DRAWINGS:                  ( A Graphical Representation)                          The Fact about:          If compared wit...
Drawings                                         (Some Types)                                                             ...
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS :IT IS A TECHNICAL DRAWING IN WHICH DIFFERENT VIEWS OF AN OBJECT           ARE PROJECTED ON DIFFE...
PLANES1               PRINCIPAL PLANES                   HP AND VP                               AUXILIARY PLANES    Auxil...
PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS (First Angle Method)     2                                    THIS IS A PICTORIAL SET-UP OF ALL ...
3         Methods of Drawing Orthographic ProjectionsFirst Angle Projections Method                    Third Angle Project...
FIRST ANGLE                                      FOR T.V.     PROJECTION      IN THIS METHOD,HE OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BESIT...
THIRD ANGLE                           FOR T.V.      PROJECTION        IN THIS METHOD, THE OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BE  SITUATE...
ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS        { MACHINE ELEMENTS }         OBJECT IS OBSERVED IN THREE DIRECTIONS.           THE DIRECTI...
FOR T.V.                                                                         1                                        ...
FOR T.V.                                                                        2                                         ...
FOR T.V.                                                                         3                                        ...
4                FOR T.V.                                             ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS                            ...
FOR T.V.                                                                        5                                         ...
6             FOR T.V.                                          ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS                                  ...
7               FOR T.V.                                          ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS                                ...
STUDY                                                                  8                  FOR T.V.      ZILLUSTRATIONS    ...
9           FOR T.V.                                      ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS                                        ...
10              FOR T.V.                   ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS                                           FRONT VIEW  ...
FOR T.V.                                                     11                                         ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJE...
12                FOR T.V.                                                ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS                        ...
STUDY                                                                      13      ZILLUSTRATIONS       FOR T.V.          ...
STUDY                                                                    14        Z  ILLUSTRATIONS                 FOR T....
STUDY                                                                        15           Z     ILLUSTRATIONS             ...
FOR T.V.                                      ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS         16                                         ...
17                                              ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS                                             FRONT...
FOR T.V.         ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS                                 18          FV                                40...
19                                                             FOR T.V.         ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS     FV           ...
PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN                ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS            20   DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT BY F...
21                                             ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS                                                   ...
FOR T.V.                                                                      22                                    ORTHOG...
23                                                     ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS                                    FOR    ...
FOR T.V.                                            ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS            24                                ...
25        ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS        10    10   15                                   25                              ...
PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN26                            DRAW FV AND SV OF THIS OBJECT                          BY FIR...
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Ortographic projection

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Ortographic projection

  1. 1. DRAWINGS: ( A Graphical Representation) The Fact about: If compared with Verbal or Written Description,Drawings offer far better idea about the Shape, Size & Appearance of any object or situation or location, that too in quite a less time. Hence it has become the Best Media of Communication not only in Engineering but in almost all Fields.
  2. 2. Drawings (Some Types) Portraits Botanical Drawings ( human faces,Nature Drawings ( plants, flowers etc.) expressions etc.)( landscape, Geographicalscenery etc.) Zoological Drawings Drawings Engineering Drawings, (creatures, animals etc.) ( maps etc.) (projections.) Building Related Drawings. Machine component Drawings Orthographic Projections Isometric ( Mech.Engg.Term.) (Fv,Tv & Sv.-Mech.Engg terms) or Perspective(Civil Engg.Term) (Plan, Elevation- Civil Engg.terms) (Working Drawings 2-D type) (Actual Object Drawing 3-D)
  3. 3. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS :IT IS A TECHNICAL DRAWING IN WHICH DIFFERENT VIEWS OF AN OBJECT ARE PROJECTED ON DIFFERENT REFERENCE PLANES OBSERVING PERPENDICULAR TO RESPECTIVE REFERENCE PLANE Different Reference planes are Horizontal Plane (HP), Vertical Frontal Plane ( VP ) Side Or Profile Plane ( PP) And Different Views are Front View (FV), Top View (TV) and Side View (SV) FV is a view projected on VP. TV is a view projected on HP. SV is a view projected on PP. IMPORTANT TERMS OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS: 1 Planes. 2 Pattern of planes & Pattern of views 3 Methods of drawing Orthographic Projections
  4. 4. PLANES1 PRINCIPAL PLANES HP AND VP AUXILIARY PLANES Auxiliary Vertical Plane Auxiliary Inclined Plane Profile Plane (A.V.P.) (A.I.P.) ( P.P.) غ A.I A.V.P. .P. ⊥t o V ⊥ to Hp & ∠ to Vp p ∠ & to Hp θº
  5. 5. PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS (First Angle Method) 2 THIS IS A PICTORIAL SET-UP OF ALL THREE PLANES. ARROW DIRECTION IS A NORMAL WAY OF OBSERVING THE OBJECT. BUT IN THIS DIRECTION ONLY VP AND A VIEW ON IT (FV) CAN BE SEEN. THE OTHER PLANES AND VIEWS ON THOSE CAN NOT BE SEEN. Y PROCEDURE TO SOLVE ABOVE PROBLEM:- TO MAKE THOSE PLANES ALSO VISIBLE FROM THE ARROW DIRECTION, A) HP IS ROTATED 900 DOUNWARDX B) PP, 900 IN RIGHT SIDE DIRECTION. THIS WAY BOTH PLANES ARE BROUGHT IN THE SAME PLANE CONTAINING VP. Click to view Animation On clicking the button if a warning comes please click YES to continue, this program is safe for your pc. VP PP Y FV LSV X Y X TV HP ACTUAL PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS HP IS ROTATED DOWNWARD 900 PP IS ROTATED IN RIGHT SIDE 90 0 OF ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS AND AND DRAWN IN BROUGHT IN THE PLANE OF VP. BROUGHT IN THE PLANE OF VP. FIRST ANGLE METHOD OF PROJECTIONS
  6. 6. 3 Methods of Drawing Orthographic ProjectionsFirst Angle Projections Method Third Angle Projections Method Here views are drawn Here views are drawn by placing object by placing object in 1st Quadrant in 3rd Quadrant.( Fv above X-y, Tv below X-y ) SYMBOLIC ( Tv above X-y, Fv below X-y ) PRESENTATION OF BOTH METHODS WITH AN OBJECT STANDING ON HP ( GROUND) TV FV ON IT’S BASE. X Y NOTE:- X Y HP term is used in 1 Angle method st & FV TV For the same G L Ground term is used in 3rd Angle method of projections
  7. 7. FIRST ANGLE FOR T.V. PROJECTION IN THIS METHOD,HE OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BESITUATED IN FIRST QUADRANT MEANS ABOVE HP & INFRONT OF VP. OBJECT IS INBETWEEN OBSERVER & PLANE. VP PP FV LSV S.V. FOR X Y FOR F.V TV . HP ACTUAL PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS INFIRST ANGLE METHOD OF PROJECTIONS
  8. 8. THIRD ANGLE FOR T.V. PROJECTION IN THIS METHOD, THE OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BE SITUATED IN THIRD QUADRANT ( BELOW HP & BEHIND OF VP. )PLANES BEING TRANSPERENT AND INBETWEEN OBSERVER & OBJECT. TV X Y LSV FV ACTUAL PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS S.V. FOR OFTHIRD ANGLE PROJECTIONS FOR F.V .
  9. 9. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS { MACHINE ELEMENTS } OBJECT IS OBSERVED IN THREE DIRECTIONS. THE DIRECTIONS SHOULD BE NORMAL TO THE RESPECTIVE PLANES. AND NOW PROJECT THREE DIFFERENT VIEWS ON THOSE PLANES. THESE VEWS ARE FRONT VIEW , TOP VIEW AND SIDE VIEW. FRONT VIEW IS A VIEW PROJECTED ON VERTICAL PLANE ( VP ) TOP VIEW IS A VIEW PROJECTED ON HORIZONTAL PLANE ( HP ) SIDE VIEW IS A VIEW PROJECTED ON PROFILE PLANE ( PP ) FIRST STUDY THE CONCEPT OF 1 ST AND 3 RD ANGLE PROJECTION METHODSND THEN STUDY NEXT 26 ILLUSTRATED CASES CAREFULLRY TO RECOGNIZE SURFACESERPENDICULAR TO THE ARROW DIRECTIONS
  10. 10. FOR T.V. 1 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW FO R . F. V. S.V R FO x yPICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN TOP VIEW DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  11. 11. FOR T.V. 2 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW X Y FOR S.V.FOR F.V . TOP VIEW PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  12. 12. FOR T.V. 3 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW FO . R S.V FO R F. V. X Y TOP VIEWPICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  13. 13. 4 FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW X Y S.V. FORFOR F.V . TOP VIEW PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  14. 14. FOR T.V. 5 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW S.V. FOR FOR X Y F.V . TOP VIEWPICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  15. 15. 6 FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW X Y S.V. FORFOR F.V . TOP VIEWPICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  16. 16. 7 FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW FOR F.V S.V. . X Y FORPICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN TOP VIEW DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  17. 17. STUDY 8 FOR T.V. ZILLUSTRATIONS ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW 50 X Y 20 25 FOR F.V 25 20 . TOP VIEW PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  18. 18. 9 FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW X Y FOR S.V. F.VFOR . TOP VIEW PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  19. 19. 10 FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW X Y S.V.FOR FOR F.V . PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN TOP VIEW DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  20. 20. FOR T.V. 11 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW FOR X Y F.V . S.V.FOR TOP VIEW PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  21. 21. 12 FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW X Y FOR S.V.FOR F.V . PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN TOP VIEW DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  22. 22. STUDY 13 ZILLUSTRATIONS FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 35 FV 35 10 x y 10 20 30 FOR 40 F.V 70 . TV O PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  23. 23. STUDY 14 Z ILLUSTRATIONS FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FV 30 10 30 SV 30 10 30 x y S.V. FORFOR F.V . ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL TV PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  24. 24. STUDY 15 Z ILLUSTRATIONS ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FOR T.V. ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL FV SV x y 10 40 60 FOR S.V. 40FOR F.V TV . 60 PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  25. 25. FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 16 ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL FV SV x y 10 S.V. FORFOR F.V 40 60 .PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN 40 TOP VIEW DRAW THREE VIEWS OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD 60
  26. 26. 17 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW 30 SQUARE 40 20 50 FOR S.V. 20 10 X Y F.VFOR 30 O . 60 F.V. S.V. PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV AND SV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  27. 27. FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 18 FV 40X 10 Y O 30 D 45 FOR F.V O . 10 50 PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD 80 TV
  28. 28. 19 FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FV 40X O 10 Y 100 10 25 FOR TV 10 30 10 F.V 25 O . 30 R 20 D PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  29. 29. PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 20 DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD 30 FOR T.V. FV RECT. SLOT 10 50 35 10 X Y 20 D FOR TV F.V . 60 D 30 D TOP VIEW O
  30. 30. 21 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 10 25 15 25 40 10 FOR 25 S.V. 25 F.VFOR O O . 80 25 F.V. S.V. PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV AND SV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  31. 31. FOR T.V. 22 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 450 30 FV 40 X Y 30 D FOR F.V TV . 40 OPICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN 15 DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT 40 BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  32. 32. 23 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FOR HEX PART 30 20 F.V 20 . S.V. 40 20FOR O 50 20 15 O 30 100 60PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW DRAW FV ABD SV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  33. 33. FOR T.V. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 24 20 40 FRONT VIEW F.V. 30 10 X Y O 10 30 FOR 10 F.V 30 . O 80PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN T.V. TOP VIEW DRAW FV AND TV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  34. 34. 25 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS 10 10 15 25 25X Y O 50 10 S.V. FV LSV FOR FOR F.V . PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN DRAW FV AND LSV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD
  35. 35. PICTORIAL PRESENTATION IS GIVEN26 DRAW FV AND SV OF THIS OBJECT BY FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION METHOD ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FOR F.V . 30 20 10 20 15 10 15 S.V. O FOR 15 30 15 X Y 50 F.V. LEFT S.V.
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