The roman empire
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this is to give a detail account of the rise and fall of roman empire in detail which would be very helpful to the students in my opinion.

this is to give a detail account of the rise and fall of roman empire in detail which would be very helpful to the students in my opinion.
Thankyou

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  • {"38":"The mixing of elements of Greek, Hellenistic, and Roman culture produced a new culture, called Greco-Roman culture. This is also often called classical civilization. Roman artists, philosophers, and writers did not merely copy their Greek and Hellenistic models. They adapted them for their own purposes and created a style of their own. Roman art and literature came to convey the Roman ideals of strength, permanence, and solidity.\nRome’s Enduring Influence \nBy preserving and adding to Greek civilization, Rome strengthened the Western cultural tradition. The world would be a very different place had Rome not existed. Historian R. H. Barrow has stated that Rome never fell because it turned into something even greater—an idea—and achieved immortality. As mighty as the Roman Empire had been, however, it was not the only great civilization of its time. Around the same period that Rome was developing its enduring culture, different but equally complex empires were emerging farther east. In India, the Mauryan and Gupta empires dominated the land, while the Han Empire ruled over China.\nBe sure to mention other Classical Civilzations: Gupta India & Han China in the conclusions\n","27":"Remarkably, Rome survived intact for another 200 years. This was due largely to reform-minded emperors and the empire’s division into two parts. \nDiocletian Reforms the Empire In A.D. 284, Diocletian, a strong-willed army leader, became the new emperor. He ruled with an iron fist and severely limited personal freedoms. Nonetheless, he restored order to the empire and increased its strength. Diocletian doubled the size of the Roman army and sought to control inflation by setting fixed prices for goods. To restore the prestige of the office of emperor, he claimed descent from the ancient Roman gods and created elaborate ceremonies to present himself in a godlike aura. Diocletian believed that the empire had grown too large and too complex for one ruler. In perhaps his most significant reform, he divided the empire into the Greek speaking East (Greece, Anatolia, Syria, and Egypt) and the Latin-speaking West (Italy, Gaul, Britain, and Spain). He took the eastern half for himself and appointed a co-ruler for the West. While Diocletian shared authority, he kept overall control. His half of the empire, the East, included most of the empire’s great cities and trade centers and was far wealthier than the West. Because of ill health, Diocletian retired in A.D. 305. However, his plans for orderly succession failed. Civil war broke out immediately. By 311, four rivals were competing for power. Among them was an ambitious young commander named Constantine, the same Constantine who would later end the persecution of Christians.\n","33":"The decline of the Western Roman Empire took place over many years. Its final collapse was the result of worsening internal problems, the separation of the Western Empire from the wealthier Eastern part, and outside invasions.\nGermanic Invasions \nSince the days of Julius Caesar, Germanic peoples had gathered on the northern borders of the empire and coexisted in relative peace with Rome. Around A.D. 370, all that changed when a fierce group of Mongol nomads from central Asia, the Huns, moved into the region and began destroying all in their path. In an effort to flee from the Huns, the various Germanic people pushed into Roman lands. (Romans called all invaders “barbarians,” a term that they used to refer to non-Romans.) They kept moving through the Roman provinces of Gaul, Spain, and North Africa. The Western Empire was unable to field an army to stop them. In 410, hordes of Germans overran Rome itself and plundered it for three days.\nAttila the Hun Meanwhile, the Huns, who were indirectly responsible for the Germanic assault on the empire, became a direct threat. In 444, they united for the first time under a powerful chieftain named Attila (AT•uhl•uh). With his 100,000 soldiers, Attila terrorized both halves of the empire. In the East, his armies attacked and plundered 70 cities. (They failed, however, to scale the high walls of Constantinople.) The Huns then swept into the West. In A.D. 452, Attila’s forces advanced against Rome, but bouts of famine and disease kept them from conquering the city. Although the Huns were no longer a threat to the empire after Attila’s death in 453, the Germanic invasions continued.\nAn Empire No More \nThe last Roman emperor, a 14-year-old boy named Romulus Augustulus, was ousted by German forces in 476. After that, no emperor even pretended to rule Rome and its western provinces. Roman power in the western half of the empire had disappeared. The eastern half of the empire, which came to be called the Byzantine Empire, not only survived but flourished. It preserved the great heritage of Greek and Roman culture for another 1,000 years. (See Chapter 11.) The Byzantine emperors ruled from Constantinople and saw themselves as heirs to the power of Augustus Caesar. The empire endured until 1453, when it fell to the Ottoman Turks. Even though Rome’s political power in the West ended, its cultural influence did not. Its ideas, customs, and institutions influenced the development of Western civilization—and do so still today.\n","22":"By the third century A.D., the Roman military was also in disarray. Over time, Roman soldiers in general had become less disciplined and loyal. They gave their allegiance not to Rome but to their commanders, who fought among themselves for the throne. To defend against the increasing threats to the empire, the government began to recruit mercenaries, foreign soldiers who fought for money. While mercenaries would accept lower pay than Romans, they felt little sense of loyalty to the empire. Feelings of loyalty eventually weakened among average citizens as well. In the past, Romans cared so deeply about their republic that they willingly sacrificed their lives for it. Conditions in the later centuries of the empire caused citizens to lose their sense of patriotism. They became indifferent to the empire’s fate.\n","28":"Remarkably, Rome survived intact for another 200 years. This was due largely to reform-minded emperors and the empire’s division into two parts. \nDiocletian Reforms the Empire In A.D. 284, Diocletian, a strong-willed army leader, became the new emperor. He ruled with an iron fist and severely limited personal freedoms. Nonetheless, he restored order to the empire and increased its strength. Diocletian doubled the size of the Roman army and sought to control inflation by setting fixed prices for goods. To restore the prestige of the office of emperor, he claimed descent from the ancient Roman gods and created elaborate ceremonies to present himself in a godlike aura. Diocletian believed that the empire had grown too large and too complex for one ruler. In perhaps his most significant reform, he divided the empire into the Greek speaking East (Greece, Anatolia, Syria, and Egypt) and the Latin-speaking West (Italy, Gaul, Britain, and Spain). He took the eastern half for himself and appointed a co-ruler for the West. While Diocletian shared authority, he kept overall control. His half of the empire, the East, included most of the empire’s great cities and trade centers and was far wealthier than the West. Because of ill health, Diocletian retired in A.D. 305. However, his plans for orderly succession failed. Civil war broke out immediately. By 311, four rivals were competing for power. Among them was an ambitious young commander named Constantine, the same Constantine who would later end the persecution of Christians.\n","23":"During the third century A.D., several factors prompted the weakening of Rome’s economy. Hostile tribes outside the boundaries of the empire and pirates on the Mediterranean Sea disrupted trade. Having reached their limit of expansion, the Romans lacked new sources of gold and silver. Desperate for revenue, the government raised taxes. It also started minting coins that contained less and less silver. It hoped to create more money with the same amount of precious metal. However, the economy soon suffered from inflation, a drastic drop in the value of money coupled with a rise in prices. Agriculture faced equally serious problems. Harvests in Italy and western Europe became increasingly meager because overworked soil had lost its fertility. What’s more, years of war had destroyed much farmland. Eventually, serious food shortages and disease spread, and the population declined. \n","29":"Constantine Moves the Capital \nConstantine gained control of the western part of the empire in A.D. 312 and continued many of the social and economic policies of Diocletian. In 324 Constantine also secured control of the East, thus restoring the concept of a single ruler. In A.D. 330, Constantine took a step that would have great consequence for the empire. He moved the capital from Rome to the Greek city of Byzantium (bih•ZAN•tshee•uhm), in what is now Turkey. The new capital stood on the Bosporus Strait, strategically located for trade and defense purposes on a crossroads between West and East. With Byzantium as its capital, the center of power in the empire shifted from Rome to the east. Soon the new capital stood protected by massive walls and filled with imperial buildings modeled after those in Rome. The city eventually took a new name—Constantinople, or the city of Constantine. After Constantine’s death, the empire would again be divided. The East would survive; the West would fall.\n","35":"The eastern half of the empire, which came to be called the Byzantine Empire, not only survived but flourished. It preserved the great heritage of Greek and Roman culture for another 1,000 years. (See Chapter 11.) The Byzantine emperors ruled from Constantinople and saw themselves as heirs to the power of Augustus Caesar. The empire endured until 1453, when it fell to the Ottoman Turks. Even though Rome’s political power in the West ended, its cultural influence did not. Its ideas, customs, and institutions influenced the development of Western civilization—and do so still today. \nThe gradual decline of the Roman Empire ushered in an era of European history called the Middle Ages, or the medieval period. It spanned the years from about 500 to 1500. During these centuries, a new society slowly emerged. It had roots in: (1) the classical heritage of Rome, (2) the beliefs of the Roman Catholic Church, and (3) the customs of various Germanic tribes.\nInvasions of Western Europe\nIn the fifth century, Germanic invaders overran the western half of the Roman Empire (see map on page 351). Repeated invasions and constant warfare caused a series of changes that altered the economy, government, and culture \n","24":"By the third century A.D., the Roman military was also in disarray. Over time, Roman soldiers in general had become less disciplined and loyal. They gave their allegiance not to Rome but to their commanders, who fought among themselves for the throne. To defend against the increasing threats to the empire, the government began to recruit mercenaries, foreign soldiers who fought for money. While mercenaries would accept lower pay than Romans, they felt little sense of loyalty to the empire. Feelings of loyalty eventually weakened among average citizens as well. In the past, Romans cared so deeply about their republic that they willingly sacrificed their lives for it. Conditions in the later centuries of the empire caused citizens to lose their sense of patriotism. They became indifferent to the empire’s fate.\n","30":"Constantine Moves the Capital \nConstantine gained control of the western part of the empire in A.D. 312 and continued many of the social and economic policies of Diocletian. In 324 Constantine also secured control of the East, thus restoring the concept of a single ruler. In A.D. 330, Constantine took a step that would have great consequence for the empire. He moved the capital from Rome to the Greek city of Byzantium (bih•ZAN•tshee•uhm), in what is now Turkey. The new capital stood on the Bosporus Strait, strategically located for trade and defense purposes on a crossroads between West and East. With Byzantium as its capital, the center of power in the empire shifted from Rome to the east. Soon the new capital stood protected by massive walls and filled with imperial buildings modeled after those in Rome. The city eventually took a new name—Constantinople, or the city of Constantine. After Constantine’s death, the empire would again be divided. The East would survive; the West would fall\n","31":"Historians generally agree that the end of the reign of the emperor Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 161–180) marked the end of two centuries of peace and prosperity, known as the Pax Romana. The rulers that followed in the next century had little or no idea of how to deal with the giant empire and its growing problems. As a result, Rome began to decline.\n","37":"The eastern half of the empire, which came to be called the Byzantine Empire, not only survived but flourished. It preserved the great heritage of Greek and Roman culture for another 1,000 years. (See Chapter 11.) The Byzantine emperors ruled from Constantinople and saw themselves as heirs to the power of Augustus Caesar. The empire endured until 1453, when it fell to the Ottoman Turks. Even though Rome’s political power in the West ended, its cultural influence did not. Its ideas, customs, and institutions influenced the development of Western civilization—and do so still today. \n","26":"Historians generally agree that the end of the reign of the emperor Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 161–180) marked the end of two centuries of peace and prosperity, known as the Pax Romana. The rulers that followed in the next century had little or no idea of how to deal with the giant empire and its growing problems. As a result, Rome began to decline.\n","32":"The decline of the Western Roman Empire took place over many years. Its final collapse was the result of worsening internal problems, the separation of the Western Empire from the wealthier Eastern part, and outside invasions.\nGermanic Invasions \nSince the days of Julius Caesar, Germanic peoples had gathered on the northern borders of the empire and coexisted in relative peace with Rome. Around A.D. 370, all that changed when a fierce group of Mongol nomads from central Asia, the Huns, moved into the region and began destroying all in their path. In an effort to flee from the Huns, the various Germanic people pushed into Roman lands. (Romans called all invaders “barbarians,” a term that they used to refer to non-Romans.) They kept moving through the Roman provinces of Gaul, Spain, and North Africa. The Western Empire was unable to field an army to stop them. In 410, hordes of Germans overran Rome itself and plundered it for three days.\nAttila the Hun Meanwhile, the Huns, who were indirectly responsible for the Germanic assault on the empire, became a direct threat. In 444, they united for the first time under a powerful chieftain named Attila (AT•uhl•uh). With his 100,000 soldiers, Attila terrorized both halves of the empire. In the East, his armies attacked and plundered 70 cities. (They failed, however, to scale the high walls of Constantinople.) The Huns then swept into the West. In A.D. 452, Attila’s forces advanced against Rome, but bouts of famine and disease kept them from conquering the city. Although the Huns were no longer a threat to the empire after Attila’s death in 453, the Germanic invasions continued.\nAn Empire No More \nThe last Roman emperor, a 14-year-old boy named Romulus Augustulus, was ousted by German forces in 476. After that, no emperor even pretended to rule Rome and its western provinces. Roman power in the western half of the empire had disappeared. The eastern half of the empire, which came to be called the Byzantine Empire, not only survived but flourished. It preserved the great heritage of Greek and Roman culture for another 1,000 years. (See Chapter 11.) The Byzantine emperors ruled from Constantinople and saw themselves as heirs to the power of Augustus Caesar. The empire endured until 1453, when it fell to the Ottoman Turks. Even though Rome’s political power in the West ended, its cultural influence did not. Its ideas, customs, and institutions influenced the development of Western civilization—and do so still today.\n","21":"Historians generally agree that the end of the reign of the emperor Marcus Aurelius (A.D. 161–180) marked the end of two centuries of peace and prosperity, known as the Pax Romana. The rulers that followed in the next century had little or no idea of how to deal with the giant empire and its growing problems. As a result, Rome began to decline.\n"}

The roman empire Presentation Transcript

  • 1. The Roman empiRe Presented by: Deepak Kumar ( 10 ) Ashish Singh( 11 ) Sandeep Kumar ( )
  • 2. Roman Empire
  • 3. Struggle for control ■ Alexander died in 323 B.C. ■ Rome dominated most of the Italian peninsula ■ Expansion southward brought Rome into collision with Carthage, the greatest power in the western Mediterranean ■ Second Carthaginian war (218-201 B.C.): Rome’s southern Italian allies defected to Hannibal ■ Third war with Carthage in 201 B.C.: Rome emerged not merely victorious but a world power
  • 4. Rome’s transformation into worldpower ■ Roman transformation of Greek tradition through contact with Greek cities in southern Italy, Sicily and mainland Greece ■ Greek culture began to permeate Roman ■ The military victories brought in huge numbers of enslaved war captives ■ Wealthy businessman exerted control over the government ■ Growing gulf between the wealthy and the poor
  • 5. How was the Republic replaced by imperial rule? ■ General prosperity masked the potential conflicts ■ Civil war ■ By the end of the first century B.C., Rome was the capital of an empire that stretched from the Straits of Gibraltar to the frontiers of Palestine ■ It gave peace and orderly government to the Mediterranean area for the next two centuries
  • 6. Rome in first century B.C.
  • 7. Rome’s legacy ■ The ideal of the world –state, an ideal that was taken over by the medieval Church ■ The Church claimed a spiritual authority as great as the secular authority it replaced ■ How did they achieve success? ■ Talent for practical affairs (aqueducts) ■ Not notable political theorists, but they organized a stable federation ■ Conservative to the core: gravitas ■ The great body of Roman law is one of their greatest contribution to Western civilization
  • 8. Aquaduct
  • 9. Compare Roman and Greek civilizations ■ ■ ■ ■ Rome: manliness, industry, discipline Greece: adaptability, versatility, grace Greek history begins with an epic poem The Romans conquered half of the world before they began to write ■ Latin literature began with a translation of the Odyssey ■ Latin writers borrowed from Greek originals openly and proudly (Virgil)
  • 10. Odyssey
  • 11. Roman emperors ■ The civil conflict ended in the establishment of a powerful executive ■ The Senate retained an impressive share of the power in the Republic, but the new development led to autocracy ■ Augustus, after the murder of his uncle Julius Caesar in 44 BC., controlled the western half of the empire by 31 B.C. ■ Battle with Mark Anthony, ruler of the eastern half of the empire ■ Augustus’s victory united the empire under one authority and ushered in an age of peace and reconstruction
  • 12. Roman emperors ■ The successors of Augustus ruled the ancient world for the next 200 years with only occasional disturbances ■ Nero who abused his immense power was overthrown ■ A.D. 96-180 “Five good emperors”: ■ Longest period of peace that has ever been enjoyed by the inhabitants of an area that included Britain, France, southern Europe, the Middle East, North Africa ■ Yet the literature of the second century reflects a spiritual emptiness described in Petronius’s Satyricon: the new rich can think only in terms of money and material possessions
  • 13. Religion ■ New religions were imported from the East that made their appeal to citizens of the world: to all nations and classes ■ Worship of the Egyptian goddess Isis ■ Hebrew prophet Jesus, crucified in Jerusalem, risen from the dead ■ Christianity, persecuted and working underground, finally triumphed and became the official religion of the Roman world ■ The Church in Rome, by converting the new inhabitants, made possible the preservation of much of that Latin and Greek literature that was to serve as a basis for the Middle Ages and the Renaissance
  • 14. The Roman Republic Rome began as a city-state that was heavily influenced by Greek culture
  • 15. The Roman Republic By 509 B.C., Rome was ruled by elected Senators who served in the Roman Republic
  • 16. The Roman Republic During the Republic, Rome expanded by defeating Carthage in the Punic Wars & later under generals like Julius Caesar
  • 17. The Roman Republic But, the Republic weakened due to corruption, civil wars, & the assassination of Julius Caesar in 44 B.C.
  • 18. The Roman Empire After Caesar’s death, Rome became an empire ruled by the Emperor Augustus
  • 19. The Roman Empire Under Augustus, Rome entered an era of peace & prosperity known as the Pax Romana Pax Romana
  • 20. The Roman Republic After 207 years of prosperity during the Pax Romana, the Empire began to decline & was conquered in 476 A.D. Pax Era of Romana decline
  • 21. The Decline of the Roman Empire ■ The fall of the Roman Empire happened in 3 major stages: –An era of decline due to internal problems within Rome
  • 22. The Romans experienced political problems The empire was too large for one emperor to control Emperors after the Pax Romana were weak Citizens experienced a loss of confidence, patriotism, & loyalty to the Roman gov’t
  • 23. The Romans experienced economic problems Outside groups disrupted trade Rome had a trade imbalance (they bought more than they produced) Poor harvests led The gov’t raised taxes & printed to food shortages new coins which led to inflation The economic decline left many Romans poor
  • 24. The Romans experienced military problems Germanic tribes outside Rome were gaining strength The Roman military was To save money, Romans growing weak: generals hired foreign soldiers were challenging the but these “mercenaries” authority of the emperors were not loyal to Rome
  • 25. The Decline of the Roman Empire ■ The fall of the Roman Empire happened in 3 major stages: –An era of decline due to internal problems within Rome –A brief period of revival due to reforms by Emperors Diocletian & Constantine
  • 26. Attempts to Reform the Empire ■ In 284 A.D. Emperor Diocletian came to power & made a series of reforms that temporarily halted Rome’s decline – To fix the military, he doubled the size of the Roman army – To fix the economy, he fixed prices for goods – To fix the lack of loyalty, he presented himself as a godlike emperor
  • 27. Diocletian’s most important reform was realizing Rome was too large & dividing the empire into the Western Eastern Roman Empires The empire was dividedEast was far wealthier than But, the empire The between Greek-speaking was also divided the West because it had most of & Latin-speaking halves great cities & trade centers by wealth the
  • 28. Attempts to Reform the Empire ■ After Diocletian, the emperor Constantine came to power & continued to reform Rome – To help unify Rome, he ended persecutions & converted to Christianity – He moved the official capital from Rome to a new city in the East, called Constantinople
  • 29. Constantinople was a major trade center & was easy to defend; They city was built in the Roman style but had a strong Greek & Christian influence
  • 30. The Decline of the Roman Empire ■ The fall of the Roman Empire happened in 3 major stages: –An era of decline due to internal problems within Rome –A brief period of revival due to reforms by Emperors Diocletian & Constantine –Continued decline, invasion by Germanic “barbarians”, & the conquest of Rome
  • 31. After Emperors Diocletian & Constantine, The Collapse of the continued to decline the Western Roman EmpireRoman Empire Disease, corruption, & declining economy exposed the West to attack from outside invasions
  • 32. The Collapse of outside By 370 A.D., “barbarian” groupsthe Roman Rome, led by the Huns,Empire attack began to The weak Roman army in the West could do little to stop the invasions; By 476, Germanic barbarians conquered Western Rome
  • 33. The Fall of Rome
  • 34. The decline of the Fall After the Western Roman Empire led to the Middle Ages of Rome
  • 35. The East the Fall of Rome Empire After became the Byzantine & flourished for another thousand years The Byzantine Empire kept alive the cultural achievements of ancient Greece & Rome
  • 36. The Classical Era Greek & The combination of Roman achievements are known as Greco-Roman culture The civilizations of the Classical Era produced important achievements that are still used today
  • 37. From Republic to Empire Main Idea Governmental and social problems led to the end of the Roman Republic and the creation of a new form of government. Reading Focus • What problems did leaders face in the late Roman Republic? • How did Rome become an empire? • What helped tie the Roman empire together during the Pax Romana?
  • 38. Problems in the Late Republic By the mid-100s BC, Rome had no rival anywhere in the Mediterranean world. However, the responsibilities of running their vast holdings stretched the Roman political system to its limits. Social Unrest • Revolution began in political, social institutions • Tensions grew between classes of Roman society • Gracchi brothers tried to resolve tension Soldier-Farmers • Tribune Tiberius Gracchus noted mistreatment of soldier-farmers • Many reduced to poverty • Tiberius, brother Gaius tried to help soldiers Public Land • Gracchi tried to redistribute public land to farmers • Had public support, but Senate feared Gracchi trying to reduce its power • Senate urged mobs to kill brothers
  • 39. The Military in Politics ■ 107 BC, social unrest reached new level ■ General Gaius Marius elected consul – Eliminated property restrictions – Accepted anyone who wanted to join army ■ Armies, private forces devoted to general – Poor hoped to share plunder at end of war – Ruthless generals realized loyalty of troops could be used as political tool
  • 40. Social and Civil Wars The Social War Civil War • Rome’s Italian allies had been trying to obtain Roman citizenship • Social War revealed talent of General Lucius Cornelius Sulla • Senate wanted to maintain monopoly on power, refused • 90 BC, Social War broke out • Sulla became consul, 88 BC; after consulship ended, Marius tried to prevent Sulla from taking military command • Italian rebels were defeated, but Senate agreed to give them citizenship • Sulla marched on Rome, won civil war, became dictator • Carried out program of reforms to protect power of Senate
  • 41. Rome Becomes an Empire Sulla paved the way for major changes in Rome’s government. The end of the Republic resulted from the ambitions of a few individuals. The First Triumvirate • Julius Caesar, Gnaeus Pompey, Licinius Crassus helped bring end to Republic End of Triumvirate • Crassus died; Pompey, Caesar fought civil war • Caesar, Pompey successful military commanders • Caesar defeated Pompey, took full control of Rome, became dictator for life, 44 BC • Crassus one of wealthiest people in Rome • Caesar brought many changes to Rome, popular reforms • 60 BC, the three took over Roman state, ruled as First Triumvirate • Senate feared he would destroy Roman Republic, murdered him, Ides of March
  • 42. The Second Triumvirate • Caesar’s murder did not save the Republic • 43 BC, Second Triumvirate took power—Caesar’s adopted son, Octavian; loyal officer Marc Antony; high priest Lepidus • Lepidus pushed aside; Antony, Octavian agreed to govern half the empire each, Octavian in west, Antony in East Civil War • Civil war between Octavian, Antony broke out • Octavian defeated Antony and his ally, Egypt’s Queen Cleopatra • Cleopatra, Antony committed suicide; Octavian alone controlled Rome • Republic effectively dead; new period in Roman history beginning
  • 43. From Octavian to Augustus Octavian Takes Power • Octavian faced task of restoring order in empire • Had no intention of establishing dictatorship when he took power Principate New Political Order • Octavian decided it impossible to return Rome to republican form of government • Created new political order, known today as the empire New Title • Octavian careful to avoid title of king or emperor • 27 BC, Senate gave Octavian title Augustus, “the revered one” • Called himself princeps, “first citizen” • Title a religious honor; able to wear laurel and oak leaf crown • Government called Principate
  • 44. The Augustan Age New Imperial Government • Augustus head of state more than 40 years, made smooth transition to new imperial government with power divided between him and Senate • Most financial, administrative matters under Augustus’s control Foreign Affairs • Started program to bring peace to west, particularly to Gaul, Spain • Began series of conquests that pushed border eastward to Danube River • Also took special care of Rome itself Legacy • Created police force, fire brigades; stockpiled food, water • Began building program; presided over moral, religious reforms • Great period of cultural creativity; great writers like Horace, Ovid, Virgil
  • 45. Julio-Claudians and Flavians • • • • • Augustus died AD 14, empire ruled by Caesar’s relatives for 54 years Julio-Claudian Emperors’ abilities varied widely Tiberius a good soldier, competent administrator Caligula, brutal, mentally unstable; appointed favorite horse as consul AD 68, last of Julio-Claudians, Nero committed suicide Flavians • Following Nero’s death, civil wars raged in Rome • Four military leaders claimed throne in turn • Last, Vespasian reestablished order, as did reigns of two sons • Stability returned under Flavians The Good Emperors • AD 96, new line of emperors established—Good Emperors • Five rulers governed Rome for almost a century • From provinces different than Rome, continued opening Roman imperial society
  • 46. The Good Emperors Empire grew tremendously under Good Emperors ■ Reached limits of expansion under Trajan ■ Added what are now Romania, Armenia, Mesopotamia, and the Sinai Peninsula ■ Successor Hadrian thought empire too large – Withdrew from almost all eastern additions – Built defensive fortifications to guard against invasions – Built wall 73 miles long in northern Britain
  • 47. The Pax Romana The period from the beginning of August’s reign in 27 BC until the death of the last of the Good Emperors in AD 180 is often called the Pax Romana—the Roman Peace. This era was characterized by stable government, a strong legal system, widespread trade, and peace. Government Provinces • Roman government strongest unifying force in empire • Maintained order, enforced laws, defended frontiers • Aristocracy participated, but emperors made all important decisions • Empire divided into provinces ruled by governors appointed from Rome • Provincial government fair, efficient • Government in Rome kept close check on governors • Any citizen could appeal unfair treatment directly to emperor Empire brought uniformity to the cities of the Mediterranean world, which were governed in imitation of Rome.
  • 48. Legal System Laws • Roman law unified the empire • Laws specified what could, could not be done; penalties for breaking law • Same laws applied to everyone in empire, wherever they lived Agriculture • Agriculture remained primary occupation throughout Pax Romana • Most farms, independent with little, no surplus to sell • Tenant farmers began to replace slaves on large farms Manufacturing • Manufacturing increased throughout empire • Italy, Gaul, Spain—artisans made cheap pottery, textiles • Fine glassware made in eastern cities like Alexandria
  • 49. Opportunities for Trade Trade • Italy imported grain, meat, raw materials from provinces • Merchants brought silks, linens, glassware, jewelry, furniture from Asia • Rome, Alexandria became commercial centers Transportation • Commercial activity possible because of empire’s location around Mediterranean and extensive road network • Ultimately about 50,000 miles of roads bound empire together Military and Merchant Routes • Most roads built, maintained for military purposes • Cheaper to transport grain by ship from one end of Mediterranean to other than to send it overland; most goods went by sea
  • 50. Closure Activity ■ What were the important cultural contributions of the Classical Era? – Match the achievement with the appropriate classical civilization
  • 51. A good beginning mAkes A good ending