4. Functional Ovarian Tumors lutein cyst: Clinical Features asymptomatic, unilocular, < 6 cm in diameter, regress ovarian follicle cyst: more firm / solid，delay period undergo torsion: pain, tenderness and rebound ten-derness, moderate leukocytosis. rupture: pain, tenderness, hemoperitoneum. Theca-lutein cyst: high gonadotropin level, bilateral (10-15 cm) ， regress
5. Functional Ovarian Tumors Diagnosis Presumptive Diagnosis: 4 to 8 cm cystic adnexal mass is noted on bimanual examination mobile, unilateral, no ascites, < 8 cm Confirmed Diagnosis: regresses ovarian follicle cyst: in the middle of the menstruation lutein cyst: before the upcoming period Ultrasound Study: confirm the cystic nature of the mass, cannot excludes neoplastic tumor delayed menses / abnormal uterine bleeding / abdominal pain differentiate with ectopic pregnancy, salpingo-oophoritis, or torsion of a neoplastic cyst.
6. Functional Ovarian Tumors painful, multilocular / Surgical Exploration partially solid Management child-bearing, <6 cm Reexamination (oral contraceptive) 6 cm to 8 cm / fixed / Ultrasound study feels solid > 40 years Observation not recommanded
7. Functional Ovarian Tumors Management Surgical Exploration: Laparoscopy Laparotomy ovarian cystectomy Laparoscopic inspection may not be helpful in differentiating between a functional and a neoplastic ovarian cyst. An aspiration of a unilocular cyst and cytologic examination of the fluid may be misleading, and slow leakage of the fluid will disseminate cancer quite rapidly if the cyst is malignant.
12. Sex Cord-Stromal Ovarian Neoplasms Granulosatheca Cell Neoplasms ： any age group feminizing effects Sertoli-Leydig cell tumors ： virilizing effects Ovarian Fibroma ： Meigs’ syndrome
13. Germ-Cell Tumors Benign Cystic Teratoma 15-20% bilateral all adult tissues primarily of skin and the dermal appendages sweat and sebaceous glands hair follicles Other tissue components: mature brain, bronchus, thyroid, cartilage, bone.
15. Diagnosis of Benign Ovarian Tumors Clinical Features: nonspecific Symptoms most benign ovarian neoplasms are asymptomatic Torsion: pain, nausea, vomiting Rupture:
16. Diagnosis of Benign Ovarian Tumors Bimanual pelvic examination: adnexal mass Signs and Investigations Abdominal examination: lower abdominal mass peritoneal irritation Pelvic Ultra-Sonography: exclude malignancy Serum CA 125:
17. Management of Ovarian Neoplasms Confirmed Diagnosis of an Ovarian Neoplasm Definitive Treatment ： by surgical exploration and microscopic examination the type of neoplasm the patient's age her desire for future child bearing
18. Management of Ovarian Neoplasms Epithelial ovarian neoplasms: Epithelial ovarian neoplasms young and nulliparous, unilocular, no excrescences unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy carefully inspect the contralateral ovarian cystectomy
20. Management of Ovarian Neoplasms Germ-Cell Tumors ovarian cystectomy unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy carefully inspect the contralateral Cystic teratomas
21. Benign Tumors of the Fallopian Tubes Benign Tumors of the Fallopian Tubes: inflammatory (hydrosalpinx or pyosalpinx) benign neoplasms of the oviducts difficult to differentiate on examination definitive treatment: salpingectomy represents
24. Parovarian Neoplasms Parovarian neoplasms generally small located within the broad ligament derived from paramesonephric structures resect the cystic mass