What is an attitude?ªA learned predisposition to respond to an object or a class of objects in a consistently favorable or unfavorable way.ªAttitudes are relatively enduring.ªAttitudes are situation-related.
Functions of AttitudesªUtilitarian functionªEgo-defensive functionªKnowledge functionªValue-expressive function
How do we form attitudes?ªThree different paths to attitude formation: ªAttitudes are created by first creating beliefs. ªConsumer beliefs are the knowledge that a consumer has about objects, their attributes, and the benefits provided by the objects. ªConsumer beliefs are created by processing information--cognitive learning.
Forming Attitudes, continuedªAttitudes are created directly. ªBehavioral learning ªMere exposureªAttitudes are created by first creating behaviors. ªConsumers respond to strong situational or environmental forces, and after engaging in the behavior, form attitudes about the experience.
Structural Model of AttitudeªTricomponent Attitude Model
Tricomponent ModelªCognitive component ªThe knowledge and perceptions that are acquired by a combination of direct experience with the attitude object and related information from various sources.ªAffective component ªThe emotions or feelings associate with a particular product or brand.ªConative component ªThe likelihood or tendency that an individual will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular way with regard to the attitude object.
Measurement Models of AttitudeªMultiattribute model ªFishbein and Azjen ªMeasures attitude score using consumers’ beliefs and evaluations about attributes of the attitude object. ªSeveral different contexts in which attitude scores are measured. ª Attitude-toward-the-object model ª Attitude-toward-the-behavior model
Multiattribute Model Aj = ∑BijIiWhere: i = attribute or product characteristic j= brandSuch that: A = the consumer’s attitude score for brand j I = the importance weight given to attribute i by the consumer B = the consumer’s belief as to the extent to which a
Understanding the Multiattribute ModelªAll relevant product attributes, based on consumers’ perceptions, need to be included in the model to provide dimensionality.ªEven though there may be several relevant attributes, they are not generally equally important. The importance weight of the formula allows adjustment of the importance of each attribute individually.
Understanding the Multiattribute Model...ªBeliefs represent the extent to which each product offers satisfaction for the attribute in question.ªCompensatory model.
Advantages of Multiattribute ModelªClearly shows what is important to consumers about a given product.ªShows how well brands do relative to each other.ªShows how well a specific brand does with respect to attributes perceived as important to consumers.
Weakness of Multiattribute ModelªNot a perfect predictor of consumer behaviorªLots of variables determine behavior in addition to attitude: ªInvolvement ªFriends ªFamily ªFinancial resources ªAvailability of product
Theory of Reasoned Actionª Extends multiattribute model; tries to compensate for the inability of the multiattribute model to predict behavior.ªAssumes that consumers consciously consider the consequences of alternative behaviors under consideration and choose the one that leads to the most desirable consequences.ªThe outcomes of this reasoned choice process is an intention to engage in a selected behavior--behavioral intention.
Theory of Reasoned Action B~BI = Aact(w1) + SN(w2)Where:B = a specific behaviorBI = consumer’s intention to engage in that behavior Aact = consumer’s attitude toward engaging in that behaviorSN = subjective norm regarding whether other people want the consumer to engage in that behaviorw1 & w2 = weights that reflect the relative influence of
Simplified Version Beliefs that Beliefs that specific Motivationthe behavior Evaluation referents think to comply leads to of the I should or with the certain outcomes should not specific outcomes perform the referents behavior Attitude toward Subjective Norm the behavior Intention Behavior
Comparing A vs. AactCar (A) Buying a New Car this Year (Aact)Moderately priced (+) Gives me a mode of transportation (+)Ordinary (-) Will put me in financial difficulty (-)Well-built (+) Will lead to high upkeep costs (-)Dependable (+) Will cost more now than later (-)Easily serviced (+) Will lead to high insurance rates (-)
Attitude-toward-the-Ad ModelªVery specific to understanding the impact of advertising on consumer attitudes about a particular product or brand.ªExposure to advertising affects attitude- toward-the ad and attitude-toward-the brand.
Attitude-toward-the-Ad ModelªVery specific to understanding the impact of advertising on consumer attitudes about a particular product or brand.ªExposure to advertising directly affects beliefs about the ad and brand, and feelings about the ad.ªExposure to advertising indirectly affects attitude toward the brand and attitude toward the ad.
Exposure to ad Judgments about Feelings fromthe ad (cognition) the ad (affect) Beliefs about Attitude toward the brand the ad Attitude toward the brand
How Can Marketers Change Attitudes?ªAlter components of multiattribute model ªIncrease belief ratings for the brand ªIncrease the importance of a key attribute ªDecrease the importance of a weak attribute ªAdd an entirely new attribute ªDecrease belief ratings for competitive brands
Changing attitudes….ªChange beliefs and attitudes through persuasionªElaboration likelihood model of persuasion (ELM)
Motivation Ability to toElaborate Elaborate Amount of High Elaboration Low Central Peripheral Route to Route toPersuasion Persuasion Message PeripheralArguments CuesDetermine Determinepersuasion persuasion
Belief and High-involvement Cognitive Behavior attitude processing responses change Central change route Communication Attention and(source,message, comprehension channel) Peripheral route Low-involvement Belief Behavior Attitude processing change change change
Changing attitudes...ªChanging attitudes directly though behaviorªCognitive Dissonance Theories ªBalance Theory ªSocial Judgment TheoryªAttribution Theory
Balance TheoryªConsumers strive for consistency between interconnected attitudes.ªMarketers can influence attitudes by creating imbalance within the target of persuasion-- motivates consumer to change one or more of the interconnected attitudes to restore balance.
Social Judgment TheoryªConsumers use attitudes as a frame of reference to judge new information.ªIf high involvement: ªNarrow latitude of acceptance ªWide latitude of rejection ªAssimilation effect ªContrast effectªIf low involvement: ªWide latitude of acceptance ªWide latitude of noncommitment
Attribution TheoryªConsumers make inferences about behaviors, assign causality--blame or credit--to events on the basis of their or others’ behaviors.ªIn the process of assigning causality, form attitudes.ªMarketing implications: ªOffer high quality products ªAdvertising should emphasize quality. ªModerate-sized incentives.