Your SlideShare is downloading. ×
0
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations
Upcoming SlideShare
Loading in...5
×

Thanks for flagging this SlideShare!

Oops! An error has occurred.

×
Saving this for later? Get the SlideShare app to save on your phone or tablet. Read anywhere, anytime – even offline.
Text the download link to your phone
Standard text messaging rates apply

Overview Of Gsm Cellular Network & Operations

3,954

Published on

0 Comments
2 Likes
Statistics
Notes
  • Be the first to comment

No Downloads
Views
Total Views
3,954
On Slideshare
0
From Embeds
0
Number of Embeds
1
Actions
Shares
0
Downloads
367
Comments
0
Likes
2
Embeds 0
No embeds

Report content
Flagged as inappropriate Flag as inappropriate
Flag as inappropriate

Select your reason for flagging this presentation as inappropriate.

Cancel
No notes for slide
  • 270.833 kb/s per carrier GMSK with a time bandwidth product BT =0.3 Slow frequency hoping 217/hops/second. Synchronization compensation for up to 233micro seconds absolute delay Block and convolutional channel coding copuled with interleaving to combat channel perturbations- overall channel rate of 22.8 kb/s Full rate channel 13 kb/s voice coder rate using regular pulse excitation/linear predictive coding RPE/LPC, half rate channel 6.5 kb/s using Vector coder rate using vector sum excited linear predictivie coding VSELP Overall full rate channel bit rate of 22.8 kb/s. Each cell can have from 1 to 16 pairs of carriers.
  • The system capacity depends on : The total number of radio channels The size of the cell The frequency re-use factor or distance The minimum distance which allows the same frequencies to be re-used will depend on many factors, The number of co-channel cells in the vicinity of the center cell The geography of the terrain, The antenna height The transmitted power within each cell
  • Due to assumptions 1MHz carrier 5 radio frequencies(radio channels) 5X200 kHz. Each radio frequency carries 8 traffic channels = 40 traffic channels/MHz Without cell splitting, traffic channels = 7.2MHzX40 = 288 traffic channels With 72 cells, 72/12(kfactor = 12) = 6 paterns(all spectrum may be used in a pattern), traffic channels = 6X288 = 1728 traffic channels With 246 cells, 246/12(K factor = 12) we will get 20 sectors + 6 cells, for 20 patterns and 6/12 we get 20X288 + 6/12*288 = 5904 traffic channels. For the same channels spacing and re-use pattern, the number of re-used channels is increased when cell radius are reduced.
  • The start of the uplink TDMA frame is delayed with respect to downlink by a fixed period of three timeslots. Why ? Staggering TDMA frames allows the same timeslot number to be used in both the down and uplink while avoiding the requirement for mobile to transmit and receive simultaneously. Between T and R the MS is in the IDLE mode, makes measurement of signal strength of neighboring cells.
  • Because of natural and man-made electromagnetic interference, the encoded speech or data signal transmitted over the radio interface must be protected from errors. GSM uses convolutional encoding and block interleaving to achieve this protection. The exact algorithms used differ for speech and for different data rates. The method used for speech blocks will be described below. Recall that the speech codec produces a 260 bit block for every 20 ms speech sample. From subjective testing, it was found that some bits of this block were more important for perceived speech quality than others. The bits are thus divided into three classes: Class Ia 50 bits - most sensitive to bit errors Class Ib 132 bits - moderately sensitive to bit errors Class II 78 bits - least sensitive to bit errors Class Ia bits have a 3 bit Cyclic Redundancy Code added for error detection. If an error is detected, the frame is judged too damaged to be comprehensible and it is discarded. It is replaced by a slightly attenuated version of the previous correctly received frame. These 53 bits, together with the 132 Class Ib bits and a 4 bit tail sequence (a total of 189 bits), are input into a 1/2 rate convolutional encoder of constraint length 4. Each input bit is encoded as two output bits, based on a combination of the previous 4 input bits. The convolutional encoder thus outputs 378 bits, to which are added the 78 remaining Class II bits, which are unprotected. Thus every 20 ms speech sample is encoded as 456 bits, giving a bit rate of 22.8 kbps. To further protect against the burst errors common to the radio interface, each sample is interleaved. The 456 bits output by the convolutional encoder are divided into 8 blocks of 57 bits, and these blocks are transmitted in eight consecutive time-slot bursts. Since each time-slot burst can carry two 57 bit blocks, each burst carries traffic from two different speech samples. Recall that each time-slot burst is transmitted at a gross bit rate of 270.833 kbps. This digital signal is modulated onto the analog carrier frequency using Gaussian-filtered Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK). GMSK was selected over other modulation schemes as a compromise between spectral efficiency, complexity of the transmitter, and limited spurious emissions. The complexity of the transmitter is related to power consumption, which should be minimized for the mobile station.
  • Normal burst 148 bits + 8.25 guard bits Frequency correction burst 148 bits + 8.25 guard bits Synchronizing burst 148 bits + 8.25 guard bits Access burst 88 bits +68.25 guard bits used to access a cell for the first time in case of a call set up or handover The data structure within a normal burst consists of 148 bits transmitted at a rate of 270.833 kb/s. Each burst in GSM system modulates one of the carriers assigned to a particular cell using GMSK.
  • Speech in GSM is digitally coded at a rate of 13 kbps, so-called full-rate speech coding. This is quite efficient compared with the standard ISDN rate of 64 kbps. One of the most important Phase 2 additions will be the introduction of a half-rate speech codec operating at around 7 kbps, effectively doubling the capacity of a network. This 13 kbps digital stream (260 bits every 20 ms) has forward error correction added by a convolutional encoder. The gross bit rate after channel coding is 22.8 kbps (or 456 bits every 20 ms). These 456 bits are divided into 8 57-bit blocks, and the result is interleaved amongst eight successive time slot bursts for protection against bursty transmission errors. Each time slot burst is 156.25 bits and contains two 57-bit blocks, and a 26-bit training sequence used for equalization. A burst is transmitted in 0.577 ms for a total bit rate of 270.8 kbps, and is modulated using Gaussian Minimum Shift Keying (GMSK) onto the 200 kHz carrier frequency. The 26-bit training sequence is of a known pattern that is compared with the received pattern in the hope of being able to reconstruct the rest of the original signal. Forward error control and equalization contribute to the robustness of GSM radio signals against interference and multipath fading. The digital TDMA nature of the signal allows several processes intended to improve transmission quality, increase the mobile's battery life, and improve spectrum efficiency. These include discontinuous transmission, frequency hopping and discontinuous reception when monitoring the paging channel. Another feature used by GSM is power control, which attempts to minimize the radio transmission power of the mobiles and the BTS, and thus minimize the amount of co-channel interference generated.
  • The full rate TCH uses 24 out of the 26 available in the multiframe The duration of the multiframe is therefore 26X60/13ms = 120ms At the 900 MHz range, radio waves bounce off everything - buildings, hills, cars, airplanes, etc. Thus many reflected signals, each with a different phase, can reach an antenna. Equalization is used to extract the desired signal from the unwanted reflections. It works by finding out how a known transmitted signal is modified by multipath fading, and constructing an inverse filter to extract the rest of the desired signal. This known signal is the 26-bit training sequence transmitted in the middle of every time-slot burst. The actual implementation of the equalizer is not specified in the GSM specifications.
  • Distinct training sequences will therefore be allocated to channels using the same frequencies in cells which are close enough to interfere with one another.
  • When a mobile station is first switched on it is necessary to read the BCCH in order to determine its orientation within the network. The mobile must first synchronize in frequency and then in time. The FCCH, SCH and BCCH are all transmitted on the same carrier frequency which has a higher power density than any of the other channels in a cell because steps are taken to ensure that it is transmitted information at all times. The mobile scans around the available frequencies, picks the strongest and then selects the FCCH. Fc+67.7kHz
  • The full rate TCH uses 24 out of the 26 available in the multiframe The duration of the multiframe is therefore 26X60/13ms = 120ms At the 900 MHz range, radio waves bounce off everything - buildings, hills, cars, airplanes, etc. Thus many reflected signals, each with a different phase, can reach an antenna. Equalization is used to extract the desired signal from the unwanted reflections. It works by finding out how a known transmitted signal is modified by multipath fading, and constructing an inverse filter to extract the rest of the desired signal. This known signal is the 26-bit training sequence transmitted in the middle of every time-slot burst. The actual implementation of the equalizer is not specified in the GSM specifications.
  • The GSM group studied several speech coding algorithms on the basis of subjective speech quality and complexity (which is related to cost, processing delay, and power consumption once implemented) before arriving at the choice of a Regular Pulse Excited -- Linear Predictive Coder (RPE--LPC) with a Long Term Predictor loop. Basically, information from previous samples, which does not change very quickly, is used to predict the current sample. The coefficients of the linear combination of the previous samples, plus an encoded form of the residual, the difference between the predicted and actual sample, represent the signal. Speech is divided into 20 millisecond samples, each of which is encoded as 260 bits, giving a total bit rate of 13 kbps. This is the so-called Full-Rate speech coding. Recently, an Enhanced Full-Rate (EFR) speech coding algorithm has been implemented by some North American GSM1900 operators. This is said to provide improved speech quality using the existing 13 kbps bit rate.
  • Mike
  • The first one of them Msa is the only one where all the levels of detail are given: The mobile station has two calls in progress (TI=a and b on PD=CC, on SAPI=0) And one SMS transaction (TI=A on SAPI=3).
  • Transcript

    • 1. Overview of GSM Cellular Network and Operations Ganesh Srinivasan NTLGSPTN
    • 2.  
    • 3. Network and switching subsystem <ul><li>NSS is the main component of the public mobile network GSM </li></ul><ul><ul><li>switching, mobility management, interconnection to other networks, system control </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile Services Switching Center (MSC) controls all connections via a separated network to/from a mobile terminal within the domain of the MSC - several BSC can belong to a MSC </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Databases (important: scalability, high capacity, low delay) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Home Location Register (HLR) central master database containing user data, permanent and semi-permanent data of all subscribers assigned to the HLR (one provider can have several HLRs) </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Visitor Location Register (VLR) local database for a subset of user data, including data about all user currently in the domain of the VLR </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 4. &nbsp;
    • 5. Operation subsystem <ul><li>The OSS (Operation Subsystem) enables centralized operation, management, and maintenance of all GSM subsystems </li></ul><ul><li>Components </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Authentication Center (AUC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>generates user specific authentication parameters on request of a VLR </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>authentication parameters used for authentication of mobile terminals and encryption of user data on the air interface within the GSM system </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Equipment Identity Register (EIR) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>registers GSM mobile stations and user rights </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>stolen or malfunctioning mobile stations can be locked and sometimes even localized </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation and Maintenance Center (OMC) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>different control capabilities for the radio subsystem and the network subsystem </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 6. Mobile Handset TEMPORARY DATA PERMANENT DATA - Temporary Subscriber Identity Permanent Subscriber Identity - Current Location Key/Algorithm for Authentication. - Ciphering Data <ul><li>Provides access to the GSM n/w </li></ul><ul><li>Consists of </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile equipment (ME) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Subscriber Identity Module (SIM) </li></ul></ul>
    • 7. The GSM Radio Interface
    • 8. The GSM Network Architecture <ul><li>Time division multiple access-TDMA </li></ul><ul><li>124 radio carriers, inter carrier spacing 200khz. </li></ul><ul><li>890 to 915mhz mobile to base - UPLINK </li></ul><ul><li>935 to 960mhz base to mobile - DOWNLINK </li></ul><ul><li>8 channels/carrier </li></ul>
    • 9. GSM uses paired radio channels 0 124 0 124 890MHz 915MHz 935MHz 960MHz UPLINK DOWNLINK
    • 10. Access Mechanism <ul><ul><li>FDMA, TDMA, CDMA </li></ul></ul>
    • 11. Frequency multiplex <ul><li>Separation of the whole spectrum into smaller frequency bands </li></ul><ul><li>A channel gets a certain band of the </li></ul><ul><li>spectrum for the whole time </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>no dynamic coordination necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>works also for analog signals </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>waste of bandwidth if the traffic is distributed unevenly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>inflexible </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>guard spaces </li></ul></ul>k 2 k 3 k 4 k 5 k 6 k 1 f t c
    • 12. Time multiplex <ul><li>A channel gets the whole spectrum for a certain amount of time </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>only one carrier in the medium at any time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>throughput high even for many users </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>precise synchronization necessary </li></ul></ul>k 2 k 3 k 4 k 5 k 6 k 1 f t c
    • 13. Time and Frequency Multiplex <ul><li>Combination of both methods </li></ul><ul><li>A channel gets a certain frequency band for a certain amount of time </li></ul>f t c k 2 k 3 k 4 k 5 k 6 k 1
    • 14. Time and Frequency Multiplex <ul><li>Example: GSM </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Better protection against tapping </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protection against frequency selective interference </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Higher data rates compared to code multiplex </li></ul></ul><ul><li>But: precise coordination required </li></ul>f t c k 2 k 3 k 4 k 5 k 6 k 1
    • 15. <ul><li>GSM combines FDM and TDM: bandwidth is subdivided into channels of 200khz, shared by up to eight stations, assigning slots for transmission on demand. </li></ul>
    • 16. GSM uses paired radio channels 0 124 0 124 890MHz 915MHz 935MHz 960MHz UPLINK DOWNLINK
    • 17. Code Multiplex <ul><li>Each channel has a unique code </li></ul><ul><li>All channels use the same spectrum at the same time </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Bandwidth efficient </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No coordination and synchronization necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Good protection against interference and tapping </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Disadvantages: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Lower user data rates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>More complex signal regeneration </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Implemented using spread spectrum technology </li></ul>k 2 k 3 k 4 k 5 k 6 k 1 f t c
    • 18. Various Access Method
    • 19. Cells
    • 20. Capacity &amp; Spectrum Utilization Solution <ul><li>The need: </li></ul><ul><li>Optimum spectrum usage </li></ul><ul><li>More capacity </li></ul><ul><li>High quality of service </li></ul><ul><li>Low cost </li></ul>I wish I could increase capacity without adding NEW BTS! What can I do? Network capacity at required QoS with conventional frequency plan Subscriber growth Time Out of Capacity!!!
    • 21. Representation of Cells Ideal cells Fictitious cells
    • 22. Cell size and capacity <ul><li>Cell size determines number of cells available to cover geographic area and (with frequency reuse) the total capacity available to all users </li></ul><ul><li>Capacity within cell limited by available bandwidth and operational requirements </li></ul><ul><li>Each network operator has to size cells to handle expected traffic demand </li></ul>
    • 23. Cell structure <ul><li>Implements space division multiplex: base station covers a certain transmission area (cell) </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile stations communicate only via the base station </li></ul><ul><li>Advantages of cell structures: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>higher capacity, higher number of users </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>less transmission power needed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>more robust, decentralized </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>base station deals with interference, transmission area etc. locally </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Problems: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fixed network needed for the base stations </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>handover (changing from one cell to another) necessary </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>interference with other cells </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cell sizes from some 100 m in cities to, e.g., 35 km on the country side (GSM) - even less for higher frequencies </li></ul>
    • 24. Capacity of a Cellular System <ul><li>Frequency Re-Use Distance </li></ul><ul><li>The K factor or the cluster size </li></ul><ul><li>Cellular coverage or Signal to interference ratio </li></ul><ul><li>Sectoring </li></ul>
    • 25. The K factor and Frequency Re-Use Distance i j 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Frequency re-use distance is based on the cluster size K The cluster size is specified in terms of the offset of the center of a cluster from the center of the adjacent cluster K = i 2 + ij + j 2 K = 2 2 + 2*1 + 1 2 K = 4 + 2 + 1 K = 7 D =  3K * R D = 4.58R 1 2 3 5 6 7 D R
    • 26. The Frequency Re-Use for K = 4 K = i 2 + ij + j 2 K = 2 2 + 2*0 + 0 2 K = 4 + 0 + 0 K = 4 D =  3K * R D = 3.46R i D R
    • 27. The Cell Structure for K = 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 2 1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 1 2 3 4 5 6 7
    • 28. Cell Structure for K = 4 1 2 3 4 1 1 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 3 2
    • 29. Cell Structure for K = 12 1 1 1 1 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 6 6 6 6 7 7 7 7 8 8 8 8 9 9 9 9 10 10 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 12
    • 30. Increasing cellular system capacity <ul><li>Cell sectoring </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Directional antennas subdivide cell into 3 or 6 sectors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Might also increase cell capacity by factor of 3 or 6 </li></ul></ul>
    • 31. Increasing cellular system capacity <ul><li>Cell splitting </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Decrease transmission power in base and mobile </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Results in more and smaller cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Reuse frequencies in non-contiguous cell groups </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Example: ½ cell radius leads 4 fold capacity increase </li></ul></ul>
    • 32. Tri-Sector antenna for a cell
    • 33. Cell Distribution in a Network Highway Town Suburb Rural
    • 34. Optimum use of frequency spectrum <ul><li>Operator bandwidth of 7.2MHz (36 freq of 200 kHz) </li></ul><ul><li>TDMA 8 traffic channels per carrier </li></ul><ul><li>K factor = 12 </li></ul><ul><li>What are the number of traffic channels available within its area for these three cases </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Without cell splitting </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With 72 cells </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>With 246 cells </li></ul></ul>
    • 35. &nbsp;
    • 36. Re-use of the frequency One Cell = 288 traffic channels 72 Cell = 1728 traffic channels 246 Cell = 5904 traffic channels 8 X 36 = 288 8 X (72/12 X 36) = 1728
    • 37. Concept of TDMA Frames and Channels <ul><li>GSM combines FDM and TDM: bandwidth is subdivided into channels of 200khz, shared by up to eight stations, assigning slots for transmission on demand . </li></ul>f t c
    • 38. GSM uses paired radio channels 0 124 0 124 890MHz 915MHz 935MHz 960MHz UPLINK DOWNLINK
    • 39. GSM delays uplink TDMA frames Uplink TDMA Frame F1 + 45MHz Downlink TDMA F1MHz The start of the uplink TDMA is delayed of three time slots TDMA frame (4.615 ms) Fixed transmit Delay of three time-slots T1 T2 T3 T5 T6 T7 T4 T8 R T R T R1 R2 R3 R5 R6 R7 R4 R8
    • 40. GSM - TDMA/FDMA 935-960 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) downlink 890-915 MHz 124 channels (200 kHz) uplink frequency time GSM TDMA frame GSM time-slot (normal burst) guard space guard space 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 higher GSM frame structures 4.615 ms 546.5 µs 577 µs tail user data Training S S user data tail 3 bits 57 bits 26 bits 57 bits 1 1 3
    • 41. LOGICAL CHANNELS TRAFFIC SIGNALLING FULL RATE Bm 22.8 Kb/S HALF RATE Lm 11.4 Kb/S BROADCAST COMMON CONTROL DEDICATED CONTROL FCCH SCH BCCH PCH RACH AGCH SDCCH SACCH FACCH FCCH -- FREQUENCY CORRECTION CHANNEL SCH -- SYNCHRONISATION CHANNEL BCCH -- BROADCAST CONTROL CHANNEL PCH -- PAGING CHANNEL RACH -- RANDOM ACCESS CHANNEL AGCH -- ACCESS GRANTED CHANNEL SDCCH -- STAND ALONE DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNEL SACCH -- SLOW ASSOCIATED CONTROL CHANNEL FACCH -- FAST ASSOCIATED CONTROL CHANNEL DOWN LINK ONLY UPLINK ONLY BOTH UP &amp; DOWNLINKS
    • 42. Broadcast Channel - BCH <ul><li>Broadcast control channel (BCCH) is a base to mobile channel which provides general information about the network, the cell in which the mobile is currently located and the adjacent cells </li></ul><ul><li>Frequency correction channel (FCCH) is a base to mobile channel which provides information for carrier synchronization </li></ul><ul><li>Synchronization channel (SCH) is a base to mobile channel which carries information for frame synchronization and identification of the base station transceiver </li></ul>
    • 43. Common Control Channel - CCH <ul><li>Paging channel (PCH) is a base to mobile channel used to alert a mobile to a call originating from the network </li></ul><ul><li>Random access channel (RACH) is a mobile to base channel used to request for dedicated resources </li></ul><ul><li>Access grant channel (AGCH) is a base to mobile which is used to assign dedicated resources (SDCCH or TCH) </li></ul>
    • 44. Dedicated Control Channel - DCCH <ul><li>Stand-alone dedicated control channel (SDCCH) is a bi-directional channel allocated to a specific mobile for exchange of location update information and call set up information </li></ul>
    • 45. Dedicated Control Channel - DCCH <ul><li>Slow associated control channel (SACCH) is a bi-directional channel used for exchanging control information between base and a mobile during the progress of a call set up procedure. The SACCH is associated with a particular traffic channel or stand alone dedicated control channel </li></ul><ul><li>Fast associated control channel (FACCH) is a bi-directional channel which is used for exchange of time critical information between mobile and base station during the progress of a call. The FACCH transmits control information by stealing capacity from the associated TCH </li></ul>
    • 46. DEFINITION OF TIME SLOT - 156.25 BITS 15/26ms = 0.577ms TAIL BIT ENCRYPTION BIT GUARD PERIOD TRAINING BITS MIXED BITS SYNCHRONISATION BITS FIXED BITS FLAG BITS 3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25 NORMAL BURST - NB 3 142 3 8.25 FREQUENCY CORRECTION BURST - FB 3 3 8.25 39 64 39 SYNCHRONISATION BURST - SB 3 6 41 36 68.25 ACCESS BURST - AB
    • 47. 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047 0 1 2 24 25 0 1 2 3 24 25 1 HYPER FRAME = 2048 SUPERFRAMES = 2 715 648 TDMA FRAMES ( 3 H 28 MIN 53 S 760 MS ) 1 SUPER FRAME = 1326 TDMA FRAMES ( 6.12 S ) LEFT (OR) RIGHT 1 MULTI FRAME = 51 TDMA FRAMES (235 .4 ms ) 1 SUPER FRAME = 26 MULTI FRAMES 1 SUPER FRAME = 51 MULTI FRAMES 1 MULTIFRAME = 26 TDMA FRAMES ( 120 ms ) TDMA FRAME NO. 0 1 0 1 HIERARCHY OF FRAMES 1 2 3 4 155 156 1 TIME SLOT = 156.25 BITS ( 0.577 ms) (4.615ms) (4.615 ms) 1 bit =36.9 micro sec TRAFFIC CHANNELS SIGNALLING CHANNELS 0 1 2 3 4 48 49 50 0 1 2 3 4 48 49 50 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 0
    • 48. GSM Frame Full rate channel is idle in 25 SACCH is transmitted in frame 12 0 to 11 and 13 to 24 Are used for traffic data Frame duration = 120ms Frame duration = 60/13ms Frame duration = 15/26ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25 0 1 2 12 24 25
    • 49. <ul><li>114 bits are available for data transmission. </li></ul><ul><li>The training sequence of 26 bits in the middle of the burst is used by the receiver to synchronize and compensate for time dispersion produced by multipath propagation. </li></ul><ul><li>1 stealing bit for each information block (used for FACCH) </li></ul>
    • 50. LOGICAL CHANNELS TRAFFIC SIGNALLING FULL RATE Bm 22.8 Kb/S HALF RATE Lm 11.4 Kb/S BROADCAST COMMON CONTROL DEDICATED CONTROL FCCH SCH BCCH PCH RACH AGCH SDCCH SACCH FACCH FCCH -- FREQUENCY CORRECTION CHANNEL SCH -- SYNCHRONISATION CHANNEL BCCH -- BROADCAST CONTROL CHANNEL PCH -- PAGING CHANNEL RACH -- RANDOM ACCESS CHANNEL AGCH -- ACCESS GRANTED CHANNEL SDCCH -- STAND ALONE DEDICATED CONTROL CHANNEL SACCH -- SLOW ASSOCIATED CONTROL CHANNEL FACCH -- FAST ASSOCIATED CONTROL CHANNEL DOWN LINK ONLY UPLINK ONLY BOTH UP &amp; DOWNLINKS
    • 51. Location update from the mobile Mobile looks for BCCH after switching on RACH send channel request AGCH receive SDCCH SDCCH authenticate SDCCH switch to cipher mode SDCCH request for location updating SDCCH authenticate response SDCCH cipher mode acknowledge SDCCH allocate TMSI SDCCH acknowledge new TMSI SDCCH switch idle update mode
    • 52. Call establishment from a mobile Mobile looks for BCCH after switching on RACH send channel request AGCH receive SDCCH SDCCH do the authentication and TMSI allocation SDCCH require traffic channel assignment SDCCH send call establishment request SDCCH send the setup message and desired number FACCH switch to traffic channel and send ack (steal bits) FACCH receive alert signal ringing sound FACCH acknowledge connect message and use TCH TCH conversation continues FACCH receive connect message
    • 53. Call establishment to a mobile Mobile looks for BCCH after switching on Receive signaling channel SDCCH on AGCH Receive alert signal and generate ringing on FACCH Receive authentication request on SDCCH Generate Channel Request on RACH Answer paging message on SDCCH Authenticate on SDCCH Receive setup message on SDCCH FACCH acknowledge connect message and switch to TCH Receive connect message on FACCH Receive traffic channel assignment on SDCCH Mobile receives paging message on PCH FACCH switch to traffic channel and send ack (steal bits)
    • 54. GSM speech coding
    • 55. Transmit Path BS Side 8 bit A-Law to 13 bit Uniform RPE/LTP speech Encoder To Channel Coder 13Kbps 8 K sps MS Side LPF A/D RPE/LTP speech Encoder To Channel Coder 13Kbps 8 K sps, Sampling Rate - 8K Encoding - 13 bit Encoding (104 Kbps) RPE/LTP - Regular Pulse Excitation/Long Term Prediction RPE/LTP converts the 104 Kbps stream to 13 Kbps
    • 56. GSM Speech Coding <ul><li>GSM is a digital system, so speech which is inherently analog, has to be digitized. </li></ul><ul><li>The method employed by current telephone systems for multiplexing voice lines over high speed trunks and is pulse coded modulation (PCM). The output stream from PCM is 64 kbps, too high a rate to be feasible over a radio link. </li></ul>
    • 57. GSM Frame Full rate channel is idle in 25 SACCH is transmitted in frame 12 0 to 11 and 13 to 24 Are used for traffic data Frame duration = 120ms Frame duration = 60/13ms Frame duration = 15/26ms 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 3 57 1 26 1 57 3 8.25 0 1 2 12 24 25
    • 58. GSM Speech Coding <ul><li>Speech is divided into 20 millisecond samples, each of which is encoded as 260 bits, giving a total bit rate of 13 kbps. </li></ul><ul><li>Regular pulse excited -- linear predictive coder (RPE--LPC) with a long term predictor loop is the speech coding algorithm. </li></ul>
    • 59. <ul><li>The 260 bits are divided into three classes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Class Ia 50 bits - most sensitive to bit errors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class Ib 132 bits - moderately sensitive to bit errors. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Class II 78 bits - least sensitive to bit errors. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Class Ia bits have a 3 bit cyclic redundancy code added for error detection = 50+3 bits. </li></ul><ul><li>132 class Ib bits with 4 bit tail sequence = 132 + 4 = 136. </li></ul><ul><li>Class Ia + class Ib = 53+136=189, input into a 1/2 rate convolution encoder of constraint length 4. Each input bit is encoded as two output bits, based on a combination of the previous 4 input bits. The convolution encoder thus outputs 378 bits, to which are added the 78 remaining class II bits. </li></ul><ul><li>Thus every 20 ms speech sample is encoded as 456 bits, giving a bit rate of 22.8 kbps. </li></ul>
    • 60. <ul><li>To further protect against the burst errors common to the radio interface, each sample is interleaved. The 456 bits output by the convolution encoder are divided into 8 blocks of 57 bits, and these blocks are transmitted in eight consecutive time-slot bursts. Since each time-slot burst can carry two 57 bit blocks, each burst carries traffic from two different speech samples. </li></ul>3 57 bits 26 1 1 57 bits 3 3 57 bits 26 1 1 57 bits 3 3 57 bits 26 1 1 57 bits 3 3 57 bits 26 1 1 57 bits 3 3 57 bits 26 1 1 57 bits 3 3 57 bits 26 1 1 57 bits 3 3 57 bits 26 1 1 57 bits 3 3 57 bits 26 1 1 57 bits 3
    • 61. GSM Protocol Suite
    • 62. BTS Radio interface HLR MSC VLR BSC RR MM + CM SS
    • 63. Link Layer <ul><li>LAPDm is used between MS and BTS </li></ul><ul><li>LAPD is used between BTS-BSC </li></ul><ul><li>MTP2 is used between BSC-MSC/VLR/HLR </li></ul>
    • 64. Network Layer <ul><li>To distinguish between CC, SS, MM and RR protocol discriminator (PD) is used as network address. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>CC call control management MS-MSC. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SS supplementary services management MS-MSC/HLR. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MM mobility management(location management, security management) MS-MSC/VLR. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>RR radio resource management MS-BSC. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Messages pertaining to different transaction are distinguished by a transaction identifier (TI). </li></ul>
    • 65. Application Layer protocols <ul><li>BSSMAP between BSC and MSC </li></ul><ul><li>DTAP messages between MS and MSC. </li></ul><ul><li>All messages on the A interface bear a discrimination flag, indicating whether the message is a BSSMAP or a DTAP. </li></ul><ul><li>DTAP messages carry DLCI(information on type of link on the radio interface) to distinguish what is related to CC or SMS. </li></ul><ul><li>MAP protocol is the one between neighbor MSCs. MAP is also used between MSC and HLR. </li></ul>
    • 66. BSC BTS A-Bis Interface Um Base Station System GSM Functional Architecture and Principal Interfaces HLR AC EIR VLR MSC Q.921 Radio Interface Q.931 Q.921 MAP TCAP CCS7 MTP CCS7 SCCP Mobile Application Part Q931 BSSAP SCCP CCS7 MTP A Interface
    • 67. GSM protocol layers for signaling CM MM RR MM LAPD m radio LAPD m radio LAPD PCM RR’ BTSM CM LAPD PCM RR’ BTSM 16/64 kbit/s U m A bis A SS7 PCM SS7 PCM 64 kbit/s / 2.048 Mbit/s MS BTS BSC MSC BSSAP BSSAP
    • 68. Protocols involved in the radio interface <ul><li>Level 1-Physical </li></ul><ul><ul><li>TDMA frame </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical channels multiplexing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 2-LAPDm(modified from LAPD) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>No flag </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>No error retransmission mechanism due to real time constraints </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 3-Radio Interface Layer (RIL3) involves three sub layers </li></ul><ul><ul><li>RR: paging, power control, ciphering execution, handover </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>MM: security, location IMSI attach/detach </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>CM: Call Control(CC), Supplementary Services(SS), Short Message Services(SMS), </li></ul></ul>
    • 69. &nbsp;
    • 70. LAPDm on radio interface <ul><li>In LAPDm the use of flags is avoided. </li></ul><ul><li>LAPDm maximum length is 21 octets of information. It makes use of “more” bit to distinguish last frame of a message. </li></ul><ul><li>No frame check sequence for LAPDm, it uses the error detecting performance of the transmission coding scheme offered by the physical layer </li></ul>
    • 71. LAPDm Message structure ADDRESS CONTROL INFORMATION 0-21 OCTETS SAPI N(S) N(R)
    • 72. &nbsp;
    • 73. LAPDm on radio interface <ul><li>The acknowledgement for the next expected frame in the indicator N(R ). </li></ul><ul><li>On radio interface two independent flows(one for signaling, and one for SMS) can exist simultaneously. </li></ul><ul><li>These two flows are distinguished by a link identifier called the SAPI(service access point identifier). </li></ul><ul><li>LAPDm SAPI=0 for signaling and SAPI=3 for SMS. </li></ul><ul><li>SAP1=0 for radio signaling, SAPI=62 for OAM and SAPI=63 for layer 2 management on the Abis interface. </li></ul><ul><li>There is no need of a TEI, because there is no need to distinguish the different mobile stations, which is done by distinguishing the different radio channels. </li></ul>
    • 74. Protocols involved in the A-bis interface <ul><li>Level 1-PCM transmission (E1 or T1) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speech encoded at 16kbit/s and sub multiplexed in 64kbit/s time slots. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data which rate is adapted and synchronized. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 2-LAPD protocol, standard HDLC </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio Signaling Link (RSL) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation and Maintenance Link (OML). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Level 3-Application Protocol </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Radio Subsystem Management (RSM) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Operation and Maintenance procedure (OAM) </li></ul></ul>
    • 75. Presentation of A-bis Interface <ul><li>Messages exchanges between the BTS and BSC. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Traffic exchanges </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Signaling exchanges </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Physical access between BTS and BSC is PCM digital links of E1(32) or T1(24) TS at 64kbit/s. </li></ul><ul><li>Speech: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveyed in timeslots at 4X16 kbit/s </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Data: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Conveyed in timeslots of 4X16 kbit/s. The initial user rate, which may be 300, 1200, … is adjusted to 16 kbit/s </li></ul></ul>
    • 76. LAPD message structure FLAG ADRESS CONTROL INFORMATION 0 – 260 OCT FCS FLAG SAPI TEI N(S) N(R)
    • 77. LAPD <ul><li>The length is limited to 260 octets of information. </li></ul><ul><li>LAPD has the address of the destination terminal, to identify the TRX, since this is a point to multipoint interface. </li></ul><ul><li>Each TRX in a BTS corresponds to one or several signaling links. These links are distinguished by TEI (Terminal Equipment Identities). </li></ul><ul><li>SAPI=0, SAPI=3, SAPI=62 for OAM. </li></ul>
    • 78. Presentation of the A-ter interface
    • 79. BSC TRAU MSC OMC OAM Transcoding LAPD TS1 Speech TS CCS7 TS X.25 TS2 Speech TS CCS7 TS X.25 TS2 PCM LINK PCM LINK
    • 80. Presentation on the A-ter interface <ul><li>Signaling messages are carried on specific timeslots (TS) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>LAPD signaling TS between the BSC and the TCU </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>SS7 TS between the BSC and the MSC, dedicated for BSSAP messages transportation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>X25 TS2 is reserved for OAM. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Speech and data channels (16kbit/s) </li></ul><ul><li>Ater interface links carry up to: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>120 communications(E1), 4*30 </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>92 communications(T1). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>The 64 kbit/s speech rate adjustment and the 64 kbit/s data rate adaptation are performed at the TCU. </li></ul>
    • 81. Presentation of the A interface
    • 82. Signaling Protocol Model
    • 83. Presentation on the A-Interface <ul><ul><ul><li>BSSMAP - deals with procedures that take place logically between the BSS and MSC , examples: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trunk Maintenance, Ciphering, Handover, Voice/Data Trunk Assignment </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>DTAP - deals with procedures that take place logically between the MS and MSC . The BSS does not interpret the DTAP information, it simply repackages it and sends it to the MS over the Um Interface. examples: </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Location Update, MS originated and terminated Calls, Short Message Service, User Supplementary Service registration, activation, deactivation and erasure </li></ul></ul></ul></ul>
    • 84. Inter MSC presentation
    • 85. O A M L A P D BTS MTP2 SCCP MTP3 L A P D O A M R R D T A P B S S M A P BSSAP BSC MTP1 MTP3 MTP2 SCCP MTP2 MTP3 SCCP BSSAP DTAP/ BSSMAP T C A P MM CM M A P NSS R R MM CM MS LAPDm LAPDm RADIO RADIO PCM PCM PCM E1 T1 ISUP/TUP Um Interface A bis Interface A Interface
    • 86. SCCP Ref=R2 TRX:TEI=T1 Channel ID = N1 SCCP Ref=R1 DTAP DLCI: SAPI=3 DLCI: SAPI=0 Channel=C1 Link: SAPI=3 Link: SAPI=0 PD=CC TI=a TI=b PD=MM PD=RR TI=A MS BSC MSC Channel=C2 Channel ID = N1 Radio Interface Abis Interface A Interface PD: protocol discriminator TI: Transaction Identifier for RIL3-CC protocol DLCI: Data Link connection Identifier SAPI: Service Access Point Identifier on the radio Interface TEI: Terminal Equipment Identifier on the Abis I/F
    • 87. Bearer Services <ul><li>Telecommunication services to transfer data between access points </li></ul><ul><li>Specification of services up to the terminal interface (OSI layers 1-3) </li></ul><ul><li>Different data rates for voice and data (original standard) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Data service </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Synchronous: 2.4, 4.8 or 9.6 kbit/s </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Asynchronous: 300 - 1200 bit/s </li></ul></ul></ul>
    • 88. Tele Services <ul><li>Telecommunication services that enable voice communication via mobile phones. </li></ul><ul><li>All these basic services have to obey cellular functions, security measurements etc. </li></ul><ul><li>Offered services. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Mobile telephony primary goal of GSM was to enable mobile telephony offering the traditional bandwidth of 3.1 kHz. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Emergency number common number throughout Europe (112); Mandatory for all service providers; Free of charge; Connection with the highest priority (preemption of other connections possible). </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multinumbering several ISDN phone numbers per user possible. </li></ul></ul>
    • 89. Performance characteristics of GSM <ul><li>Communication </li></ul><ul><ul><li>mobile, wireless communication; support for voice and data services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Total mobility </li></ul><ul><ul><li>international access, chip-card enables use of access points of different providers </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Worldwide connectivity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>one number, the network handles localization </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>better frequency efficiency, smaller cells, more customers per cell </li></ul></ul><ul><li>High transmission quality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>high audio quality and reliability for wireless, uninterrupted phone calls at higher speeds (e.g., from cars, trains) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Security functions </li></ul><ul><ul><li>access control, authentication via chip-card and PIN </li></ul></ul>
    • 90. Disadvantages of GSM <ul><li>No full ISDN bandwidth of 64 kbit/s to the user </li></ul><ul><li>Reduced concentration while driving </li></ul><ul><li>Electromagnetic radiation </li></ul><ul><li>Abuse of private data possible </li></ul><ul><li>High complexity of the system </li></ul><ul><li>Several incompatibilities within the GSM standards </li></ul>
    • 91. Thank You

    ×