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# Isometric

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### Isometric

1. 1. ISOMETRIC DRAWING TYPICAL CONDITION. IT IS A TYPE OF PICTORIAL PROJECTION IN THIS 3-D DRAWING OF AN OBJECT, IN WHICH ALL THREE DIMENSIONS OF ALL THREE DIMENSIONAL AXES ARE AN OBJECT ARE SHOWN IN ONE VIEW AND MENTAINED AT EQUAL INCLINATIONS IF REQUIRED, THEIR ACTUAL SIZES CAN BE WITH EACH OTHER.( 1200) MEASURED DIRECTLY FROM IT. 3-D DRAWINGS CAN BE DRAWN NOW OBSERVE BELOW GIVEN DRAWINGS.IN NUMEROUS WAYS AS SHOWN BELOW. ONE CAN NOTE SPECIFIC INCLINATIONALL THESE DRAWINGS MAY BE CALLED AMONG H, L & D AXES. 3-DIMENSIONAL DRAWINGS, ISO MEANS SAME, SIMILAR OR EQUAL. OR PHOTOGRAPHIC HERE ONE CAN FIND OR PICTORIAL DRAWINGS. EDUAL INCLINATION AMONG H, L & D AXES. HERE NO SPECIFIC RELATION EACH IS 1200 INCLINED WITH OTHER TWO. AMONG H, L & D AXES IS MENTAINED. HENCE IT IS CALLED ISOMETRIC DRAWING L H H H PURPOSE OF ISOMETRIC DRAWING IS TO UNDERSTAND OVERALL SHAPE, SIZE & APPEARANCE OF AN OBJECT PRIOR TO IT‟S PRODUCTION.
2. 2. SOME IMPORTANT TERMS:ISOMETRIC AXES, LINES AND PLANES:The three lines AL, AD and AH, meeting at point A and making1200 angles with each other are termed Isometric Axes. AThe lines parallel to these axes are called Isometric Lines.The planes representing the faces of of the cube as well as Hother planes parallel to these planes are called Isometric Planes.ISOMETRIC SCALE:When one holds the object in such a way that all three dimensionsare visible then in the process all dimensions become proportionallyinclined to observer‟s eye sight and hence appear apparent in lengths.This reduction is 0.815 or 9 / 11 ( approx.) It forms a reducing scale whichIs used to draw isometric drawings and is called Isometric scale.In practice, while drawing isometric projection, it is necessary to converttrue lengths into isometric lengths for measuring and marking the sizes.This is conveniently done by constructing an isometric scale as describedon next page.
3. 3. TYPES OF ISOMETRIC DRAWINGS ISOMETRIC VIEW ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONDrawn by using True scale Drawn by using Isometric scale ( True dimensions ) ( Reduced dimensions ) D 4 3 H 2 C H 4 1 3 2 CONSTRUCTION OF ISOM.SCALE. 0 From point A, with line AB draw 300 and 1 450 inclined lines AC & AD resp on AD. 450 Mark divisions of true length and from 0 300 A B each division-point draw vertical lines Isometric scale [ Line AC ] upto AC line. The divisions thus obtained on AC required for Isometric Projection give lengths on isometric scale.
4. 4. 1 Isometric view if the Shape is ISOMETRIC SHAPE OF F.V. or T.V. D PLANE FIGURES H RECTANGLE D A D A AS THESE ALL ARE C 2-D FIGURES CWE REQUIRE ONLY TWO A ISOMETRIC AXES. B C B B IF THE FIGURE IS B H FRONT VIEW, H & L TRIANGLE B AXES ARE REQUIRED. 1 3 B 1 3IF THE FIGURE IS TOP A AVIEW, D & L AXES ARE 3 1 REQUIRED. 2 A 2 2 Shapes containing 4Inclined lines should PENTAGON H E be enclosed in a 1 E 4 1 D 4rectangle as shown. DThen first draw isom. A D A Eof that rectangle and 1 3 then inscribe that 3 A C C shape as it is. 2 B B C 3 B 2 2
5. 5. STUDY 2 ZILLUSTRATIONSDRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF ACIRCLE IF IT IS A TV OR FV.FIRST ENCLOSE IT IN A SQUARE.IT‟S ISOMETRIC IS A RHOMBUS WITHD & L AXES FOR TOP VIEW.THEN USE H & L AXES FOR ISOMETRICWHEN IT IS FRONT VIEW.FOR CONSTRUCTION USE RHOMBUSMETHOD SHOWN HERE. STUDY IT. 2 A B 3 4 D C 1
6. 6. 3 STUDY Z ILLUSTRATIONS 25 RDRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF THE FIGURESHOWN WITH DIMENTIONS (ON RIGHT SIDE)CONSIDERING IT FIRST AS F.V. AND THEN T.V. 50 MM IF FRONT VIEW 100 MM IF TOP VIEW
7. 7. ISOMETRIC SHAPE IF F.V. IF T.V. 4 OF PLANE FIGURES HEXAGON AS THESE ALL ARE 2-D FIGURES WE REQUIRE ONLY TWO ISOMETRIC AXES. CIRCLE IF THE FIGURE IS FRONT VIEW, H & LAXES ARE REQUIRED. IF THE FIGURE IS TOP VIEW, D & L For Isometric of Circle/Semicircle use Rhombus method. Construct RhombusAXES ARE REQUIRED. of sides equal to Diameter of circle always. ( Ref. topic ENGG. CURVES.) SEMI CIRCLE For Isometric of Circle/Semicircle use Rhombus method. Construct it of sides equalto diameter of circle always. ( Ref. Previous two pages.)
8. 8. 5 STUDY Z ILLUSTRATIONS ISOMETRIC VIEW OF PENTAGONAL PYRAMID STANDING ON H.P. (Height is added from center of pentagon)ISOMETRIC VIEW OF BASE OF PENTAGONAL PYRAMID STANDING ON H.P. 4 4 D D E E 1 3 1 3 A C A C B 2 B 2
9. 9. 6 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS ISOMETRIC VIEW OF PENTAGONALL PRISM LYING ON H.P. 4 H E 1 D A 3 C B 2 ISOMETRIC VIEW OF HEXAGONAL PRISM STANDING ON H.P.
10. 10. 7 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS CYLINDER STANDING ON H.P.CYLINDER LYING ON H.P.
11. 11. 8 STUDY Z HALF CYLINDERILLUSTRATIONS STANDING ON H.P. ( ON IT’S SEMICIRCULAR BASE) HALF CYLINDER LYING ON H.P.( with flat face // to H.P.)
12. 12. 9 ISOMETRIC VIEW OF STUDY Z A FRUSTOM OF SQUARE PYRAMID ILLUSTRATIONS STANDING ON H.P. ON IT’S LARGER BASE. 60 FV X Y40 20 TV
13. 13. STUDY 10ILLUSTRATION PROJECTIONS OF FRUSTOM OF ISOMETRIC VIEW PENTAGONAL PYRAMID ARE GIVEN. OF FRUSTOM OF PENTAGONAL PYRAMID DRAW IT‟S ISOMETRIC VIEW. SOLUTION STEPS: 60FV FIRST DRAW ISOMETRIC OF IT‟S BASE. x y THEN DRAWSAME SHAPE E AS TOP, 60 MM ABOVE THE 1 4 BASE PENTAGON CENTER. A THEN REDUCE THE TOP TO 20 MM SIDES AND JOIN WITHTV 40 20 D THE PROPER BASE CORNERS. B 2 3 C
14. 14. ISOMETRIC VIEW OF 11 STUDY A FRUSTOM OF CONE ZILLUSTRATIONS STANDING ON H.P. ON IT’S LARGER BASE. 60 FV X Y40 20 TV
15. 15. PROBLEM: A SQUARE PYRAMID OF 30 MM BASE SIDES AND 12 STUDY 50 MM LONG AXIS, IS CENTRALLY PLACED ON THE TOP OF A ZILLUSTRATIONS CUBE OF 50 MM LONG EDGES.DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF THE PAIR.
16. 16. 13 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS cPROBLEM: A TRIANGULAR PYRAMIDOF 30 MM BASE SIDES AND 50 MM aLONG AXIS, IS CENTRALLY PLACED oON THE TOP OF A CUBE OF 50 MM p aLONG EDGES. bDRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF THE PAIR. o c p b SOLUTION HINTS. TO DRAW ISOMETRIC OF A CUBE IS SIMPLE. DRAW IT AS USUAL. BUT FOR PYRAMID AS IT’S BASE IS AN EQUILATERAL TRIANGLE, IT CAN NOT BE DRAWN DIRECTLY.SUPPORT OF IT’S TV IS REQUIRED. SO DRAW TRIANGLE AS A TV, SEPARATELY AND NAME VARIOUS POINTS AS SHOWN. AFTER THIS PLACE IT ON THE TOP OF CUBE AS SHOWN. THEN ADD HEIGHT FROM IT’S CENTER AND COMPLETE IT’S ISOMETRIC AS SHOWN.
17. 17. 14 STUDY PROBLEM: ZILLUSTRATIONS A SQUARE PLATE IS PIERCED THROUGH CENTRALLY BY A CYLINDER WHICH COMES OUT EQUALLY FROM BOTH FACES OF PLATE. IT‟S FV & TV ARE SHOWN. DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW. FV 30 10 30 30 D 50 + 50 TV
18. 18. 15 STUDY PROBLEM: ZILLUSTRATIONS A CIRCULAR PLATE IS PIERCED THROUGH CENTRALLY BY A SQUARE PYRAMID WHICH COMES OUT EQUALLY FROM BOTH FACES OF PLATE. IT‟S FV & TV ARE SHOWN. DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW. FV 30 10 30 40 SQUARE 60 D TV
19. 19. 16 STUDY Z F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view.ILLUSTRATIONS 10 20 40 FV 40 X Y TV 50 D 30 D
20. 20. STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONS OF SPHERE & HEMISPHERE 17 450 r 300 R r r Isom. Scale P C r r R CR TO DRAW ISOMETRIC PROJECTION R OF A HEMISPHERE P r P Adopt same procedure.C = Center of Sphere. Draw lower semicircle only. Then around „C‟ constructP = Point of contact Rhombus of Sides equal toR = True Radius of Sphere Isometric Diameter.r = Isometric Radius. For this use iso-scale. Then construct ellipse in TO DRAW ISOMETRIC PROJECTION OF A SPHERE this Rhombus as usual 1. FIRST DRAW ISOMETRIC OF SQUARE PLATE. And Complete 2. LOCATE IT‟S CENTER. NAME IT P. Isometric-Projection 3. FROM PDRAW VERTICAL LINE UPWARD, LENGTH „ r mm‟ of Hemi-sphere. AND LOCATE CENTER OF SPHERE “C” 4. „C‟ AS CENTER, WITH RADIUS „R‟ DRAW CIRCLE. THIS IS ISOMETRIC PROJECTION OF A SPHERE.
21. 21. PROBLEM: 18A HEMI-SPHERE IS CENTRALLY PLACED STUDYON THE TOP OF A FRUSTOM OF CONE. Z ILLUSTRATIONSDRAW ISOMETRIC PROJECTIONS OF THE ASSEMBLY. r 50 D R r 30 D r50 P 50 DFIRST CONSTRUCT ISOMETRIC SCALE.USE THIS SCALE FOR ALL DIMENSIONSIN THIS PROBLEM. 450 300
22. 22. 19 STUDY A SQUARE PYRAMID OF 40 MM BASE SIDES AND 60 MM AXIS ZILLUSTRATIONS IS CUT BY AN INCLINED SECTION PLANE THROUGH THE MID POINT OF AXIS AS SHOWN.DRAW ISOMETRIC VIEW OF SECTION OF PYRAMID. 3’ 4’ 4 3 1’2’ X Y 1 a d 1 4 2 o 3 b 2 c
23. 23. 20 STUDY Z F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view.ILLUSTRATIONS 50 O X Y 20 25 O 25 20
24. 24. 21 STUDY Z F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view.ILLUSTRATIONS 35 FV 35 10 x y O 10 20 30 40 70 TV O
25. 25. 22 STUDY Z F.V. & T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view.ILLUSTRATIONS FV 30 10 30 SV 30 10 30 x y ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL TV
26. 26. 24 STUDY Z F.V. & T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view.ILLUSTRATIONS ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL FV SV x y 10 40 60 40 TV 60
27. 27. F.V. & T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view. 25 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS ALL VIEWS IDENTICAL FV SV x y 10 40 60 40 TV 60
28. 28. 26 STUDY Z ILLUSTRATIONS F.V. & T.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view. ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTIONS FRONT VIEW L.H.SIDE VIEW 20 20 20 x y O 50 20 30 O 20 20 20 TOP VIEW
29. 29. 27 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view. 30 SQUARE 40 20 50 20 10 O 30 60 F.V. S.V. O
30. 30. 28 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view. FV 40 10 O 30 D 45 10 50 O 80 TV
31. 31. 29 STUDY F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view. ZILLUSTRATIONS FV 40 X O 10 Y 100 10 25 TV 10 30 10 25 30 R O 20 D
32. 32. 30 STUDY F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view. ZILLUSTRATIONS 30 FV RECT. SLOT 10 50 35 10 X Y O 20 D TV 60 D 30 D O
33. 33. 31 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view. 10 25 15 25 40 10 25 25 O O 80 25 F.V. S.V.
34. 34. F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view. 32 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS 450 30 FV 40 X Y O 30 D 40 TV 15 O 40
35. 35. 33 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view. HEX PART 30 20 20 40 20 O 50 20 15 O 30 100 60
36. 36. 34 STUDY F.V. & T.V. of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view. ZILLUSTRATIONS 20 40 F.V. 30 10 X Y O 10 30 10 30 O 80 T.V.
37. 37. F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. 35 Draw it‟s isometric view. 10 10 15 STUDY Z ILLUSTRATIONS 25 25X Y O 50 10 FV LSV 36NOTE THE SMALL CHZNGE IN 2ND FV & SV. DRAW ISOMETRIC ACCORDINGLY. 10 X Y O FV LSV
38. 38. 37 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view. 30 20 10 20 15 10 15 O 15 30 15 X O Y 50 F.V. LEFT S.V.
39. 39. 38 STUDY ZILLUSTRATIONS F.V. and S.V.of an object are given. Draw it‟s isometric view. 30 10 60 30 O O 40 40 F.V. S.V.