Presentations are an vital part of business today. Almost every professional has had to give a presentation for business purposes. Some people think that engineers spend all of their time designing behind a computer or machine. The truth of the matter is that most engineers will give numerous presentations through his/her career. In fact, presentations have become such an integral part of the engineer’s job that many engineering courses now require the students give presentations in class. Throughout an engineer’s career, there will be many reasons to give presentations. At the conception stages of a project, engineers will give presentations to introduce new ideas for which they seek approval. Many times throughout a project life, the engineer will need to convey the purpose or intent of the project or aspects of the project to team members, to management or even to the customer. Sometimes the presentation serves to persuade the audience to his/her way of thinking or ideas in order to get the proper support for the project. Sometimes, the presentation merely conveys information for general consumption. Often times, the presentations are designed to communicate progress on the project/process. Some organizations or department set up fixed intervals for the progress communications. Often times, presentations are given to demonstrate the ideas, products and/or the results of the project. Finally, when the project is complete and the deliverables are validated and verified, engineers will give presentations to wrap up and close the project.
The ability to connect with the audience and to show them the purpose of the presentation is very important in order to be effective. Therefore, it is most beneficial for an engineer to learn the key elements of successfully making presentations and presenting to an audience. Whether it is your colleagues, managers, subordinates, suppliers or customers, the audience needs to be engaged, stimulated, and even entertained. Any presentation has basically three main relationships between the presenter and the presentation, the presentation and the audience and finally, the presenter and the audience. Basically, the presenter is the vehicle for which the message in the presentation is delivered to the audience.
In other words, you, the presenter, have information that the audience wants or needs. Your role, then is to effectively relate this information to the audience to receive the desired results of the presentation. Your purpose, your data, your approach, your visual, even your style of delivery is based on the needs, desires and interests of the audience. In order to properly connect with the audience, you must understand their role and relationship to you, the organization, and their vested interest in the subject. Even the fact that the audience is in the same room or distant should affect your decision on why and in what way your present the information. Other key factors that may help you to tailor your presentation appropriately are the size, the demographics, the attitudes, and the knowledge base of the audience.
The two main types of presentations are: informative and persuasive. Informative speech relays new information. For this type of presentation, you need the listener to know something that you know. Informative speeches contain new and useful information for the audience. Therefore, focus on that subject’s pertinent points and the principles applied. Introduce the information in small amounts because people need time to receive, digest and reflect on the new information. Therefore, also repeat the information often. If the presentation is persuasive, you want to convince or persuade people to your point of view and, possibly, motivate them to take some course to action. Try to present a logical thought process to demonstrate a need. Identify and highlight the problem as it relates to the audience. Then offer the audience a solution; feature the actions and the benefits to the product, service and, mostly, the audience.
There are three common types of presentation machinery. The first type are overhead transparencies or viewgraphs. The basic equipment is the overhead projector. Individual transparencies hold each slide of the presentation. The presentation slides are transferred to the transparencies using a printer or copier. This is the least technical and easiest approach to provide presentation visual aid. However, it does allow the presenter to have more control over the media because it can easily being changed during the presentation. For example, if during the presentation, he/she wants to skip a slide or change the order, he/she can simply do so by removing or changing the transparency. Also, he/she can write on the transparency for clarification, to emphasize a point or to change the content. Just as there are advantages, there are also some disadvantage to overhead viewgraphs. One disadvantage is the ongoing cost for the materials such as the transparencies and toner ink. Another disadvantage is that viewgraphs are static and do not allow for dynamic multimedia. Finally, the ink colors can become dull or washed-out.
The second common presentation method are the thirty-five millimeter slides. The equipment for this presentation type is a thirty-five millimeter slide projector; the slide medium are film slides. This method of presentation has very high resolution, quality and bright colors. However, it requires a high quality camera. Also, it requires time to process the film; therefore, this must be factored into the lead time for the presentation. Consequently, making changes to the content of the presentation slides can be cumbersome. Finally, the equipment is sensitive and, thus, sometimes can cause difficulties in performing.
The third method is the computer based projection system. This system requires a computer and a projection machine. This system is highly technical and requires proper connections between the two systems. Presentation development systems, like Microsoft PowerPoint, Corel Presentations and Macintosh Keynotes, allow one to easily prepare high quality, creative and professional presentations. The initial investment is usually high for the projector and the computer. The computer does provide high resolution and brightness to the presentation. In addition, unlike the other methods, the computer allows one to create animation, sound, film clips and dynamic slide transition; this can help greatly to emphasize a point and add interest to the presentation. One problem with the system is that it can be unreliable.
Like the written report, a well-wrought report follows a three-part structure of introduction, body, and conclusion. Visual aids such as graphs and charts are crucial to help add interest and emphasis to the subjects. If they are in color, animated or 3-dimensional, then they are all the more impressive. However, colors and graphics can be overdone. A glitzy but hollow presentation can be visually stimulating but not effective in persuading the audience. Again, this goes back to really understanding the audience and understanding their needs. Remember, the goal is to express, not impress. As a general rule, simplicity is also a very good practice in making presentations. If more information is needed by the audience, you can always include a copy of the slides with notes and additional information as a handout for the audience members.
Design templates are often used in presentation slides. The design or frame is a common background or theme for the presentation. The common material may include school logos, project name, pictures, and so forth. Also, the templates help to standardize fonts, sizes, color and style. Also, templates show consistency throughout the presentation. Have you noticed the frame for this presentation? Many presentation software systems have “pre-made” designs called templates. When choosing the design, pick a template that is creative, even meaningful but not too busy or to see. The framing element should be simple and not detract from the contents of the slide. Also, care should be given to select the colors for the design. Some colors clash and actually make the slide look unpleasant to view. Other colors are too similar and make it difficult to distinguish the details. Try to use color contrasts that can be seen from afar. In addition, try to use large fonts. You should be able to print six slides on one side of a single 8-1/2” x 11” piece of paper and read the text without straining your eyes. Sometimes this is hard to judge whether there would be a problem with the color, contrast or size when you are looking at a computer screen. If you know the room size, you can test out your templates to make sure that the slides appear clear and easy on the eyes from the back of the room. Finally, if possible, use horizontal slide orientation. Most programs use horizontal slides. These project best in most rooms.
Here is an example of how the difference in color, contrast and style can play on the clarity of the words. These top two slides show letters that are sufficiently sized and the colors that have sufficient contrast to distinguish the words. However, the next slides show the same information. As you can see, the words are hard to see because the colors do don’t contrast enough to distinguish the different letters. If someone was watching a presentation with this slide, they would have to strain to see. This can cause not only a distraction for the audience but also a frustration.
A strong introduction is critical to the success of your presentation. First, it captures and focuses the audience’s attention. Your introduction should peak the audience’s interest and make them want to listen. This is sometimes called a hook to draw the audience’s attention. Some techniques that people commonly use are: Ask a question that might set people’s mind searching for the answer. State an unusual fact. Tell an interesting story or historical even Present a catchy phrase or quote Use humor Get audience to talk to you or each other Secondly, the introduction establishes the purpose and scope of the presentation. Each audience member wants to know what the presentation will offer him/her. It is your responsibility to let them know the scope of the presentation as quickly as possible to motivate them to listen. Finally, the introduction also establishes your credibility to the audience, especially if you do not know some of the audience members. Talk about yourself in terms of your background and expertise. Power Presentation ,Brody, Marjorie and Shawn Kent, pg 89
The body, or main text, develops the ideas and the purpose of the presentation. Obviously, the body of the presentation has to be focused on supporting the purpose of the presentation. However, there is much flexibility on how to achieve this depending on the purpose, type and data. Some ideas to consider when creating the body are: Use visuals like graphs in the presentation to show and support the data. Sometime it is easier to see and comprehend the impact of the data with a visual graph rather than a list of numbers. Organize the flow of the presentation in a logical manner. Some people prefer to present the information chronologically. Try to make the points valid, interesting and memorable. consider involving your audience to keep their interest throughout the presentation if it is appropriate, try to use examples and/or stories that support your data or purpose. People are interested to hear about the experiences of others. Often times, people remember information better when they can remember it with some relationship like a story. Other relationships like cause and effect and comparisons are also usually very effective in helping people better grasp information. Finally, make sure that you specify your assumptions and define the terms that are necessary.
Just as the introduction is vital, so is the conclusion. Having a strong conclusion can give the audience a favorable impression of the presentation. The goals of the conclusion are: to review and emphasize the purpose and key points of the presentation. leave the audience remembering the speech, and If the presentation is persuasive, then the conclusions should prompt the audience to action. Therefore, the conclusion has basically two parts: the first part reviews the subject, the second part ends with a memorable statement. Use the conclusion to repeat and reemphasize the purpose and keys points of the presentation. Then use a transition phrase to move onto the the memorable statement. Like the hook in the introduction, you want the ending statement to also grab the audience. Remember, this is the last formal opportunity to impress upon the audience the purpose of the presentation. Some ideas might be to return to the opening hook or grabber, point to the possible future or call for action. Finally, thank the audience.
Another key element to successfully communicating data in a presentation is to use graphs and diagrams where possible. The advantage of graphs and diagrams is the representation of the numbers and ideas. How many times have you heard the saying “a picture is worth a thousand words”? Graphs and diagrams help to translate the conceptual into its visual equivalent. Graphs make your ideas more easily accessible and sometimes, more understandable to the audience.
Using color in the presentations can greatly improve the presentation. Color can be the most engaging design element of your presentation if you choose your colors correctly. It can add richness and depth to your message. We live in a techno-color world so why not let the presentation reflect it? The colors can reflect the world we live in. In addition to reflecting the reality of the world around us, color can also reflect abstract ideas. For example, red could mean alert or warning whereas, blue could mean calm. In fact, blue is found to be one of the most liked color for presentations. Animations and video can also make the presentation more effective. Obviously, animation, sound, color all appeal to our senses; it adds a new dimension to the presentation. It makes the presentation more dynamic instead of static. It is fun, exciting and can be a very useful tool to increase the audience attention and express your message. However, you should be careful of the colors, animation and videos that you choose to use. Too much of one or more can be more of a distraction than a compliment to the presentation.
As stated earlier, simplicity is helpful to keep from distracting the audience. However, the level of simplicity really depends on the purpose of the presentation. If the slides are to be used in presentation only, then words should minimal and in simple short phrases. Use bullet points for listing. Don’t try to overwhelm the slides with words because it is difficult to read and pulls the attention of the audience away from the speaker. A simple slide allows the speaker to use the key words as talking point, and the audience will tend to listen to the speaker instead of spending a lot of time reading the slides. If more in-depth information needs to provided to the audience, consider distributing handouts of the slides with additional notes. Look at the example of this same slide without the concept of simplicity. Notice how the full sentences are difficult and distracting to read.
Here is an example of the handout. Each page has the presentation and the additional information that is said during the presentation. Obviously more information can be provided depending on the needs of the audience members.
After the presentation is complete, offer an opportunity for the audience to ask questions. Make sure that you leave enough time for questions at the end of your presentation. When developing the presentation, plan for the time for questions. If you are unsure, time yourself before the presentation and make the proper adjustment. When you are answering a question, make sure that you repeat it to the audience. Often times, other audience members may not hear the question clearly.
People do not “read” an oral presentation like they do a written report. They read the character and credibility of the public speaker. This shows that it is not only what you say that is important, but also HOW you say it in a presentation. The hows are considered nonverbal signals. They can be visual or auditory or even olfactory. They include signals such as what you wear, gestures, facial expressions, stance, volume, speed and even pauses in the sentences. Therefore, it is equally as important to ensure that these signals do not distract from the presentation but rather support the message as much as possible. Have you ever listened to a song and appreciated its musical merits? However, later you watch the music video and find that you like the song even more or less? In fact, every time you hear the song afterwards, your even still see certain images from the video. Everything you see in the video are non-verbal signs. Technically, the song is the same; however, the singer’s expression, the emotional theme or the intrigue of the video message all serve to sell the song and add to the richness of the song. That is what nonverbal communication can add to your presentation. As seen from the graphics on this slide, by capturing the visual cues of the hand placement or the stance, you can recognize which one of the characters is confused and which is feeling dejected and tired. That is the power of nonverbal communication.
So by recognizing the visual signals, you can use them to add richness to your message rather than detract from it. The first and probably easiest visual signal to control is your choice of clothing. Chose clothing that enhances your presentation message and gives the appearance of professionalism. Keep in mind, professionalism does not always mean that you dress in a business suit; it is that you dress appropriately for the occasion to address and relate to your audience effectively. Being underdressed or even overdressed can impact your comfort and confidence in your presentation. For a formal presentation, dress with colors and style that compliment you or your image. For example, for men, dark cool-toned colors, such as navy, gray and black subconsciously communicate power. However, larger men should avoid black because it can appear intimidating. Closed suit jackets give the impression of broad chest and narrow waist. For women, color and style are more flexible. However, you should avoid skirts that are too short and blouses that are too low-cut. Try not too wear clothes that are very colorful or are too busy that might distract the audience. Finally, dress for your comfort; your clothes should be loosely fitted. Clothes that are too loose can make you look disheveled and can be distracting. Clothes that are too tight can be provocative, constrictive and uncomfortable. (Source: Power Presentation, Brody, Marjorie and Shawn Kent, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1993, pg 24) Secondly, eye communication is very important. Eye contact is looking at someone directly, seeing that person and, in a sense, conversing with that person. It may seem difficult but it is very important to relating to the audience. Although it may seem easier to focus on a friendly or familiar face, you should always try to vary your attention. Don’t simply move from one person to the next sequentially across the room. You want to select different sections of the room, sometimes opposite sections to continually show attention to the entire room. You should make an “S” or “Z” pattern. However, make your moves slowly so you do not want to look like you are scanning the room. For example, you might want to look at someone on the right, then on the left, then on the right back and then the left back and then the center, and so on and so on. When you do make eye contact, you want the eye contact to be sincere, which means that the other person is responsive and is aware that you have made eye contact with him/her. Be careful not to stare at the person; that will make them feel uncomfortable. Look at person for a few seconds and finish your sentence, thought or idea before your move on. Facial expressions also help your audience relate to you. It shows the listeners that you are interested in the subject. Try to appear calm, enthusiastic, friendly and remember to smile. Facial expressions
Posture, movement and gestures are highly visible and dynamic elements of the presentation. Face your audience and hold your shoulders squarely. Try to keep your body spine straight and don’t hunch over. When you are not gesturing, keep your hands relaxed and to the side. To keep from swaying or rocking when you are standing, try to keep your feet parallel to each other, pointed straight ahead and comfortably apart. Flex your knees and put your weight on the balls of your feet. Movement is very important also but it is usually difficult for people. If you move too much, it would look like you are pacing. If you move, it should be smooth, natural and/or necessary. Movement can help when establishing contact with people from different parts of the room. When done correctly, movement keeps the audience engaged and interested. Closing the distance will encourage people to respond when asked a question. Gestures are your arm and hand movements. They serve to reinforce and emphasize the message. Therefore, they should be used purposefully and sparingly, when needed, to be more effective. They work best when they are uninhibited and spontaneous. Varying the gestures keeps them from being trite; it is easy to habitually use the same gestures; however, if the audience recognizes that, it become less effective and, maybe even a distraction. Do not cross your arms in front of you because it appears defensive and closed. Open palms facing upwards are more inviting. Sometimes a simple nod and smile can emphasize the point and engage your audience.
Vocal signals are pitch, volume, rate, emphasis and pause. Pitch is the variation in the voice from high to low. Volume is the loudness or softness of the voice. Try to control and vary your volume and pitch as you speak. The variety adds interest and holds the audience’s attention. Rate is the speed of the words. Often, nervousness causes people to increase the rate of speech. Try to keep a pace like when you are speaking to someone one-on-one. Normal speaking is around 120 and 150 words per minute. If you are uncertain, try to time your rate. Another nonverbal vocal signal in the emphasis of words or phrases in the speech. Where you place the emphasis in a sentence can greatly affect what the audience understands. Make sure that you emphasize the words or phrases that make your point to the audience. Finally, pause, when used properly, can successfully frame an idea so the audience can clearly distinguish its importance. Using all of these nonverbal cues can dramatically and effectively peak the audience’s interest, hold the audience’s attention and, most importantly, communicate the key purposes of the presentation.
Now you have completed your presentation slides, you need to prepare for the actual presentation. First, make sure you have proof-read and verified your slides. It is easy to overlook something when you making the presentation. Sometimes people get too focused on creating the overall package and information that some of the details may have been missed. You’d hate to find an error during the presentation so take some time to distance yourself and then, try to review and proofread your presentation objectively. Secondly, if possible, try to set up and learn to use the equipment before the presentation. You don’t want to struggle with the equipment when everyone is watching. It can be embarrassing and damage your credibility as a professional. In addition, make sure you have all your props ready such as a pointer or pens if necessary. Another key way to prepare for the presentation is to have a backup plan. In case the equipment runs into problems, it is recommended that you should have hard copies or handouts of the slides. You should always have a backup copy of the slides. Finally, it is very important that you practice, practice and practice. Practicing will help you to fine tune the presentation and help to make you more comfortable during the actual presentation.
In addition to the tips that have been given so far, here are some tips for when you actually give the presentation. Speak clearly and loudly enough to be heard If you are introduced, thank the moderator. If the moderator does not introduce you, then introduce yourself Make a smooth transition between speakers. Often you can comment positively on what the previous speaker said. Spend little time to change the slide. If possible, talk through the transition so that the thoughts flow freely from slide to slide. Have a slide on the screen at all times so the audience has a visual to refer. The only exception to this rule is possibly the at the beginning or the end of the presentation. Tell in advance if you are about to change the topic Also, try to use a pointer to identify key points on the screen. It is always a good idea to bring a pointer to use for the presentation; even if you don’t use it during the presentation, you might need it for any questions. Keep with the times allocated to you. This falls back to practicing. Make sure you practice to know your general times.
Just as there are “Do’s” for giving presentations, there are also several “Don’t” that will improve your presentation significantly. First, don’t talk to the screen. When you are speaking, you will need to refer to the bullets points or graphs on the screen. Obviously, you will need to look at the screen to direct the audience to the key points or locations on the screen; however, you should take the time to point out the screen and turn back to the audience to continue speaking. A second don’t is to not stand in front of the screen. Doing so will block the view for the audience to see the slides. If possible, stand to the side of the presentation or away, where you cannot distract the audience from the points on the presentation slides. Third, don’t use your hand as a pointer. Again, it is distractively because you can block the screen and looks unprofessional. Similarly, do not point at the audience. It appears aggressive to most people. Don’t put your hands in your pocket because it looks too casual and closed to the audience. Don’t look at your watch. If you need to keep time, put a clock or watch on the table where your look at it inconspicuously.
Other don’ts include: Use phrases such as “ah”, “um” or “ok” to fill in dead spaces Use terms that are not defined. Either define terms verbally or on slide Read material directly from the slides. Audiences usually expect more information than just those written on the slides. Try to add more in-depth insight for the audience. Don’t switch back to previous slides shown if possible. If your need a chart or graph from a previous slide, place it in the needed area again. It is okay to repeat the slides if it helps to prove or show your cause. Finally, try not to use material in which you cannot answer questions. Surely enough, if you get asked the question that you cannot answer, it will discredit your character and your presentation.
In every engineers career, he/she will be asked to present projects, progress and products. It is critical to know the elements that make a successful presentation. Making a presentation takes a lot of time, preparation and effort. The presentation should be both logical and focused on the message or goal of the presentation. Some of the key consideration to creating a successful presentation are understanding the needs of the audience, the types of presentations, the equipment used, visual aids and the supporting data. All these serve to reinforce the message of the presentation. By understanding the key factors of most presentations, you will be able to tailor your presentations to meet your objectives. Ultimately, a successful presentation will help to win the support of your customer, managers, and colleagues.
1. GATEWAY Engineering Presentations Development and Delivery Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State UniversitySl. #1
2. GATEWAYNeeds for Presentations in Engineering • Introduce new ideas for approval • Share a purpose/intent • Persuade • Convey information • Communicate progress on project/process • Demonstrate ideas/projects/products • Wrap up a project Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #2
3. GATEWAYRelationships Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #3
4. GATEWAYKnow your audience • What are the needs/desires? • Their roles • Their interest to the subject • Distant or live audience • Size • Demographics • Attitudes • Knowledge Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #4
5. GATEWAYTypes of presentations • Informative • focus on pertinent points • introduce small amount • repeat often • Persuasive • motivate and convince • demonstrate a need • provide proof/evidence • show benefits Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #5
6. GATEWAYTypes of Presentation Machinery• Overhead transparencies or viewgraphs − Overhead projector, transparencies − Lowest tech of approaches to visual aids − More control to presenter over media − Easily changed during presentation − On-going costly − Static multimedia − Can become dull/washed-out Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #6
7. GATEWAYTypes of Presentations Machinery • Thirty-five-mm slides − Slide projector, film slides − High resolutions and brightness − Requires high quality camera − Film processing needs to be factored in to lead time − Possible equipment difficulties due to sensitivity Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #7
8. GATEWAYTypes of Presentations Machinery• Computer-based projection system − Computer, projection − Initial investment relatively high for projection system − High resolution and brightness − Include animation, film clips, dynamic slide transition − High tech which can be unreliable Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #8
9. GATEWAYBasis for Presentation • Design Templates • Introduction, Body, Conclusion • Graphic elements, charts • Color, animation, video • Simplicity • Handouts, notes Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #9
10. GATEWAYDesign Structure and Template • Common background or theme • Logos, project name, pictures • Standardize size, colors, fonts, style • Simple, non distractive • Use appropriate color contrast and font size • Use horizontal slides Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #10
11. GATEWAYTemplate example Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #11
12. GATEWAYIntroduction• Purpose − Focuses audience attention • Ask a question • State an unusual fact • Tell an interesting story or historical even • Present a catchy phrase or quote • Use humor • Get audience to talk to you or each other − Establishes purpose of presentation − Establishes you as a credible source Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Power Presentation,Brody, Marjorie and Shawn Kent, pg 89 Sl. #12
13. GATEWAYBody • Purpose: − Development of presentation ideas • Organize in logical manner • Use visuals to support data • Make points interesting and memorable • Involve your audience • Use examples and stories • Show relationships (C&E, comparisons) • Define assumptions and terms Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #13
14. GATEWAYConclusion • Purpose: − Review the purpose and/or key points − Leave the audience remembering the speech − If persuasive, prompt audience for action • Structure: − Review points − Memorable statement − Thank the audience Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #14
15. GATEWAYUse graphs, diagrams Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #15
16. GATEWAYUse color, animation and video • add interest, richness and depth • make presentation more dynamic Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #16
17. GATEWAYSimplicity • few words on each slide • bullet point list • phrases • talking points Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #17
18. GATEWAYHandouts Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #18
19. GATEWAYAnswering questions • Ask audience for questions • Leave enough time of questions • Before answering a question, repeat it Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #19
20. GATEWAYNon Verbal CommunicationVisual signals Vocal signals • clothing • volume • gestures • speed • expressions • pitch • stance • pauses Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #20
21. GATEWAYNon-verbal Visual Do’s • Dress professionally − Dress appropriately for occasion − Dress with colors that compliment − Dress for comfort • Eye communication − Keep eye contact with audience − Vary your target − Complete a thought or idea • Facial Expression Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Power Presentation,Brody, Marjorie and Shawn Kent, pg 24 Sl. #21
22. GATEWAYNon verbal visual Do’s • Posture and movement • stand upright, hold shoulders squarely • open posture • don’t sway • keep movements smooth, natural • Gestures • emphasize point • use purposefully and sparingly • vary gestures • palms open and upward Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Power Presentation,Brody, Marjorie and Shawn Kent, pg 30 Sl. #22
23. GATEWAYNon-verbal Vocal Do’s • Pitch • Volume • Rate • Emphasis • Pause Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Power Presentation,Brody, Marjorie and Shawn Kent, pg 30 Sl. #23
24. GATEWAYDo’s for Preparing the Presentation • Check slides for accuracy and organization • Learn to use the equipment before making the presentation • Have pointers, pens, etc. • Have backup copies of slides or handouts • Practice, practice, practice Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #24
25. GATEWAYDo’s for Giving the Presentation • Speak clearly and loudly • If you are introduced, thank the moderator • Make a smooth transition between speakers • Spend little time changing slides • Have a slide on the screen at all times • Tell in advance if you are to change topics • Use a pointer • Keep with the times allocated to you Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #25
26. GATEWAYDon’ts for Giving the Presentation • Talk to the screen • Stand in front of the screen • Use your hand as a pointer • Point at the audience • Put your hands in your pocket • Look at watch Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #26
27. GATEWAYDon’ts for Giving the Presentation• Use phrases such as “ah”, “um” or “ok”• Use terms that are not defined• Read material directly from the slides• Switch back to previously shown slides• Use material in which you cannot answer questions Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #27
28. GATEWAYSummary • Elements to successful presentation: − Time, preparation and effort − Needs of audience − Logical flow − Presentation types/equipment − Visual aids − Supporting data − Presenter Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #28
29. GATEWAYCredits • This module is intended as a supplement to design classes in mechanical engineering. It was developed at The Ohio State University under the NSF sponsored Gateway Coalition (grant EEC-9109794). Contributing members include: • Gary Kinzel…………………………………. Project supervisors • Phuong Pham.……………. ………………... Primary authors • L. Pham ………………………………….….. Audio voice References: Power Presentation, Brody, Marjorie and Shawn Kent, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 1993. Tools and Tactics of Design, Dominick, Demel, Lawbaugh, Freuler, Kinzel, Fromm, John Wiley and Sons, Inc., New York, 2001. Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #29
30. GATEWAYDisclaimer This information is provided “as is” for general educational purposes; it can change over time and should be interpreted with regards to this particular circumstance. While much effort is made to provide complete information, Ohio State University and Gateway do not guarantee the accuracy and reliability of any information contained or displayed in the presentation. We disclaim any warranty, expressed or implied, including the warranties of fitness for a particular purpose. We do not assume any legal liability or responsibility for the accuracy, completeness, reliability, timeliness or usefulness of any information, or processes disclosed. Nor will Ohio State University or Gateway be held liable for any improper or incorrect use of the information described and/or contain herein and assumes no responsibility for anyone’s use of the information. Reference to any specific commercial product, process, or service by trade name, trademark, manufacture, or otherwise does not necessarily constitute or imply its endorsement. Department of Mechanical Engineering, The Ohio State University Sl. #30