"Consumer behaviour may be defined as the behaviour that consumers display in searching for, purchasing, evaluating and disposing of produces, services and ideas which they expect will satisfy their needs."
INTRODUCTION- SCHIFFMAN & KANUK"Consumer behaviour may be defined as the behaviourthat consumers display in searching for, purchasingsuing, evaluating and disposing of produces, services andideas which they expect will satisfy their needs."
Characteristics Of Buyer Behaviour Comprises both mental and physical activity of consumer. Buyer behaviour is a integral part of human behaviour Buyer behaviour is the process by which individuals decidewhether, what, when, from whom, where and how to buy. Buyer behaviour is very dynamic and complex In many cases, it is the sum total of the behaviour of anumber of persons It is influenced by internal factors such asneeds, habit, attitudes etc.. And external factors likefamily, social group, culture etc… Consumer behaviour starts before buying and goes evenafter buying
NEED OR IMPORTANCE OF STUDY OFCONSUMER BEHAVIOURIt is important for the marketers tounderstand the buyer behaviour due to the followingreasons:It helps in formulating effective marketing strategy.It gives information regarding colour, design, andother features that a consumer want in his product.Thus it helps in formulating production policy.It is important for framing suitable pricing policies.Consumers demand more for quality products atreasonable prices. Marketers should first study theneeds of consumers and then try to satisfy them.
NEED OR IMPORTANCE OF STUDY OFCONSUMER BEHAVIOUR Rapid technological advancement compels the marketersto study consumer behaviour. Understanding of consumer behaviour helps avoid orminimise market failures. For effective market segmentation and target marketing, itis essential to have an understanding of consumer andtheir behaviour.
Stimuli• Hunger• Thirst• A person’s normalneedsNeed RecognitionDifference between an actual state and a desired stateThe Buyer Decision ProcessStep 1. Need RecognitionExternal Stimuli• TV advertising• Magazine ad• Radio slogan•Stimuli in theenvironment
•Family, friends, neighbors•Most influential source ofinformation•Advertising, salespeople•Receives most informationfrom these sources•Mass Media•Consumer-rating groups•Handling the product•Examining the product•Using the productPersonal SourcesCommercial SourcesPublic SourcesExperiential SourcesThe Buyer Decision ProcessStep 2. Information Search
Product AttributesEvaluation of Quality, Price, & FeaturesDegree of ImportanceWhich attributes matter most to me?Brand BeliefsWhat do I believe about each available brand?Total Product SatisfactionBased on what I’m looking for, how satisfiedwould I be with each product?Evaluation ProceduresChoosing a product (and brand) based on oneor more attributes.The Buyer Decision ProcessStep 3. Evaluation of Alternatives
Purchase IntentionDesire to buy the most preferred brandPurchase DecisionAttitudesof othersUnexpectedsituationalfactorsThe Buyer Decision ProcessStep 4. Purchase Decision
SOCIAL FACTORS Reference Groups Family Members Relatives Role in the Society Status in the society
Table showing a traditional family life cycleSTAGE CHARACTERISTICS BUYING PATTERNBachelorhood Young people not living athomeFashionable and recreationgoodsNewly married couples Young couples withoutchildrenFashionable and leisurearticles, furnishings,utensilsFull nest stage I Begins with the birth of thefirst child in the familyChild’s clothes, food andmedical expensesFull nest stage II Youngest child is at least sixyears oldChild’s toys to bicycles andeducation of childrenFull nest stage III Teen aged or college goingchildrenEducational expensesEmpty nest I stage Older married coupleswithout any dependentchildren living with themTravel or homeimprovementMedical expensesSolitary stage Death of a life partner Special needs for attention,loving care and security.
PERSONAL FACTORS Occupation Age Economic Condition Lifestyle Personality
PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS Perception Learning Beliefs and Attitude Motivation
Two of the best - known theories of motivation are- Abraham Maslow Frederick Herzberg
HERZBERG’S THEORYFrederick Herzberg developed a two factor theory thatdistinguishes dissatisfiers (factors that cause dissatisfaction)from satisfiers (factors that cause satisfaction). The absenceof dissatisfiers is not enough to motivate a purchase; satisfiermust be present .Example- A computer that does not come with a warrantywould be a dissatisfier. Yet the presence of a productwarranty would not act as a satisfier or motivator of apurchase, because it is not a source of intrinsic satisfaction.Ease of use would be a satisfier.
TOOLS TO STUDY COSUMER BEHAVIOUR Surveys Projective Techniques Focus Group Discussions
CONCLUSIONAs customer is the king, it is very important forevery organisation to understand the needs and wants oftheir consumer and try to satisfy them. For this the study ofconsumer behaviour is very essential.Consumer Delight:when the actual product performance exceeds the buyer’sexpectations, consumer will be highly satisfied . So excess ofactual product performance over the expectation is called“consumer delight”.Today consumer delight has therefore become a buzz word.