Functional Ovarian Tumors lutein cyst: Clinical Features asymptomatic, unilocular, < 6 cm in diameter, regress ovarian follicle cyst: more firm / solid，delay period undergo torsion: pain, tenderness and rebound ten-derness, moderate leukocytosis. rupture: pain, tenderness, hemoperitoneum. Theca-lutein cyst: high gonadotropin level, bilateral (10-15 cm) ， regress
Functional Ovarian Tumors Diagnosis Presumptive Diagnosis: 4 to 8 cm cystic adnexal mass is noted on bimanual examination mobile, unilateral, no ascites, < 8 cm Confirmed Diagnosis: regresses ovarian follicle cyst: in the middle of the menstruation lutein cyst: before the upcoming period Ultrasound Study: confirm the cystic nature of the mass, cannot excludes neoplastic tumor delayed menses / abnormal uterine bleeding / abdominal pain differentiate with ectopic pregnancy, salpingo-oophoritis, or torsion of a neoplastic cyst.
Functional Ovarian Tumors painful, multilocular / Surgical Exploration partially solid Management child-bearing, <6 cm Reexamination (oral contraceptive) 6 cm to 8 cm / fixed / Ultrasound study feels solid > 40 years Observation not recommanded
Functional Ovarian Tumors Management Surgical Exploration: Laparoscopy Laparotomy ovarian cystectomy Laparoscopic inspection may not be helpful in differentiating between a functional and a neoplastic ovarian cyst. An aspiration of a unilocular cyst and cytologic examination of the fluid may be misleading, and slow leakage of the fluid will disseminate cancer quite rapidly if the cyst is malignant.
Diagnosis of Benign Ovarian Tumors Clinical Features: nonspecific Symptoms most benign ovarian neoplasms are asymptomatic Torsion: pain, nausea, vomiting Rupture:
Diagnosis of Benign Ovarian Tumors Bimanual pelvic examination: adnexal mass Signs and Investigations Abdominal examination: lower abdominal mass peritoneal irritation Pelvic Ultra-Sonography: exclude malignancy Serum CA 125:
Management of Ovarian Neoplasms Confirmed Diagnosis of an Ovarian Neoplasm Definitive Treatment ： by surgical exploration and microscopic examination the type of neoplasm the patient's age her desire for future child bearing
Management of Ovarian Neoplasms Epithelial ovarian neoplasms: Epithelial ovarian neoplasms young and nulliparous, unilocular, no excrescences unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy carefully inspect the contralateral ovarian cystectomy
Management of Ovarian Neoplasms Germ-Cell Tumors ovarian cystectomy unilateral salpingo-oophorectomy carefully inspect the contralateral Cystic teratomas
Benign Tumors of the Fallopian Tubes Benign Tumors of the Fallopian Tubes: inflammatory (hydrosalpinx or pyosalpinx) benign neoplasms of the oviducts difficult to differentiate on examination definitive treatment: salpingectomy represents