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cross cultural communication






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cross cultural communication cross cultural communication Presentation Transcript

  • Cross Cultural ManageMent SUBMITTED BY; DEEPAK KUSHWAHA
  • Outline of TalkOutline of Talk  Importance of cultural differences  Failure of Cross-cultural Management  Hofstede Cultural Dimensions  Halls and Halls Cross Culture  Sources of help
  • Why are cultural differences important?  “What you can do in one to two weeks in Europe can take months here” Chris Chenug commenting on SMEs doing business in China (EIU, 2011)  This is often considered to be a problem of bureaucracy and/or corruption – but in essence these are often closely connected to different cultural attitudes.
  • Failure of Cross-cultural Management  Iridium a 26 country satellite venture went into liquidation in 1999 after it proved incapable of managing cross- cultural problems. o “According to one person who was there, several partners refused to talk to him after the meeting”. (Fitzgerald Communications. Transcript of a conference Call regarding Iridium Satellite LLC, December 12, 2000)
  • Hofstede Cultural DimensionsHofstede Cultural Dimensions • Geerd Hofstede found there are four dimensions of culture that help to explain how and why people from various cultures behave as they do. • Based on data gathered from 2 questionnaire surveys with over 116,000 respondents from over 70 countries • Hofstede’s research has been criticized as it surveyed individuals only from IBM’s local subsidiaries worldwide
  • Measuring Cultural DifferencesMeasuring Cultural Differences  Hofstede’s measures o Power distance index (PDI) - the extent to which the less powerful members of society accept that power is distributed unequally o Individualism (IDV)- the importance of individual (rather than collective or group) rights and achievements o Uncertainty Avoidance Index (UVI) - the degree of acceptance of uncertain outcomes in the face of changing circumstances
  • Measuring Cultural Differences o Masculinity (MAS) - the distribution of emotional roles - masculine values are more associated with competition and ambition, while feminine values are more associated with relationships and quality of life issues o Long Term Orientation (LTO) - degree of acceptance of long term time horizons – future as opposed to present outcomes
  • Cultural Differences Source: http://www.geert-hofstede.com/
  • Communicating Across Cultures • Communication Dimensions: Crucial issues in inter-cultural communications are: language & culture, differences between high and low context cultures, use of interpreters and non-verbal communication.. • Language and culture • High and low context languages • Use of interpreters • Non-verbal communication
  • Halls and Halls Cross Culture Classification • Halls and Halls in 1987 provided another basis for cross-cultural classification. They divided the world into two types of cultures: • Low Content Cultures • High Content Cultures • The dimension used by him for such a division were context (High/Low) and flow of messages (Explicit/Implicit) he contrasted high and low context cultures in the manners outlined in the next slide
  • Halls and Halls Cross Culture Classification Low Context Cultures High Context Culture Paper work encouraged More reliance on verbal communication No rooms for emotions Emotions are given importance No role of trust in getting job Trust considered important Time considered precious Easy going w.rt. time Project clearances based on facts Based on personal background Lawyers are important Less important US, Germany, Switzerland India, Australia, Arab countries
  • Example of Negotiations differences with Asian and Western parties  Goal - Thai, Chinese, and Japanese negotiators value long-term relationships. Western negotiators aim at signing a contract.  Communication - Thais tend to speak softly and use almost no gestures, and prefer indirect language. Americans are direct and prefer a straightforward presentation with a minimum of game playing.
  • Example of Negotiations differences with Asian and Western parties  Time - Americans are sensitive to time. They view it as a limited resource that must not be wasted. Japanese spend time to learn about their counterparts. Thais have a very relaxed attitude to time and scheduling  Nature of agreements - Thais generally respect contracts, but personal commitment has more value. Germans are detail-oriented and prefer specific provisions.
  • Typical Openings of a Meeting in Different Cultures (Source: Lewis 2000) Minuten 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Italy UK France U.S. Germany Japan . 20 - begin, when all have arrived. Minutes 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 Spain / UK Finland Japan formal introduction, sit down, begin. formal introduction, coffee, sit down, begin. informal introduction, coffee, jokes, begin. formal introduction, tea & biscuits, 10 minutes small-talk, (weather, comfort, sport), begin. formal introduction, 15 minutes small-talk (politics, scandals etc.), begin. formal introduction, prescribed seating arrangements, green tea, 15- 20 minutes small-talk (courtesies), abrupt signal of highest-ranking member, begin. 20 - 30 minutes small-talk (soccer, family), while other participants arrive,
  • Cross-cultural Space within a Country Space of cultural interaction for firm
  • • The aim of the study is to get a clear picture of cross-cultural human resource management and therefore knowing how to managing the harmonious working relationship between expatriates and local employees by aIONnalyzing problems consist of the concept of cross-cultural human resource management. Problems exist between expatriates and local employees, and how to manage cross-cultural human resource management.
  • • Chutian Laser was established in 1985, after more than 20 years of developing, Chutian Laser Group has devoted itself to Industry Laser, Medical Laser, and Laser Job shop business. Based on the domestic and international cooperation with laser, laser systems and laser related components manufacturers in world-wide; Chutian Laser Group has been a laser solution terminal in China. • The successfully developed dual optical path laser welding machines have been exported to the U.S. Silicon Valley, which realized the breakthrough of exporting Chinese laser products to the developed countries. It developed successfully the first Skin Rejuvenation Machine of China, which invented the “Photon rejuvenation” wave of fashion beauty. Chutian Laser Group has applied for 265 patents, which has the largest number of laser patents held in China. • Is the largest supplier of medical laser products in Asia. It is also the largest laser handicraft manufacturing base in the world.
  • • El.En. Group was founded in 1981, is the parent company of high-tech industrial group operating in the opto-electronics sector, which exploits its own technology and multidisciplinary know-how to produce laser sources and innovation laser systems for medical and industrial application.
  • Penta Chutian Laser Equipment Co., Ltd •Penta Chutian Laser Equipment Co., Ltd is a joint venture by Wuhan Chutian Laser Group and Italian El.En. Group, that manufactures and sells high-power laser cutting machines. According to Mr. Wu, Wuhan Chutian started to sell El.En s‟ cutting machine in 2005, it paid high price to import the machines and sell them in China. El.En wanted to have more profit in China by controlling more than 50% of the shares of the joint venture. In 2007, Penta Chutian was born, •Wuhan Chutian Laser was able to exchange market for technology and El.En could have more profit by controlling 55% of share holdings. The following figure is the company structure of Penta Chutian Laser Equipment Co., Ltd:
  • • Employees in younger age have fewer language and cultural problems. • Employees who have stayed at Penta Chutian Laser Equipment Co., Ltd for a longer time have fewer language and cultural problems. • Employees who have more and richer international experiences have fewer language and cultural problems. • In individualism and Long-term Orientation dimension, the biggest gap between China and Italy according to “Five Culture Dimension” scores, is that Italians show more obvious attitudes, which caused some problems.
  • • From Student presentation of Bradford School of Management. • Online help-Some of it free. • www.geert-hofstede.com. • Case Study of Pu Jing from pdf of University of Applied Science. • Numprasertchai & Swierczek, 2006, Journal of Intercultural Communication.