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Cold War is the conflict between the Communist nations led by the Soviet Union and the democratic nations led by the United States.
Immediate Causes Leading to the Cold War
Early conflict between the Soviet Union and the United States began at the peace-time conferences.
Their conflict was intensified after President Truman declared the Truman Doctrine and launched the Marshall Plan in 1947.
a) Truman Doctrine (1947): The United States offered foreign aid to any country threatened by communist expansion.
b) The Marshall Plan (1948) provided foreign aid to 16 democratic European nations that struggled to recover from World War II. The United States believed that recovery would help these nations avoid communist influence.
The Truman Doctrine and the Marshall Plan were proof that the United States considered communism a grave threat. They became a foundation of U.S. foreign policy
In a speech to Harvard University in 1947, Secretary of State George C. Marshall proposed that a post-war European aid program be initiated. Less than a year later, the Marshall Plan was a reality.
When Harry Truman approved the Marshall Plan in 1948.
National unification movement among younger generation of Koreans who have never experienced Cold War nor exposed to the Korean War “ Post-Korean War generation” promoted the reunification of Korea demanding the withdrawal of the U. S. troops from South Korea. The continued US presence in Korea serves as an obstacle to reunification of two Koreas.
2) The role of major powers in the division of Korea US in South Korea
Republic of Korea (ROK) created with the installation of Syngman Rhee as 1st President of the ROK
On 10-5-1948, the Americans engineered separate elections in South Korea. All over Korea, general elections to the Supreme People’s Assembly (SPA) took place on 25-8-1948.
12 Dec 1948, UN General assembly declaring the Rhee government to be lawful effective control & jurisdiction over south part of Korea
US succeeded in securing international reorganization the “puppet regime” in South Korea.
US Armed Forces continued to station in South Korea for the past 55years
Aftermath of World War 2- divide and rule Soviet Union in North Korea
Soviet withdraw its Army in 1948.
The establishment of the Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (DPRK) on Sept 8, 1948
The constitution of the new state and elected Kim Il Sung as its Premier of the DPRK on 10 Sept 1948.
After the collapsed of Soviet Union, PRC became most reliable ally of North Korea in terms of economic and military assistance China and the United States changed dramatically the international environment of the Korean peninsula Forced them to play the key role in the peace and stability as well as the reunification process of two Koreas Japan & Russia played the supporting role for the United States and China respectively. KOREA remained divided along 38th parallel COLD WAR: Soviet Union supported the North Korean regime Korean war
CHINA replacing the Soviet influence in Korean
Providing the security protection to North Korea from threat of US forces for past half century
People’s Republic of China (PRC) armies rescued the collapse of the North Korean regime during the Korean War. Korean War Armistice Agreement (1953)
Communism ideology was largely spread after the movement of Soviet troops into northern Korea was welcomed by many Koreans.
The ideology communism became more dominant in North Korea after the establishment the Democratic People’s of Korea (DPRK).
Russia became a threat to US interests and ideology due to the success of the communist party there. China made this threat even bigger by becoming communist under Mao Tse Tsung after the Russian model.
International politics and US interests created changes in US policy in Japan during Cold War. The spreading of Communism started a number of actions by the US based in self interest in Korea and Japan.
In order to prevent communism spread largely into Southern of Korea and Japan, US considered Japan as a potential ally against communism. Japan became acceptable as a potential industry force against communism.
5) The Impact on Korean people after the division of Korea 1) Extremely disruptive socially migrations between two countries. People left behind families, businesses, and the graves of their dead ancestors. 2) Discriminate against people not on their group. In North Korea, they obviously discriminate against capitalist while in South Korea against the Communist
DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SOUTH & NORTH KOREA DESCRIPTION Republic of Korea (SOUTH KOREA) Democratic People’s Republic of Korea (NORTH KOREA) Establishment -Independence declared: March 1, 1919 -Provisional Government: April 13, 1919 -Liberation: August 15, 1945 - Constitution: July 17, 1948 -Government proclaimed: July 17, 1948 -Independence declared: March 1, 1919 -Liberation: August 15, 1945 -Formal declaration: September 9, 1948 Capital Seoul Pyongyang Official script Chosŏn'gŭl Hangul Political Ideologies Democracy Communism + Juche ideology Economic Systems Market economy system Central planning economy
Legislature National Assembly Supreme People's Assembly Government Presidential republic Type: Republic with powers shared between the president, the legislature, and the courts. Branches: 1) Executive--President (chief of state); Prime Minister (head of government). 2) Legislative--unicameral National Assembly. 3) Judicial--Supreme Court and appellate courts; Constitutional Court. Subdivisions: Nine provinces, seven administratively separate cities (Seoul, Busan, Incheon, Daegu, Gwangju, Daejeon, Ulsan). Political parties: Grand National Party (GNP); Democratic Party (DP), formerly known as United Democratic Party (UDP); Liberty Forward Party (LFP); New Progressive Party (NPP); Pro-Park Alliance (PPA); Renewal Korea Party (RKP).
Juche unitary single-party state
North Korea government is the executive branch of the state
In practice, the highest decisions are made by the National Defence Comission of North Korea. (current)