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A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Ethical Attitudes of Business Managers: India Korea and the United States (P. Maria Joseph ...
Objective of the study <ul><li>An empirical research to study the impact of culture on the ethical attitudes of business m...
Rationale for the study <ul><li>Globalization of business </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive nature of past studies </li></ul><...
Literature Review <ul><li>Culture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the shared ideas and meanings about “what life is and what life s...
Literature Review <ul><li>Culture and business-ethical attitudes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business ethics is the application...
Hypothesis <ul><li>Hypothesis 1:  There are differences in the ethical attitudes among business managers in the United Sta...
Hypothesis <ul><li>Hypothesis 2 (continued): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-B: The business managers in countries with a high pow...
Hypothesis <ul><li>Hypothesis 2 (continued): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-D: The business managers in countries with a high mas...
Hypothesis <ul><li>Hypothesis 3: </li></ul><ul><li>There is a relationship between respondents‘ ethical attitudes and thei...
Research Methodology <ul><li>Unit of analysis: Culture or nation </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of Nations: </li></ul><ul><ul><l...
Independent variables <ul><li>Personal characteristics and organizational Factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender, Age, Reli...
Dependent variable <ul><li>Respondents' attitudes toward twelve questionable business practice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>opin...
Results <ul><li>H1 True:  The ethical attitudes of business managers toward the listed questionable business practices are...
Results <ul><li>H3 True:  There are significant differences in the respondents' general attitude toward business ethics ac...
Conclusions <ul><li>Culture has a strong influence on business managers' attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Business managers’ ge...
Limitations <ul><li>Matched Samples </li></ul><ul><li>Self serving bias </li></ul><ul><li>The number of cultures surveyed ...
Thank you… Presented by: Deepak Agrawal Pratyush Banerjee Ranajee
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A Cross Cultural Comparison Of Ethical Attitudes Of Business Managers India, Korea And The United States

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Transcript of "A Cross Cultural Comparison Of Ethical Attitudes Of Business Managers India, Korea And The United States"

  1. 1. A Cross-Cultural Comparison of Ethical Attitudes of Business Managers: India Korea and the United States (P. Maria Joseph Christie, Ik-Whan G. Kwon, Philipp A. Stoeberl, Raymond Baumhart ) Journal of Business Ethics (2003), Vol. 46, p263-287 Presented by: Deepak A. Pratyush B. Ranajee (Batch-II, 2008-11) IIMT, Hyderabad
  2. 2. Objective of the study <ul><li>An empirical research to study the impact of culture on the ethical attitudes of business managers in India, Korea and the United States. </li></ul>
  3. 3. Rationale for the study <ul><li>Globalization of business </li></ul><ul><li>Descriptive nature of past studies </li></ul><ul><li>Culture as an independent variable </li></ul>
  4. 4. Literature Review <ul><li>Culture: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>the shared ideas and meanings about “what life is and what life should be”. It sets standards for perceiving, believing, evaluating and acting. ( Goodenough, 1970 ). </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Values </li></ul><ul><ul><li>criteria for determining what is good and bad, for choosing between available alternatives </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Attitudes </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attitudes are learned predispositions and not inherited. ( Manstead, 1995 ) </li></ul></ul>
  5. 5. Literature Review <ul><li>Culture and business-ethical attitudes: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Business ethics is the application of ethical principles </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cross-cultural studies in business ethics: </li></ul><ul><li>Several studies did not support the hypothesis. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>(Abratt et al., 1992; Lysonski and Gaidis, 1991; Preble and Reichel, 1988; Whipple and Swords, 1992) </li></ul></ul>
  6. 6. Hypothesis <ul><li>Hypothesis 1: There are differences in the ethical attitudes among business managers in the United States, India and Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>Hypothesis 2: There is a relationship between Hofstede‘s cultural dimensions and one's ethical attitude. More specifically, </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-A: The business managers in countries with a high individualism score tend to look at business practices such as gift-giving, nepotism, software piracy, sharing insider information as more unethical than the business managers in countries with a high collectivism score. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Hypothesis <ul><li>Hypothesis 2 (continued): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-B: The business managers in countries with a high power distance score take superiors’ orders, whether ethical or unethical, more seriously (that is, they are less likely to challenge directives) than the business managers in countries with a low power distance score. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2-C: The business managers in countries with a high score in uncertainty avoidance focus more on legality than ethicality of actions. They tend to perceive business practices which are done' legally', such as the export of harmful products, marketing of products that are injurious to health, and firing of older employees, as less unethical than the business managers from countries with a low score in uncertainty avoidance. </li></ul></ul>
  8. 8. Hypothesis <ul><li>Hypothesis 2 (continued): </li></ul><ul><ul><li>2-D: The business managers in countries with a high masculinity score are less likely to perceive ethical problems in practices such as firing older employees, dishonesty in advertising, damage to the environment, and marketing products that are injurious to health than the business managers in countries with high femininity scores. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2-E: The business managers in short-term oriented countries may perceive practices such as profiting at the expense of damage to the environment as less unethical than the business managers in long-term oriented countries. Gift-giving may be perceived as less unethical by long-term oriented countries than by short-term oriented countries. </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. Hypothesis <ul><li>Hypothesis 3: </li></ul><ul><li>There is a relationship between respondents‘ ethical attitudes and their personal characteristics (culture, gender, age, religion, and functional areas of work) and organizational and industry factors (organizational size and level of competition). </li></ul>
  10. 10. Research Methodology <ul><li>Unit of analysis: Culture or nation </li></ul><ul><li>Choice of Nations: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Significant cultural differences between US, India, and South Korea </li></ul></ul>Parameter US India South Korea Individualism vs. Collectivism Individualistic Collectivist Collectivist Power Distance Relatively less Relatively less More Masculinity Masculine Masculine Feminine Long-term or Short-term Orientation Short-term oriented Long-term oriented Long-term oriented
  11. 11. Independent variables <ul><li>Personal characteristics and organizational Factors: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Gender, Age, Religion, Functional Area of work, Organization size, Nationality, and Level of competition. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hofstede's cultural dimensions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Individualism, Power distance, Masculinity, Uncertainty avoidance, Long-term orientation </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Dependent variable <ul><li>Respondents' attitudes toward twelve questionable business practice: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>opinion about each of the 12 questionable business practices </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Respondents' attitudes toward business ethics in general: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>by asking their opinion on 7 statements </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Factors influencing business managers to make unethical decisions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Nine important Factors </li></ul></ul>
  13. 13. Results <ul><li>H1 True: The ethical attitudes of business managers toward the listed questionable business practices are not similar across cultures. </li></ul><ul><li>H2-A True: United States view these practices as more unethical than the business managers in India and Korea. </li></ul><ul><li>H2-B True: Americans consider questionable business practices to be significantly more unethical than Indians and Koreans. </li></ul><ul><li>H2-C True: India and Korea consider the practice of injury to the environment to be more unethical than the United States, which is a relatively more masculine country. </li></ul><ul><li>But, on the practice of export of unsafe products, it is considered unethical among any of the countries. </li></ul>
  14. 14. Results <ul><li>H3 True: There are significant differences in the respondents' general attitude toward business ethics across two factors, culture and personal integrity; Gender has a marginal effect on general attitude. </li></ul><ul><li>There are significant differences in the respondents' attitudes toward the listed questionable business practices across these factors: culture, gender, the external environment, and marginally, age, Functional work areas, and personal integrity. </li></ul>
  15. 15. Conclusions <ul><li>Culture has a strong influence on business managers' attitudes </li></ul><ul><li>Business managers’ general attitudes toward business ethics are related to their personal integrity; external environment and gender. </li></ul><ul><li>Strong relationship between cultural dimensions of individualism and power distance and ethical attitudes of business managers toward certain questionable business practices. </li></ul>
  16. 16. Limitations <ul><li>Matched Samples </li></ul><ul><li>Self serving bias </li></ul><ul><li>The number of cultures surveyed is inadequate </li></ul><ul><li>Analysis of relationship could not be carried out on a few dimensions (e.g., long-term orientation and uncertainty avoidance) because of a lack of notable differences in cultural indices among countries surveyed </li></ul>
  17. 17. Thank you… Presented by: Deepak Agrawal Pratyush Banerjee Ranajee
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