world.2
  12. 12. I Background Knowledge Data collection was done in following parts 1.   How Do Children Learn to Speak? to understand the background of the subject. 2.   What is Hearing Impairment? This part provides information about steps of 3.   Treatments and Education Programs learning to speak first language, types and 4.   Speech, Language and Communication severity of hearing impairment, important 5.   Communication Modes factors or child development, criticism on 6.   Work Done in this Field previous work done in this area. This study helped me to understand overall background to work further on this project. 3
  13. 13. 1 How do we hear and speak? Speech and Language Development: Child enjoys “cooing” (makes cooing sounds) a) The sound which reaches into our and “gurgling” (sounds resembling gurgle). ears first makes the eardrum vibrate. These vibrations are transmitted through 3 Months to 6 months: the 3 small bones in the middle ear to the cochlea. This results in a movement within Auditory Response: The child normally the cochlear fluids. Sensitive hair cells in the recognizes its mother’s voice i.e. If he is cochlea register this movement and start crying he usually stops when he hears her a neural activity, which is transmitted voice. Child smiles when spoken to, stops through the auditory nerve to the brain. playing and appears to listen to sounds, Thus we hear. especially when pleasant and new sounds How Do Children are made. For example - sound of new toys. b) The brain creates idea to articulate and the exhaled air from the lung is used for Speech and Language Development: Learn to Speak vibrate vocal chord to produce voice. Child enjoys babbling i.e. Child repeats a Thus we speak. chain of sounds like ba. Child responds to her mother’s voice by making pleasurable sounds. How does child learn to speak language? 6 Months to 9 months: Almost all children learn their first language Auditory Response: Your child will turn from their mother, called as ‘Mother Tongue’. his head towards the sound source and She makes very sweet conversation with his interest in listening to sources of new child and child responds to those sounds sounds continues. and step by step he learns to speak. So, what are those steps? The following Speech and Language Development: Your developmental stages of learning our first child will enjoy making different sounds language are from . and continue to babble. He tries to imitate if you make sounds resembling those made Birth to 3 months by him. He is able to vocalize emotional satisfaction or dissatisfaction. That is when Auditory Response: When a loud sound is he is happy, his smile is accompanied by made such as a clap, alarm etc. Your baby vocalization (voice) and when he is unhappy will awaken when asleep or may move and or uncomfortable he usually cries. begin to wake up. At times on hearing loud sounds the baby will startle and start crying.4
  14. 14. 9 Months to 18 months: responses to sounds due to other problems such as delayed motor milestones.Auditory Response: Your child will look up when you call. He understands words like ‘no’. He will also respond to simple commands like ‘Open your mouth’, References‘Close your eyes’ and like-wise. Available at < and Language Development: He awareness/audiology.html> [Accessed 28starts using his voice for getting attention. December, 2011]His first word is usually heard at any timewithin this period. He will imitate some of the Owens, R. E. (1988) Language Development,sounds that you make. By 18 months child’s Merrill Publishing Company, Ohio 43216.vocabulary (use of meaningful words)increases gradually.18 Months to 2-1/2 years :Auditory Response: Your child will begin to respond to requests like ‘give me’ He can also respond to commands like‘bring the ball’ and he throws it when asked to. He can point to things that are named.Speech and Language Development:He is able to combine words into sentencesfor example ‘papa come’. He can name afew common animals, fruits etc. He canname objects and describe them by usingadjectives and adverbs like big more nice.Remember, in some children the hearingloss may also be accompanied by otherdeformities, such as cleft lip & palate(opening in the roof of the mouth), low setears, absence of outer ear etc. Some childrenmay not be able to give age appropriate 5
  15. 15. 2 As I am doing project on Hearing impaired family members and surroundings? How do children, it was necessary to know about they raise their child? Hearing impairment. I started finding answers of further questions on web What are the types of hearing loss? browser. What is hearing impairment? What are the levels of listening sound? Conductive hearing loss What are the types? What are the treatments? What type of education? Conductive hearing loss results from defects Can child speak? What are the in the outer or middle ear. The sound is not communication modes they use? conducted efficiently to the inner ear. All sounds heard thus become weak and/or What is hearing impairment? muffled. Usually such individuals speak What is Hearing softly irrespective of the surrounding Hearing impairment is the inability of environmental noise. an individual to hear sufficient sounds. Impairment? This may be due to improper development, Sensorineural hearing loss is caused due damage or disease to any part of the hearing to damage or disease of the inner ear or mechanism. Hearing is an essential for the auditory nerve. It could also result as an development of normal speech & language. after effect of infectious diseases like A child learns to speak by hearing the measles, mumps, meningitis and T.B. speech of mother, others in the family and surroundings. Mixed hearing loss Hearing impairment is an invisible injury. Mixed hearing loss is the combination of It is necessary to identify hearing impaired conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. child. Hearing impairment at birth or in early One of the main causes of this type of loss childhood has disastrous effects on the is the long standing ear infection known as child’s overall development. These effects Chronic Suppurative Otitis Media (CSOM). vary depending upon the age of onset, In CSOM, ear discharge in the form of pus, nature and degree of hearing impairment. blood or clear water is seen. This starts with If early intervention happens for such conductive loss yielding to sensorineural a child, he can be developed by people impairment, if not treated immediately around him, and problems in the language and regularly. development occur. Central hearing loss What happens when child is not able to listen sound? When do they know that their child Central hearing loss is due to damage, can not listen sound? How parents react after malformation or infections of the neural6 knowing this? How does this impact on other pathways and the hearing centers in the
  16. 16. brain. The child may hear but has difficultyin understanding what he hears. Some ofthe children classified as learning disabledor slow learners may have this type ofhearing loss.Functional hearing lossFunctional hearing loss is due to somepsychogenic condition or maybe dueto deliberate exaggeration of hearingthresholds for personal gains.What is the severity of ahearing impairment?The severity is (measured in decibels ofhearing loss, or dB HL). Hearing impairmentmay be ranked as mild, moderate,moderately severe, severe or profound asdefined below:Mild: for children, between 20 and 40 dB HLModerate: between 41 and 55 dB HLModerately severe: between 56 and 70 dB HLSevere: between 71 and 90 dB HLProfound: 91 dB HLTotally Deaf: Have no hearing at all.References:Available at <> [Accessed 28December, 2011] 7
  17. 17. 3 What are the further treatments? They diagnose the type of hearing problem, do hearing aid testing and fitting, tell you Drugs and surgery are useful in treating how to use the hearing aid, help you with a middle and outer ear problems. For ear program geared at helping the child learn to discharge, regular and long term treatment make use of his hearing and develop speech is necessary to stop it completely. In case and language, provide speech therapy. where the hearing impairment is irreversible, hearing aid fitting is recommended. c) The special educator: A teacher who has specialized in The rehabilitation process includes educational methods for children with training to make the best use of residual hearing impairment. hearing, speech reading instruction, Treatments Speech- language stimulation and therapy These teachers use special methods to and the services of special educators. develop language and conduct educational At the appropriate age preschool/school programs for children with hearing and Education placements should be made after consulting impairment. They can assess the child’s a special educator. language abilities and guide you about the type of school placement best suited for Programs Early identification and intervention and your child. family support are important factors which determine the success of a rehabilitation d) Psychologist, Vocational Concealer program. Therefore whenever a hearing and Neurologist: problem is suspected immediate action All these professionals work as a team for is an essential. the child with special needs. Your child may need the services of more than one Professionals in this field: professional at any given time. a) The ENT Specialist: A doctor who has Which are the educational programs specialized in dealing with diseases or are available? problems of the ear, nose and throat. Correspondence course for parents: b) The Audiologist and Speech-Language Pathologist: A professional who is trained in Parents are a child’s first and natural the diagnosis and rehabilitation of hearing teachers and all children almost always and speech problems. learn language from their parents. Correspondence courses are therefore In case of children with hearing impairment designed for parents to assist them in these professionals can Carry out the handling the difficulties that they may8 hearing assessment.
  18. 18. encounter in developing communication and to the parents to carry out follow up and Primary Schools:language skills in their children. supplement the class-room teaching. a) Integrated education in a regular school:Parents are provided with a Home Study Preschool Programmes: Children either from integrated preschoolPlan for input in language development, programmes or from segregated specialso that they could provide a language Integrated education in regular school for school programmes are enrolled in regularstimulating environment at home during children diagnosed and intervened at a very primary schools. Hearing impaired childrentheir child’s early life i.e. 0-5 years, as it is early stage and most importantly who have follow the same curriculum as prescribedcritical period for language acquisition. developed functional language could be by the State Board of Special Education included in regular preschool programmes. in a state, but are entitled for languageParent Infant Programme: However assistance from special teachers exemption and from oral evaluation. or resource teachers would be required so The assistance from a resource teacherThese programmes aim at catching the that the child develops good reading and or a special teacher will help the hearinghearing impaired very young. Such writing skills and a continual language impaired child progress at par with his/herprogramme intend to monitor overall enhancement programme. hearing counter parts.development of the concerned child.The philosophy is to expose the young Segregated in a Special School b) Segregated education in a special school:children to a language stimulating Children who have still not developedenvironment so that the hearing impaired Children diagnosed late or those who good language and communication skillschildren acquire natural language. The crux have not developed adequate functional and need more assistance in reading andof this programme is parent empowerment. language are enrolled in Special preschool writing continue primary education inAs the name suggests, parents along with programmes. In special schools, special special school. Special teachers designtheir infants are enrolled in the programme teachers help children build a strong individualized education plan and developand parents are trained to undertake foundation of language which would ease curriculum to meet the individual needs ofdifferent techniques to help their infants out the formal education in primary and the special children.acquire language which if not developed at secondary school, again, either in anthis stage, can lead to difficulty in acquiring integrated setup or in a special school In addition to the curriculum as laid downformal education at a later stage. depending upon the child’s achievements. by State Education Board, special teachers Teachers in special schools develop undertake activities to strengthen theContact Training Programmes for Parents conversational skills by using various language both receptive and expressive. techniques. Special preschool curriculumUpholding the parent teacher partnership in to suit the needs of the children is devised Secondary schools:education of the hearing impaired contact and activities such as directed activity,training programmes for parent of hearing storytelling, guided play are contrived to a) Integrated education in regular schools:impaired are organized periodically in most develop receptive and expressive language Children from integrated primary schools orof the special schools in India . Depending in the preschool hearing impaired children. from special primary school may be placedupon the age group of the children the in secondary school. Secondary section inprogrammes are chalked out so that a special school may not be available due toappropriate training could be imparted several reasons. Sometimes, special schools 9
  19. 19. do not get permission to run secondary Ali Yavar Jung National Institute for Higher Secondary Education: school from the concerned State government. the Hearing Handicapped is one of the Hence children may have to enrol in accredited centres catering to the continual Hearing impaired who have successfully integrated secondary schools. There also education of hearing impaired children . completed secondary school from a is high rate of school dropouts at this point. It offers two programmes – The foundation recognized Board of Secondary Education Parents are advised to be alert and look course and secondary education in two either from integrated regular secondary for options available so that the education mediums Hindi and English. school or special school or NOS are eligible is not discontinued. for admission to Higher Secondary School. a) Foundation course: The curriculum followed is as prescribed Segregated Higher Secondary by the concerned State Board of Education, Minimum education upto std. V is required however the hearing impaired children for admission. The foundation course is Hearing impaired children who have get language exemptions and need to take equivalent to std.VIII. There are no public successfully completed secondary school optional subjects against exemptions. exams, marks or certificate. Five subjects from a recognized Board of Secondary are offered with either one or two languages Education either from integrated regular Segregated Special Schools: from group A or the remaining 3 subjects secondary school or special school or Children who for one or the other reasons from group B. National Open School are eligible for could not be integrated in a regular primary admission to higher secondary school continue their secondary education b) Secondary Education: special school. in a special school. In addition to the State Boards curriculum of secondary education, Minimum education up to std. VIII or Can child speak ? they get language exemptions. Most of the foundation course done from National special schools also have classes to teach Open School is required for admission. This is one of the most common pre-vocational skills. The secondary education is equivalent questions that the professionals come to std. X . Subjects offered are any one across. It is quite natural that parents are Continual Education: language + 5 subjects including options for concerned about speaking ability of the vocational subjects. child. Generally, speaking is considered to The National Open School: be the ability which distinguishes human Public exams are conducted and secondary beings from the other animals. Speech not The National Open School provides an school certificate is given after successfully only helps us communicate our ideas but it educational opportunity to persons who completing the course. also links us with the society. Moreover, wish to pursue further education but cannot the inability of the hearing impaired child to do so in a regular school system. It provides The special feature is that the student can speak clearly may lead to teasing by other continued education to the handicapped appear for only one subject per year in the children. Parents are concerned about it and children, especially dropouts from school. term of five years i.e. Students can study at hence the questions` can hearing impaired For this purpose NOS has set up Special their own pace. child speak?’ Yes a child can most certainly Accredited Centres for the Education of speak but there are a few buts and ifs. This Disadvantaged (SAIED) at various places. is so because the success of a hearing10 impaired child in general (which includes
  20. 20. ability to speak) depends on several factors. too can speak. How fast and how quick yourIf these factors are present only then higher child can speak, heavily depends on variousachievements can be expected. factors given above but most importantly, it depends on parents and child.a) Early identification and intervention Parents goes to professionals likeb) Early and appropriate amplification speech therapist to improve child’s speech.(hearing aid) which is used continuously Researchers in this field agrees speech isand with adequate training important for human beings and our hearing impaired children can attain it. It’s good toHearing Impaired children are eligible for be concerned about speech but also focuslanguage exemption and can opt for other on language. Also have to be concernedoptional subjects. about child’s reading and writing skills.c) Cochlear implant which gives child There are hearing impaired individualshearing capability which also demands who do not have intelligible speech buthearing and speech practices more. are leading a fully functional, personal and social life.d) Early and ongoing professional helpe) Well informed and motivated parents with References:adequate time and energy for home training Available at < Exposure to speech and language at home awareness/educationservicesa.html>and at school. (Accessed 28 December, 2011)Most of the people think hearing impairedare dumb. They have the same intelligencelike other people have. They do not hear thatis why they do not understand what you say.This is the same situation like you behavewhen you go to some other country andyou do not understand their language.There is nothing wrong in the speechorgans (like tongue teeth etc.) of the hearingimpaired individual. But since he/she isunable to listen to what others are speaking,the child is unable to speak. With hearingaids and training, hearing impaired children 11
  21. 21. 4 Speech Speech and language are two of the tools people use to communicate ideas, emotions, Speech is a method or a verbal means of and needs. communicating or conveying meaning. Speech is not the only mode or means of Communication human communication. We also use gestures, facial expressions, and body postures to “Communication is primary function send messages. When speaking on the of language”, (Muma, 1978, p. 118). phone, we rely on the speech modality Communication is sharing or exchanging to carry out our message. In face to face information and ideas between participants. conversation, more emphasis is placed on The process is active process which involves nonverbal means. It has been estimated that encoding, transmitting, and decoding Speech, up to 60% of the in face to face conversation the intended message. Other aspects may be transmitted through nonspeech of communication can be classified as means. Other way of communicating includes paralinguistic, nonlinguistic, Language and writing, driving and manual gesturing. and metalinguistic. Speech is not the only important thing for language development and communication. a) Paralinguistic codes are superimposed on Communication speech to indicate attitude or emotion. They Language include intonation, stress or emphasis, speed or rate of delivery, and pause or hesitation. Without attached meaning, speech sounds Intonation patterns changes in pitch that are only grunts and groan or meaningless signal the mood of an end. For example, strings of sounds. The relationship between a rising pitch at the end of a sentence can all the linguistic forms-individual sounds, change a statement to a question. Example meaningful units, and the combination given with this is following two sentences: of these units-is specified by the rules of a) It’s a party. b) It’s a party?. Similarly, language. Language can be defined as two sentences can also convey different a socially shared code for representing emotions across the words that signal the concepts through the use of arbitrary same information. symbols and combinations of those symbols. Hindi is a language; English and Marathi are b) Nonlinguistic codes include gestures, languages. Each has its own unique symbols body posture, facial expression, eye contact, and rule of combination. Dialects are the head and body movement, and physical subcategories of the parent language that distance. We know someone who seems use similar but not identical rules. Dialects to gesture too much or remain too close can change from person to person or it while communicating. Some nonlinguistic can depend on surrounding of people he is messages, such as wink, a funny smile,12 staying with. a pout, or folded arms, can convey the
  22. 22. entire message with no need to rely onspeech or language.c) Metalinguistic Codes are the abilities totalk about the language, analyse it, thinkabout it, see it, and judge it. For example,learning to read and write depends onmetalinguistic awareness of componentunits of language-sounds, words, phrases,sentences. Constructing sentence is verygood example of Metalinguistic Codes.Reference:Owens, R. E. (1988) Language Development,Merrill Publishing Company, Ohio 43216. 13
  23. 23. 5 Communication mode used by hearing impaired to communicate with their hearing impaired hearing associates. The auditory-verbal approach Speech reading This is also known as the unisensory It is preferred instead of lip reading because mode. The child develops “listening” and it conveys the difference of similar rhyming speech skills through the use of optimally words. The term speech reading also functioning hearing aids, and auditory indicates that residual hearing may be training i.e. Lip reading is not encouraged. essential as well as gestural information. The use of signs is forbidden. The deaf For speech reading the strategies used are child develops spoken communication coding and guessing- speech perception skills just like any other child – that is, by which a person relies on visual, auditory Communica- through the ears. or audio-visual cues. The skilled lip reader does not engage in word by word reading, The auditory-oral approach but rather that they synthesise visual and tion Modes This mode relies on auditory training and linguistic cues to arrive at the meaning of the use of hearing aids to develop spoken the message. language. Lip reading is also used but signs are excluded – that is signing is not allowed. Visual Text, visuals/pictures are another way Sign language: to make hearing impaired aware of It is mainly used for communicating among surroundings. The visual or text is always hearing impaired. Sign takes a-1/2 to 2 times combined with speech, thus encouraging as long to produce as a word. them to develop residual hearing too. Finger spelling It is coded language using hands. Each References: alphabet is spelled by using hands/fingers which includes fingers and hand movements. Available at < Usually finger spelling is used to spell a new communication/> [Accessed 1 Jan. 2012] word, but gradually a sign for that new word is developed. Lip reading Most of the hearing impaired persons develop lip reading by themselves and they understand the other person by lip reading. This is very effective method used by14
  24. 24. 6 VV-Talker Teacher or parents can download interesting Designers: Cui Chen, Wang Qi, Shi Kaiyuan, learning diagrams and insert it into Geng Kun, Huang Jianbo, Wang Zhi, Qiu VV-talker and educate the hearing impaired Shuang & Chen Zhen children using it. VV-talker can record and create vibration on normal hum beings vibration when they are talking. By touching it, hearing impaired child can sense the vibration and learn talking using it. Through the learning deaf children will gain their confidence and get a cleared message: hence, it will speed up the learning process.Work Done in References:This Field Available at <http://www.yankodesign. com/2011/07/26/learning-tool-for-deaf- children/> [Accessed 8 January, 2012] Viewpoint on this project Designers have focused only upon vocal vibrations for speech correcting. For speaking correctly there are many things than just vibration of vocal card. Tongue movement, throwing amount of air from mouth, taking pause, nasal talk. Speech differs with person to person. Some people The VV-Talker is a device designed for have high pitch, some people have low deaf children to help them overcome their pitch and some people can have falling problem in speaking effectively. If you can’t pitch. This machine can help people to raise hear the sounds you make, it’s difficult to their pitch but machine can not measure know if you’re pronouncing it correctly. tongue movement and dialect. Focusing on The device has a screen attached to a wand. to listening is very important. Content is Sounds are associated with vibrations. important more than using technology and As the child speaks, the device provides solve problem. In this project I can see lack feedback on accuracy and teaches the child of understanding problems and depth study to speak with the correct “vocal vibrations” for hearing impairment. 15 to achieve the correct modulation.
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  26. 26. II Contextual Inquiry For contextual enquiry I went to the special 7.   What is Contextual Inquiry? school to see how hearing impaired children 8.   Interviews learn languages. Firstly, I observed the 9.   Silent Observation teacher and children by sitting in their 10.   Experiments classes. I talked to teachers, parents, speech therapist, audiologist and two profound adult, to validate data which was previously collected and know their experiences. Pilot experiments was held to understand how they respond to interactive things. 17
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  36. 36. 7 Contextual inquiry (CI) is a user-centered Reference design (UCD) ethnographic research method, part of the Contextual Design methodology. Gaffney, G. (1999), Usability Techniques A contextual inquiry interview is usually Series-Contextual Enquiry What is a structured as approximately two hour, one- Contextual Enquiry? [Online PDF] Available on-one interaction in which the researcher at < watches the user do their normal activities ContextualEnquiry.pdf> [Accessed 17 and discusses what they see with the user. December 2011] Contextual inquiry defines four principles: Context: Interviews are conducted in theWhat is user’s actual workplace. The researcher watches users do their own work tasks and discusses any artifacts they generateContextual or use with them. In addition, the researcher gathers detailed re-tellings of specific past events when they are relevant toInquiry? the project focus. Partnership: User and researcher collaborate to understand the user’s work. The interview alternates between observing the user as they work and discussing what the user did and why. Interpretation: The researcher shares their interpretations and insights with the user during the interview. The user may expand or correct the researcher’s understanding. Focus: The researcher steers the interaction towards topics which are relevant to the team’s scope. 27
  37. 37. 8 Interviews done before and after silent school has two floors, 12 classes, observation. Since, I had done background 16 teachers and each class has 1 teacher study of this field, I had to validate that data with 8 children. Their sitting arrangement in with knowledge and experience of teachers, the class is like a round table, so that every speech therapist; and find answers of my child can see teachers face clearly and vice initial questions in my mind. After silent versa. Children come to school with their observation done, I had discussed with parents’ everyday (except holidays) from teachers and speech therapist to validate various long distance places in Mumbai. noted observations by myself. Aim of doing this was to get clarity towards this project. Before going in school I had a list of few questions; Talking to Teachers: What problem children face while Interviews My guide suggested to meet Sr. Teacher, learning languages? Mrs. Shubhada Aghor. She has nineteen years experience in teaching hearing What is the syllabus for them and impaired children. what else can be taught? I visited Pragati Vidyalaya, Dadar, and What are the differences in Special special school for children with hearing Schools and Mainstream schools? impairment (Hindi and Marathi medium). While travelling in the train to reach the How hearing impairment affects on school, I was actually thinking how is the child’s education? hearing impairment. I tried to not listen to anything and put my fingers in my ears, Mrs. Shubhada was sitting in the sixth still I could listen little sounds but still I standard class; when I entered in the class, couldn’t understand what’s it be hearing children said ‘Namaste’ to me. And that was Impaired. I was very curious and nervous the first time I was interacting with hearing before going in the school. Curious, because impaired children. I told about myself to her when you don’t listen to the sound how and she also introduced me to them. you exactly perceive the world; Nervous, I asked their names one by one. But I didn’t because I had to understand their problems understand some of their names; still they and I had no clue that how I will be going to tried to speak clearly to tell their and each take this project in right pathway. other’s name in many ways, when I couldn’t understand any. Children asked me, “Kaun The school is situated at Dadar, it is about hai, tum Ali yavar Jung se aaye ho?” 5 minutes walking distance from Dadar I didn’t get few words in this question but railway station. I met Mrs. Shubhada; First I understood that they asked me that where28 time she gave me an overview of school, that I came from. I answered, “IIT Powai” and
  38. 38. Mrs. Shubhada with SixthStandard class students. 29 29
  39. 39. they repeated it correctly, but not clearly; costly, people cannot really afford to do this there bag from home. Suppose, it’s a small some sounds where silent. I was amazed surgery for children. toy car, then children have to draw a vehicle, that they can speak this much. Shubhada make collage out of it. Maths is taught by explained me, ‘Ali Yavar Jung’ is the National 3) Child should have same language adding and subtracting things, using beads. Institute for the Hearing Impaired located at environment at both home and school. Child In various ways children have been taught. Bandra (West). The main objectives of this is in schools only for 6 hours, remaining So, that they can assimilate whatever they institute are Research, Education programs hours he is at home. So, parents should talk have learnt and they should use it. like M.Ed, B.Ed , also for hearing impaired with him continuously. They also should children, Rehabilitation of Hearing impaired, ask him questions; if he doesn’t answers, 8) Sometimes we cannot explain some services for them, etc. So, M.Ed, B.Ed then parents should answer. This way they words, those words only can be experienced, students come for two months internship. should keep talking to their children. example: Saundarya (beauty) and Mangalya (well being). These abstract concepts, they She talked overall about children, about 4) Except from syllabus, we try to get done show by celebrating festivals, visits, etc. hearing aids, cochlear Implant, education, various activities from the children such learning problems, facilities from the school, as, craft work, directed activity, visits to 9) Teaching and visual aids like, flash parents’ role, etc. the places, news, etc. Every day they take card (which shows images at one side and auditory training to stimulate their hearing. another side a word), repetitive words, 1) Using hearing aid increases the hearing babbling, and tongue movement pictures capacity, children don’t like to keep it into 5) When child joins at the age of three or which are shown to improve their speech. their ears. Reasons can be sweat, heavy four, they directly don’t put him in first feeling on ear, itching in ear, sometimes falls standard. In this school there are 4 levels 10) Excessive training, best use of hearing down on floor. And also they have to charge of learning languages (which focuses on aid, parent counselling, hard work (from it every day. All these children are from learning verbal language) ,where one year child, parents, and teachers) will help to lower middle class background, Hearing duration for each level. In this period if the improve their Speech and language skills. aids stops working sometimes. Parents can’t Child’s language level is good, and if he is Child should have practice to listen sounds, afford to buy the aid and cells. Hearing aids intellectually good then he can skip one step so the chances to skip letters and words can cost depending on the quality also. and go to the next level. be reduced. 2) Cochlear implant is surely an effective 6) In school there are facilities like 11) Hobby and habit of reading and writing surgery; this improves hearing capacity and ‘N’ Computing unit. If teacher doesn’t is the necessary key to improve language. also improves speech. But, it doesn’t become know how to show some stories. So, they Verbal communication between parents and successful all the time and after the surgery can show on youtube or somewhere on child is necessary. is done; lot of auditory practice has to done Internet, (eg, Jaliyanwala Baug Hatyakand). from child. She add an examples, While Visual aids are necessary; if a new word 12) Children are poor at constructing playing they can get hit where operation has been taught, then child should use it in sentences, grammar, post-positions, is done and it might be serious and even functional language. mathematics and creating gender related one child has thrown water in the speaker, sentences are the major problems they face. one child’s surgery failed twice, since it is 7) In the beginners’ class (preschool30 children), some children bring something in
  40. 40. Conclusion: US (America), so while learning sounds it is movements, written chart for sound of as their accent. animals. Three children from third standardPre-school children are beginners and if the were present, and they were actingbase of language is strong, it becomes easy 3) The graphic used to show lip and tongue and saying it.for child to learn advance level of language. movement is not useful, because it isSo, I decided to focus on preschool children. confusing for children. If child doesn’t know 8) She also added that, blowing and sucking how to speak letter, speaking in the mike exercise and tongue movement are essentialTalking to a Speech therapist: will not help. A right tongue position and lip for beginner or preschool children, movement need to be shown to children. and then only they can learn and go for Mrs. Shubhada suggested meeting Speech speech improvement. therapist who works in their school. She 4) She added some technical problems as helps to clear children’s speech by repetition well. If we talk in front of mike anything or Conclusion: and reinforcement method. Syllables like any letter then, it will give visual feedback.‘बा…बा…बा…’, ‘ता…ता…ता…’ to which we say Every human being has different level of Not able to speak is the problem and babbling. It has the role to improve their sensitivity which sometimes doesn’t match not able to speak correctly that is the speech. She told me her experience with with this software. next problem. And that can be improved children while speaking, methods of speech by practice with interesting interactive correction, viewpoints which are given in 5) It needs lot of improvement in the methods. I decided to focus on preschool detail below: technology and research area for variations children because by research it says that of speech and dialects for hearing impaired. children’s age of learning languages is 4 to 81) She talked about hearing loss first; when When child pronounces something, he year old. After that it is very difficult to teachchild newly comes to the school, they check thinks that it is right but software still gives them language effectively’.hearing loss in ‘dB’ (is unit of measurement him wrong reply that will be frustrating forof sound). Finding hearing levels they get him, because child cannot monitoridea of which type of sound child cannot it by auditory.listen. And then they give hearing aid tothe child of that hearing loss. For this she 6) She called the child, to show how sheshowed me hearing level chart. teaches with the help of this software. The child is profound; but because his training2) They have ‘Dr. Speech’ Software, which and practice is great, he can speak clearerbasically used for clinical purposes, but than the cochlear implanted children too.this software can also be used to improve Through lot of practice, hearing impairedsound quality. She is using this software children’s speech can really be improved.for last four years, and this software cost Teaching sound of letters and words isfor aound Rs. 1,20,000/-. This software also difficult, because you may not know howneeds extra hardware other than speakers, they perceive.amplifier, dongle, mike etc. This softwareidentifies sound and gives visual feedback 7) I met her again to see visual aids theyof interesting graphics. The software is from use. There were photographs of tongue 31
  41. 41. Mrs. Neeta Dhuri giving speech therapy to child using Dr. Speech software.32
  42. 42. Dr. Speech software 33
  43. 43. 34
  44. 44. These are the visual aids speechtherapist uses to teach children tospeak letters. These visual aidsgives descriptions of where tonguetouches, how the lip movement is,how it feels inside the throat, andwhen air comes out. 35
  45. 45. 36
  46. 46. Visual aids to practice duration ofvowels from children. Right handside image shows, how each letteris taught by repetition method.This is the chart to teach letter ‘ {É ’.Word starts with this letter, wordwhich has the middle letter ‘ {É ’,word ends with this letter. 37
  47. 47. 9 When I entered in a class, the teacher Teacher started with the training called, smiled at me and said,”Hi”. The children Dr. Daniel’s sixth sense training in which turned back, saw me and stood up and child has to say or identify ‘aa, ee, u, um, did Namaste to me. While doing that some sha, sss..’ These six sounds with seeing and children said like, ”tamatte”, some of them next level will be without seeing. Teacher said, ”abaye” and two of them just mumbled asked children to fold their hand and asked up (did lip movement). If they practice more one child to stand. He stood in the corner they can say it. and identified all the sounds; one by one she took this training. One or two children In this class there are only eight children couldn’t recognize those sound properly, and one teacher. Teacher Mrs. Sugandha so she adjusts the settings on their hearing Kachare and Children Abdul, Poonit, Ajit, aid. She explained that the children/ child Silent Shubham, Karthik, Rishita, Sayma, Naman. whose cochlear implant has been done These all children live in Sub-urban area should stand far and those who haven’t of Mumbai, all come to school with their done should stand nearby. Because of the Observation parents everyday (except holidays). Two out residual hearing, she takes this training of eight are severe and others are profound to test hearing of the child. She told about category. Their sitting arrangement was amplification system which is connected such that teacher and children can see to this. This amplifier system reduces each other. Every child was looking at environmental sound and sends only speech me; I took out camera from my bag and sound to their hearing aid when they are on they surprisingly started looking at me ‘A’ mode (here A- amplifier). These six sounds and my camera. They were very curious also stimulated their hearing. and looking at me. Suddenly teacher beats two children nearby her. Children near to Then Teacher was preparing to take lesson me were still doing hand movement, hand on board, story was in written format and talking something about me, Teacher started images for visual reference. banging wooden scale on table and sound of banging was high. I felt the job to teach Teacher started drawing sun on board and these children is not easy, but how ethical is explained this is ‘Suraj’, pointed in sky and banging, hitting and beating up them. told this Suraj (Sun in Hindi) is in sky, then who is this ‘Suraj’, she showed image of I controlled myself telling this to her, and boy (ladka). She read lessons name, ‘Suraj continued our conversation. I explained her ka Gubbara’. While reading each time for about my project. Also I requested her to each word she gave signs. When she asked explain to the children that I came to make questions to children whose balloon it is? learning aid for them. Two of them pointed in the sky and showed Suraj as a Sun. Children were connected38 with wrong sign. Teacher repetitively told
  48. 48. Mrs. Sugandha Kacharewith children in ‘Payari 2‘ 39
  49. 49. them, Suraj is a Boy. She added in between show me, how differently they can do the lesson, if they have animations of these than others. things it will make our efforts easy. But my project is not just for making animation for Whenever the teacher asks questions, their poems or lessons. It is beyond that. after each right answer they get a star. But still I noted down her point in my note- When it is correct, teacher writes on the top book. Visual aids are always important. of the table, near to each child. Once they get a star they got very excited. Sometimes Directed activity is the activity for preschool teacher ask them to identify sound by birds children in which child has to participate and animals. And if teacher has to teach and does the activity in real. Eg. Eating fruit each letter to them to speak, Teacher tell him (involves activities like bringing, washing, word starting with that letter, word in the cutting, sharing, eating.), limbu sarbat, tea. middle of that letter, word ending with that Directed activity is useful for using verbs letter. Such way, sound can be taught and in various context in real life. It helps to assimilated into them by connecting speech teach tenses. Also minus, plus, basic math, movement and sound (hearing + visual). counting can be taught by this activity. Insights from teachers Sometimes teacher had to go in the school’s office, children become unmanageable In learning language; speech, hand for me. When she goes out, these children gestures and facial expressions have become very mischievous and sometimes equal importance. start fighting each other. And I realized many time it’s very difficult to manage. Auditory training can be more interesting There should be something attention and teaching also can be made playful grabbing, engaging them, but still there and interactive. should be someone elder to them to whom they listen to. Do not confuse children, you might be sending wrong information. Since, School has no ground these children made the staircase their ground. In recess, after eating Tiffin they used to play on staircase. I was also sitting on a bench near the staircase to observe them. While playing, five out of eight children used to speak. And all were like trying to show me different things like dancing, acting, jumping from higher stair to the ground. And they used to40
  50. 50. The Teacher testing hearing ofa student by using Sixth SenseTechnology. Child without cochlearimplant surgery stands nearthe teacher. 41
  51. 51. Child has been done chochlear implant has to stand in the corner of the class42
  52. 52. 43
  53. 53. 44 Children with stars :)
  54. 54. The teacher teaching a poemto children. 45
  55. 55. The teacher doing directed activity with children.46
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  57. 57. 8 Talking to parents: aids and surgery and also every time has to change batteries from hearing aid, so that Basic questions I had listed for them were: also becomes costly. When did they got to know about this Children don’t like if their parents are problem? Why in special schools, why not teaching, but parents doesn’t know how to in mainstream? What were the reactions talk with them. of other family members when they got to know about the child’s problem? Do they talk “You are not teacher, you are my mother; to their child at home? Do they study? With you don’t teach me. “ whom does he plays? Does he communicate with strangers? Interviews Below are the interpretations by parents, Once I went to meet Neha Kulkarni’s (hearing impaired girl in our junior batch) mother. So, I could directly talk to her, she “Bachche ke liye thoda mehnat explained me what methods were used to karana padta hai” raise her. Neha is also profound. She learnt at mainstream school. And the school is In local area there are schools for hearing very well known in the city. Teachers are impaired child, but its not good because they very supportive and took efforts to teach teach sign language and here they focus on her language and other subjects. She child to speak verbally started speaking by looking other children speaking. She gave many contacts, book When child talks with his friends and references to refer. I went on address which parents by signing, they don’t understand was given by hear. The address was of what the child speaks. ‘Gungaan’ toy-shop and game shop in Pune where you get intellectual games, puzzle Parents doesn’t know how to teach their games, etc. Games was basically to explain hearing impaired child or how to help them mathematics, Geography, science chapters to improve his studies and language. to children. Parents always want to integrate their child to the mainstream school, so that he will try to speak with them. In special school child use his natural sign language with other children with hearing impairment. Parents who are from lower middle class48 family, can not afford to buy costly hearing
  58. 58. Children and their parents 49
  59. 59. Talking to profound adult: of people. We lip read but some words we can not understand since, we can not see Ronit is in product design discipline from inside the mouth. In Some letters there are IDC and he loves to do photography. tongue movement used prominently. Neha is in animation. She enjoys doing He speaks about language, Language is not three dimensional paper craft and has a big issue. One can improve, if they practice mastered the art of Chinese origami. reading, listening (plus seeing), watching movies etc. But we have to try that what Ronit had done architecture, but he didn’t we are speaking, should be understood by want to make his career in architecture, people. Some words, could not be explained since nobody was ready for taking him for just by hand; verbal language is necessary, a job. He aspired to learn more into product then only right message can be perceived design and establish his own firm after by other person. M.des. Neha has a good skill in expressions and making 3D paper craft. Ronit has done I met Neha’s Mother, a girl in IDC who is his education in Bengali Medium and he hearing impaired Since her birth. Her mother speaks English also. Whatever he speaks has taken so much of efforts to teach her in English is not clear and other hearing and keep talking to her, She says, hearing students can’t understand it sometimes, impaired people has good imagination and and lot of students prefer not to talk to are good in expressing themselves visually. him, since they think that he might not We try to speak because we are able to be able to understand them. But he is communicate with more people because very hardworking. He tries to speak with we don’t want to stay in one particular group. everyone in the department. When I talked Sometimes when I explain something to to him about his hearing impairment first people, few people just listen it and say ‘OK‘, he mentioned that his pre-schooling was shows that they have understood But I dont done in special school and he was also like when people do this. They are always under speech therapy at the same time, he welcome to ask me if they don’t understood, was the integrated student to mainstream I will take all my effort to make them schools. He prefers that child should learn understood. I love to talk a lot, and in mainstream, there he tries to speak by always be happy. seeing other children talking. He said, their is no problem with the language, Conclusion: If children does practice and read a lot, it helps. Correcting speech is the main thing For them communication is necessary factor for hearing impaired children. and verbal language is important if they want expand their world. Ronit says, when we learn, we hear50 through our residual hearing and lip reading
  60. 60. Neha and Ronit withtheir characteristics 51
  61. 61. 10 These experiments was just like started speaking 1, 2, 3, 4…. And then he pilot experiments with the help of these started saying ‘machhli jal ki raani hai poem’. children. I wanted to see their response Other children as well came and started while drawing, solving puzzles, and speaking over phone. So the recording was playing a game. kind of encouraging them to speak. 1) Chakva’ game, which I was designed in 5) One experiment was after showing game design module under Prof. Aathvankar. expressions like happiness, anger, sadness I gave this game to play to these children to children and how they react. The Teacher and I thought I would know their interest showed the expressions to children and level and I was waiting to get something out children started doing the same with the of it, which was not the right way of doing faces, then teacher asked children when Experiments experiments. Besides this, They enjoyed did you get happy, sad and angry. Children playing this game. started telling stories such as one child says when papa take me for park I become very 2) Making letters out of puzzle, realized happy, when Pappa hits me then I become that the puzzle was going towards sad and I get angry when somebody teases identification of letters. me. Each children started their own story and each child was trying to speak. 3) Drawing exercise: drawing sun, river, house, bird etc. Use these images and make a story out of it. Teacher said they can create a story out of it, that will be advance for this children, because they can just read numbers, and speak language of very basic level. 4) This experiment happened unexpectedly. I was doing something on my mobile. Abdul, a child came to me asked me to take his picture. I clicked a picture, then he borrowed my phone to click picture of mine. Then he started looking at the other application and selected ‘voice recorder’ option and said to me “Aavaj”. He might know about this option but how can he identify that option is for voice recording or he not; So, I explained what voice recorder does. And click on the52 record button, I asked him to speak. He
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  64. 64. III Clarity Towards Project By having overview of all data collected, 11.   Problems Identification I started questioning myself starting from 12.   Insights Why I am doing this project? What are the 13.   Design Opportunities design problems? What are the children 14.   Aim, Objective and Design Goal needs? What I am trying to solve? What are the insights I got from contextual inquiry? What is the aim of my project? What are the aim of my project? What is focus of my project? I actually articulated answers of these questions and written down on paper. Clarity towards project was necessary before delivering best solutions. 55
  65. 65. 11 Selection of design problems has been done on the basis of children’s needs of learning languages. There are some holistic problems which would give opportunity to give solution for one problems which can solve many other problems. Problems are listed below. •  Construct sentences, grammar (post- positions, gender related sentences). •  Parents don’t know how to teach. Problem •  Some words or stories in Hindi are very difficult to explain. Identification •  These children can’t pronounce words properly. •  Children get easily tired and bored while practicing auditory training and duration practices, as they are monotonous. •  Children are taught to learn to speak at school. But, they don’t speak, they just do signing while communicating with other hearing impaired children, their friends and with family members at home. They don’t speak, because they are not being encouraged by others.56
  66. 66. 12 •  Parents don’t have idea of what is the right way to communicate with them so that they will have confidence of communicating in verbal language. So creating interaction between the child and parents is necessary. •  Visual aids, visual responses always attracts children. Visuals communicates well with them before any textual or verbal things. Children always enjoys Visual feedback.Insights •  Learning language is essential to write, listen and speak which is a means of communication with the world, Also, by speaking only they would learn to map the flow of speaking. If hearing impaired child practice to speak he can assimilate the language and will also help to improve speech, It is Important to encourage child to speak. •  If you give freedom to child to learn by doing fun, he learns quickly. •  It will be useful for hearing impaired children, if they know movement of tongue while saying syllables. •  Practice of listening through residual hearing. Speaking and reading are important to improve their language skills. 57
  67. 67. 13 •  Children should have idea of how tongue moves while speaking. Showing them tongue movement for alphabets and syllables can help them to know tongue movements. Visual aids are necessary to be made to show tongue movements in a good communicating way. •  Encouragement to speak is necessary. There can be many ways to encourage child to speak. Creating interaction between hearing impaired children Design and parents is necessary. A verbal communication is necessary rather that just communicating by signing. Opportunities •  Tongue exercises, babbling, and auditory training are the basic things to improve speech. Finding various techniques to do these practices are necessary to children Current methods makes children bored and tired. Practicing should become playful and interactive. •  Learning through Repetition through various methods is the keys to raise these children. Games can be invented by using these methods which will make learning interesting.58
  68. 68. 14 Aim of the project When we encourage infant with hearing ability, they can gain the confidence and desire to speak sooner. Hearing impaired children has to fill up this gap. Child should speak and improve his language skills is the aim of the project. Objective My project objective will be experientialAim, Objective learning methods for children. And there will be immediate solutions rather than designing concept for future. With the helpand Design Goal of technology it could become very easy; there will be no challenge in the project. It is better to give solution for current situations rather than designing with technology which doesn’t exist. Design goal Hearing impaired children do not speak, so that they are not able to improve their language skills, they are not able to communicate well with people around, 4 to 8 years old children are the beginners who starts learning verbal languages. ‘An interactive method can be designed to help teacher to encourage 4 to 8 year old hearing impaired children to speak.’ 59
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  70. 70. IV Alternative Concepts This part explains about how I developed 15.   Brainstorming on Ideas initial ideas and sculpt them into concept, 16.   Experiments then what feedback I got after testing 17.   Number of Concepts these concepts, How I chose the final 18.   Concept Comparison and Ratings concept after comparison and rating 19.   Choosing Final Concept on the basis of feedback which I got and focus of the project. 61
  71. 71. 15 Brainstorming started with asking of hand explaining tongue movement, questions to myself that how will children such metaphors. get encouragement to speak? By doing what children will speak? How visual feedback •  Design interesting mascots or masks, would work? children can wear mascots or masks and make story telling, Without restricting for cost or anything, I allowed ideas to come freely. Initially in •  Make children teachers, they can ask some ideas focus was less and identification questions to other children. factor was more, such ideas I removed from the list. Some ideas seemed to be working, •  Interactive screen displayed in class so I kept such a ideas aside to work later. which supports sound recognition Brainstorming technology, when they say something ,then •  A device will give visual feedback only something appear on screen or an when child speaks, this will encourage animation plays. on Ideas child to speak more. •  Various visual techniques to teach •  Tongue movement practice for beginner, to individual alphabet. There can be a book bring flexibility to the tongue. or animation which explain how the letter can be spoken, which sound makes that •  Special mobile for them, so that they will alphabet, etc. play talking game. •  Guide book or software for parents how •  Expressive words explaining stories in the to what should they do to encourage their form of animation. child to speak. •  Kiski poonch hai? Lion? Monkey? or Zebra? •  Show how each letter sound by showing Asking such a question can encourage tongue movement through visually, child to speak. Other question recognize vibration, air, etc. who says what? what Cat says ? What Dog says? What Crow says? etc. •  Expressive letters with expressive illustrations, children can read those text •  Earn scores by just speaking letters, and expressive illustrations will reinforce device recognizes speech and when them to speak. letters appears on screen, child says and will get points. •  Echo of self sound, let children hear their own voice. Implementing this ideas by •  Metaphorical use of tongue to show using voice recorder.62 its movement, monkeys tail, shadow
  72. 72. •  Dumb charades game, children will have to identify what is the word.•  Complete words and sentences, create fill in the blanks for children.•  Make letters alive, letters will speak and then children will copy them.•  Create own picture book and talk about it•  Make children parrot, on the basis of this ideas next idea was to wear a puppet in their hand so they will speak.•  Encourage them to make sounds like shuuu, achchu, eeee, tat tat, etc•  Speech therapists uses techniques like blowing, sucking, swallowing, etc to clear the speech of hearing impaired children. They tell him to say ‘a’ and to blow the air from the mouth at the same time, in such a way children learn to speak alphabet ‘Ha’. Such techniques can be done from them to speak letters and improve the clarity in speaking. So I started to think other techniques so that it can encourage child to pronounce those sounds and practice by repetition method. So there can be many techniques to produce each sound (Vowels and Consonants). 63