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- 1. Time Division Multiple Access (TDMA)
- 2. AI-TDMA <ul><li>© Copyright 2001 Global Wireless Education Consortium </li></ul><ul><li>All rights reserved. This module, comprising presentation slides with notes, exercises, projects and Instructor Guide, may not be duplicated in any way without the express written permission of the Global Wireless Education Consortium. The information contained herein is for the personal use of the reader and may not be incorporated in any commercial training materials or for-profit education programs, books, databases, or any kind of software without the written permission of the Global Wireless Education Consortium. Making copies of this module, or any portion, for any purpose other than your own, is a violation of United States copyright laws. </li></ul><ul><li>Trademarked names appear throughout this module. All trademarked names have been used with the permission of their owners . </li></ul>
- 3. AI-TDMA <ul><li>Partial support for this curriculum material was provided by the National Science Foundation's Course, Curriculum, and Laboratory Improvement Program under grant DUE-9972380 and Advanced Technological Education Program under grant DUE‑9950039. </li></ul><ul><li>GWEC EDUCATION PARTNERS: This material is subject to the legal License Agreement signed by your institution. Please refer to this License Agreement for restrictions of use. </li></ul>
- 4. Table of Contents <ul><li>Overview 5 </li></ul><ul><li>Learning Objectives 6 </li></ul><ul><li>TDMA Implementation 7 </li></ul><ul><li>TDMA Network 10 </li></ul><ul><li>TDMA Cell Structure 13 </li></ul><ul><li>TDMA Channels 20 </li></ul><ul><li>TDMA Handoffs 27 </li></ul><ul><li>TDMA Burst Structure 30 </li></ul><ul><li>TDMA Signal Flow 37 </li></ul><ul><li>Summary 44 </li></ul><ul><li>Contributors 50 </li></ul>
- 5. Overview <ul><li>This module will address the following topics: </li></ul><ul><li>TDMA Implementation </li></ul><ul><li>TDMA Network </li></ul><ul><li>TDMA Interfaces </li></ul><ul><li>TDMA Channel Structure </li></ul><ul><li>TDMA Voice Paths </li></ul>
- 6. Learning Objectives <ul><li>After completing this module, you will be able to: </li></ul><ul><li>Explain how a TDMA system works </li></ul><ul><li>Describe TDMA interfaces, channel structure, and cell structure </li></ul>
- 7. TDMA Implementation
- 8. TDMA History A A M M P P S S A A n n a a l l o o g g C C e e l l l l u u l l a a r r S S e e r r v v i i c c e e I I S S 5 5 4 4 A A I I S S 5 5 4 4 B B F F i i r r s s t t D D i i g g i i t t a a l l D D u u a a l l - - M M o o d d e e C C e e l l l l u u l l a a r r A A d d d d s s D D i i g g i i t t a a l l T T r r a a f f f f i i c c C C h h a a n n n n e e l l I I S S - - 1 1 3 3 6 6 C C e e l l l l u u l l a a r r A A d d d d s s D D i i g g i i t t a a l l C C o o n n t t r r o o l l C C h h a a n n n n e e l l , , e e n n h h a a n n c c e e m m e e n n t t s s I I S S - - 1 1 3 3 6 6 P P C C S S U U p p c c o o n n v v e e r r t t e e d d I I S S - - 1 1 3 3 6 6 1 1 9 9 8 8 2 2 1 1 9 9 9 9 4 4 1 1 9 9 9 9 6 6 / / 7 7 1 1 9 9 9 9 7 7 / / 8 8
- 9. TDMA Time Slots 1 2 3 4 5 6 Frequency Amplitude Time 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 Time Slot Number
- 10. TDMA Network
- 11. TDMA Network NMC Interface to other networks MS MS BTS BTS BTS BS BS MSC MSC MSC MSC VLR VLR HLR EIR AUC OMC OMC BSC BTS BTS BTS BSC 1 2 4 5 7 8 * 0 3 6 9 #
- 12. TDMA Network Interfaces PSTN LAP-Dm RF Test Equipment 1 2 4 5 7 8 * 0 3 6 9 # 1 2 4 5 7 8 * 0 3 6 9 # 1 2 4 5 7 8 * 0 3 6 9 # BTS BTS BTS BSC BSC BSC MSC MSC MSC U m Interface Not Common Interface Not Common Interface Not Common Interface
- 13. TDMA Cell Structure
- 14. TDMA Cell Plan 3 6 6 2 2 1 4 5 7
- 15. Source Lucent Technologies
- 16. TDMA ‘Omni’ Cell Cell Omnidirectional Antenna
- 17. Source Lucent Technologies
- 18. TDMA Sectored Cell Sector 120 Degree Sectored Antenna Old Cell 3 New Sub Cells
- 19. Source Lucent Technologies
- 20. TDMA Channels
- 21. TDMA Traffic Channel RDTC Reverse Digital Traffic Channel FDTC Forward Digital Traffic Channel Digital 1 2 4 5 7 8 * 0 3 6 9 #
- 22. TDMA Control Channels Digital DCCH 1 2 4 5 7 8 * 0 3 6 9 #
- 23. TDMA Forward Digital Control Channel (FDCCH) <ul><li>Can use any digital channel </li></ul><ul><li>Overhead messages </li></ul><ul><li>Initial voice channel designation </li></ul><ul><li>Mobile station control </li></ul><ul><li>FDCCH is NOT bursted </li></ul>
- 24. TDMA Reverse Digital Control Channel (RDCCH) <ul><li>Can use any digital channel </li></ul><ul><li>Response and confirmation </li></ul><ul><li>Messages </li></ul><ul><li>Call origination </li></ul><ul><li>RDCCH is bursted </li></ul>
- 25. TDMA Slow Associated Control Channel (SACCH) <ul><li>Continuously present </li></ul><ul><li>Used to send voice quality information </li></ul>
- 26. TDMA Fast Associated Control Channel (FACCH) <ul><li>Uses ‘Blank and Burst’ technique </li></ul><ul><li>Sends supervisory messages </li></ul><ul><li>Mainly used for handoff messages </li></ul>
- 27. TDMA Handoffs
- 28. TDMA Handoff FDTC ( Forward Digital Traffic Channel) Mobile measures BER & RSSI of FDTC and reports to BS 1 2 4 5 7 8 * 0 3 6 9 #
- 29. Types of Handoffs <ul><li>Analog to analog </li></ul><ul><li>Analog to digital </li></ul><ul><li>Digital to analog </li></ul><ul><li>Digital to digital </li></ul>
- 30. TDMA Burst Structure
- 31. TDMA Burst Amplitude Time 3 symbols 3 symbols 156 symbols 3 symbols 1 symbol = 2 bits
- 32. TDMA Burst Data Structure – Reverse Channel 3 3 8 14 61 6 6 61 G R D Sy D S C D Guard Data Synch Data Ramp Up Data SACCH CDVCC 3 R Ramp Up
- 33. TDMA Data Structure – Forward Channel Synch SACCH Reserved Data CDVCC 14 6 65 6 65 6 Sy S D C D Rs Data
- 34. TDMA Burst Equalization Training bits of synchronization data Actual received signal
- 35. TDMA Power Steps 1 2 4 5 7 8 * 0 3 6 9 # Too much power interference = Low talk time Too little power = Dropped calls Adjusted according to received signal strength
- 36. TDMA Digital Verification Color Code <ul><li>255 unique digital codes </li></ul><ul><li>Known ‘color code’ </li></ul><ul><li>transmitted by BS </li></ul><ul><li>Digital ‘handshake’ </li></ul><ul><li>between MS and BS </li></ul>
- 37. TDMA Signal Flow
- 38. TDMA Voice Path Codec Interleave Vocoder Modulate Burst
- 39. TDMA Vocoder 2 classes of bits are error corrected in different ways Class 1 bits: Error correction, CRC bits and tail bits added Class 2 bits: No error correction Vocoder 20ms speech makes 160 bits Output 8 kbits/s 2 classes of bits output 8:1 compression
- 40. TDMA Interleave Interleave 260 bits 260 bits 8 kbit/s 260 bits 8 kbit/s 260 bits
- 41. TDMA Codec 3 3 8 14 61 6 6 61 G R D Sy D S C D Guard Data Synch Data Ramp Up Data SACCH CDVCC 3 R Ramp Up
- 42. TDMA Modulator Output 48.6 kbits/s /4 DQPSK Input 8 kbits/sec (Error corrected interleaved) Modulate
- 43. TDMA Burst Burst Output /4 DQPSK (bursted) Input 48.6 kbits/s /4 DQPSK
- 44. SUMMARY
- 45. TDMA Key Concepts <ul><li>Three calls per 30 kHz (6 time slots per 30 kHz) </li></ul><ul><li>Approximately three times voice channel capacity </li></ul><ul><li>Digitalize voice (8 kbps) </li></ul><ul><li>Other TDMA networks - GSM </li></ul>
- 46. TDMA Advantages <ul><li>Can easily be adapted to transmission of data and voice communication </li></ul><ul><li>Allows for smooth migration from analog to digital in a cost-effective manner </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Same 30 kHz channel used </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dual-mode, dual-band mobile operation </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Significant increase in channel capacity </li></ul><ul><ul><li>3:1 with full-rate mobiles and 6:1 with half-rate mobiles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Offers the ability to carry data rates of 64 kbps to 120 mbps (expandable in multiples of 64 kbps) </li></ul><ul><li>Separates users in time, ensuring that they will not experience interference from other simultaneous transmissions </li></ul>
- 47. TDMA Advantages (cont’d) <ul><li>Installation offers substantial savings in base station equipment, space, and maintenance </li></ul><ul><li>Only technology that offers efficient utilization of hierarchical cell structures offering pico, micro, and macro cells </li></ul><ul><li>Allows service compatibility with use of dual-mode handsets </li></ul><ul><li>Provides user with extended battery life and talk time since the mobile is transmitting only a portion of the time (from 1/3 to 1/10) during conversations </li></ul>
- 48. TDMA Advantages (cont’d) <ul><li>Accommodates new services </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Short message (alphanumeric paging) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Notification of voice mail </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Caller ID </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Data services </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Private speech and secure access </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Voice privacy and authentication </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Quality monitored by both base station and mobile </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Handoffs can be triggered based on quality measures at either end </li></ul></ul>
- 49. TDMA Disadvantages <ul><li>Each user has a predefined time slot </li></ul><ul><li>Subject to multipath distortion </li></ul><ul><li>Limited long-term capacity between 3 and 6 users per frequency </li></ul><ul><li>Dependent upon voice coder technology advances </li></ul>
- 50. Industry Contributors <ul><li>Ericsson ( http://www.ericsson.com ) </li></ul><ul><li>International Engineering Consortium – TDMA Fundamentals Web ProForum Tutorial ( http://www. iec .org/tutorials ) </li></ul><ul><li>Lucent Technologies, Inc. ( http://www.lucent.com ) </li></ul><ul><li>Telcordia Technologies, Inc ( http://www.telcordia.com ) </li></ul>The following companies provided materials and resource support for this module:
- 51. Individual Contributors <ul><li>The following individuals and their organization or institution provided materials, resources, and development input for this module: </li></ul><ul><li>Chaouki Abdallah </li></ul><ul><ul><li>University of New Mexico </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. eece . unm . edu </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Tad Babij </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Florida International University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. fiu . edu /choice.html </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Jeff Cobb </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Verizon Wireless </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. verizonwireless .com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Peter Rha </li></ul><ul><ul><li>San Francisco State University </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. sfsu . edu / </li></ul></ul>
- 52. Individual Contributors, cont. <ul><li>Cheng Sun </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cal Poly </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www. ee . calpoly . edu / </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Richard Van Cleave </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nortel Networks </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.nortel.com/ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Dave Voltmer </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Rose-Hulman Institute of Technology </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>http://www.rose- hulman . edu / </li></ul></ul>

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