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A book that covers the basics of the core areas of the hotels & hospitality.

A book that covers the basics of the core areas of the hotels & hospitality.

Published in: Education

  • GREAT Work sir...would love to have the presentation for my staff, I would be greatfull if i could get a copy on my mail
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  • Great work sir. I like this one. can you pls send me a copy of this?need it for my staffs thanks.
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  • I am uploading a PPT presentation made on Complaint Handling, there's a video too hyper linked with the slide, I am not sure if that can be seen
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  • Hello Sir Your Modules will be a huge help in developing my staff' s performance can you pls send me a copy of your power point presentation in the proper sequence of service in a fine dining dining restaurant and also how to handle complains,hospitality terminology,HACCP also and if there is any training modules that you can possibly send on power point presentation it will be highly appreciated my email is THANK YOU ONCE AGAIN KEEP IT UP SIR!
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  • Please mail me your request @ I shall comply ASAP. _ Regards
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  • 1. i
  • 2. IndexLesson Topic PageNo.001 Hospitality & the Hotel industry 1002 Classification of Hotels 16003 The Departments of a Hotel and their Objectives 24003A The Hotel Organisation Chart 27004 The Hotel Front Office Organisation 28004A The Organisation Chart of Front Office 32005 The Front Office and its Intra & Interdepartmental Relationship 33006 The Types of Rooms 38007 Some Important Abbreviations & Definitions I & II 41007A Front Office -Reservation Section 44008 Front Office – Registration 52009 Front Office – Information 60009A Front Office- Shift-wise Duties of a Receptionist 63010 Front Office - Room Report & Room Statistics 64011 Front Office – The Bell Desk & Concierge 66012 Front Office- The Cashier & The Night Audit 70013 F&B Service – Outlets 77014 F&B Service – Organisation & its Hierarchy 89015 F&B Service – Interdepartmental Relationship 93016 F&B Service – Ancillary Sections +7 96017 F&B Service – A Typical Restaurant Floor Plan 99018 F&B Service – Service Equipment 100019 F&B Service - The Menu & its Courses 112020 F&B Service – The Setting of a Dinning Hall 120021 F&B Service – Breakfast & Afternoon Tea 126022 F&B Service – The Service of Food – The Rules- The Styles & The 131 Sequence023 F&B Service – The Restaurant Control System 138024 F&B Service – Beverages & Its Classification 142024A F&B Service – Various Types of Coffee Preparation 154025 F&B Service – Service of Beverages 160026 Housekeeping - Organisation & Operation 165026A Housekeeping – The Organisation Chart 177027 Food Production – Organisation 178027A Food Production – The Organisation Chart 184028A Food Production – The Methods of Food Preparation & Cooking 185028B Food Production – The Basic Cookery- Stocks, Soups, Sauces & Gravies 188029 Food Production – A Brief Knowledge on Food Materials 195029A Food Production – A Brief Knowledge on Production Equipments 206030 The French Menu Terms 211
  • 3. 001 -HOSPITALITY & THE HOTEL INDUSTRYHospitality- The word “hospitality” has a varied application. It can be appliedIntroduction with the persons whom we visit day to day, their utmost concern to&Definition please you upon your visit or just taking care of your needs when you are away from home. So hospitality becomes applicable only when one is out of his home, in an unknown scenario, where he is taken care of and made to feel comfortable. It also means actions by which one can achieve satisfaction of others or by performance of various acts by which a visitor would remember the performer and cherish his company upon his returning back home. It also means ways by which one goes an extra mile to do something to make the visitor feel a home away from home, a feel good factor that works on him, totaling to the warmth, affection and total concern of the host. In other words it is the attitude of the people serving, i.e., the host how he makes his guest’s/guests’ visit memorable and a pleasant experience. Therefore, hospitality is ways or actions adopted by the host by which a visitor is being made to feel comfortable and at home.The Importance of One may often ask why we should practice hospitality. Now in thisHospitality. world where we continually render our services, one is the giver whom we can term as the “seller” and the other is the receiver or in other words the “customer”. It is also true that you may offer services as a seller and it is up to the choice of the customer to accept it or not. Now, hospitality can be extended at one’s home with equal importance is in business. The services a business sector would provide are more or the less same, but the way a customer is looked after can be different. And this makes hospitality so important. Here, it is also important to remember that a customers needs are ever changing and keeping in pace with their needs a well motivated hospitality industry would always modify according to the needs of its customers. Since, the customers keep one business going and the customers are always comparing the services they receive with what they pay for it and the add-on what they get from the establishment – the feel good factor, therefore it is important.Application of Hospitality is an industry by itself being and its principal can beHospitality applied in many industries. The principal participators being the Hotel and Tourism and the other areas where hospitality can be applied are listed below. a) Hotel Sector. b) Travel Sector- Tourism, Transportation, Travel gents & Tour Operators. c) BPO Sector. d) Retail Outlet Sector. e) Banking Sector.The ABC Of Hospitality 1
  • 4. 001 -HOSPITALITY & THE HOTEL INDUSTRY f) Nursing & Hospital Sector. g) Customer Care Services. h) Event Management Industry. i) Recreation, Entertainment & Festivals. j) Corporate Houses. k) Manufacturing Industries. l) F& B Service & Food Production. m) Small business Entrepreneurs.The Rules for Hospitality refers to pleasing of guests. To please a guest there areCustomer/ Guest two rules.Satisfaction ● Rule 1:- The guest is always right. ● Rule 2:- Even, according to you, if he is wrong, apply Rule No: – 1.The Hotel Industry- The hotel is defined as a place where one can be offered with food,Definition & drinks and shelter in exchange of money, provided he is in theHistory position to pay and is in a fit condition to be received. The need for a hotel arose, perhaps, with the urge to travel and with the latter getting the impetus from the invention of wheels the necessity of a home away from home increased. The early travelers were the warriors, the traders or the people in search of knowledge. In those times there were no hotels and people traveled on palanquins, horses, elephants and donkeys. The warriors pitched their tents for accommodation and had their own garrison to feed them. The traders often traded their merchandise for lodging or were sometimes respected by the nobilities and the scholars often gained patronization from the kings and nobilities. People formed groups, acquired lands, formed villages and cities and kingdoms. Rulers came up to rule upon them. Wheels were invented and roads started getting constructed initially for the movement of the army. Chariots, animal driven carts came into being and along with it travel started among the civilians as well namely among the traders, pilgrims and the scholars. Necessity arose to give shelter to these travelers and inns were constructed. The early hotels, the inns, as they were called dates back to the 6th century BC. It was a family enterprise and was very much different to the hotels as we see today. There was no privacy. People had to carry their own beddings and make their own bed. The food was just wholesome and healthy. Entertainment was provided by the inn keeper’s wife and daughter. There were stables to keepThe ABC Of Hospitality 2
  • 5. 001 -HOSPITALITY & THE HOTEL INDUSTRY their carts and feed the animals. In Europe, during 7th and the 8th Century BC, the monasteries provided shelter and food to the travelers. But incidentally, these monasteries had a very little capacity to give shelter to a huge fleet of travelers which later started coming up in groups in order to protect themselves from highwaymen and eventually a need for larger accommodation arose. In 13th Century the Manor houses of the nobilities provided food and shelter free of cost. But in time, the free services offered by these manor houses were crippled by taxes and many had to reform their establishments as inns. In this way the need of hotel keeping came up and the lead was taken up Switzerland. It was in this part of Europe the birth or organized hotels came up in form of Chalets (small wooden house) and small hotels that provided a lot of services. In England there were public houses that came to be called as Inns – for the nobilities and the taverns for the commoners. In France too there came up a classification of superior hotels – the Hosteller for the rich people and the Cabarets for the commons. In Americas the lodging houses were called Inns and Coffee Houses. The industrial revolution gave way to the discovery of steam engine, which in turn gave way to a wide network connection by rail. Industrial revolution over threw feudalism and the economy started getting shared among the middle class section of the society. Traveling and boarding became easier and at the same time affordable to a wider cross section of the community. Consequently, the hotel industry boomed in the 18th Century with the opening of the City Hotel in 1794 in New York. This hotel was built by an American E M Statler and this was the first where the entire building was constructed for the hotel purpose. Throughout the 1800 the American innkeepers improved their services and continued to build larger and amply equipped properties and such properties were mostly located near sea towns. The next stage of the cycle of the evolution of the hotel industry was coming up of the motorcars which in turn necessitated in constructing a wide network of roadways. It enabled to visit those parts of the country which could not be traveled by railways. This gave birth to inland resorts. Along with this new concept there arose another necessity to stopover en-route arose. Especially to re-fresh oneself and service and refuel their cars. This gave way, especially among the Americans to construct such transit hotels which came toThe ABC Of Hospitality 3
  • 6. 001 -HOSPITALITY & THE HOTEL INDUSTRY be called as motor hotels. International air travel came into existence. This helped to create modern stop over hotels, business hotels, need based hotels, airport hotels, designed to suit every need of the customers and more specifically international chain operations throughout the country and the world ensuring easy access to the homes away from homes.Development & In the early periods in India, hospitality was not organized but wasGrowth of Hotels in provided either by an individual or village bases. But nevertheless,India the guests were held in high esteem and they were regarded as “Athiti deva Bhava” a guest is like God. People who generally traveled, were on government missions who had their own set ups. The other groups comprised of the pilgrims, businessmen and the scholars and students. The students usually became disciples of educational instructors who were called “Gurus,” and it was in their homes the students stayed and learned the necessary texts during the years of their tutelage. The accommodation and the food were taken care of by the guru and many times the students were taught to cook their own meals. The businessmen and traders often traveled together and lodged at mansions and havelis of the noblemen. The pilgrims had to board the dharmsalas and were looked after their own religious people called the pandas at the place of the pilgrimage. It was later discovered that in the Buddhist universities and monasteries in Taxila and Nalanda provided accommodation to students and scholars. In India too the development of the hotel industry was closely linked with travel. Inns, which were called “serais”, were set up at strategic places which served as a stopover. Such evidence is still being borne by the name of a place a “Mughalserai” which was about just half the distance from Delhi the capital and Murshidabad, the seat of the Bengal’s nawabs. Even the Grand Trunk Road had innumerable inns to meet the demands of the passersby. It was with the coming of the British the hospitality industry took on a large scale shape. Many of the serais changed its décor and type of food according to the liking of the British. In 1840 a Parsi gentleman – Pallanjee Pestonjee opened a hotel in Bombay which was as good as that maintained by any British and it was famous for its food and beer. Later more hotels like Auckland Hotel, Great Eastern hotel came into being. The Taj Group was founded in 1903 by JRD Tata with its maiden Hotel constructed at the Gateway of India – Mumbai. Mr. M S Oberoi started his career as an hotelier by buying the Ceceil Hotel, Shimla in 1934. A brief history of the hotel industry both internationally and in India are discussedThe ABC Of Hospitality 4
  • 7. 001 -HOSPITALITY & THE HOTEL INDUSTRY chronologically in the following pages.YEAR EVENT1846 Central Heating1859 Elevator1881 Electric Lights (2 years after patent)1907 In-room Telephones (31 years after invention)1910 Formation of American Hotel Association (later *AHMA) was formed, now**AHLA1927 Radio in rooms (21 years after invention)1940 Air cooling mostly in public area1950 Electric elevator1958 Free television1964 Holiday Inn reservation system with centralized computer1965 Message light on telephone1965 Initial Front office systems followed by room status1970 Color T.V. (invented in 1954)1970 (Early) E.C.R. (Electronic Cash Register)1970 (Mid) POS (Point of Sales) system and key less locks1973 Free In-room movies (Sheraton)1983 In room personal computers *AHMA: - American Hotel & Motel Association** AHLA: - American Hotel & Lodging Association________________________________________________________________________YEAR EVENT1650 Pascal opened a café in Paris and Coffee House in London1794 City Hotel (73 rooms) at 115 Broadway, New York. First building specially made for a hotel by E.M. Statler.1829 Tremont House. Adam & Eve of modern hotel industry was opened at Boston (170 rooms)1889 Cesar Ritz introduced luxury hotels such as Savoy, Carlton and Hyde Park hotels in London1890-1899 Frederick Gordon and Sir Blundell Maple launched Gordon Hotels and Fredrick Hotels Ltd.Late 19th Century Famous Waldorf Astoria, New York18. 01.1908 Buffalo Sattler by Ellsworth Statler in U.S. considered being the forerunner of the commercial hotels.1927 Stevens Hotel in Chicago, later renamed as Hilton Hotel (3000 rooms)The ABC Of Hospitality 5
  • 8. 001 -HOSPITALITY & THE HOTEL INDUSTRY1950 2 new concepts emerged: (a) Motels (b) International Chain operations.Hotel Rossia or Rossiya Moscow (Remained largest hotel of the world for quite sometime)West Inn Stanford Singapore (Remained tallest hotel building of the world for quite sometime)1930- Depression in World Decline in Hotel IndustryEconomyWorld War period Many trained staff joined the army, lowering the standards of service, but the business thrived, increasing the room occupancy percentage due to mass movement to approximately 90%.1950s Upsurge in hotels. New concepts developed such as motels, boatels, floatels, rotels, and loatels. Kemmons Wilson formed ‘Holiday Inn’ and the first Holiday Inn was made in 1952.1960s Development of Atrium Hotels by Hyatt. Individual hotels merged themselves with hotels chains like Sheraton, Hyatt, Holiday Inns, Ramada Inns, etc. Later part of the 60s offered Budget Hotels & Motels.1970s The hotel industry took once again the frenzy of hotel construction. Hilton, Sheraton, and Western Corp, opened convention oriented hotels. Airport Hotel locations also appeared and the Marriotts started locating their properties outside the central city area. Aided by financers money became available and so also the franchisees. But on the other these franchisees were often undercapitalized and lacked in experience whish resulted in poorly located properties. Certain other problems also cropped up- Energy crisis causing in curtailment of travel, Inflation causing construction cost and interest rates going high, Recession controlled business trips, conferences and conventions, Due to above situations, the properties running in marginal profits could not pat their mortgage amount and the leaders became the owners who hired experienced hoteliers and outsourced their management to professional companies to manage the operational responsibilities.Current Scenario Since then a lot of changes in the technological and management approach have taken place and today’s hotel industry is progressing day by day. International business is rapidly developing and with the development of air travel, a lot of business executives are traveling out. Modern hotels are rendering facilities according to the needs and wants of the tourists and the business class. Some international hotel chains of repute that rendering a world class service are - Accor. American International Hotel & Travel Lodge, CEDOK, Club Meridian, Friendship Inn, Golden Tulip, Hilton, Holiday Inn, Howard Johnson, Hyatt, Imperial, Inter Continental, Marriott, Meridian, Motel 6, Park Royal, Quality Inns, Ramada Inn, Red Carpet Inn, Red Roof Inns, Sheraton, Sofitel, SRS Hotels, Super 8 Motels, Topeka Inns, Trust House Fort, United Inn, Utell International, Western International Hotel, Wolfe International, etc._______________________________________________________________________The ABC Of Hospitality 6
  • 9. 001 -HOSPITALITY & THE HOTEL INDUSTRYYEAR/PERIOD EVENTEarly Period Was not organized- provided either by individual or village bases Later Buddhist Monasteries provided board & lodging to travelers.Chandra Gupta Maurya Establishment of Inns and guest housesMuslim Period Establishment of Musafir Khanas & Serais *With the coming of the Serais started developing into inns & western style hotels in cities likeBritishers Calcutta & Bombay.Early Period of the British Raj Establishment of:- Excellent & famous inns- Portuguese Georges, Parsee Georges, Paddy Georges, Famous hotels – Albion Hotel, Victory Hotel, Hope Hal(tariff @ Rs6/- per day for room & meals) From the records it is being noted that In 1778 a traveler named Philip Stanhope stayed in a luxurious & excellent tavern in Bombay Prince David who visited India stayed at a luxurious hotel- Mac Farlanes Hotel In 1800 a dinner was held to commemorate the capture of Shrirangapatnam was served at MacLean’s Hotel. This same hotel remained a resort for many years for Sans Souci Club which entertained Duke of Wellington, Lord Nelson and Sir Arthur Wellesley. 1810 – Din Muhammad set sail to London to open the first Indian Restaurant-Hindustani Coffee House1840 Pallanjee Pestonjee started the first luxurious hotel in Bombay.1843 Establishment of Auckland Hotel in Calcutta later came to be known as Great Eastern Hotel in 1858. It was later renovated for a sum of 10 lacs.1871 Building of Esplanade hotel in Calcutta by a British named John Wakson.End of 19th century Coming up of guest houses- Dak-Bungalows for official touring purposes which later replaced by modified Circuit House.1903 Construction of Taj Mahal Hotel in Bombay by J. R. D. Tata, under the flagship of Indian Hotel Company. A first hotel operation that took up as a chain built by an Indian for the Indians.1912 Spencers’ started hotel business in Calcutta. They were better known with railway catering as well.1922 Raj Bahadur M.S. Oberoi started his career as a clerk in Faletti’s Cecil Hotel in Shimla, under Clarke’s’s Group who later became the owner of the hotel and bought another hotel under Clarke’s at Delhi.In 1946 he established Oberoi Hotels private Limited and later on 26th May, 1949, established East India hotels Limited (EIHL). Many hotels were added during the period among which Oberoi Intercontinental in 1965 in New Delhi & Oberoi Sheraton in 1973 are the most important ones.1962 Drop of tourist influx, from 1, 39, 804 to 1, 34, 360, Government realized the importance of tourism and establishment of Hotel Corporation &Ttourism Corporations.The ABC Of Hospitality 7
  • 10. 001 -HOSPITALITY & THE HOTEL INDUSTRY1956 1) Ashoka Hotel was made, and 2) Dewan Lal committee was formed to- standardize hotel services,YEAR/PERIOD EVENT1956 (Cont’d) lay criteria for classification of hotels suggest guidelines for tourism promotion in India and within India Suggest improvements of the existing arrangements and availability of sources for the promotion of national and international tourism, Suggest rate structure keeping in view the existing price structure in hotel industry.1964 Formation of Corporations Indian Tourism & Hotel Corporation India Tourism Corporation Ltd. India tourism & Transport Corporation1966, 24th September The Government of India decided to merge these three Corporations & formed India Tourism Development Corporation.The Early Seventies Coming up of Indian chain operations. Welcome Group, The Oberois with their corporate office as East India Hotel Limited, the Spencer Group, the Ritz Chain, with other chain operators like Sinclairs to follow.The Early Eighties With India hosting the Asiad, many International Hotel Chains saw the potential of hotel industry in the Indian marketThe Present Status Coming up of international chain operations. Some chain operations operating on franchise basis-Sheraton, Hilton, Ramada, Sofitel, Meridien, Hyatt, and Marriott. This period also saw some Indian Chains going international; mainly the Indian Hotel Company the corporate of the Taj Group, the East India Hotels Ltd., spread its operation abroad as well.________________________________________________________________________NAMES DESCRIPTIION & LOCATIONQutub Serai At the entrance of the tomb of Kamali Jamali. It had 50 feet deep baoli in its courtyard.Ladha Serai Also known as Bagh Nazir, it is 300 yards south of the tomb of Jamali. It was built in 1748.Lado Serai Also in the same vicinity, it was originally a caravan serai.Sarban Serai It is in Kamlapati garden, very close to Delhi—Qutub Road.Daud Serai It is situated 500 yards south of the tomb of Maulana Kuli Khan in Qutub AreaKallu serai Built during the Tughlaq Period, it is in the vicinity of Sarvpriya Vihar area, its main feature, a rubble masonry building, is called Bijay Mandal.Arab ki Serai It was built in 1560-61 by Hamida Banu Begum, wife of Humayun, as a settlement ofThe ABC Of Hospitality 8
  • 11. 001 -HOSPITALITY & THE HOTEL INDUSTRY 300 Arabs, whom she had brought with her while returning from pilgrimage to Mecca.Sheikh Serai It was named after the popular saint Sheikh Allauddin who lived there and had his tomb during his lifetime.NAMES ACTIVITIESITDC India Tourism Development Corporation, a public sector enterprise, was formed upon merger or three corporations on 24th September, 1966, previously set up by the Government of India in 1954 – India Tourism & Hotel Corporation, India Tourism Corporation Limited, India Tourism & Transport Corporation, with an authorized capital of Rs. 5 crores.Taj Group of Hotels In 1903, JRD Tata constructed the first hotel the Taj Mahal Hotel in Bombay under the flagship of hotel of Indian Hotels Company and since then it has been the landmark by Gateway of India. This was the first hotel of international standard built by an Indian for the Indians. The Tajmahal hotel was the only hotel of the Tatas’ for a long time and the revenue earned was spent for the research & development of medicines for cancer in the Tata Memorial Research Institute in Bombay. But nevertheless the hotel is rated among the ten best hotels in the world. Later the company took over Ram Bagh Palace in Jaipur and Lake Palace in Udaipur. The Ram Bagh Palace remained one of the ten best hotels of the world for quite a long time. Later the group came up with many more hotels in Delhi, Madras. Kolkata, Goa, Varanasi, Bangalore, and many other places in India. The group also operates abroad with hotels in UK, USA, Oman, Maldives, Dubai, Sri Lanka. It also operates Flight Catering Service with Flight Kitchens at Mumbai and Delhi.Oberoi Hotels Rai Bahadur M S Oberoi, is the founder of this organisation. They had their first hotel in Shimla and Delhi. Later they took over Grand Hotel in Calcutta on lease and by the end of World War II, the hotel became well known for its excellent service and facilities. In 1946 the company was formed in the name of Oberoi Hotels Private Ltd., and later in 1949 East India Hotel Limited (EIHL) was formed. Many hotels were added to EIHL, among which Oberoi Intercontinental, New Delhi and Oberoi Sheraton, Bombay are the most popular and acclaimed for its excellence in service. The EIHL is now one of the largest hotel chains operating in India and also abroad with properties in Australia, Indonesia, Iraq, Sri Lanka, Nepal, etc. Oberoi also has its own training institute, (OCLD) in Delhi.Welcome Group It is the hotel division of the (ITC) Indian Tobacco Co. Ltd. ITC entered into hotel business in 1975 with the opening of Hotel Chola In Madras. The Welcom Group has hotel in various cities in India such as Agra, Delhi, Aurangabad, Jaipur, Goa, Gwalior, etc.U.P. Hotels & The chain is more famous as Clarke’s Group of Hotels, established on 13 th February,Restaurants Ltd. 1961. Clarke’s Shiraz, Agra was its first enterprise, which had some more add on in later years - Clarke’s Awadh, Clarke’s Ajmer, Clarke’s at Lucknow, Jaipur and Varanasi respectively.Ritz Chain The chain is owned by R N Kapur family with hotels in Mumbai, Hyderabad, & Conoor. The chain has dinning outlets that specializes in Italian cuisine.Spencers Started hotel business in Calcutta in 1912. It has operations mainly in South India. It has several hotels in Madras-Hotel Connamera, West End Hotel in Bangalore, Hotel Malabar at Cochin & Trivandrum, Hotel Blue Mountains in Kotagiri, Hotel Savoy in Ooty, Hotel Arakua in Bangalore, and three vegetarian hotels in Madras – Geetha, Ashoka And Ajanta.Sinclairs A chain of hotels operating in eastern part of India, with hotels at Darjeeling, Takdah, Siliguri, Ooty, Dooars and Port Blair.The ABC Of Hospitality 9
  • 12. 001 -HOSPITALITY & THE HOTEL INDUSTRYHotel Corporation of A subsidiary of Air India, which looks after its flight catering. The chain has hotels inIndia Bombay (opened in 1974) followed by hotels in Delhi, Srinagar, Rajgir, etc. The brand name of the hotel chain in Centaur.Leela Chain Hotels The chain is owned by Captt. C P Krishna Nair of Kerala. The specialty of this chain is Butler Service, where the butlers are trained by former members of Royal house of Windsor. They have named the coffee shops of all the hotels of their chain as ‘Citrus’ and the Indian Restaurants as ‘Jamewar.’ The chains have hotels in Mumbai, and Goa and Leela Palace at BangaloreAsian Hotels The group has tied up with Hyatt chain and has hotels in Delhi, Goa, Mumbai and Bangalore with further property in Jaipur and AgraApeejay Surrendra It started its first hotel as Park Hotel in Calcutta in 1967. Later it added large hotelsGroup (Park Hotel) in Delhi & Chennai, and a resort hotel at Viskhapatnam to its group.J.P. Hotels The group has hotels in Delhi, Agra and Mussoorie.Sarovar Park Plaza This chain was started by ex-management team of Oberoi Group, namely with Mr. Ajay Bakaya and Mr. Anil Madhok and has rapidly expanded its business through franchisee management mode to hotels in Jaipur, Agra, Bangalore, Mumbai, Ahmedabad, Gurgaon, and also abroad in countries like Belgium, Tanzania, Kenya, etc.Fortune group - ITC This was started in 2000 with the aim to primarily address the demand of Smaller Business Hotels in satellite suburbs and have hotels in Delhi, Gurgaon, Noida, Vadodhara, Surat, and Ahmedabad.Radisson Have hotel chains in Delhi, Goa, Mumbai, Shimla, Orissa, West Bengal, Jaipur. It is a venture of Carlson Hospitality.J. W. Marriott The chain has hotels in New Delhi, Mumbai, Goa, Jaipur & Agra.Star Hotels They have hotels in Nainital, New Delhi, & AllahabadRoop Kumaon The hotels operating under this chain are – Hotel Roop Kumaon, near Ramgarh, Uttaranchal, and Corbett Roop, & Resort Mohan near Ram Nagar, Uttaranchal.Chevron Hotels & Have hotel properties Rosemount at Ranikhet, and Fairheavens at Nainital and atResorts Kumaon.________________________________________________________________________THE PALACE ACTIVITIESMaharaja Hari Singh Palace The first palace to be converted to Oberoi Hotel, Srinagar.Maharaja of Jaipur His palace was converted to Ram Bagh HotelMaharaja of Udiapur The third to convert his palace to Lake Palace in Pichola Lake in collaboration with TajJodhpur Palace Taken over by the OberoisJaisalmer Palace These palaces were later converted to hotelsBikaner PalaceLakshmi Vilas Palace of Udaipur The palace initially belonged to Maharaja Bhupal SinghLalitha Mahal Plalace,Mysore Being converted to hotel propertiesHalycon Palace of TravancoreMaharaja,Ushakiran Palace, Gwalior Another Palace hotel of repute.The ABC Of Hospitality 10
  • 13. 001 -HOSPITALITY & THE HOTEL INDUSTRYJai Mahal Palace They are also converted or being converted into hotel properties.Jalmahal & Rajmahal palaceTHE PALACE ACTIVITIESChamundi Hill Palace Also being converted to a hotelBolgathy Palace A palace near Cochin Fort, the Residence of former British residents of Southern States, is also being converted to a hotel.NAMES ACTIVITIESJamshedji Nusserwanji Tata The founder of the Taj Group of Hotels. He formed the Indian Hotels Company (IHC), in 1897 and built exquisitely beautiful Taj Mahal Hotel in Mumbai. The hotel started its operation in 1803and has been a landmark by the Gateway of India ever since. The Taj Mahal Hotel, Mumbai is rated among the 10 best hotels in the world.Mohan Singh Oberoi The Chairman and the founder of the Oberoi Hotels was born in August 1900, in Bhaun- a small village now in Pakistan. After his marriage in 1922, he arrived penniless in Shimla and found himself a job as a front office clerk in Hotel Cecil at a salary of Rs.40/- per month. Some years later he took up a job with Clarke’s Hotel in Shimla and gained experience all aspects in hotel operations. In 1934 he bought Clarke’s Hotel mortgaging all his assets, including his wife’s jewellery. In early 1930s cholera broke out in Calcutta, the city was deserted and in the event grand hotel had to close. In 1938 Mr. M S Oberoi acquired the hotel and converted into a profitable business venture. Till today Grand Hotel remains the city’s most luxurious hotel. In 1943 he took over Associated Hotels in India (AHI) with 8 hotels including hotel Cecil in Shimla, Maiden’s and Imperial’s in Delhi, and 4 hotels which are now in Pakistan. The Oberoi Intercontinental in Delhi which was opened in 1965, was the first modern luxury hotel in the capital. The Oberoi Towers in Mumbai was opened in 1973. Mr. Oberoi’s dedication to hotel industry was evident through launching Oberoi’s own training institute- Oberoi Center for Learning & Development (OCLD). Mr. Oberoi was named as the “Man of the World” for 1983 at the Annual Hotel Convention of the International Hotel Association, New York and was selected as the “Outstanding Hotelier of the Year” by the Hotels and Restaurants International.Lala Ram Parshad Mr. Lala Ram Parshad is considered as one of the pioneers of the Hotel Industry in India. In 1946 he purchased two hotels in Mussoorie in UP and operated one hotel in Bokaro. He was appointed as the Technical Director of Hotel Ashok, during its construction period and was the first Asian to be elected as the executive member of the International Hotel Association (IHA) in 1969. He was amongst the first few hoteliers to realize the importance of trained manpower in the industry and was associated with various Hotel Management Institutes & and Food Craft Institutes in India.The ABC Of Hospitality 11
  • 15. 001 -HOSPITALITY & THE HOTEL INDUSTRYImportance of Hotel The hospitality industry, like any other industries, has itsas an Industry commitment, to the society and help in the growth of the country’s economy, and hence importance cannot be ignored. Some of its services that it renders are enumerated below: 1. Provider of Facilities: It provides venue for holding meetings and conferences, transaction of business and center for recreation and entertainment. 2. Source of Attraction for Visitors: For many people the hotels area source of attraction where they come and visit. While doing so they also bring with them the spending power which becomes and earning to the hotel which in turn becomes earning for the society. 3. Foreign Currency Earner: The foreigners who stays in the hotel they en-cash their countries currency to the local currency. This, specially for a developing country, is turn increases the reserve of the foreign currency of that other country which is financially stronger than this country. 4. Employer of Labour: Like any other industry it engages manpower in exchange of salary and wages thus increasing the employment status of that and giving and impetus to the economic condition of that region. 5. Impetus for Manpower Development: The Hospitality Industry requires engagement of professionals. Throughout the world there are various manpower development institutes training in Hospitality- like Cornell University, USA, Lusanne Hotel School, France, Institute of Hotel Management Catering technology & Applied Nutrition, India, etc. the educational centers are acting like infrastructure to manpower development. 6. Outlet for Product of Other Industries. Various materials staring from constructional, electrical, plumbing, draperies, agro products, and many more are required by the industry. These items when being purchased improves the economy of that particular industry. Like if everyday the total consumption of fish by all the hotels sums up to Rs.200, 00, 000,The ABC Of Hospitality 13
  • 16. 001 -HOSPITALITY & THE HOTEL INDUSTRY then the economy of the fisheries industry is earning that sum of money. 7. Amenities for Local Residents: The Local residents can also hold various meetings, conferences, get together, birthday parties, marriage function, etc. or even come in the restaurants to dine and drink. Thus this gives business to the hotel industry which indirectly pays the economy of the nation. 8. Tax Earner: The hotels levy taxes to the customers on the services they provide which are in turn paid to the Government. Thus it helps the Government to earn tax for the development of the country. 9. Facilitate in Regional and Infrastructural Development: With the construction of a hotel it becomes necessary to connect it with improved roads, well constructed bridges, well developed surroundings, new bus services, etc which were not there previous to the coming of the hotel. Thus with coming up of the hotel there is a development of the basic systems and services. 10. Instrument for projecting Cultural Heritage and Image of the Nation: It helps a foreigner in understanding the cultural heritage of that country with its décor, cuisine, the art of welcoming, dressing of uniformed staff etc. 11. Aiding the Growth of Waste Recycling Industry: A great volume of waste from disposables bottles to peels of vegetables and burnt oil is generated which if disposed carefully to the waste recycling industry it would aid in their flourish.Ill Effects of Some of the bad effects are:-Hospitality: 1. Depletion of Cultural Heritage : The local tradition and belief may be discarded by the visit of the people from other backgrounds and thus there can be a cultural loss to that community. 2. Environmental Pollution: The tourist leave behind a huge volume of waste which if not cared for can cause an environmental pollution. 3. Loss of Ecological Balance: With increase of visitors there can be a loss of ecological balance, like a bird sanctuary may get devoid of birds by visit ofThe ABC Of Hospitality 14
  • 17. 001 -HOSPITALITY & THE HOTEL INDUSTRY tourists in large numbers or in hills the local temperature of that place may rise causing in avalanche. 4. Rise in Cost of Living: The tourists tend to buy even a trifle item at an exorbitant price thereby increasing the selling price of the commodities and making a rise in the cost of living of the local people.The ABC Of Hospitality 15
  • 18. 002 -THE CLASSIFICATION OF HOTELSThe Basis of A hotel may be classified under the following criteriaClassification 1. Size 2. Plan 3. Location 4. Length of Stay 5. Ownership 6. Type of Accommodation 7. FacilitiesThe explanation of the above classification are as below:Classification of The classification of hotels by sizeHotels by Size ● does not refer to the dimension of the property or the height of the building. ● It refers to the number of rooms held by the hotel. ● Such rooms do not include the offices and other area that are related to the operation of the hotel. ● It simply refers to those rooms that are assigned to guests for accommodation purposes. Therefore accordingly, when the hotels are Referred as It means they have Small Maximum 25 room Medium Minimum 26 rooms and maximum 100 rooms Large Minimum 101rooms and maximum 300 rooms Very Large More than 300 roomsClassification of Plans mean a tariff rate for the services given by the hotel. They areHotels by Plan commonly known a meal plans. Generally there are 5 types of plans and the services they include are as below: Plan Services European Plan : This includes only the room Continental Plan : Room + Continental Breakfast Bermuda Plan : Room + American Breakfast American Plan : Room + 2*minor meals and 2**principal meals Modified American : Room +Anyone of the *minor meals + Plan Anyone of the **principal mealsThe ABC Of Hospitality 16
  • 19. 002 -THE CLASSIFICATION OF HOTELS There is one more plan, which is not a meal plan. Contrarily, it is a package rendered to the guest, which is known as Go Plan : This means when a guest is staying in a chain hotel operation, under this plan he need not pay at every hotel while he checks out. He can settle his final bill at the last hotel where he stays at the end of his itinerary. *minor meals : Breakfast & Afternoon tea **principal meals : Lunch and dinnerClassification On This way of classifying a hotel is as per where these hotels arethe Basis of situated. The classification under this group may be as follows:Location 1. Downtown Hotels. Parameters Criteria Location: Heart of the city, i.e., busy business/commercial areas Clientele Mostly businessmen and sometimes tourists. Facility Modern facilities, e.g., 24 hours Coffee Shop, Specialty Restaurants, 24 hours Room Service, Business Centre, Centrally located AC rooms, Discotheque, Swimming Pool, Shopping Arcade, and Travel Desk. Duration of 3-7 days stay 2. Transit Hotels. Parameters Criteria Location: Near the port of entry, e.g., Sea Port, Air Port, Bus Terminal, Railway Station. Clientele ***Layover passengers, ****Misconnected passengers, Businessmen & tourists in transit Facility Modern Facilities. Duration of Few hours to few days stayThe ABC Of Hospitality 17
  • 20. 002 -THE CLASSIFICATION OF HOTELS***Layover passengers: Passengers whose flight is delayed for various reasons****Misconnected passengers: Passengers who missed their connecting flights. 3. Resort Hotels. Parameters Criteria Location: Resort places like Hill Stations, Sea Beaches, Forests, etc. Clientele Holiday makers, Tourists, and sometimes Businessmen. Facility Moderate to modern facilities. Duration of Few weeks to months. stay 4. Motels or Motor Hotels. Parameters Criteria Location: On Highways Clientele Motorists, Tourists and sometimes Businessmen. Facility Moderate to modern facilities. Features They include: a Parking space against each room. b Refueling station. c Garage facility. d Swimming pool. Duration of Mostly overnight. stayLength of Stay A. On Long term Basis 1. Residential Hotels. Parameters Criteria Location: Anywhere in the city or in suburbs. Clientele Students or small businessmen who have stay away from home for a longer period. . Facility Basic ones – like accommodation and food. Features Rent is paid monthly of quarterly. Duration of Few months to years. stayThe ABC Of Hospitality 18
  • 21. 002 -THE CLASSIFICATION OF HOTELSLength of Stay B. On Short Term Basis 1. Transit Hotels- Airport Hotels, Motor Hotels/Motels. These have already been described earlierClassification On 1. Independent Hotels:the Basis ofOwnership These hotels are owned by independent ownership and they do not have affiliation with any other property, or any tie-up with any other hotels with regards to policy, procedures and financial obligations. The advantages of this type of hotels are: a) They need not maintain a particular image. b) They are not bound to maintain any set targets. c) They can quickly adopt the changing trends. 2. Management Contractual Agreement : Under this type of ownership, a contract is entered by the proprietor and a second party who is termed as the operator. Usually, as per the contract ● The owner retains the legal and financial responsibilities. ● The operator pays the operating expenses and recovers from the owner. ● Owner is responsible for paying the taxes, insurance and debts. 3. Chain Hotels : When the hotels and motels owned by proprietor get affiliated with one another they form chain hotel organisations. The affiliation, which is usually controlled by a large centralised organisation, gives manifold advantages over single ownership holdings. Some of them are: ● Easy reservation for the guests. ● Improved managerial aids and skills. ● Easy knowledge exchange & transfer. ● Improved HR- development – more chances of promotions & better staff training systems and curriculums. ● Improved financial strength. ● More operational expertise. ● Greater manpower. ● Contribution of specialties especially in fields of facilities. ● Easy merchandising of the products.The ABC Of Hospitality 19
  • 22. 002 -THE CLASSIFICATION OF HOTELS The affiliation can come up in three ways: A) Variable terms of Affiliation: Under this type of affiliation the two or more operations may get affiliated with a Organisation having variable terms of affiliation like – terms on operation and management in compensation to an yearly fee, or terms on using the name of the chain used by the franchisee subject to maintaining the policy of the Organisation , in compensation to an yearly fee. In the second case the Chain Organisation will have no power on the employees of the hotel. B) Referral Chain: A referral chain is made up of independently owned and operated hotel and motels and provides shared advertisements, joint reservation system and standardized quality. Virtually there is no shared management and financial functions. C) Multi- Unit Company: They operate under a corporate head office and own several operations across the country and abroad.Some Other Some hotels can also be classified as underClassifications i) International Hotels: These hotels are situated in cities and provide modern, western style luxury to the guests. They can also be termed as full service hotels. Many such hotels are owned by international chains. Such hotels find good market in commercial towns. ii) Casino Hotels: These hotels focus on gambling and have provision for casino. They are very popular in America, particularly Las Vegas- Nevada. Renowned artists are invited to perform and entertain the guests. iii) Condominiums: They consist of large complex having furnished guest rooms, suites, apartments or villas which are purchased by the individuals who in turn enjoy all the facilities like parks, swimming pools, playgrounds, tennis courts, function halls etc. The maintenance of the complex is maintained by a management. The public areas may be let out to outsiders which in turn may be a source of earning of such complexes.The ABC Of Hospitality 20
  • 23. 002 -THE CLASSIFICATION OF HOTELS iv) Apartotel: Fully furnishes apartment building also used as residential hotels. Upon purchasing the owner is entitled to enjoy full services of the hotel and during the period it is not occupied it can earn for the hotel. v) Auberge, Gasthof, Herberge: It is the counterpart of inns in various countries. It represents a smaller unit which may have complimentary bar, restaurant, bedrooms for travelers. Here emphasis is given to eating and drinking facilities. vi) Boarding Houses: They provide accommodation with meals for a definite period of time generally for a week or longer. vii) Holiday Villages: Provides recreation and sporting facilities which is included with the guests’ boarding, which are independent units with self-catering (individual kitchen) facility. viii) Time share Concept: Here for a set period of time which may be one week or more each year, for a number of years a person upon initial payment of a sum of money and further yearly payment each year is entitled to enjoy stay along with facilities and services in one of the apartments of that property. The initial payment is like a membership fee and the annual subscription is to cover the maintenance charges of the various equipments, facilities, public areas etc. ix) Need Based Hotels: These hotels are being made keeping in view of a particular need of the customer. They are often referred as Ski hotel- which encourages winter sports, or as Conference Hotels consisting of large halls and rendering elaborate conference facilities. x) Boutique Hotels: Here each room has distinct features characteristics. They are small but expensive, professional service but at the same time very personal and intimate. The restaurants are small and the décor and food are all at par with the theme. xi) Grani Hotels: These hotels provide only accommodation.The ABC Of Hospitality 21
  • 24. 002 -THE CLASSIFICATION OF HOTELSClassification On Hotels can also be classified on the basis of type of accommodation.the Basis of Type of They have the following features:Accommodation a) The standard of comfort is moderate to that of a hotel. b) They self accommodate at much lower price. c) They have an informal atmosphere. They include : Guest Houses, Youth hostel, Dormitories, Paying Guests, Dak Bungalows, Holiday Homes, Circuit Houses, Sanitarium, Lodges Boatels (hotels on house boats), Floatels (Hotels on luxury Liners), Rotels (Hotels on Wheels), Lotels (Hotels with helipad facilities), etc.Classification On Hotels can also be classified according to the standard of facilitiesthe Basis of they render. This classification is conferred upon by a body whichFacilities known as Hotel and Restaurant Approval Classification Committee (HRACC). The hotels are classified with stars. A hotel which has been thus rated has to appear before this committee once in every third year for their standard being rechecked. The committee comprises of the Secretary Tourism, Regional Director of Tourism, Director or the Additional Director General of Tourism (state level), members from the hotel industry (FHRAI), Travel Agents Association of India (TAAI), and the Principal of the Regional Institute of Hotel Management, Catering Technology and Applied Nutrition. The hotels who desire to get their hotels to be rated with stars they have to procure a prescribed form, which is in a form of questionnaire, where they have three categories of the required facilities, viz., Essential (must have) Necessary (should have) Desired (may or may not have). Each of the requirements after being filled the form is sent to the Committee. The requirements have certain marks set. The committee visits the hotel and after due evaluation awards marks against those requirements. The grades of stars are 5 star deluxe, 5 star, 4 star, 3 star, 2 star. And 1 star. For a 5 star classification a hotels must have: i) 25 lettable bedrooms ii) the approach and environs suitable for the hotel industry. iii) All the public rooms should be fully air conditioned ( in case ofThe ABC Of Hospitality 22
  • 25. 002 -THE CLASSIFICATION OF HOTELS hill areas should have heating arrangements) iv) All rooms must have well appointed attached bathrooms with long baths or should be equipped with most modern shower chambers. v) The Kitchen, Pantry and the Cold Storage should be professionally designed to ensure efficiency and should be well equipped. vi) There should be ladies’ and gentlemen’s cloakrooms, and the cloakrooms should be spotlessly clean and equipped with available highest standard of furniture and fittings. vii) The construction and the architectural features should have distinctive qualities of a luxury hotel. viii) The maintenance of the hotel should be of highest standard. ix) There should be adequate parking space for the cars. x) There should be well designed and properly equipped swimming pool. xi) All bathrooms should be of modern design and should be fitted with highest quality of fittings. xii) There should be reception, cash and information counter attended by highly qualified, trained and experienced personnel. xiii) There should be well appointed lobby, conference facility, shopping facility, 24 hours elevators of adequate numbers. xiv) The rooms should be well furnished with modern lighting, telephones, radios, vacuum flasks or thermos flasks with iced cold boiled drinking water. xv) There should be restaurant, room and beverage service. The waiters must have knowledge on menus whether in French or in English, the knowledge of correct table laying. The room service should be speedy and should be of 24 hours. There should be provision of service of alcoholic and non alcoholic beverages with bar facility. xvi) Assessment is also made on the number of restaurants and other outlets, the carpeting and the total carpeted area, the quality of linen, blanket, towels, crockery, entertainments, cuisine, hygiene, etc. xvii) Other service like laundry services, the quality of staff deployed – trained and untrained staff. The nature of supervision carried out whether by managers, executive staff, other staff etc. xviii)The standard of Housekeeping xix) The system of control of fire and other hazards.The ABC Of Hospitality 23
  • 26. 003 -THE DEPARTMENTS OF A HOTEL AND THEIR OBJECTIVESThe Organisation of The organisation of a hotel is made up of various departments whicha Hotel work in close coordination for the efficient and effective working. Some departments are revenue generating departments that accounts for the profit of the organisation; some departments do not generate revenue but are important on the basis that they help in the operation. Thus, in a hotel the various departments are grouped into 1. Operating & Revenue Producing: This means they take active part in operation and they generate revenue for the organisation. They can be further divided into a) Minor Revenue Generating: They generate a smaller amount of revenue compared to others and includes: I) Laundry: This section which is under the housekeeping department can be either in-house or out-sourced. In both the cases the laundry of guests’ articles is a facility which is charged for. II) Telephone: Guests are charged for the long distance and local telephone calls. In small hotels the telephones are operated through a switchboard manned by the Receptionist whereas in large hotels the telephones are operated either through telephone operator or have direct dialing facilities. In the latter case they are metered. In any case the telephone calls made the guests are charged accordingly. III) Swimming Pool: Though the resident guests are not charged for the use of this facility, but their guests may be charged for or the swimming pool can be opened for out of house guests through membership who avail it by paying a seasonal or annual subscription. b) Major Revenue Generating These departments are the sole earners for the hotel operation. They comprise of: I) Room Division: The Room Division Department is made up of i. Front Office: One of the major earners being connected with the sale of rooms. ii. Housekeeping: This department is responsible forThe ABC Of Hospitality 24
  • 27. 003 -THE DEPARTMENTS OF A HOTEL AND THEIR OBJECTIVES making the rooms ready for sale and maintaining a clean environment suitable for the guests’ stay. Apart from Food & Beverage they provide various amenities like stationery, beddings and their accessories, etc. in the guest rooms. II) Food & Beverage: This department is responsible for providing food and beverages to the guests. They have two sub departments viz. i Food & Beverage Service: The service is mainly responsible for reaching various food and beverages to the guests through various outlets. ii Food Production: By production it means preparation of various food stuffs in various kitchens which are sold to the guests through the service outlets. 2. Operating & Non-Revenue Producing: These departments play an important role in operation but do not produce any revenue. The departments are:- I) Sales & Marketing: This department is responsible for evolving various packages to attract targeted customers to the establishment. They also uphold the goodwill of the establishment through various activities and advertisements. II) Accounts: The Accounts department is concerned with keeping various records of financial transactions- figures on sales, amount of purchases made during the year, the debtors and the creditors and the financial viability of the Organisation. They are also responsible for collection of revenue from the debtors and making payments to the creditors and the employees (salary & wages). III) Stores & Purchase: The department is concerned in purchasing various materials and commodities required for the operation of the hotel against prescribed purchase requisitions and thereafter issuing them to concerned departments against prescribed stores requisitions. IV) Security & Vigilance: This department is responsible in keeping all the guests and hotel properties well guarded. They ward of any unwanted guests and situations from occurring inside the premises. They are also trained forThe ABC Of Hospitality 25
  • 28. 003 -THE DEPARTMENTS OF A HOTEL AND THEIR OBJECTIVES fire fighting and play an important role on breakout of fire. V) Engineering and Maintenance: This department is responsible for the maintenance of all the electrical, mechanical, equipments of the hotel in working condition. They also look after any civil construction work, attend to any electrical, mechanical and civil breakdowns and maintenance of safety, hygiene end environment (SHE) of the hotel. VI) Personnel & HR: The Personnel & HR is responsible for maintaining a cordial and peaceful relationship and harmony between the Organisation and the Employees. They plan the manpower requirement and evaluate employees’ job. They compute employees’ salary and wages, enumerate performance appraisals and recommendations made to staff by the departmental heads. They organize training needs and also play the major role in issues like employees’ transfer, issue of suspension and charge sheets to and appointments and dismissals of staff. 3. Non-Operating & Revenue Producing: They include the departments that provide additional facilities to the guests. Their absence does not hamper the operation of the organisation but on the other hand the inclusion of such departments increases customer satisfaction. They include: Travel Agency and Airline Offices, Book Shops, Chemists Shops, Florists, Banks, Beauty Parlour, etc. They are generally rented on commission basis or on rents. They are also called Concessionaries. Selection of such concessionaries is very important because the standard of services they provide and the way they care for the guest has direct impact on the reputation of the hotelThe ABC Of Hospitality 26
  • 29. 003A -THE HOTEL ORGANISATION CHART HOTEL Operating & Revenue Operating & Non-Revenue Producing Departments Producing Departments Non-Operating & Revenue Producing Departments Minor MajorLaundry Travel Agency Telephone Florist Beauty Parlour Swimming Pool Chemist Shop Book Stall Room Division Food & Beverage Stores & Purchase HRD Front Security Office Accounts Housekeeping Sales & Marketing Production Engineering Service Kitchen Bakery Pantry Coffee Shop Bar Restaurant Room Pastry Service Shop Banquet The ABC Of Hospitality 27
  • 30. 004 - THE FRONT OFFICE ORGANISATIONThe Objective of A department that reserves registers and assigns rooms and act as aFront Office continuous source of information.The Departments Of The Front Office department is divided into eight distinct sectionsFront Office according to their nature and functions: They are mentioned hereunder along with the job they handle: I) Reservation: a) This department receives reservation request from various sources and through modes and processes them to ensure availability of thus reserved rooms upon arrival of the guests. b) It also looks after cancellation and amendments made after the reservation. c) On the day of the arrival they sent the Expected Arrival List along with the correspondence file of the expected guests to arrive to the reception. II) Reception/Registration: a) The most important task of the Reception is to welcome & check-in guest arrival. b) They take bookings of the same day. Cancellation/ amendments of the same day are handled by the Reception. c) They also take calls regarding guests, restaurants and expected arrivals, etc. III) Information: a) This section of the Front Office maintains the guests staying in the hotel in Alphabetical Order known as Alphabetical Guest Index ( as per their names) and Numerical Order known as Numerical Guest Index (as per the guests’ room numbers). b) They handle i guests’ room keys, ii guest mails, iii guests’ messages, iv guests’ complaints. c) They also initially organize paging by taking the information of the guest and passing the information to the Bell Desk for expediting the same. They also provide information regarding the city and the hotel. IV) Cash: a) Responsible for preparing guests’ bill. b) Assist guests in settling their bills.The ABC Of Hospitality 28
  • 31. 004 - THE FRONT OFFICE ORGANISATION c) Maintain the Safety Locker key. d) Maintain the Floor Master Key. V) Concierge & Bell Desk : This department is responsible for a) Handling guest baggage. b) Delivering newspapers in guests’ rooms c) Delivering mails, messages telex, fax and any other item to and from the guest. d) Conducts paging (locating guest in public area). e) Give physical wake-up calls to those guests who do not answer wake-up call by telephone. f) Sell postage stamps. g) Keep baggage on hold for in house guests as well as awaited guests. h) Perform other functions that gives guest satisfaction like i Getting airline/railway tickets. ii Calling a taxi for the guests. iii Assist guest in packing his/her luggage. i) Perform other official functions like going to FRRO for delivery of the C-Forms. VI) Telephones: a) Handles all incoming calls and outgoing calls for both the guests and management. The telephone operator diverts the incoming call received to the concerned rooms or to the various departments where there is no EPABX. b) Responsible for giving wake-up calls. c) Set DND on the phones, is the guests ask for it which prevents the incoming call form going through. d) Set paging of hotel executives through telephones. VII) Travel Desk: Many big hotels have fleet of cars by which they organize: a) Travel logistics for guests- such as airport/ station pick- ups and drops. b) City and business tour for guests. VIII) Business Center: This section is a must for any commercial/business hotel. This facility helps the businessmen to perform their office job when they are away from their offices. The section is equipped with the following: a) A small reference Library. b) A small conference/board room which can accommodate 6/8 guests. c) A room with computer and internet facilities. d) Photo copying machine.The ABC Of Hospitality 29
  • 32. 004 - THE FRONT OFFICE ORGANISATION e) Typing and printing facility. f) FAX facility. g) Machine for binding of documents. h) Secretarial service.The Hierarchy Of The Front Office is a uniformed department which the guest meetsFront Office first and it creates the impression about the hotel, Since the first impression is the last impression, therefore, the department demands highly professional staff. The Staff of Front Office are as under: I) The Front Office Manager: He reports to the Front of House Manager. He responsible to direct and coordinate the activities of Front Office Operation ( Front Desk, Reservation, Bell Desk, Telephones), to provide efficient and courteous service to each guest, to maximize occupancy and room revenue and to plan and oversee the targets set by his authorities are met in due time. II) The Lobby Manager: He performs managerial duties by being the overall in-charge of the Lobby which comprises of Reception, Information, Bell Desk, Guest Relations and the Cashier. He is a decision maker with regards to the day to day operation of the Front Desk and authorizes documents such as room change notice, visitor paid out voucher, discounts on bill, etc. He reports to the Front Office Manager. III) The Reservation Manager: He performs managerial duties by being the overall in-charge of the Reservation Section. He sees that the occupancy is maximized through reservation of rooms, takes decision in matters like overbooking, and oversees the group and corporate bookings and other sources of reservations, cancellation and amendments made by the guests. He reports to the Front Office Manager. IV) Guest Relation Executive: The person entrusted with the job, acts as a link between the guest and the hotel by noting their grievances and suggestions. This person also plays a vital role during the arrival of VIPs & CIPs and maintains the record of the frequent and valued guests who had stayed in the hotel in form of a document called Guest History Card. He reports to the Lobby Manager. V) The Bell Captain: To plan, organize direct, coordinate and control the bell desk. He reports to the Lobby Manager/ Asst. Front Office Manager.The ABC Of Hospitality 30
  • 33. 004 - THE FRONT OFFICE ORGANISATION VI) The Front Office Cashier: Responsible for posting various charges against the services rendered by the hotel to the guest in their respective bills and to receive payments. Settle the bills of the guests upon their departure. VII) Front Office Receptionist: The person is responsible for overall smooth operation of the Reception during his/her shift as per laid down standards. Reports to Lobby Manager? Assistant Front Office Manager. VIII) Reservation Assistants: To ensure smooth operation of reservation section. The person engaged in this section takes advance bookings made by the guests in prescribed formats and gives valid information as and when required regarding the available facilities and rules of the organisation. He/ she reports to the Reservation Manager of the hotel. IX) Bell Boys: Their primary duty is to take care of the guest luggage. They are also required to do certain job like paging, delivery of newspapers & mails and messages to the guests rooms, help in shifting guests to other rooms, running on errands for guests and the hotel executives, delivery of C- forms to the FRRO, etc. Apart from this they are also required to do certain jobs as specified by the management from time to time. They report to the Bell Captain. X) Trainees: These people have just joined with the intention to take up a job in Front Office as per their qualifications and interests.The ABC Of Hospitality 31
  • 35. 005 - THE FRONT OFFICE - ITS INTRA & INTERDEPARTMENTAL RELATIONSHIPIntroduction For an effective operation of any organisation the departments have to coordinate and communicate amongst themselves. The Front Office Department has to communicate and coordinate with other departments with respective various requirements of and information about guests. On various occasion the Font office has to communicate which are enumerated below.Intra- As seen in our previous lesson the Front Office department itselfcommunication comprises of numerous sections- ● Reservation ● Reception/ Registration ● Information ● Bell Desk & Concierge ● Communication - Telephones ● Cash Office ● Travel Desk ● Business Centre To render best of their services each department has to communicate amongst themselves. There can be printed formats on which such communications are usually made. These formats actually serve as a ready reckoner so that all the information can be incorporated and nothing is left out. In the lessons to follow we would be discussing about such communication modes and formats. Among them, one such area where the front office has to communicate with the telephone exchange within the hotel. In certain occasion there can be the arrival of a guest from a different time zone and he requires a rest. He may advise the reception to put up DND in his room phone so that the incoming calls do not come through. Or in certain cases Again within each section there is a need for communication. This is made through log book. A log book is a register where any incidents that has taken place or would take place are recorded and staff on duty is supposed to refer to it before the commencement of the service so that the attending staff of that particular shift is well briefed about it and he/she is equipped according to specified standard to meet the requirement. The Staffing: The Front Office department operates for 24 hours and hence there is a necessity that it be adequately equipped with staff. Usually there are three shifts: Morning Shift: 6am to 2 pmThe ABC Of Hospitality 33
  • 36. 005 - THE FRONT OFFICE - ITS INTRA & INTERDEPARTMENTAL RELATIONSHIP Evening Shift : 2pm to 10 pm Night Shift : 10 pm to 6 am. Naturally there are more activities during the day and the evening than at night. In other words it means, the number of staff required to perform would depends upon the guest activity with the hotel and therefore the requirement is at peak during that part of the day when there is a huge level of check ins and check outs. Or there can be requirements of additional staff during a season. In the previous case when the requirement is more at the particular time of the day, it is met up by arranging a “swing shift.” A swing shift is a shift which brings in extra staff for a particular hour to meet such requirements. Like in most city hotels the swing shift is arranged between 8 am and 4 pm. The additional requirement of staff during the season can be arranged by temporary recruitment of staff for that particular season. There can be an additional requirement of staff at the counter suddenly if there are too many guests found crowded at the reception counter. On such occasions, the reception counter is having a switch which is connected to a buzzer at the office which is usually situated at the back of the reception counter. By pressing the switch the attending receptionist can communicate with the additional staff stationed inside that would appear at the counter as per the necessity. Communication with Other DepartmentsHousekeeping The Front Office communicates with Housekeeping on the following occasions: 1.Discrepancy Report: The Front Office prepares a consolidated Room Report which accounts for the total room occupied on the particular shift. The Housekeeping Department also makes floor wise room report and send it to their central Housekeeping Control Desk (the head of the Housekeeping Department that guides the activity of the Housekeeping). The Control Desk in turn compiles all the floor reports into one and sends a copy to the Front Office. If the two figures do not tally then the Front Office prepares a Discrepancy Report and in that occasion sends a bell boy to see where the mistake has occurred and take the corrective action accordingly. 2.Group & VIP Arrival: On the event of arrival of Groups and VIPs the housekeeping department is being informed. With Groups, since they board the hotel at a certain fixed rate on AP or MAP, certain facilities like provision of toiletries may be with drawn from the rooms. Again certain extra facilities are given to VIP guest like specially embroidered bath robe or specialThe ABC Of Hospitality 34
  • 37. 005 - THE FRONT OFFICE - ITS INTRA & INTERDEPARTMENTAL RELATIONSHIP envelopes and writing pads with the name of the VIP printed on it. Or a welcoming the guest with garlanding may be arranged for both the Groups and VIPs. The supply of toiletries, bathrobes, printed stationeries or floral garlands are arranged by housekeeping. Therefore, the concerned department is being informed so that they can be ready for the occasion. 3.Arrival & Departure Notification: Upon arrival or departure of guests the Housekeeping Department has to be informed accordingly. The Arrival Notification helps the Housekeeping to be ready to offer their services to the guests as required. The Departure Notification informs the Housekeeping to prepare the room again for sale by the front Office. 4.Laundry: Issue of clean uniforms to various staff. 5.General Requirements: Upon check-in the guest is acquainted with the Front Office. He may send several requests to the Front Office which are generally looked after by the Housekeeping like requirement of an extra pillow or blanket, changing the towel, supply of fresh water. These requests are often communicated to the Housekeeping for its compliance.Food & Beverage 1.Group & VIP Arrival: It is required because a) The department can be well prepared upon receiving the information. b) In both the cases upon arrival the people are received with a Welcome Drink. This is arranged by the F&B department. c) In case of VIPs special drinks are provisioned in the mini bars which are in the guest rooms. This is taken care of by the Room Service which is under the F&B department. d) The VIPs are also offered with complimentary fruit basket which is generally sent from the General Manager of the hotel. This is a gesture of gratitude shown upon the VIP for his/her stay in the hotel. This is taken care of by the F& B department. e) Special dishes as per the liking of the VIPs can be arranged upon instruction of the F& B Manager. f) The Mini bar facility for the groups are generally withdrawn from the room because they come on a special tariff. g) The groups are generally offered a fixed meal, this requires advance preparation. For all the reasons above the arrival notification is necessary. 2.Arrival & Departure Notification: The arrival departure helps the F&B department to forecast the food sale on a particular day and therefore to ascertain the quantum of raw materials required and which in turn also reflects theThe ABC Of Hospitality 35
  • 38. 005 - THE FRONT OFFICE - ITS INTRA & INTERDEPARTMENTAL RELATIONSHIP quantity of dishes are to be prepared The departure notification is again needed because if any guests has availed services in any outlets by signing on their bills which they intend to settle on departure the same can be timely delivered to the Front Office for claiming its payment from the guestSales & Marketing Both the departments work in close coordination to maximise sale of rooms. In this event 1. the Sales & Marketing Department updates Front Office with special room tariffs they agree upon with various travel agencies and corporate houses. 2. this department also works out various packages with groups, airlines, and corporate houses which they have to communicate to the Front Office from time to time.Accounts The coordination and communication whish the Front Office does with the Accounts is in respect to 1. The Front Office Cashier: The Front Office cashier is as such a person from the Accounts Department who is basically being entrusted with the job of opening the guest bill upon his/her arrival, posting the room rate and the daily rooms charge along with the charges incurred for enjoying facilities on credit and to realize the payments from the guest upon their departure. Some of the vital communications are: a) Upon guest arrival the cashier opens a new bill mentioning all the details viz. the name of the guest, the room allotted, the rate charged, the mode of payment, special instruction, etc. All these information are communicated to the cashier by the Front Office Reception. b) As per the house custom, the guests are entitled for a credit up to a particular limit for the facilities they avail. This may vary from hotel to hotel. This is known as credit limit. When the credit limit increases the Cashier has to inform the same to the Lobby Manager. c) When the guest would check out, the Front office would inform the cashier to prepare and ready the concern guest’s bill. d) At certain times guests are entitled to discounts. This discount is only validated when it is signed by the Lobby Manager. e) On occasions the hotel ahs to pay on behalf of the guest which is known as “Paid Out” made by a voucher where the Lobby Manager has to sign his approval. f) An occasion may arise when a guest is required to change his room due to various reasons. The Cashier is required toThe ABC Of Hospitality 36
  • 39. 005 - THE FRONT OFFICE - ITS INTRA & INTERDEPARTMENTAL RELATIONSHIP be informed about the room change so that the bills can be transferred to the newly changed room account. 2. Night Auditor: A daily audit is carried out at night to ascertain the viability of the business operation by checking the postings of the various charges and the rate charged, discounts given, if be any, and verifies it with the Charge Slips, cash received against the potential revenue of the day. The Night auditor with his team generates report at that night and circulates it among the senior managers of the hotel. 3. City Ledger & Bills of Credit: This refers to the credit given to guests other than room guests. The signed bills from such customers are collected by the Front office cashier and directed to the accounts sections for posting them in a book of accounts called the City Ledger.Stores & Purchase The Stores & Purchase is responsible for purchasing, storing and issuing various stationeries, computer hardware, etc to the Front Office.Security & The Bell Boys who usually go around the hotel on various errands,Vigilance keep a strict vigil on the public places like lobby, staircase, corridors, and inform the Reception through Bell Desk. The reception in turn informs the Security & Vigilance, so that unwanted guests are prevented from loitering and entering the premises and thereby ward of any unwanted incidence.Engineering & The Front Office upon receipt of any complain regarding the air-Maintenance conditioning, room warmers, or other electrical gadgets, plumbing faults in the guest bathrooms, any defects in furniture & fittings in the rooms made by the guests, communicates the same to the Maintenance Department to look into and rectify the same.Personnel & HR The HR would generally 1. appraise the Front Office with the hours overtime made by the staff, 2. ascertain their manpower requirement, the training needs, etc.The ABC Of Hospitality 37
  • 40. 006 -FRONT OFFICE- THE TYPES OF ROOMSIntroduction According to the demand of the guests (the customers) various rooms are available in a hotel. They can be classified according to the capacity of the room, location of the room, & type of décor. The various types of rooms available in a hotel are: Types of RoomsSingle room A room with one bed (meant for one person) denoted by sign (-) and abbreviated as SGL. These rooms are suitable for a guest coming alone to a hotel.Twin Room A room having two single beds, separated from each other. It is denoted by sign (=) and is abbreviated as TBR. These rooms are suitable for two persons.Double Room A room having composite double bed meant for two persons. The sign for these type of rooms is (+) and is abbreviated as DBL. they are normally rented to couples.Triple Room A double or twin bedded room with an extra cot provided on demand.Suite This is an apartment having one bedroom with one composite double bed, a parlour and a dining place. It is abbreviated as S. Besides, every suite has a name corresponding to its theme, décor and colour scheme. E.g. Jaipur Suite, Presidential Suite, etc. In the suite the furniture, furnishings and fittings are of top quality and these rooms are most expensive in a hotel.Duplex These are a type of suite having rooms in two levels under one roof connected by an internal staircase. The upper level is the bed room and the lower level is a parlour, living or sitting room (also called Salon). They are generally found in commercial hotels.Inter-connecting These are a set of two adjacent rooms connected internally by a door,Rooms thus allowing entry from one room to another without having going to the corridor in re-entering the other room. Both are bedrooms, one having double bed and the other twin bed The inter-connected room serves a three fold purpose- I) The inter-connecting door can be locked to discontinue be using as a composite room and selling to two individual guests. II) The interconnecting door may be opened and may be sold to a family. III) On occasion the room having the twin bed have their beds and beddings be removed and converted to serve the purpose of a suite.The ABC Of Hospitality 38
  • 41. 006 -FRONT OFFICE- THE TYPES OF ROOMSJunior Suite These are large rooms converted to suites by a wooden partition. The family rooms of old hotels are now being converted thus to Junior Suites. These suites are not as costly as the general suites but are priced higher that the ordinary rooms.Adjacent Rooms Two rooms side by side without any interconnecting doors having its opening towards the corridor.Cabana A room situated away from the main hotel building, near the swimming pool and health club. Mainly used for resting and changing purposes and are rented on hourly basis. Cabana rooms do not have beds and may have a pool chair instead. There may be a dispense bar, which is optional.Lanai The rooms which overlooks a picturesque sight such as a crater, a volcano, a mountain peak, garden or the sea.Executive Superior quality rooms lying at the end of the corridor.Siberia This term is used for inferior quality of rooms such as rooms towards the staircase.Penthouse The rooms situated on the roof top level with an opened balcony looking up at the sky. They can be suites which are rented to honeymoon couples.Studio Room The rooms have a single bed and one or two couches or sofas that can be converted to a bed. They are mostly found in commercial hotels.Hollywood Living These are twin rooms with one common headboard.RoomEfficiency Room These have kitchen facility and are found in resort hotels.Hospitality Rooms These are rooms used by the hotel residents, being rented on hourly basis, to entertain their own guests. These rooms do not have beds but are provided with sitting arrangements. They are usually found in commercial hotels.Murphy Bedded These rooms have Murphy Bed. A Murphy Bed is one that can beRooms folded against a wall. Thus these rooms provide a larger floor area. The abbreviated form of these rooms is MBR. MBR is generally found in commercial hotels.Quad A type of room having four beds to provide sleeping accommodation for four persons.The ABC Of Hospitality 39
  • 42. 006 -FRONT OFFICE- THE TYPES OF ROOMSBusiness Club Type In some commercial hotels some of the floors are taken up by theof Accommodation corporate houses which they remodel and converted to suite the boarding accommodation of their executives. They equip that part of their accommodation with all the facilities like a bar, lounge, board room, library, business center, billiard room, etc that are needed for their executives. Sizes of BedsSingle Bed 37” x 81”Double Bed 57” x 81”Studio Bed 36” x 75”King’s Bed 78” x 80 - 82”. This is used in American Hospitality terminology to describe the Largest Bed.Queen’s Bed 60” x 80”. This is used in American Hospitality terminology to describe the 2nd Largest Bed.Closet Bed A standard sized bed that swings into the wall or cabinet in the form of a closet. It can accommodate one or two persons and can be easily removed from the floor area as they are built into the closet wall. Standard Size of RoomsCategory of Hotel Standard Area of Bedroom &BathroomI) 5 Star & 5 Star Deluxe a) Single …………….................. 180 sq. ft b) Double……………………..... 200 sq ft. c) Bathroom……………………. 45 sq ft.II) 4 Star & 3 Star Deluxe a) Single……………………… 120 sq. ft b) Double……………………… 140 sq ft. ( additional area may be required if twin beds are provided) c) Bathroom ……………………. 36 sq ft.III) 2 Star & 1 Star Deluxe a) Single………………………. 100 sq. ft b) Double ……………………. 120 sq ft. c) Bathroom ………………… 30 sq ft.The ABC Of Hospitality 40
  • 43. 007- SOME IMPORTANT ABBREVIATIONS & DEFINITIONS- I & II I6 pm release of This means when rooms, that had been reserved but were not confirmed byrooms payment of guaranteed money, are released to walk-ins. Normally the reception wait till 6 p.m. for the arrival of such guest and after that it is released for sale.Bell Boy’s It is a card which controls the movement of the bell boys. It has columnsErrand Card stating when the bell boy was released for a specific job and at what time he returns is also noted on the card. It also has provision for noting any discrepancies from the room while the guest checks out and therefore serves as a ready reckoner while checking rooms on guest departure.C- Form Confidential Form. Filling up this form is mandatory for all foreigner guests. Apart from disclosing the name and the nationality of the foreign individual it also furnishes various other information: such as his passport number, date & place of issue, date of arrival in India, etc. This form is required to be submitted to FRRO within 24 hours. In smaller cities where there are no FRRO, they are to be submitted to the local police station.CIP Commercially important personFIT Free individual traveler.FRRO Foreigners Regional Registration OfficeGroups A number of persons traveling together with same interests and mottoOverstays A guest staying more than the days for which his rooms was reserved.Retention A charge levied on a guest having a confirmed reservation, on the event ofCharge failing to take up the accommodation on the agreed date and time.Understays Departing before the scheduled check-out date.VIP Very Important personRooming List A list showing allocation of rooms against the names of the guest.Luggage/ A ticket attached to the guest’s baggage/ luggage to identify its ownershipBaggage Tag and also serves as a tool for publicity.GSO Guest Services OfficerGRE Guest relation Executive.VVIP Movement A checklist showing all the requirements of the VVIP following which oneSheet can ensure that the entertaining the guest would be in order.Location Form A form which helps the receptionist to know where the guest can be when he is in the property’s public area and need to be contacted as per his request like receiving a call or a message.The ABC Of Hospitality 41
  • 44. 007- SOME IMPORTANT ABBREVIATIONS & DEFINITIONS- I & IINo Show Referred to those guest who after having confirmed booking do not turn up to the hotel to stay.Walk In Walk-ins are those guests who come to the hotel for stay without having any prior booking.Back to Back This means the number of guests of a particular group checking out fromTour the hotel is compensated by the same number of guests checking in the hotel. IIPaging Services This is a system of locating guest in a public area. Based on the information left by the guest in theScanty Baggage Guests having little of no luggageLeft Luggage It is a facility given to the guests after they check out from the hotel. By this facility the guest can keep their entire luggage or part of it for the time being before their final departure form the city. Depending upon the house rules this facility may be complimentary or chargeable.Skipper A skipper is a person who leaves the hotel without paying the bills.Service Call A slip same as Bell Boy Errand Card used for controlling the movement ofSlip/ Bell Boy the bell boys.Errand CardGuest History A document maintained by the hotel which records personal likings,Card disliking, and certain other personal information such as birthday, date of anniversary, the company where the individual works, his position there, etc. of the guests who frequently visit the hotel. This document enables the hotel to give better personalized services. This also helps the hotel to keep in touch with those guests from time to time by sending them flowers and novelties on their birthdays and anniversaries. IIIHotel Master A key specially devised to open all the rooms of the hotel and is kept asKey emergency.Floor Master A key specially devised to open all the rooms of a particular floor of a hotelKey and is kept as emergency. This key is maintained by the House keeping control desk.Black book A document that contains the details of blacklisted guests – like those who have fraudulently averted for paying their bills in other hotels and is kept by the hotel’s Reception to avoid the same incidence from happening.Guest Folio A guest folio is the mater bill in which all the credit transactions are recorded for each resident guest. The folio is opened upon the arrival of aThe ABC Of Hospitality 42
  • 45. 007- SOME IMPORTANT ABBREVIATIONS & DEFINITIONS- I & II guest. This is made on the basis of the copy of the registration card received from the Front Office. The folio records the following information: (a) Guest’s Name, (b) Room Number, (c) Room rate, (d) Date of Arrival, (e) Date of Departure, (f) Opening telephone meter reading (g) Billing Instructions. There are two types of folios – mainly the Master folio and Miscellaneous Charge Voucher. The Master Folio contains the Room charge and the charges incurred through various Food & Beverage outlets – restaurants, Bars etc. The Miscellaneous Charge Voucher contains all other charges such as telephones, laundry, shoe shine, health club, barber shop, etc. . outlets All the services availed by the guest on credit from various hotel outlets as described above are received by the cashier either by hand or by computer and are recorded in their respective folios.Pax Number of persons.Room Transfer The Room Transfer Folio is opened upon the arrival of groups that bear theFolio (a) Name of the group, (b) Room numbers allotted, (c) Number of pax, (d) Rate per room, (e) Total charges, (f) Date of arrival, (g) Date of departure, and (h) Billing instructions are recorded.Meal Master The Meal Master Folio is opened upon the arrival of groups that bear theFolio (a) Name of the group, (b) Room numbers allotted, (c) Number of pax, (d) Rate per head for Food & its breakdown viz. breakfast, lunch, dinner, etc, (e) Total charges against each heads – breakfast, lunch dinner, etc, (f) Date of arrival, (g) Date of departure, and (h) Billing instructions are recorded.POS Point of SaleAllowance This is discount given to guest on their bills based on certain packages they have availed. The discount is given on the final total and the signature of the Lobby Manager is essential.Paid Out When the hotel pays for certain services on behalf of the guest and it is realized from the guest at a later period. However here the Lobby manager’s authorization is essential.Safe deposit box A service given by the hotel enabling the guest to keep their valuables in the hotel’s safe custody. The device works when the key given to guest and a key retained by the cashier are operated simultaneously.Rack Rate The rate published at the information counter.FIT Free individual TravellerGIT Group Inclusive ToursOOO Out of OrderThe ABC Of Hospitality 43
  • 46. 007A-FRONT OFFICE- RESERVATION SECTIONDefinition & Reservation is the activity of booking the room for a prospectiveIntroduction guest on his request for a future date which may be from a few days to months in advance. Therefore Reservation is concerned with selling of rooms and hence this is an activity of Front Office. In smaller hotels where the number of guests are low the Receptionist may be conferred upon the duty of taking advance booking from the guests whereas in large hotels where the guests are more the receptionist must be free to attend the individual requirements of guests., and hence there should be a separate Reservation Section for this activity.Location, Planning The activity of reservation does not normally involve direct contact& Layout of the with the guests. Therefore, the Reservation Section may be suitablyReservation Section located near the Reception, within the Front Office area but normally not in the Lobby, under the view of the in-house guests. Generally, the Reservation Section is situated just behind the Reception Desk connected by a swing door or if due to space constraint, the reservation section cannot be situated on the same level, then the same may be located on a separate floor just above the Reception Section connected by a private staircase or elevator. In both the cases for instant personal communication there should be an easy access by the Reception staff to the Reservation Section and vice versa. The reservation section must have a separate cabin for the reservation manger and a reservation office. Depending on the method followed for reservation- manual or computerised the area and layout may vary. It is obvious a computerised reservation office should need lesser space than a reservation office following the manual method. This is probably for the storage space required for keeping the reservation documents, papers, files and display boards for putting the charts showing the reservation status. But whatever the system followed the layout should be such that the flow of work must be in a uni-direction and do not collide among each other while carrying out the various activities of reservation.Legal Implications The reservation of a room arises out of offer made by the organisationof Reservation and its subsequent acceptance of the offer thereafter by the intending customer. Hence having both the components – the offer and acceptance it forms a contract between the two parties which has a legal entity and is enforceable in the eye of law. Therefore any breach of contract that may arise due to non compliance of the terms, by any of the parties, the other can appeal for legitimate compensation. Therefore the staff, empowered to make reservation on behalf of the guest, must be aware of the implications that may arise out of the information that he gives to the guest. He must be aware that he isThe ABC Of Hospitality 44
  • 47. 007A-FRONT OFFICE- RESERVATION SECTION representing the hotel and whatever he says to the guest will be noted as if they are being given by the organisation itself. The staff must provide and explain all the relevant information like the type of food plans, type of menu offered by the outlets, the facilities or type of room available and the services rendered. He must also tell the guest about the check-in and check-out time and the 6 pm release of rooms as maintained by the hotel. When the guest arrives and due to certain circumstances the hotel is unable to provide accommodation to the guest the hotel must find a similar accommodation of same quality. Again if there is no show the hotel can claim a charge which is known as “Retention Charge”. This charge is normally taken as compensation for the possible loss the hotel may suffer due to non arrival of the guest and this amount is recovered from his advance sent along with his conformation of the reservation. Charging retention charge is not a thumb rule practice and depends upon many factors like relationship with the guest, frequency of such occurrence with that particular guest, the volume of business given by that guest, etc.Need, Modes & ● The Need for Reservation can be explained from both the sidesSources of as under:Reservation a) From Guest’s point of view: The guest is ensured of his accommodation even in a peak season. b) From Hotel’s point of view: The hotel is confirmed about certain number of rooms being sold so that they can concentrate more on selling those rooms which have not yet been sold to the guests. ● Reservation is a communication made to the guest. Therefore, any expressed communication, be it verbal or written is considered as the Modes of Reservation. Therefore the sources can be classified as: a) Verbal: The verbal modes can be i) In person ii) By telephone b) Written: The written modes can be i) By letter ii) By e-mail. iii) By fax iv) By telegramThe ABC Of Hospitality 45
  • 48. 007A-FRONT OFFICE- RESERVATION SECTION ● The Sources of Reservation are: a) Free Individual Traveller (FIT) b) Airlines (crews and layover, detained & transit passengers). c) Corporate – companies & business houses. d) Travel Agents e) Tour Operators f) Embassies. g) Others (reservation networks/international tie-ups) RESERVATION REQUEST ROUTES FROM PROSPECTIVE GUESTS Airlines & Car Rental Agencies Hotel/Motel etc. Travel Agents Tour Operators Guest Hotel Representative Hotel RepresentativeIn the above diagram it shows how a reservation from a guest passes to the hotel throughvarious sources Types of ReservationDepending upon the size and type of hotel there can be the following types ofreservationManual Reservation : They comprise of as under:Hotel Diary This system of reservation is best suited in small hotels. The system consists of a bound book consisting of 365/366 pages, each page representing a day and the dates are marked form 1st January to 31st December. The necessary information is noted initially in pencil on the intended date of arrival of the guest which then inked after receiving the confirmation.Whitney Rack This system was developed by a company in New York calledSystem Whitney Duplicating &Check Company and later came to be known as Whitney System of reservation. This system consists of metal racks with slip carriers in which the details of the guest are printed. This record shows the room availability status for a particular day orThe ABC Of Hospitality 46
  • 49. 007A-FRONT OFFICE- RESERVATION SECTION month. The slip carriers known as Whitney Slips is 3” x 1 ½” and bears the following information about the guest- the name, number of persons, date of arrival, date of departure, arrival by, room rate, type of plan, billing instruction, reservation made by, the person’s contact number and the initial of the reservation clerk. The slips are placed in the Whitney rack. There are total 43 racks- 31 of them are used to store reservation for the current 31 days, next 11 of them are for the following 11 months and the last one is for the next 6 months. This system is effective in medium sized hotels.Semi-Automatic Reservation:Under this system the reservation is noted initially manually and then transferred to thecomputer. The manual record is maintained as a back-up reference. This system isapplicable in medium and large hotels.Automatic Reservation:The system is effective in large hotels. The system is fully automated and it is interfacedwith various room management systems by which the guest can register themselves.Central Reservation System (CRS):It is a system operated by outsourced companies who have a large database of hotels orchain of hotels. These companies have offices at various cities across the country orthroughout the world and are interlinked through the internet network. The intendinghotel or the hotel group may register with these companies and allot them a number ofrooms. The companies in turn earn a commission for each hotel sold by them. They areconnected by a toll free number. Any intending traveler may call up one of thesecompanies and when the caller furnishes his requirement these requirement are enteredinto the database and the CRS operator can give the caller a wide range of choice of thehotels.To name such offices are- Amadeus-Hires, Galileo-Room Master, Sabre Sharp Plus,Abacus Hotel Net, Team Four Hospitality –Resnet – (the only indigenous hotelreservation system in India), Utell Reservations, etc.The advantages of CRS are: 1) It is the cheapest but quickest mode of reservation. 2) The customer gets a wide range of hotels to choose and obtain information from a single source. 3) With one call the customer can avail wide range of services from booking of hotels to booking of airlines ticket. 4) The hotel is relived from the worry of selling the rooms that have been given to the CRS to sell.The limitations of the system are: 1. As it is dependant on various networking for communication- internet, telephone, fax, etc., therefore is the system fails the booking procedure may be terminated atThe ABC Of Hospitality 47
  • 50. 007A-FRONT OFFICE- RESERVATION SECTION the midpoint of the communication with the customer. 2. If there is no updating of the hotel profile and the facilities they render then the CRS staff may not be able to render the latest information on tariffs, facilities, etc. 3. As the system works on verbal communication the clarity in speech from both the ends should be given utmost importance. 4. The attentiveness of the CRS clerk is also considered to be important, he may note the name of the guest but spelled wrongly, or may book a hotel accommodation of the chain but in some location other than what has been desired by the caller. 5. failure to explain the technical terms like “lanai room” or “American Plan”Instant Reservation (IR):The Instant Reservation is located in the hotel This system can make reservation of thehotels within the same property but in other location and hence it is suitable for chainoperations. It cannot make any reservations of that hotel from where the booking isbeing made.Errors that can occur while taking Reservation & their RemediesSl. Errors RemediesNo.1 Error in recording -the date and time Being attentive and confirm back from of arrival, misspelling guest’s names guest after noting the same.2 Reservation filed under wrong date, Double checking name or property.3 Selling rooms without explaining the Guest should be explained properly technical terms used in the industry about things like 6 pm release, American Plan, No shows, etc.4 Booking hotel of the same chain but in Being attentive & Double checking some other location5 Poor and faulty communication system arising out of 1) miscommunication, lack of 1) Attitude development, clarity in communication speech 2) Delay/ in communication or getting 2) System development disconnected6 Lack of information with the Continuous appraisals and updating reservation staff7 Inability to forecast accurately of no Efficient information system and shows, under stays or overstays meticulous maintenance of statistics.The ABC Of Hospitality 48
  • 51. 007A-FRONT OFFICE- RESERVATION SECTIONMethod of making Upon receiving a reservation requestReservation 1. The date and time of arrival & the type of accommodation is noted. 2. Availability of the room is ascertained. 3. A- If the room is not available as per his requirement, the caller is given an option on date and type of accommodation. The Caller accepts The caller rejects His details are noted The caller is waitlisted down in the reservation and is informed that he form and he is sent at letter would be contacted as asking him for his soon as there is a confirmation with payment cancellation form. of an advance. Upon receipt some other guest. of such confirmation the documents are filed and the arrival of the guest is awaited. 3. B - If the room is available, the reservation form is filled. No time for confirmation Time for confirmation The guest is explained about The caller is told about The 6 pm release of room terms and conditions and and the documents are filed the documents are filed and the guest arrival is awaited provisionally. A letter is released asking for guest’s confirmation with an advance confirmation not received confirmation received documents filed in a separate Reservation confirmed file called conformation in records and the not received and the procedure confirmation letter is is closed. Sent to guest. Guest requested to send acknowledgement Document filed and guest arrival is awaitedThe ABC Of Hospitality 49
  • 52. 007A-FRONT OFFICE- RESERVATION SECTIONThe Reservation The particulars of the guests’ requests are noted down of theForm Reservation Form. The Reservation Form has specific printed headings under which the requirements are jotted down and this serves as a ready reckoner so that none of the possible requirements or information required from the guest is omitted. Generally, a Reservation form will have the following headings: 1. Name of the Guest: 2. The name of the person/ travel agent, etc who is making the booking with his/her contact number – source of booking 3. The address of the Guest and his contact number. 4. The number of person for whom the booking is made 5. The type of room wanted: 6. The date and time of arrival and departure. 7. Arrival by train no. Flight number etc. 8. Mode of payment and billing instruction 9. Terms & Conditions such as check out time, 6 p m release of rooms, written confirmation needed, etc. 10. Special remarks or requirements- car required at airport/ disabled guest- wheel char arrangement, etc. 11. The signature of the reservation clerk along with date and time of receiving the reservation. The reservation form can be further developed as a sales tools and serve certain information a) It can be colour coded to indicate the classification of customers, giving a picture of the market mix like a separate forms for package groups, FITs, corporate segment, airlines, central reservation office, etc. b) There can be forms to differentiate between a VIP, a CIP, and a free individual traveler.Cancellation & The cancellation and amendments can take place till the date ofAmendments arrival but with particular limits. For a group, amendments can take place till their arrival. Cancellation of a group arrival however should be made 30 days in advance to claim redemption from retention charge. For a FIT the cancellation can be entertained 24 hours in advance. In any case whether cancellation or amendment the original reservation form is referred and then the required changes are made. These changes are made in duplicate. One copy is filed along with the original reservation form in correspondence file. And the otherThe ABC Of Hospitality 50
  • 53. 007A-FRONT OFFICE- RESERVATION SECTION amended copy is kept in the reservation rack. In computerized reservation system, the amendment is made after due authorisation by the person (s) deputed to authorise the same.The ABC Of Hospitality 51
  • 54. 008 -FRONT OFFICE- REGISTRATIONIntroduction Registration is a legal binding, a mandatory procedure, applicable to both the hotel and the guest. It is a document by which the guest can claim his stay in the hotel and the hotel can claim about the guest stay for which he/she has to compensate with the agreed payment. The process is handled at the Reception counter of the hotel and the person handling the process is the “Receptionist.” System of RegistrationDepending upon the size and type of hotel the following system can be used which arediscussed below:Manual Here all the documents viz. the registration documentation, the CRegistration System form, arrival notification slip, guest folio, are prepared manually, jointly by both the guest and the receptionist. Therefore the clarity in hand writing of the guest and the receptionist plays a very important role. This process is applicable in smaller hotels and the process is slow and time consuming. The accuracy of the system largely depends upon the legibility of the guest and the receptionist Under the manual registration system generally three methods are used - (1) Bound Book, (2) Loose Leaf Register, (3) Guest Registration Card. The methods are discussed below: 1. Bound Book (Red Book): It is a bound register, having columns under headings – Serial Number, Date of Arrival, Time, Name of the Guest, Guest’s Mailing Address, Number of Persons, Coming From, Date of Departure, Duration of Stay, Heading to, Passport Number (in case of a foreigner), Room Allotted, Tariff, Signature of the Guest etc. It is usually maintained by smaller hotels. It is kept open on the Reception Counter. The guest upon arrival fills up the columns and signs it. ● The advantages of this system are: a) Due to its largeness it cannot be removed. b) All the information about the guest is available at one place. c) No filing is required. ● The disadvantages of this system are: a) With frequent use the pages get loose and soiled. b) If the book is somehow lost all the information is lost. c) Confidentiality of the guests cannot be maintained. d) It allows crowding at the counter. e) The VIPs and CIPs are usually registered in their rooms. So when the book is taken to the room upon VIP arrival other guests are awaited.The ABC Of Hospitality 52
  • 55. 008 -FRONT OFFICE- REGISTRATION 2. Loose Leaf Register: This consists of loose sheet, one of which used each day. It has the same columns as in Bound Book and it overcomes some of the disadvantages as those in the Bound Book. It is suitable for small to medium sized hotels. ● The advantages of this system are: a) The sheet is not required to be kept at the counter so it does not get soiled by use. b) As one sheet is used a day, so confidentiality can be maintained to some extent. c) In case of loss, only one day’s information may be lost but the rest of the records can be kept safe. ● The disadvantages of this system are: a) Its is a slow method as only one guest can register at a time and there can be chance of queuing up at the counter if there be a heavy arrival . b) The sheet can be easily misplaced if the clerks are callous. c) The sheet may not be fully filled on a day and therefore there is wastage of stationery. d) Total secrecy about guests staying in the hotel is not maintained. 3. Guest Registration Card (Red Form): This method is widely used nowadays and can be applied in small to large sized hotels. In this system, one separate card is used for each guest ● The advantages of this system are: a) It can be designed in such a way so that it can serve a manifold purpose. It can be made in duplicate and triplicate copies and these can be used as i) Arrival notification slip. ii) C form and send to FRRO. iii) Guest History Card ( a card that contains various liking and disliking of a guest and many other information) a) More than one guest can be registered at a time. b) It is absolutely private. c) They can be easily filed in an index form either alphabetically or individually according to their room numbers. d) Like Loose Leaf Register there is no wastage of stationery, and at the same time there is no chance of the document getting soiled due to excessive handling as in the case of Bound Book. e) The guests can be pre-registered and so the receptionist can devote more time to the supervision of individualThe ABC Of Hospitality 53
  • 56. 008 -FRONT OFFICE- REGISTRATION guests’ requirement. f) The VIPs can be registered easily without keeping other guests in wait as in the case of Bound Book and Loose Leaf Register. ● The disadvantages of this system are: a) The system is quite expensive as the quality of the paper should be good enough to be stored and at the same time it can be duplicated to serve multipurpose requirement. b) The filing and storing system of the hotel has to be very effective because if a card is lost the information about the guest is lost.Semi- automatic This method is used by medium or large sized hotels that do notSystem operate on computer. They use office machinery such as typewriter, and various clerical equipments like adding machines, Facit, racks and filing racks etc.Automatic System This is fully computerized system and followed by large and very large hotels. It uses computers with systems where the reservation and registration is interfaced. ● The advantages of this system are: a) It is efficient, time saving, fast and accurate. b) Various reports can be generated from one database and this prevents duplication and re-works. c) It helps in speedy check-ins. . ● The disadvantages of this system is: a) Though it is termed as automatic the documents get only valid once they are signed and therefore it cannot fully ignore the need for a manual aid.Express Check-in A most modern and recent technique available in fully automatedSystem hotels. Here guest after arrival can check–in through self registration machines located in the lobby of the hotel or in the city’s bus terminus, railway station, and airports. The guests who register through this system usually would have reserved their accommodation in advance with his credit card number. Upon arrival the guest would use his credit card which he inserts in the machine and the credit card number is recognized by the system which checks the reservation record and locates the concerned booking. Then the computer which is interfaced with the room management system (RMS) would locate a suitable room for the guest and consequently register and assign him a room. Depending upon the system the machine can direct the guest to collect the room key from the rack which is located near the machine itself or the machine may issue him a swipe card room key.The ABC Of Hospitality 54
  • 57. 008 -FRONT OFFICE- REGISTRATION Some of these machines have further facility devices that can ask the guest where he is presently located and upon receiving the information they would further inquire how the guest would prefer his room to be air-conditioned, or how he would like the water of the geyser to be, if he cares to have a bath. The machine then would calculate the distance the guest is away from the hotel and accordingly would command the geyser and/or the A.C. to switch on so that when the guest after his arrival upon entering the room would find the room is set at the temperature as desired by him or the water from the tap is as warm as he had wanted to be. It is very fast method of registration but it lacks the human touch. One should never forget while giving service it’s not the service alone but a personal touch or welcome is a more important factor.Procedure of Registration is a most important process in check-in activity. It isRegistration mandatory for all individual guests above the age of 16 that they should register their names irrespective of their category- FIT, VIP, Indian or foreigner arriving in any hotel be it classified as a five star or an ordinary one. The guest is required to fill up the registration document, in whatever form they may be – Bound Book Guest Registration Card or Loose Leaf Register, in their own hand writing and sign it. The process of filling up the document on arrival is called “registration”. The registration process provides the first face to face contact of the guest with the hotel front desk and thus establishes the front desk as the focal point for guest services. The registration document contains various important columns/sections – name and permanent address, number of guests including contact number, his company or business details), date of arrival, date of departure to and from the hotel, nationality. In case of foreigner these additional information are also required passport details, certificate of registration, coming from, next destination date, date of arrival in India, purpose of visit, whether employed in India or not. The guest after entering these details signs it. By signing the guest gives his consent that he has understood and shall abide by the rules and regulations of the hotel and acts as a proof of his stay in the hotel. The document also contains sections/columns for posting room number, room tariff, and mode of payment. These are filled up by theThe ABC Of Hospitality 55
  • 58. 008 -FRONT OFFICE- REGISTRATION receptionist along with his/her initial. Sometimes these documents also informs the guest with information such as the check-out time, the rules and regulations like the proceeding the hotel would take if the guest overstays, or the liability of the hotel keeping guest valuables other than hotel’s safe deposit, etc. It is mandatory that this document be preserved by the hotel for at least six months and be produced upon request from Government officials- police, or the judiciary, etc. during or after the stay of the guest in the hotel. In short the registration is a document that protects both the interest of the guest and the hotel.Arrival & Departure ● Arrival:procedure of FIT ► Process Owner: The Bell Boy, The Cashier, & The Receptionist 1) The bell boy, upon arrival of a guest wishes him and collects his luggage, brings it in the lobby, places it at the bell desk and attaches hotel tags. 2) The guest is escorted to the Reception Counter. The receptionist wishes the guest, checks for the reservation if there be or else treats it as a walk-in or referral (checks the room availability). 3) Registers the guest and allots him the room. 4) Hands over the key and the errand card to the bell boy. 5) The bell boy escorts the guest to the room. 6) The reception now sends the Arrival Notification Slip to the various sections and completes other formalities at their end. 7) The bell boy opens the room for the guest, keeps the luggage on the luggage rack. 8) Explains the guest about the facilities in the room and the hotel. 9) Offers any other help and wishes the guest a pleasant stay. 10) Report back to the bell desk and hands over the errand card intimating his time of return. ● Departure: ► Process Owner: The Bell Boy, The Receptionist & The Cashier 1) The bell desk and the cashier are intimated about the guest’s departure. 2) The Bell Captain sends a bell boy to the room of the guest with the errand card in two copies. 3) The bell boy fills up the errand card and goes to the guest room, wishes the guest, checks if any guest articles have been left by him. 4) He also checks if any hotel property being missing or damaged. Informs, the reception, if he finds so, so that billing can be done. 5) Switches of the lights, air condition and any other gadgets if they are running. 6) Picks up the luggage and departs from the room ensuring the room isThe ABC Of Hospitality 56
  • 59. 008 -FRONT OFFICE- REGISTRATION locked. 7) Places the luggage at the bell desk to attach any publicity tags, and hands over the key to the reception and a copy of the errand card to the cashier. 8) Waits for the guest o settle the bill. 9) After ensuring the guest has paid the bill, the bell boy takes the baggage to the car porch and loads it in the scheduled vehicle. 10) Reports back at the bell desk and hands over the second copy of the errand card after filling in the time of return.Arrival & Departure ● Arrival:procedure of ► Process Owner: The Bell Boy, The Lobby Manager/GRE Cashier, &Groups The Receptionist 1) Prior to the arrival of the group a ground work is required to be done. The rooms are to be blocked as soon as the reservation is confirmed. The rooms this blocked are generally on the same floor and near to each other. Accordingly, the intimation is sent to Housekeeping- with a copy to the Laundry Section, Engineering & maintenance, Food & Beverage, Telephone Operator. The Bell desk is also informed in advance so that they can be prepared with sufficient manpower. 2) Upon arrival, the group is received and escorted to the Lobby by the Bell Boy/ Front Office staff. 3) Depending upon the policy of the establishment welcome drink, garlanding, tilak, etc, are done either at the main entrance or in the Lobby. There may be a traditional dance to highlight the local culture. 4) Luggage is unloaded and brought to the bell desk by the bell boys. Luggage tag is attached against each luggage. 5) The Group Leader goes to the reception counter for registration. 6) Since the rooms are already been allotted the room keys are kept separately in the envelopes with the room numbers marked on them. Thus those envelopes are handed over to the Group Leader along with the rooming list which is in turn the Group Leader hands over to the individual member of the group. 7) Any mails that have come for the members of the group are handed over to the Group Leader. 8) The Bell Captain with a copy of the rooming list and with the aid of the tour leader and a member form the group identifies the luggage and writes the room number on the luggage tag. He also ascertains those luggages to be kept at the bell desk till the departure of the group. 9) The group members are escorted to their respective rooms; bell boys load luggage and deliver them in the respective group members’ rooms as desired by them. 10) The bell boys return to the bell desk. 11) Relevant formalities are completed at the Front Office- mainly theThe ABC Of Hospitality 57
  • 60. 008 -FRONT OFFICE- REGISTRATION Room Folio is authorized & passed by the Lobby Manager. 12) The arrival notification is sent to Housekeeping, with a copy to laundry, telephone operator, Information Counter, Food & Beverage including room service, cashier – folio passed by the lobby manager with the group’s registration card ● Departure: ► Process Owner: Reception, Bell Captain, Telephone Operator, Cashier, Bell Boys. 1. Prior to the departure Though the departure date and time is known, the Reception must verify the same from the Group Leader and accordingly inform the Cashier for updating & preparing the bill and the Bell Desk to clarify with the movement of the luggage. The Bell Captain would interact with the Group Leader and clarify the departure time and the luggage down time. If the departure is in early/odd hours of the morning he may also find out the time the wake up call to be given and sends the rooming list marking the wake up time to the operator, so that the operator can give the wake up call at the timing as directed. The Bell Captain/ Bell Boy himself would give the wake up call to the Group Leader. 2) The wake up call is given as per the schedule as mentioned above. 3) At the assigned time the bell boy goes to the rooms to collect the luggage and bring it to the bell desk. 4) The bell captain ensures all the keys are deposited at the reception counter. 5) The Group Leader settles the bill as also any individual charges from the Group members that are outstanding. 6) The bell boys load luggage in the transport and report back to the Bell desk.Arrival & ● Arrival:Welcoming of a VIP ► Process Owner: GSO/GRE, Lobby manager, Bell boy 1) Prior to the arrival of the VIP, the GRE would check the VVIP Movement Sheet and hold several discussions and short meetings to ensure everything is in order and nothing is missed out. 2) The concierge along with the GRE along with the GSO would go out in the portico to receive the VIP guest and escort him to the Lobby 3) Upon arrival at the lobby he would be greeted with the traditional welcome or with champagne/ non alcoholic beverage as the case may be. 4) The General Manager of the hotel at this point may meet the VIP and with the latter’s consent photographic session may be arranged. 5) In the meanwhile the Bell Captain must ensure that the bell boy takes down his luggage and take it to the room. Utmost care must be taken to ensure that the luggage on no account should reach after the VIP is led into his room. 6) Thereafter the VIP is taken care of by the Lobby Manager who escortsThe ABC Of Hospitality 58
  • 61. 008 -FRONT OFFICE- REGISTRATION him to his room. The Lobby Manager would carry with him the Registration document and the registration would be done in the room itself. 7) During the stay of VIP regular contact should be maintained at all stages and see all his requirements, like arranging tours, pre-paid taxis, re-confirmation of his air tickets, etc are done through without any delay. Care must be taken in taking feedbacks from the VIP guest as to his staying experience in the hotel. But in doing so one should be discreet and should not make it obtrusive.The ABC Of Hospitality 59
  • 62. 009 -FRONT OFFICE- INFORMATIONIntroduction The objective of this department is to maintain all information pertaining to ● Guests ● Hotel ● City & Country In a most logical manner. To achieve this certain methods are followed which are given hereunder.Information with The area of “Guest Information” confines torespect to Guests a) Information on the Rooms Allocated to the Guest: Their rooming of the guest in the hotel, i.e. documenting their information with respect to their names and their respective room numbers. Here the lists of the guest are maintained in two manners. 1) According to the Room Numbers’ Index: This means that the name of the guest is not known, but the room number is known. This is maintained in numerical order and is known as Numerical Guest Index- (NGI). The hotels that follow manual system have a rack where room numbers are arranged serially. The rack consist of a frame which holds 35-40 moveable carriers into which the guest’s name, printed on a card, is inserted against the corresponding room number. Similarly, computerized hotels can also maintain this system in such database. 2) According to their Names: This means the guest can be identified by their names but the room number is to be known. This is maintained in alphabetical order and is known as Alphabetical Guest Index- (AGI). As in the case of NGI the AGI may also be maintained manually or it can have a computerized database. b) Maintenance & Control of Room Keys: This pertains to the keys of the in-house guest who while going out of the hotel would hand it over and would receive it upon their return. c) Handling of Guest Messages: 1) The messages are received by telephone, by person or by electronic means. 2) Check the information to find if the guest is in the house. There can be two alternatives: a) The guest is not staying in the hotel b) The guest is staying in the hotel. 3) If the guest is not staying in the hotel thenThe ABC Of Hospitality 60
  • 63. 009 -FRONT OFFICE- INFORMATION i) Either the guest is yet to arrive. ii) The guest has departed. i) Guest is yet to arrive: Check the reservation diary to locate the date of arrival and file the message with the guest’s reservation detail. ii) Guest has departed: If the guests name is not in the reservation diary then check the departure register to ascertain the guest’s present location. 4) If the guest is staying in the hotel, then check for the room key. i) The presence of room key will denote the guest is not currently present in the hotel. ii) The absence of room key will denote the guest is present in the hotel. In both the cases further, check the location form. 2. The Guest is not currently present in the hotel: The absence of location form and the presence of room key at the information counter will denote that the guest is not in the hotel. Receive the message in duplicated. Send one copy in an envelope through the bellboy and store the second copy in the pigeonhole rack. 3. The Guest is staying in the hotel: Here there can be two possibilities. Guest is in the A) In the hotel but not in his room: This is denoted by presence or absence of the room key but with this there will be also the location form. In this case direct the telephone call to the said location or direct the bell boy to deliver the written message to that location. If however the guest is not found or cannot be located the message may be stored in the pigeonhole and should be delivered on the very next meeting with the guest. B) In the hotel and in his room: This will be denoted by absence of room key and absence of location form. Direct the call to the room or the message through the bellboy in an envelope.The ABC Of Hospitality 61
  • 64. 009 -FRONT OFFICE- INFORMATION Handling of Mails: A) First Sorting: 1.Initially the mails are sorted at the Bell Desk. Here the mails are stamped with date and time. The mails are sorted into a) Guests’ mail b) House mail. (this part will be discussed in the Bell Desk). 2.The guests’ mails are then sent to the Information Desk. B) Second Sorting: 3. Here they are sorted alphabetically. 4. Placed in alphabetical mail rack. C) Third Sorting: 5. They are sorted into i) Past Guest, ii) Present Guest, & iii) Future Guest i) Past Guests: a) The mails are checked against mail forwarding cards. b) Mails this sorted are re-directed. ii) Present Guests: a) They are checked against Alphabetical Guest Index from the information racks. b) The mails thus sorted are placed in corresponding keys & mail pigeonhole or sent to the rooms. iii) Future Guests: a. Checked against reservation rack. b. Mails thus sorted are kept in a separate Hold Mail Rack and the reservation slip is marked with the word “LETTER”. c. The mails are delivered to guests upon their arrival. :Information with ● They includerespect to Hotel ● Hotel facilities. ● Cultural & Social Events of the day in the hotel with their location. ● The Historical background (if any) of the hotel ● Other hotel enquiries of the same chain.Information with ● Location, distance and basic history of the tourist spots and therespect to the City places of interest in the city. ● Map of the city. ● Airline schedules, railway timings, & other public transport. ● Cultural events, sports, movies in theatres in the city. ● Market places, & shopping malls.The quick brown fox jumped over the lazy dog and killed itThe ABC Of Hospitality 62
  • 65. 009A -FRONT OFFICE-SHIFTWISE DUTIES OF A RECEPTIONISTMorning Shift 1. Prepare the Expected arrivals & the departure list and put into circulation to all the departments. 2. Blocking of rooms. As per the expected arrivals rooms are blocked and the room position is calculated. 3. Sending C-Forms collected on the previous day to the FRRO 4. VIP arrivals and suite blocking. Suites are blocked according to the expected arrivals and amenities vouchers are sent for complimentary amenities. 5. Mail sorting and handling.Evening Shift 1) Physical checking of amenities / replacement as desired and asked by GRE. 2) Checking the functions of the day and preparing the Lobby Board. 3) Releasing of blocked rooms & suites due to no shows. 4) Monitoring of the Lobby.Night Shift 1) Final consolidation of the available rooms to make the room position. 2) Compilation of the C-Forms. 3) Day’s closure – checking of log book, preparing notes for the morning shift, etc. 4) Night Audit. 1. n fox jumped over the lazy dog and killed itThe ABC Of Hospitality 63
  • 66. 010 -FRONT OFFICE-ROOM REPORTS & ROOM STATISTICSIntroduction Certain statistics are required o be generated by the Front Desk by which the reception can sell further rooms to the walk-ins. Furthermore, it is imperative for the management to know certain figures from which they can forecast further sales. The statistical data that are generated are described below and the formulae applied for deriving those data .are as underRoom Position This refers to the number of rooms available for sale at the beginning of the shift or the day. It is important to know in order to control the number of walk-in guests taking registration on a particular day or prospective guests desiring to take reservation on a particular day. To know this one has to deduce the following figures: ● Expected Arrivals ● Expected Departures ● Number of Vacant rooms available at that instant. If the arrivals are more than the departure and the number of vacant rooms it means the hotel is booked more than its capacity. Therefore it would give a (-) figure If the arrivals are less than the departure and the number of vacant rooms it means the hotel is not full to its optimum capacity. Therefore it would give a (+) figure The Room Position is therefore calculated thus: Expected Departures + Vacant Rooms – Expected ArrivalsRoom Count This denotes the number of rooms occupied on a particular day. The formula for computing the Room Count is: Room Count of Previous Day + Today’s Arrivals – Today’s Departures,House Count This denotes the number of guests staying on a particular day. The formula for computing the House Count is: House Count of Previous Day + Today’s Arrivals – Today’s Departures,Occupancy This denotes the percentage of rooms occupied in comparison to thePercentage total number of rooms. The formula for computing the Occupancy Percentage is:The ABC Of Hospitality 64
  • 67. 010 -FRONT OFFICE-ROOM REPORTS & ROOM STATISTICS Number of Rooms Sold ----------------------------------- X100 Total Number of Saleable Rooms ________________________________________Double Occupancy This reflects the percentage of double rooms occupied on a particular day. The formula for deriving double occupancy is: House Count – Number of Rooms Occupied -------------------------------------------------- X100 Total Number of Saleable Rooms Conversely, Since Number of Rooms occupied = Room Count & Number of Rooms Available = Room Position Therefore, Double Occupancy can also be derived by the formula below House Count – Room Count --------------------------------- X100 Room PositionRoom revenue This reflects the total room sale of the day.Average Room Also denoted as Average Room Rate. Since all the rooms of the hotel areRecovery (ARR) not sold on the published tariff or rack rate, the ARR gives the average rate per room has been charged on a particular day. The Formula is: Total Room revenue ----------------------------------- Total Number of Rooms Sold _________________________________________Indian Occupancy This is Percentage of Indians staying in the house and the formula is:Percentage Indians in-house ------------------------X100 House CountForeigner This is Percentage of Indians staying in the house and the formula is:OccupancyPercentage Indians in-house ------------------------X100 House CountThe ABC Of Hospitality 65
  • 68. 011 -FRONT OFFICE-THE BELL DESK & CONCEIRGEThe Importance of The Bell Desk is the extended arm of Front Desk. There are certainBell Desk jobs and services concerning the guest from their time of arrival, through their stay, and again during their departure that are required to be essentially performed for the guest but they cannot be performed from the reception desk. Such jobs are conferred upon a section under the Front Office which we call it as Bell Desk. The term Bell is believed to have come from the practice done in the olden days. The door of the hotel was usually kept closed and the guest/visitor upon arrival used to ring the bell. The person entrusted with the job for opening the door upon ringing the bell was called as “Bell Boy” and therefore it is believed that the term has come from such activities.Location As the name suggests, the Bell Desk is a small desk or counter in the Lobby near the min entrance of the hotel. It should be under the clear view of the Front Desk, the cashier, and the doorman standing outside the lobby so that he can signal the bell boy upon arrival of the guest. Near to the Bell Desk are the luggage entrance and luggage center.The Bell Captain The Bell Desk is headed by Bell Captain who works in shifts. He reports to the Assistant Front Office Manager / Lobby Manager. He is responsible to plan, organize, direct, coordinate and control overall Bell Desk operation. The job responsibilities of the Bell captain are: a) To ensure all service standards as specified by the management are implemented. b) To ensure that all staff under his control are properly briefed, groomed, deployed and utilised and maintain discipline among them. c) Assign errands to the bell boys. d) To ensure proper handling of guest baggage and the records are maintained properly. e) To ensure all the records & documentation maintained by the Bell Desk is carried out properly. f) He is responsible for the guest baggage in the Left Luggage Room and the records thereof. g) Responsible for distribution of newspaper and account thereof. h) Ensure the Bell Desk i) Assist in crew and group wake up calls. j) Initiate action against scanty baggage. k) Organize paging services in the public area. l) Assist in security and vigilance function and prevent any untoward incidence from happening inside the hotel premises.The ABC Of Hospitality 66
  • 69. 011 -FRONT OFFICE-THE BELL DESK & CONCEIRGEThe Work a) Handling of guest baggage upon arrival and departure.performed by the b) Issuing postage to guests against cash.Bell Boys. c) Check guest room at the time of departure. d) Inform in case of scanty baggage to his superior. e) Page guest in lobby and public area. f) Delivery of newspapers in hotel rooms. g) Assisting in wake-up calls for the Airline captain or Group/Tour Leader. h) Check rooms to validate discrepancy reports. i) Perform ant errands as required by the management.Communication & The Bell Desk is an important function and they are required atCoordination of the many times by various persons and sections under the Front Office,Bell Desk with otherareas of Front mainly, the doorman, reception, information counter, cash and lobbyOffice. manager. The Bell Desk is so situated that all these sections/persons are under the full view of this section and many times mere gestures are enough for communication. But during providing various services to the guests this may not be possible and in such case, apart from intercoms, special devices such switch panels connected to different coloured lights or buzzers of various pitch may be installed at the desk by which the bell desk can identify from where the signal for service required is coming.Equipment needed For performing various services the equipments required along withat the Bell Desk the service they provide are listed below: a)a) Luggage Trolley: For carrying of guest luggage from the lobby to the guest room when the guest checks in. The trolley becomes useful again when the guest checks out. The maintenance of these trolleys is very important. They should not impart any screeching noise when wheeled across and therefore are to be regularly greased. Again care must be taken that the greasing is not excessive so as to leave oil marks on the floors. b) Inter They include intercoms, telephones, and Communication computers and switch panels for effective Devices: communication.The ABC Of Hospitality 67
  • 70. 011 -FRONT OFFICE-THE BELL DESK & CONCEIRGE c) Mail Handling They include: Equipment: a) Postage weighing machine. b) Franking Machine. c) Postage & stationeries like envelopes glue and stamps d) Date & Time punching machine for marking the dates on the receiving mails. d) Luggage net For identifying and separating luggage specially when more than one group checks in and or checks outFunctions 1. Mail & Message Handling: The messages are delivered from thePerformed by the Information desk that are required to be delivered to the guestBell Desk through the bell boys. The mails after sorting by the bell desk into guest mails and house mails, the house mails are retained by the Bell desk. They are then sorted into employee mails and hotel mails. The employee mails are sent to the time office. The Hotel mails are further sorted into GM’s mail and departmental mails which are then delivered accordingly. 2. Wake up Calls: The guest, especially the groups and airlines wake up calls are taken care by this department. 3. Paging: This is a system to locate guests in public area which is accomplished by the bell desk. 4. Scanty Baggage: Guests of this category are identified by the bell boys and reported to the bell Captain to initiate action. 5. Left Luggage Handling: This is a facility offered by the Hotels which depending upon the house custom may be charged or be given as a free service. The most essential point is that the Bell desk must ensure that the guest has settled the bill when he desires to attain the facility. 6. Miscellaneous Jobs: They include a) Luggage handling b) Issue of postage c) Collection of room keys on departure d) Delivering C Forms to FRRO. e) Other errands as required by the guest or the management. f) Assist in movement of guest luggage during room shifting.The ABC Of Hospitality 68
  • 71. 011 -FRONT OFFICE-THE BELL DESK & CONCEIRGEGuest Relations This is a desk that records various requirement, suggestions and grievances from the guest and strives to make the guest stay most comfortable and a memorable one. They give personal attention to guest requirements which are noted in a log book and are subsequently conveyed to the concerned sections and departments. The section is headed by a lady executive designated as Guest Relation Executive (GRE).Job Profile of the The Job Profile includesGRE a) Giving personal attention to guest requirements and grievances. b) Keep liaisons with the Food & Beverage Department in relation to Banquet Sales and be updated regarding the delegations and programmes being held in the banquet halls. c) Handling of VIPs. This includes from preparing the check-list to be followed before, upon and after the VIP arrival and being constantly updated with the concerned departments about their actions and movements for the VIP services. d) Receiving and welcoming of VIPs/CIPs and other important personalities. e) Being in touch with the VIPs and CIPs throughout their stay and noting their preferences and requirement and supervising their requirements being fulfilled to the desired standard. . f) To check with the guests staying in the hotel about their comfort and experiences with regards to the stay and services. g) To check the suggestions and feed back forms left by the guests and noting the methods of improvement and the short falls. h) To update guest history cards.The ABC Of Hospitality 69
  • 72. 012 -FRONT OFFICE-THE CASHIER & THE NIGHT AUDITThe Cashier The cashier is the person who is deputed from the accounts department, but works in the front of house area as his major duty is to follow up with the guests’ accounts. The duties of a cashier may be divided into two segments, viz. a) Operational or day to day duties b) Supervisory duties and administrative work. Operational or day to day duties Supervisory duties & administrative work 1) Upon arrival 1) Control of a) To open the main bill a) safety locker system. upon arrival of the guest b) Hotel Master Key. c) Maintenance & operation of accounting machines. d) Credit Limit of each guest and inform the Lobby Manager when it exceeds the limit 2) During his stay: 2) Paper work: a) Post all income made for a) Receive all cash the guest by way of his transactions from the payments. guest and hold them till b) Post all expenditures the end of his shift. made by the guest by the b) Maintain all opening services availed by him and closing balance of and thereafter bills the rooms. signed by him for those c) Prepare the cashier’s services. summary sheet. c) Make Petty cash d) Encash foreign payments. exchange with the RBI d) Post all credit charges as per regulations. and other charges in their respective folios- guest folio and miscellaneous charge voucher. e) In case if the guest is a foreigner exchange foreign currency to Indian currency. 3) Upon departure a) Settle main bill b) All other bills.The ABC Of Hospitality 70
  • 73. 012 -FRONT OFFICE-THE CASHIER & THE NIGHT AUDITPosting of the When as guest checks in a copy of the registration card is given to theCharges cashier based on which a new folio is opened in his name with the other details such as the room number, the room rate its is always necessary to check the rate mentioned on the GR card for the rate mentioned in the GR Card may not be always the same as the rack rate due to avail of various package rates by the guest. The bills may be posted manually or through billing machines like Facit, NCR machines, etc. Where bills are posted manually, every time while posting the charges, it is essential to adjust the line for printing. After the guest checks in, the first posting would be automatically the room charge. Next would be the services that are enjoyed by the guest on credit. These services are either enjoyed in the various outlets of the hotel –the restaurants, bars, room service etc. There would be another set of charges called miscellaneous charges which are levied when a guest avail services like shoe-shine, laundry, heath club, barber’s shop, postal charges, etc. Such miscellaneous charges are posted in miscellaneous charge voucher. All the above charges are posted chronologically daily at the close of business hours, preferably at night before the night audit. Apart from the room charges which are daily posted automatically the credit charges of the guest from the various POS are collected by the cash office in from of bills duly signed by the guests. The bills collected before posting are required to be sorted. The usual process that is adopted is as follows Step 1 1st Sorting: Arrange the bills and vouchers department wise. Step 2 2nd Sorting: Arrange departmental bills room wise. Step 3 The bills are then placed in the pigeon holes Step 4 Take bills floor wise and start posting after selecting the line for printing and ascertaining the room number and signature present in the bills.The ABC Of Hospitality 71
  • 74. 012 -FRONT OFFICE-THE CASHIER & THE NIGHT AUDIT Step 5 To avoid double posting of the bills and vouchers adopt systems that would denote that particular bill is posted.Processing of A Individual Guest on EP: The guest bills are made in the processVarious Bills as described in the last section “Posting of Charges.” B Individual Guest on CP/AP/MAP: For the individual guests staying on MAP/AP two bills are opened, viz.- i) Original Folio: Here the food and the room charges are entered individually on each date of stay. ii) Incidental Charges Folio: Here the other charges such as tips, shoe-shine, laundry, telephone, food and drinks not covered under the plan are noted. C Groups on AP/MAP: Under this system two bills are opened. They are: i) Room Transfer Folio: The procedure is: The following are noted on the bill- a) Name of the Group b) Number of pax c) The room number allotted d) Rate per room e) Total f) Date of arrival g) Date of Departure h) Billing Instructions. The total room charges are posted of the master folio ii) Meal Master Folio: The same information as described above in point i) is noted and then the total food charges are posted on the folio. The incidental charges are realized from the individual guests either on cash payment or if signed realized during their departure. D City Ledger Payment on behalf of the Guest: After the cash is received a receipt voucher for the amount is made in triplicate and the original is affixed with a revenue stamp. The document is signed. The original is given to the party making the payment. The duplicate is send to the accounts section for noting the payment from debtors. The third copy is retained in the receipt book.The ABC Of Hospitality 72
  • 75. 012 -FRONT OFFICE-THE CASHIER & THE NIGHT AUDITMethods of The bills are generally settled by the guests in the following manner:Payments a) Cash: Most acceptable form of payment but its not practical considering the volume of cash one has to carry. b) Credit Card: This is most acceptable and desired form of payment in the modern days. It may be operated manually where the credit card form is filled up by the cashier and signature is obtained. In places where there are swipe machines it is connected through internet and the amount charged is automatically debited. However while accepting payments through credit cards one must ensure that i) The credit card is acceptable by the establishment. ii) Check its floor limit iii) The Card is duly signed by the credit card holder. iv) The validity date mentioned on the card. c) Traveller’s Cheques: This document is issued by the bank. The person making payment through traveller’s cheques has to sign once when he obtains those negotiable instruments from the bank. He has to sign again when he en-cashes them. d) Travel Agent’s Voucher: This document is issued by the travel agent to the passenger travelling through that particular travel agent. It is made in duplicate where what the guest is entitled to, is clearly mentioned. The original copy is given to the guest and the duplicate copy is send to the hotel. The guest upon checking-in presents the original copy at the reception desk and from then he can enjoy the services as mentioned in the voucher. e) Gift Voucher: A voucher issued by certain establishment as a sales promotion aid and is to be availed in a particular establishment/s within a stipulated date and time. The entitlement of the holder of the voucher is mentioned on it. Upon presenting the voucher at the mentioned establishment or outlets the guest can enjoy the services as mentioned therein. f) Letter of Credit: A letter issued by designated body/ies, who has been empowered to do so through certain contracts or packages, to any individuals guaranteeing payments to be made by the former upon presenting the bills for the services availed by the individuals and duly signed by them. This service is generally opened for corporate sections.The ABC Of Hospitality 73
  • 76. 012 -FRONT OFFICE-THE CASHIER & THE NIGHT AUDIT g) Cheque: Cheques are generally not accepted. If in exceptional cases they are accepted the acceptance has to be authorized by the Lobby Manager. h) Foreign Currency: Payment by foreign currency is applicable to foreigners who are residing in the hotels. The required criterion for acceptance of payment through foreign currency is the currency has to be acceptable by that country. The document required from the foreigner guest for encashment of the currency is his/her passport. While en-cashing the foreign currency the cashier must check the prevailing rate of that currency on that particular date and then calculate the amount payable as per the local currency. Upon en-cashment the cashier would issue a foreign exchange certificate to the guest.The control of Safe The Safe Deposit Box is a value added service for the guests havingDeposit Box valuables with their possessions. Depending upon the house policy this service may be chargeable or rendered free of cost. Guests are discouraged from keeping any valuables with them in the hotel rooms and the hotel does not bear any liability in the event of loss of the valuable from the guest rooms. However, the value of the goods kept at the locker has a limiting value as the insurance claim is also limited. When a guest desires to keep his valuables in the locker a receipt is made in the name of the guest mentioning his room number, date of availing the locker the residential address of the guest, and the Safe Deposit Locker number along with a key. The Safe Deposit Box works when the guest key and another key retained by the cashier operate together. Upon surrender of the locker the date of surrender and the customer’s signature of the receipt of the articles are obtained.Room change A guest may change rooms on the occasion of any of the three asformalities mentioned below: 1. The guest did not like the room 2. The room had sustained a mechanical or electrical breakdown 3. Some scheduled maintenance work is required to be carried on in the room. In this event a Room Change Notification is made by the Reception desk which has the following information.The ABC Of Hospitality 74
  • 77. 012 -FRONT OFFICE-THE CASHIER & THE NIGHT AUDIT A notice number Date of change Name of the Guest Changed form existing room number to the changed room number. Reason for change Rate (existing) to new rate Reason The signature of the receptionist Authorisation of the Lobby Manager. The room change notice slip is distributed to the following departments/sections: Information, Telephone Operator, Housekeeping, F&B- department, - Room Service/ Restaurants and other outlets, & The Cashier.The Role of Lobby While dealing with cash settlements Lobby Manager plays anManager with cash eminent role. They aresettlements. 1. When the credit limit of the person exceeds the cashier informs the Lobby Manager for communicating with the guest. 2. While giving discounts the Lobby manager’s authorization is necessary. 3. For all petty cash payments on behalf of the guest the petty cash voucher is authorized by the Lobby Manager. 4. Since at times the room change may affect the revenue of the hotel such changes are authorized by the lobby manager. .The Night Audit, The Night Audit: It is mandatory for any organisation to reconcileThe Report their financial position after the close of business. Since the hotelGenerated & TheRole of MOD operates for 24 hours therefore a time when there are fewer financial transactions is being sought. It has been found that between 2 a.m. and 4 a.m. the financial transaction comes to and end. Therefore this time is chosen for the audit purpose. The Night Audit comprises of a team having a night audit manager, two to five auditors and one or two food and beverage auditor. The function of the team is to Verify hotel’s daily transactions Generate summary and statistical data for compiling into a night audit report. Assume responsibility of the front office functions. In many cases the Night Audit manager would also play the role of Manager of the hotel. After the financial transactions are verified then only the date changeThe ABC Of Hospitality 75
  • 78. 012 -FRONT OFFICE-THE CASHIER & THE NIGHT AUDIT for the hotel’s transaction is made. The Reports: The reports generated include: 1. Credit Card Transaction Report 2. Arrival/Departure Report 3. No Show Report 4. Credit Limit Report 5. Complimentary Room Report 6. Out of Order Room Reports 7. In House Report 8. Message Report Apart from the above the Night audit would also make 9. Outlet/Ancillary Posting Report 10. Room Rate Posting Report 11. Food And Beverage Audit Report 12. Food & Beverage Potential Report.The Role of MOD Depending upon the house policy, the Night Audit Manager has top assume the role of Manager on Duty (MOD). In such case he would have to make reports on any events be it an accident, theft or fire occurring in the hotel. These reports are limited to- a) Incident Report b) Accident Report a) Incident Report: The Incident Report refers to any incidences taking place which concerns the guest. b) Accident Report: This report is made when it concerns the staff Be it an Incident Report or Accident Report the report must have the following information: Name of the Employee/Guest Date & Time of occurrence Location- inside or outside the hotel Description of the Incident/Accident Participant’s statements Witness/es statement Whether outside agency contacted Name of the hospital where the person has been taken Degree of Injury.The ABC Of Hospitality 76
  • 79. 013-F & B SERVICE- OUTLETSIntroduction The next aspect after providing rooms to guest is service of food & beverages. The food and beverages are served to guests through different outlets. Each of the service outlets has a specific style of service. Based on these the outlets may be classified as under:-Restaurants Generally the restaurants undertake table service to guests. A restaurant is an outlet that has provision for dispensing food and beverages to its customers. They may exist separately or may be a part of another business. They may be covered under license for dispensing alcoholic beverages or may be totally devoid of service of alcoholic beverages. They vary in styles and standard of service, size and layout, ambience, types of dishes they serve, quality of service equipments, forms of entertainment, and the price it quotes on its menu and beverage list, depending on which they may be classified as under: Popular Catering Establishments: The objective of the popular catering establishment is to provide a quick and economical meal in a clean and standardised dinning room. The type of menu can vary from ordinary to specialty ones. The economical price is maintained through type of service, quality of crockery and cutlery, humble ambience, and less spacious seating layout. Fine Dinning Restaurants: These restaurants stand apart from the rest with their classical presentation in every form - the dishes on the menu, the beverage list, the ambience, the quality of crockery and cutlery, the service, the types of entertainment, etc. The prices are generally high and the guests are strictly admitted inside the premises according to the establishment’s dress code. Multi cuisine Restaurant: This is a type of restaurant where food from different countries and region are provided. Generally these restaurants opens in shift – for lunch & dinner, and the types of service is informal. The décor and the ambience tend to be lavish and gorgeous. Speciality Restaurants: The Speciality Restaurants are those that specialises on certain type of preparations – like Tandoori Items, Burgers, Sandwiches, Sea Foods, Vegetarian, etc. Ethnic Restaurants: Ethnic Restaurants specializes on service of food & beverages of a particular region. Themed Restaurants: These restaurants have the ambience describing the name of the restaurant, or a particular occasion.The ABC Of Hospitality 77
  • 80. 013-F & B SERVICE- OUTLETS These restaurants basically hold certain event dinning or food festival nights. The garden café, however, is also a typically themed restaurant. Coffee Shop: A Coffee Shop has following features: a) It is opened for 24-hours. b) It is located in such a place in the hotel which is easily accessible both by the external guests and the in-house guest. c) The service is fast and plated service is usually followed. d) Usually it is a licensed premise. e) Cutleries are less expensive and multi-purpose. f) The menus vary according to the time of the day- viz. breakfast, lunch, afternoon tea, dinner, supper, early morning breakfast, etc. g) The prices on the dishes are moderate. h) Serves wholesome menus. i) Ambience is cheerful but informal. j) In order to break the monotony the Coffee Shop should undergo regular changes in menus, layout, ambience, décor, etc., because the outlet is frequented by regular guests. Grill Room: The Grill Room is a restaurant that is uniquely different from the rest. It is a large hall portioned by a glass wall where one side is the restaurant and the other side is the kitchen. The kitchen is practically in full view of the guest which can be seen through the glass portioned wall. The guest can see how and what is to be cooked for him. In fact he can also order the particular cut or choose the particular whole carcass which is to be cooked for him. Discotheque: This is an outlet where people go to enjoy themselves. Popular snacks and alcoholic and non alcoholic beverages are the items on the menu dispensed through self service. The enjoyment is provided through recoded music which is played by a person known as Disk Jockey (DJ) and a large dance floor where the people dance according to the tunes and beats. The ambience of the discotheque is very different as it provides psychedelic lighting, superior quality sound system, etc., from other entertaining outlets. It is aided by a bar where efficient bartenders adept in juggling dispense popular mocktails and cocktails. The service is self help service. The dress code is less formal and in some occasions like in an ethnic or particular themed night the guests are requested to wear such clothes that would suit the occasion. Night Club: By the name itself it is implied that the night club opens at night. The normal operational period for a night club being between 8 a.m. to 2 p.m. The dress code is strictly formal and is often specified. The ambience defines its elite-ness and so is its elaborateThe ABC Of Hospitality 78
  • 81. 013-F & B SERVICE- OUTLETS service. The crockery, cutlery, the wine list, the menu are of premium standard and are highly priced. There is a live band or crooner on the stand who will provide the audio entertainment, often playing according to customers’ request. A well polished floor beckons the guests to dance, and often live shows like cabaret or ethnic dances are performed by professional performers. The other restaurant types can beBars & Pubs Strictly speaking, a bar is a place where alcoholic & non alcoholic beverages are served. Some snacks are also available with drinks. They vary in ambience and set-up. It usually consist of a dispense counter with high stools surrounding it and provision for seating away from the counter with low tables and chairs. The pubs are fairly new in India. It originates from England where beer was generally served. However, now all alcoholic beverages are also served and live music is the added entertainment provided in these bars. The bars can also exist in conjunction with a restaurant when they are termed as resto-bar.Other forms of These includesOutlets Banquet Hall: A Banquet Hall consists of a large hall which can be partitioned to ones requirement or may consist of a cluster of halls, coming under the sales outlet of F&B Operations. According to the requirement and expected number of guests that would be attending the occasion, these halls are let out to clients who intend to hold private parties - marriage function, marriage anniversary or birthday celebration, company seminars, their product exhibitions, or yearly or annual general meetings, etc. These halls are also utilized to provide state level welcome to dignitaries, and/or their representatives from other countries where the service is required to be highly organized and formal. Room Service: This department is responsible for the provision of food & beverage service in the hotel rooms. The menus, like the coffee shop, will vary according to the time of the day, viz. different menu for lunch, dinner, brunch, afternoon tea and breakfast, etc, but the price may be usually higher for the cost of additional labour and equipments. In addition to the service in the rooms, the Room Service Department is also responsible for placement of F&B Amenities- fresh fruitThe ABC Of Hospitality 79
  • 82. 013-F & B SERVICE- OUTLETS basket, cookies & chocolate tray, dry fruits and nuts, soft bar & liquor bar for use by the guests in regular guest rooms or VIP rooms. Fast Food: The fast food catering is predominantly influenced by American lifestyle food products. The service of food & beverages in these outlets are at a faster pace than in an a la cart restaurant. The menu is compiled with special emphasis on the speed of preparation and service. To make the service financially effective it is essential to have a large turnover of customers. The investment is rather high due to deployment of specialized and expensive equipments and involvement of high labour cost. Cafeteria: The cafeteria is an outlet that is based on self-help counter service. The control and sales is maintained by cashier, who is stationed at the entrance of the premises, through sale of coupons and tokens against the dishes that the diners would require to purchase which are displayed on a menu board behind the cashier seat or at the end of the counter, after the customer has chosen his dishes the same is calculated by the cashier. The diners would choose the food and beverages that are displayed at the counter and are dispensed by the counter hands against the receipt of tokens /coupons. Segmented trays and cutleries are kept at the counter for the diners to help themselves. The clearance of the soiled dishes are done as per the house custom, i.e., clearance at some places are done by the diners themselves by stacking them at the wash-up or in some places the clearance is done by the staff. Food Halls & Food Court: These outlets have taken over the traditional cafeterias. The operation being similar, such catering establishment has a space which is segmented, each segment offering variety of dishes of a same commodity. Guests select the items and the service staffs are responsible for clearing the dinning hall area. Ice cream Parlour & Milk Bar: This outlet offers a variety of ice creams ranging from plain to sundaes. Flavoured milk shakes and cold milk are also a part of the menu. Such outlets are usually found near a hub of restaurants or in a dense market area. Snack Bar: The snack bar has developed from a humble coffee shop idea. It meets the modern demand for quick inexpensive service at a very affordable price. Speed of service with realization of revenue is the essence of the secret of a successful snack bar. The outlet may beThe ABC Of Hospitality 80
  • 83. 013-F & B SERVICE- OUTLETS located in a market, college or office complex, etc. Take- Away: This is a kind of food joint where the food is kept ready to serve. The diners are allowed to take away the food on payment of the price. The packaging and presentation of the food is very important in these outlets. Drive In: This is a kind of outlet where the person sitting in the car can choose and pick the item and then drive away after making the payment. Hone Delivery: It is the type of outlet where the food can be ordered as per the diners’ required timings and the same can be delivered at his desired place of delivery. Out Door Catering: This form of catering is very closely linked to catering in banquet halls by its characteristics that it too involves catering of a large number of people on the same menu. But unlike catering in banquet halls which are held in the halls only the outdoor catering venue is decided by the organizer/s. Therefore outdoor catering may be defined as catering to a large number of people at a venue of their choice. The invitees are catered as per menu selected by the organizers from a series of set menus at different levels of prices, each priced according to the food items provided. Hotels, restaurants and catering contractors meet these demands. Such catering is applicable in marriage, parties and conventions.Catering in Transport SectorsThe Railway CateringIntroduction &Its In the mid 19th century, the railways began its network in India with anNecessity, operation that was to grow the length and breadth of the vast sub- continent. With travel made easier, people journeyed from one part of the country to another. This subsequently gave rise to the need for the provision for food & drink en-route.The ABC Of Hospitality 81
  • 84. 013-F & B SERVICE- OUTLETSThe Early Forms At most of the larger stations, catering to big cities, refreshment roomsOf Operation were established. The trains would halt at appropriate length of time so that the passengers could obtain a simple meal. The passengers who could not afford to pay the prices of these refreshment rooms would buy food from the numerous vendors at the station platform. Railway companies, for most part of the country had one rest room for each region. They even went to extent of setting up hotels attached to the stations so that the passengers who are changing from one region to another could spent the night before or after in relative comfort. The luxury of sleeper cars and restaurant cars were much later developments.The Outsourcing In early years of 20th century, it was decided nationally to outsource theOf The Catering catering requirements to private companies and hotels with a soundFacility catering background so that the traveler could be more professionally served during the often long and arduous journey. In the event in 1910, the Spencers, who had a very large network all over India were the first to cater nationally on contract basis. The Spencers had about 180 refreshment rooms all over the country. The size of the restaurant, the staff, and the menu were restructured to meet the demand of the people passing through the particular area. Menus that were offered in these refreshment rooms were quite elaborate and reflected British taste rather than being local. Catering was considered as an amenity rather than being a business proposition. Spencers got almost all the raw materials supplied by various companies free of cost. After independence, Spencers was considered as a foreign company and therefore lost its contract.The Present The present railway catering is managed departmentally i.e., the IndianScenario Railways and also through licensed contractors. The catering facility is available at thousands of railway stations today. The in-transit catering is also carried out by the licensed contractors. With the 100 & 1000 traveling by train everyday throughout the country, the turnover is enormous. A few years back, ITDC (India Tourism Development Corporation) was appointed as consultant for improvement of railway catering. In the process a new type of service of meals developed where aluminum foil accessories were introduced in some major routes. The food is cooked in base kitchen near the major stations and kept in hot cases in pantry cars.The ABC Of Hospitality 82
  • 85. 013-F & B SERVICE- OUTLETS The railway also owns today Railway Hotels at Ranchi and Puri, and Yatri-Niwas at New Delhi and Howrah.The Airline CateringIntroduction Unlike any other transportation industry – railways or cruise liners, the air transport has to carry prepared food on board as there are no facilities available on board in any airlines for cooking. Most airlines plan & design flight catering establishments or kitchen to meet their own requirement. An aviation catering has become more sophisticated with the introduction of the vast Boeings and modern aircrafts with ample space where hot appetizing meals are served to passengers and hence it has become necessary to employ smart, efficient and highly skilled personnel- air hostess and flight pursers or such establishment.The Method of The catering in an aircraft is a part of the in-flight services. TheAirline Catering services rendered by the cabin crew on behalf of the airlines, includingOperation the service of food & beverage are called in-flight services. Depending upon the timing of flight and the class of the passengers the service comprises of service of meals and beverages as well. Special care is taken while planning of the meals as the passengers are often subject to jet lags. Therefore the food should not only be appetizing but also healthy as well. The meal is often classified as a) Breakfast: Being the first meal of the day. b) Brunch: Being a meal which served in the late hours of the morning and at the same time too early for lunch. c) Lunch: Being a meal served during noon. d) Dinner: Being a meal served in the late evening. e) Supper: Being a light meal taken very late at night. f) Minor Meals: Being Continental Breakfast, Snacks, Morning Refreshment & Afternoon Tea. g) Major Meals: Comprises of Breakfast, Lunch, Brunch, Dinner & Supper These meals are coded and the cabin crews have to decode it. Meal Code Breakfast HBR (Heavy Breakfast)/ CBR(Continental Breakfast) Lunch LCH Dinner DNR Snacks SNX (Snacks)/ HSNX(Hot Snacks)The ABC Of Hospitality 83
  • 86. 013-F & B SERVICE- OUTLETSThe Service of Since the meals cannot be cooked onboard, therefore, it becomesSpecial Meals necessary to know the number of passengers to be served on a certain flight. This also facilitate in ascertaining the special meal requirements of the passengers. As an airline caterer one must bear in mind that the people around the world may be ethnically or by religious prohibitions or by medical advice are bound by certain dos and don’ts while they partake food. The special meals (SPML) will be catered in the following procedure: 1) These special meals are supplied on request, which should be ordered through the airlines sales office 24 hours in advance prior to departure or while buying the air ticket. 2) This will be communicated to the cabin crew with the details pertaining to the passenger viz., name, special meals requested and sectors involved by the catering staff. 3) There will be no menu cards for special meals. 4) The special meals served will have “SPECIAL MEAL” stickers displayed on the tin foil cover of the meal. These stickers are heat resistant and do not get spoilt upon heating. 5) The cabin crew will identify the passenger/s through a list called Passenger Identification List (PIL) who had opted for special meal and inform them about the availability of the same 6) The SPML meals will be served according to normal service procedures and not prior to meal service. The Special Meals that are usually served on board comprises of the following: 1. Vegetarian Meal: These will comprise of any food items devoid of fish, meat or egg dishes. There can be two varieties a) Western vegetarian Meal b) Indian vegetarian Meal 2. Jain Meal: It’s a strict vegetarian meal with no root vegetables (e.g. onion, ginger, potatoes) too. 3. Muslim Meal: The Muslims are non-vegetarian but the animals that will be slaughtered should be halal, i.e., slaughtered according to Islamic rights. 4. Kosher Meals: The slaughter of animals and cooking of meats and animals according to the Jewish Kosher code which is supervised and certified by a Rabbi (Jewish Priest) is called Kosher. The Kosher meals are packed in trays with a symbol that signifies the meal to be Kosher. The Kosher meals do not permit the service of dairy products with meat dishes, shellfish is never permitted, and meals are to be stored separately on board. 5. Salt Free: For patients who has been advised by the doctor to have such diet- especially heart patients, & patients with high blood sugar or pressure. 6. Diabetic Meals: The type of food can be vegetarian & non-vegetarian as well. Diet would comprise of sugar-free low fat meat and non starchy vegetables. 7. Vegan: Vegetarians are those who do not eat any meat, fish or poultry. Vegans, in addition do not use or consume other animal products or bye- products such as eggs, diary products, honey etc. Their meal would include plenty of leafy greens, whole grain products, nuts, seeds and legumes.The ABC Of Hospitality 84
  • 87. 013-F & B SERVICE- OUTLETSThe service Food is prepared in the flight kitchen of the concerned passenger airlines, which is dispensed in individual compartmented container trays, which are rapidly cooled by subjecting them in near freezing cold air blast, covered with foils, labeled containing information such as vegetarian, non-vegetarian, flight number, date of flight, etc. and are put into deep freezers to be lifted in portable freezer units on the appointed date. The number of passengers in each flight and the class they are availing can be ascertained in advance and the meals can be prepared in an early date, accordingly. Nowadays a new concept of catering meals on board has emerged with certain airlines like the Emirates which are promoting live cooking of meals in front of the passengers in certain classes. This type of meals are being termed as Sky Chef, allowing the passengers in choosing their meals from the menu card whish is being in turn prepared in trolley in front of them.The History of In 1946 the private commercial air lines started and which raised theAirline Catering necessity to provide Food & Beverage Service requirements to theIn India passengers. Initially food was provided in boxes, repacked as majority of the airports lacked the facility of in-flight catering services. At that time catering in international flights depended on airport restaurants or hotels situated in nearby cities to cater to their requirements. Eventually the airlines industry was nationalized and two separate corporations were found, viz., Indian Airlines for domestic travel and Air India for international routes. The number of airlines increased giving rise in increase of number of flights and so also the number of people availing air-travel. This gave rise to the demand of catering to the passengers. In order to cope with the huge demand, a number of flight kitchens were opened by some leading chain hotels in many commercial cities. Air India opened a subsidiary company known as Hotel Corporation of India, (HCI), in view to operate flight kitchens known as Chefair.Present Scenario Nowadays with the development of technology, most of the airline meals after they have been prepared and dished in compartmented trays are blast frozen in blast freezer units to prevent the loss of flavour and as well as the action of bacteria. They are transported in portable freezer units until required. They are lifted in aircrafts as per requirement. Each aircraft is equipped with modern heating arrangement operated in microwave technology. Food required to be heated are served hot are heated in such equipments, loaded in trolley and are served to passengers. Depending upon the types of class the quality of service wares will vary. For First Class china ware is used whereas for the Economy Class the service wares are of plastic.The ABC Of Hospitality 85
  • 88. 013-F & B SERVICE- OUTLETSThe Catering in Shipping LinesIntroduction Catering on board ship is vastly different to shore catering. It may be appreciated that the conditions are entirely different. Provision for food and drink are to be procured before the ship sets for sail. The quantities to be purchased are to be worked out in advance to last for several days till the ship reaches the next port.The Staffing & Most of the lines appoint what is termed as a ‘catering superintendent’The Organisation or Superintendent Purser to be in-charge of all the catering afloat. HeSet-up has an assistant and an agent ashore who will represent him. This agent is known as Victualing Agent. The other chief members of staff aboard are the Purser, Chief Steward and the Head Chef. They all work together to ensure the smooth and efficient running of the catering services on board ship. The service of a large passenger ship may be compared to that of a first class hotel ashore and that on a cargo vessel to an industrial canteen operation. In the same way the Catering Superintendent may be compared to the Director of the hotel ashore; the Purser as the ‘Hotel Manager; the Chief Steward as the ‘Restaurant Manager;’ and the Chef as the overall charge of the kitchens.The Operation ofThe Services The type catering, i.e. the type of menus and the service will vary between passenger service, cargo vessels, and ships carrying mainly cargo and a small number of passengers. The competitions between the steam ships lie in two aspects – . The passenger liners vary in size from a tonnage of 1,500 up to 70 to 80, 000. The type of catering operations depends greatly on the following factors: . A stores department is responsible for purchase of raw materials and such a duty is distributed between two to three full time duty officers depending upon the size of the concerned passenger liner. The majority of the materials are taken from the home port, but it is also a practice to purchase materials at reasonable price from any port of call. All alcoholic beverages are purchased on bond from bonded warehouses at ports.The ABC Of Hospitality 86
  • 89. 013-F & B SERVICE- OUTLETS All stores taken on board are either placed in storerooms or cold rooms which are maintained by refrigeration machineries. The food materials stored in the latter must be kept at regulated temperature required for that perishable commodity to ensure that when it is required for use it is in perfect condition. Great care is taken on hygiene as this can create health hazard for both crews and passengers and regular inspections are carried on by the Purser who is the overall charge whilst the ship is afloat. The ocean going passenger liners are like floating hotels with great considerations being given to heating, lighting, ventilation, space allocation, equipment furnishing, and the general comfort of the passenger. Many amenities are provided like library, ball rooms, swimming pool, tennis courts, billiard rooms, laundries, shopping arcades, duty free shops, etc. The ocean going passenger liners are controlled from shore by the Catering Superintendent who issues instructions and directs from his office desk, deciding policies and issuing directives. The kitchen on board is known as galleys. The equipments are usually fuelled on electricity or oil. The menus offered are equivalents, if not better than, those found in first class establishment ashore. Highly skilled staffs are employed for this reason they are organized into recognized teams or groups who work together in groups. The food service areas have the restaurant managers, commis de rang, and wine butlers. The service made is full silver service and may have also carving trolley, sweet trolley, salad trolley, central cold buffets in use. Apart from the restaurants there may be also supplementary food service areas like smoke rooms, saloons, lounges, and private cabins. The alcoholic beverages that are dispensed from the bars are issued from bonded warehouses whose keys are maintained by both the Customs and Excise Officer and also by the Victualising Agent. Outside ‘3 mile’ limit alcoholic beverages are sold at duty free prices. The cost the passenger pays for food on board ship is generally inclusive with the fare, and according to ‘class’ an allowance per head per day is made for catering purposes. All beverages and other purchases are paid at the time of ‘sale.’ The service is generally given by the male waiters though waitresses are also being appointed. The celebrations of passengers’ birthdays orThe ABC Of Hospitality 87
  • 90. 013-F & B SERVICE- OUTLETS anniversaries are planned with great thoughts and in details. This is return pays for the goodwill of the shipping liner and is a means of advertising of the shipping liners attracting more and more passengers or passages abroad.Conclusion From the above one can easily make out that the ship catering demands equal importance and commands same quality and initiative, Organisation and administration, to control staff from Catering Superintendent, Purser, Chief Steward, the Chef from their equals in a first class restaurants. There are obviously great differences between large ocean liners and those small passenger liners that travel short distances and with limited number of passengers that can be compared with a first class establishment to an industrial catering organisation. But whatever may be the size of the liner or the ship, the objective of the ship catering is to provide every facility possible and everything that would create efficient service for the passenger.The ABC Of Hospitality 88
  • 91. 014- F & B SERVICE -ORGANISATION & ITS HIERARCHYIntroduction The organisation structure of the Food & Beverage Department may vary according to the size and number of the outlets. In large organisations there will exist different levels, whereas smaller operations may combine a number of these operations through a limited personnel set-up. Again different terminologies may be used in different organisation meaning the same responsibilities but with other designation.The hierarchy of a moderately sized restaurant is as under: French American English Directeur du Restaurant Restaurant Manager Restaurant Manager Maitre d’hotel du Senior Captain, Reception Reception Head Waiter Reception Maitre d’hotel Senior Captain Head Waiter Maitre d’hotel de Carre Senior Captain, Station Station Head Waiter Chef de Rang Captain Station Waiter Demi Chef de Rang Assistant Captain Waiter Commis De brasseur Assistant Waiter/Busboy Assistant Waiter Apprentis Apprentice TraineeThe responsibilities of the various personnel are as under:The F&B Manager This person is responsible for overall F&B Department, both Food Production and the Service of Food and Beverage through various outlets. Depending on the size of the outlet the F&B Manager is responsible for the implementation of the agreed policies formulated by the Corporate Office or directly setting catering standards and policy in the establishment he is located. He ensures the profit margin of the outlet and is responsible of employing, training, and retrenchment of staff under his department. He is being conferred with the responsibility of compiling food menus and wine list in consultation with the Chef and the Bar Manager respectively. He plays and active role in purchasing of materials for his department. He ensures proper portion size and maintenance of service standards in all his outlets. He may be supported by a secretary cum typist.The ABC Of Hospitality 89
  • 92. 014- F & B SERVICE -ORGANISATION & ITS HIERARCHYThe Restaurant The Restaurant Manager reports to the F&B Manager and isManager responsible to direct and coordinate the activities of is outlet so that it gives maximum return to the F&B department. He is responsible for maintenance of the prescribed standard of service of food and beverages in his outlet. In doing so he is responsible for recommendations and appraisals of his staff working in his outlet and also recommends for training needs to the F&B Manager. He is also responsible for staffing and compiling of duty rota and holiday list, and hours on and off duty of his staff so that they in turn coordinate and run the outlet efficiently and smoothly. He would report to the F&B Manager regarding the sale proceeds in his outlet, the customer turnover per day, the movement of the dishes etc.The Reception Head The Reception Head Waiter being stationed at the entrance of theWaiter restaurant or outlet is primarily responsible for receiving and welcoming of guests. This job is generally conferred upon a lady for their perpetual pleasantness they carry. She is also responsible for accepting and noting bookings made by diner guests who prefer to ensure the availability of a suitable/the preferred table by booking in advance. At times she may also have to take the order for the food and beverage to be served to the guests, while taking the bookings, who prefer to have everything ordered and done when they would finally arrive. She also has to maintain certain figures like number of covers sold, total restaurant sales, etc. If the service personnel at the station are busy, she at that time has to seat the guests and offer them water and present menu cards. She looks after the Restaurant function on the day of the Head waiter’s day off .She is also responsible for looking after the Lounge (waiting area) where her Reception Counter is usually stationed.The Head Waiter The Head Waiter is the overall in-charge of the staff team and is responsible for seeing all the duties necessary for the preparation of the restaurant prior to actual service are efficiently carried out and that nothing is forgotten. Prior to the beginning of service he would give a briefing to all his subordinates regarding the menu and as to what is to be done during the service. The Head Waiter will aid the Reception Head Waiter during the service and will probably take some orders if the Station head Waiter is busy. He will help the Restaurant Manager with compilation of the duty rotas and would also relieve the Restaurant Manager and the Reception Head Waiter during their off days.The Station Head A Station is a section in the restaurant comprising of set number ofWaiter tables ranging from four to eight in numbers. A restaurant, depending on its size, is divided into a number of such sections termed as stations. Each station is aided with a side board (dummy waiter),The ABC Of Hospitality 90
  • 93. 014- F & B SERVICE -ORGANISATION & ITS HIERARCHY which aids in service. The Station Head Waiter is the overall in-charge of the team of staff, comprising of Station Waiters, Waiters or Servers and Apprentices, working under his station. He must have a sound knowledge on food and wine and its correct service and must have a good command over his staff. He/ she would usually take the order (usually from the host) and carry out all the services at the table with the help of Chef de Rang who works in the same Station.The Station Waiter The Station Head Waiter who works in the same Station of the concerned Station Head Waiter must be able to carry out the same work as his superior. But in smaller capacities for having less experience than the Station Head Waiter. He relieves the Station Head Waiter on his off days and holidays. Both the Station Head Waiter and the Station Waiter must work in conjunction as a team to provide an efficient and speedy service.The Waiter The Waiter acts by the instruction of Chef de Rang. He or she mainly fetches and carries food in platters from the kitchen hot plate and may do a little service of either vegetables or sauces, offer bread rolls, places plates in the tables, etc. They help in clearance of tables after each course. During the preparation period of the restaurant some cleaning and preparatory tasks will be given to the Commis de Rang for satisfactory performance.Assistant Waiter Engaged mainly in clearance and takes part in restaurant some cleaning and preparatory tasks with the waiter during the preparation period.Trainee/Commis The Trainee Commis is a ‘learner,’ who has just joined the organisation with the intention to take up food service as a career. Other staffs in a Restaurant Service OperationWine Butler, Wine The Sommelier is responsible for service of all alcoholic beveragesWaiter, Sommelier during the service of meals. Therefore this person must have a thorough knowledge of all drinks to be served, its service, and knowledge of wines that can go best with certain foods and the licensing laws in respect of the particular establishment that regulates the service of alcoholic beverage in that particular area. He must be a competent sales person as with his knowledge he can recommend the best beverages available to the guest.The ABC Of Hospitality 91
  • 94. 014- F & B SERVICE -ORGANISATION & ITS HIERARCHYCarver /Trancheur The carver or trancheur is responsible for serving carved meat joints to the guests. He is generally aided with a trolley from where he works. Large cooked meat joints are displayed on the carving trolley which is wheeled in front of the guest. The carver presents the meat joints from where the guests make their selection after which he carves out the meat portion from the joints.Buffet Assistant/, The Chef de Buffet is in-charge of the buffet in the room. The staffBuffet Chef/ member is normally from the kitchen brigade. He is responsible forChef de Buffet a) Presentation and portioning of food. b) Regular replenishment of the dishes on the buffet display. c) Portioning of the food on the buffet.Cashier/ The cashier is responsible for making out checks for concerned table,Cassier and ensuring proper payments made by the guests against the services given.The ABC Of Hospitality 92
  • 95. 015- F & B SERVICE -INTERTDEPARTMENTAL RELATIONSHIPIntroduction As seen in Front Office, the communication with the F&B Service Department with other departments of the hotel is too important. The F&B Service Department would communicate with the following departments as mentioned hereunder in following respects:Intra a) Transfer of order from one outlet to another.communication b) Various activities concerning the hotel, the F&B department and its outlets. c) The bar is an outlet under the F&B service department. Customers bar beverage orders areKitchen a) Knowing what is available in which section of the kitchen b) Ordering of food items for preparation after receiving the food order from the customer c) To find out which dishes have gone off board d) To find out the specialities of the dayKitchen Stewarding a) Appraising the section regarding the forthcoming activities in theArea outlet and therefore the requirement of various catering equipments. b) Receiving the crockery, cutlery and glassware issued by the Stewarding department. c) The reports on breakages of crockery and glassware and loss of cutlery.Housekeeping a) Annual purchase requisition of various restaurants’ linen and staff uniforms. b) Cleanliness and maintenance of aesthetic standards of the outlets. c) Flower arrangements in various sections of the outlet and bud vases set on the table. d) Issue of restaurant linen and staff uniforms. e) For room service i) Clearance of trays ii) Replenishing mini bars and food amenities in the rooms. iii) VIP and Group requirements.Engineering a) Maintenance of various service and other ancillary equipments such as plate warmer, air-conditioners, room heaters, lighting, plumbing ( in the bar counter), etc.The ABC Of Hospitality 93
  • 96. 015- F & B SERVICE -INTERTDEPARTMENTAL RELATIONSHIPCashier The cashier is a person who is deputed form the accounts department to work in the F&B outlets. The communication with this department will be in respect to: a) Forwarding the KOTs for preparation of customer checks. b) Tendering the payments made by the customers and returning the change to the customer received thereof from the customer. c) Receiving various reports regarding the daily performance of the outlet with respects to revenue earned, turnover per table, number of covers sold, etc.Accounts & Control a) Issue or KOT and BOT upon receipt of authorised documents. b) Appraising the outlet turnover with respect to the sales made as per KOTs and BOTs tallying with the cashier’s bills and if there be any discrepancies, make queries with the concerned outlets. c) Appraising the outlets with guests on city ledger accounts. d) Conducting daily and periodic audit of the financial performance of each outlets.Front Office a) The occupancy of the hotel so that the F&B department is ready with its resources- manpower, catering equipments, finished food products, raw materials, etc. b) Arrival –departure of groups and VIPs, so that the special and extra services like welcome drink, dessert and miscellaneous services pertaining to such guests can be given in the rooms like in case of VIPs special drinks liked by them or withdrawal of mini bar service from the rooms occupied by the groups. c) Arrival departure notification of guests staying in rooms. d) The processing of signed food and beverage restaurant and bar checks of the guests staying in rooms. e) Appraisal of customer requirement and satisfaction, meal experiences, etc. in the outlets through the GRE.Stores & Purchase a) Purchase requisition of various catering and food service equipments. b) Requisitioning various restaurant supplies - proprietary sauces, order pads, pencils, bottle openers, toothpicks, drinking straws, candles, etc.Security & a) Maintenance of security of the guests and hotel’s property andVigilance assets. b) Preventing any unwanted incidents from occurring in the hotel.Sales & Marketing a) Appraising various programmes and trade shows to take place in the outlets. b) Working out various packages for increasing the F&B sales of the outlets.The ABC Of Hospitality 94
  • 97. 015- F & B SERVICE -INTERTDEPARTMENTAL RELATIONSHIPPersonnel & HR a) Promotion and salary increments of the staff. b) Organising various training programmes. c) Working out the manpower requirement in consultation with the F&B Manager.The ABC Of Hospitality 95
  • 98. 016-F & B SERVICE -THE ANCILLARY SECTIONSIntroduction There are certain activities which normally do not take in the outlet but nevertheless they are required to be performed in order to give good service in the front area. These services that are performed at the back of house are required to be well organized, efficiently run and supervised and stocked with appropriate equipments depending on the style of operation. It is necessary for all these factors to come together like a well oiled machine to determine overall a successful back-up to the food and beverage operation. These sections are termed as ancillary sections The ancillary areas are between the kitchen and the food service areas, acting as the link between the kitchen or the food preparation unit and the restaurant or the food service unit and the meeting point for the staff of various departments as they carry out their duties. There must be a close liaison between these various members of the staffs and the department under whose jurisdiction they come. In general, especially in large hotels five main service areas can be distinguished. They are – 1) Pantry or still room, 2) Kitchen Stewarding comprising of (a) wash up and (b) silver room & plate room, 3)Food Pick-up Area, 4) Linen room and 5) StoreStill room/ Pantry: Its main function is to provide items of food and beverage required for the service of the meal and not catered by the other departments of the hotel like main kitchen, larder, pastry, etc. The section is headed by a pantry supervisor. The following are the most important equipments needed in the pantry:- a) Refrigerator b) Large double sink c) Salamander d) Hot water still. e) Coffee making machine. f) Hot cupboard g) Working table & cutting board h) Double gas range. The items normally dispensed by the pantry are Beverages – hot or cold like tea, coffee, milk, hot chocolate,The ABC Of Hospitality 96
  • 99. 016-F & B SERVICE -THE ANCILLARY SECTIONS Fresh and canned fruit juices Various types of sandwiches Bread and bread rolls Assorted breakfast cereals- cornflakes, porridge, oatmeal Boiled eggs Fruits, etc.Kitchen Stewarding The Kitchen Stewarding department is basically divided into two segments, i.e., a) Wash up Area b) Silver Room a) The Wash up Area: The Wash up area is the most important service area and must be cited correctly so that the brigade can work speedily and efficiently when passing from the food service area to the kitchens. The layout and positioning of the area should be at strategic point so that it can be easily reachable with least leg work. The waiter would move from the food service outlet after clearance of the soiled plates, cutleries, entrée dishes and stack them in definite part of the dirty collection table and then move to the kitchen hot plate to collect the next order. The plates should be correctly sized with the table wares on a plate with the blade of knives running under the arches of the forks. All glassware is to be stacked on a separate tray and carried at a separate point to be washed separately to minimise breakage. The wash up is carried out mainly in two methods: 1) Manual Washing Method 2) Machine Washing Method b) The Silver Room & The Plate Room: The Silver and the Plate Room is the store room for all the clean earthenware and metal tableware. In small hotel this room is combined with the wash up. The room is equipped with cupboards and shelves. The shelves and the cupboards are so designed so as the larger silver items like flats, platters and entrée dishes are stored on the shelves while earthen ware articles are stored in the cupboard. While stacking the heavier items should go at the lower shelves while the lighter items are stored higher up. Smaller items such as ashtrays, menu card holders, table numbers, cruet set, butter dishes are best stored in drawers lined with green baize. An adequate stock of all the tableware, earthenware and glassware for service together with aThe ABC Of Hospitality 97
  • 100. 016-F & B SERVICE -THE ANCILLARY SECTIONS slight surplus stock to handle emergency situations is maintained. The inventory of all the articles is regularly taken and tallied with the book stock.Food Pick up Area This may be regarded as the meeting point between the food service staff and food preparation staff. It is most essential that for an effective operation and maximum output there should be an active participation, co operation and good relationship among the staffs of these two areas. The Aboyeur or the barker is the in-charge of this area who calls up the order to respective sections of the kitchen and is responsible for receiving them from the respective kitchens and hand them over to the concerned waiters with respect to different tables. And thus control the food pick up over the service period. The aboyeur also controls the off board which tells the waiter immediately if any dish has gone off. The off board should be placed in a prominent position for all to see. The silver required for service is often placed in shelves constructed on top of the hot plate and used as required.Linen Room It keeps a stock of various linen, e.g., Table Cloth, Napkins, Baize, Slip Cloth, etc., used in the food service outlets. Fresh linen are picked up by the restaurant staff in exchange of soiled linen. Generally it is done once in a day, but it may be more than once in case of Coffee Shop. A Linen Register is maintained to record the daily transactions. THE LINEN REGISTER Item …Table Cloth ………………… Date Opening Soiled Total Received Balance Initial Balance send Fresh with the of the with the on date Laundry Laundry Laundry Clerk 10/3 68 12 70 65 5 DJ 11/3 5Store Store Room is the area from where the F&B Service staff requisite and pick up various items like grocery – salt, pepper, mustard, bottled items like ketchup and various bottled sauces - Tabasco for the table and stationeries like scribbling pad, paper napkins, etc., which are required for smooth running of day to day operation. In large hotels there can be separate stores for perishables, dry goods, stationery, etc., for storing various items.The ABC Of Hospitality 98
  • 102. 018-F & B SERVICE- SERVICE EQUIPMENTSIntroduction For carrying out the service operation certain equipments are required to be used by the F&B Service Departments. Depending upon the nature of operation an F&B outlet may require all or a part of the above equipments. While planning the requirement of the equipments a F&B operator must consider the following facts: a) Standard of the restaurant. b) Type of menu offered. c) Type of service provided d) Décor and theme of the restaurant. e) Type of clientele visiting the establishment. f) Durability of the equipment. g) Ease of maintenance. h) Availability in the market after stock finishes. i) Storage advantage and space necessary. j) Flexibility of use. k) Price of the equipment. l) Standardization.The Classification of The Food & Beverage equipments consists of the followingEquipments categories i) Restaurant Furniture ii) Restaurant Linen iii) Electrical equipments iv) Disposables v) The Tableware: A Cutlery a) Flatware b) Hollowware c) Specialised Equipments B Crockery C Glassware The above categories are discussed below:i) Restaurant Furniture The restaurant furniture consist of a) Tables They may be A Square 1. for two persons – standard size 30”x30” 2. for four persons – standard size 3’x3’ B Rectangular 1. for 4 persons – standard size 4’6” x 2’6” C Round 1. for 3 /4 persons – standard size 3’diameterHOSPITALITY- STUDY NOTES 100 DDG
  • 103. 018-F & B SERVICE- SERVICE EQUIPMENTS 2. for 8 persons - 5’diameter D Banquet Table They are rectangular in shape. The sizes being 1. 6’ or 3’ or 5’ in length x 2.5’ in breadth E Buffet Table They are rectangular in shape. The sizes being 1. 6’ or 8’ or 12’ in length x 3’ in breadth The height of all tables are 30“ from the floor. One unique feature is, a restaurant may have a mixture of all the above shapes and sizes. This arrangement 1. Promotes seating of all sizes of group of persons coming to dine. 2. Breaks the monotony of sight. 3. The tables can be joined together to seat largest group of people. However this standard height and size may not be maintained in resto-lounge where the set up consist of low coffee tables and sofas. b) Chairs (Below)Dimensions of a The shape of the chair and the extent of comfort it would give Dinning Hall largely depend upon the type of operation the outlet does. In a Chair coffee shop where the speed of service in considered as an important factor the chairs need not be very comfortable, whereas in a Fine Dinning Restaurant, where people go for a life time experience, the comfort and spaciousness in seating is always provided and again in a popular catering restaurant which expects a high turnover with moderately prices menus 18” 18” would not have a spacious seating arrangement. 18” The general dimensions of a chair is The height from the floor to the seat is 18” The backrest from the seat to the top is 18” The minimum dimension of a seat is” length 18”x breadth 18” in front progressively decreasing to 16” at the rear. c) Side board The side board aids in service and therefore also known as They “dummy waiters”. It is the base from where the waiter works in the restaurant, and should, therefore, carry all the equipments necessary for use during the course of the meal. It is customary that each station should be aided by a sideboard. The style and design of the sideboard may vary from establishment to establishment.HOSPITALITY- STUDY NOTES 101 DDG
  • 104. 018-F & B SERVICE- SERVICE EQUIPMENTS It depends upon: 1) The style of service and the menu offered. 2) The number of waiters or waitresses working from a sideboard. 3) The number of tables to be served from a sideboard. 4) The amount of equipment expected to be held.ii) Restaurant Linen They comprise of various table cloths, napkins, doilies, and slip cloths etc. The dimensions are: Item Size of the Tables Size of the Tablecloths 2’6” Square Table 54” x 54” Tablecloths 3’ Square Table 72” x 72” Rectangular 72” x 54” Table (54”x 30”) Rectangular 72’ x 96’ Table (54”x 60”) Buffet Table 6’ x 12’ Cloth Slip cloths Used to cover the 36” x 36” stained portions of the table cloths due to spilled gravies and food during service Serviettes Square 18” x 18” Doilies Decorative disposable cloths, used upon under liners or such things to prevent slippage. It also acts as a absorbent when specially placed under chilled / frosted glassware and other service equipments. They come in various sizes.HOSPITALITY- STUDY NOTES 102 DDG
  • 105. 018-F & B SERVICE- SERVICE EQUIPMENTS Baize cloth The top of the tables and the drawers of the sideboards are lined with a fur type of cloth which is known as “baize.” This cloth has many purposes. It is usually placed over the tables upon which the table cloth is laid. A This allows the table cloth to hang freely. B It prevents the rattling noise of the cutlery when they are placed on the table. C The cutlery itself is prevented from getting damaged. D Moreover it protects the wrist of the guest from getting hurt by the sharp edge of the table.iii) Electrical Equipments They comprise of :- A Plate Warmer. B Air conditioners / Room Heaters / Exhausts / Fans. C Hot Plate. D Lighting Arrangements. There is a recent trend is saving electricity and thereby becoming environmentally friendly. Whenever such equipments are put to use the power consumption and power wastage is taken a great care.iv) Disposables This type of tableware can be used for outdoor catering. It is usually made out of paper or plastic or clay. They include (a) Napkins (b) Placemats and Coasters (c) Banqueting Roll (d) Knives, Forks & Spoons (e) Cups Glasses & Plates. The advantages are: (a) Reduces the need for washing up equipment, staff and materials. (b) Usage reduces capital investment through purchase of various crockery and cutlery. (c) It cuts down high cost of laundering (d) Improves standard of hygiene and hence increases customer acceptability. (e) The breakage cost is minimized. (f) It reduces the required storage space (g) It brings change is cooking technology e.g. cook/chill or cook/freeze and microwave cooking technology. (h) Easy transportation. (i) It plays a major role in development of fast food catering and speedsHOSPITALITY- STUDY NOTES 103 DDG
  • 106. 018-F & B SERVICE- SERVICE EQUIPMENTS up service and therefore time saving. (j) Acts as sales promotion aid. The disadvantages are: (a) Acceptability by the consumers may be poor. (b) Disposables can be sometimes more expensive than conventional equipments. (c) Demands storage as back-up quantity is always necessary. (d) The caterer has to greatly rely upon the supply and the delivery time. (e) If not of food grade quality then it can turn out to be unsafe. (f) The material used must be environment friendly, other wise dispose of such used wares can lead to environment pollution.v) The Tableware The equipments that are used on the table for a diner to have his meal is termed as “tableware.” They comprise of Cutlery a) Flatware b) Hollowware c) Specialised Equipments Crockery Glassware Cutlery: These are the equipments that are used for service and partaking food to/by the guest. They include: a) Flatware: These are items like spoons, knives, and forks. b) Hollowware: They include various items from which the food is served- water jugs, teapots, etc. c) Specialised They are equipments that are required for Equipments: service of specialized items Crockery: These items comprise of earthenware/chinaware items such as various types of plates. When hollowware like tea pot or serving dish is made of china they are also fall in the category of crockery. Glassware: These are glasses that are used for service of alcoholic and non alcoholic beverages. E.g. – water tumbler, red wine glass, decanter, etc.HOSPITALITY- STUDY NOTES 104 DDG
  • 114. 019- F & B SERVICE -THE MENU & ITS COURSESDefinition The menu or ‘bill of fare,” as it is popularly known, is a list of food and beverage that can be served by an establishment to a guest at a price.The History The word ‘Menu,’ probably dates back to a story about a person of nobility, the Duke of Brunswick, in 1541, who while attending a banquet, was found referring to a long list. Upon being asked he said he is referring to the list of items that are being served and he is accordingly reserving his appetite for the forthcoming dishes. One of the ladies was curious enough to ask “May I know what the Duke is referring to?” and it is believed that from this phrase the word Menu came for if we condense “May I Know” it sounds as “Menu”.The Functions of The Menu in a food service outlet serves a manifold purpose:Menu A Menu form customers’ viewpoint it serves him as a a) Tool to know what dishes are being available b) To choose dishes according to his budget. Form the point of view of service staff it helps them to a) Make the inventory of the catering equipments. b) Decide upon the type of service required. c) To deduce the number and skill of service staff that would be necessary d) Make the mise-en-place of the restaurant by laying the specific crockery and cutleries required as per the dishes that are being served. e) Take the order of the dishes. f) Pick up and serve dishes in accordance to the order given and according to the sequence of the menu structure. g) To present correct check to the guest. Considering from the viewpoint of production staff and the chef it helps as a guide to a) Deduce the requirement of production staff and their individual skill accordingly. b) Helps to deduce the type of production equipments required. c) To order raw materials. d) To prepare the dishes. The management by the menu comes to a) Analyse the cost and evaluate the utility of the dish. b) Predict trends and to plan the future course of action for the outlet. c) Know the recovery in terms of currency from each dish through the cashier who in turn can make the bill correctly.The ABC Of Hospitality 112
  • 115. 019- F & B SERVICE -THE MENU & ITS COURSESPoints to be a) Type of Establishmentconsidered while b) Type of CustomerPlanning a Menu c) Religious Rules d) Average spending capacity e) The Price Range f) Time of the Year – namely :- The Climatic Condition, Seasonal Foods, Festival Dishes g) Time of the Day h) Supplies i) Type of Production Area j) Type of Food Service Area k) Providing a Balanced Meal with respect to colour, texture, methods of preparation, sequencing the menu in proper order, i.e., from light to heavy and then back to light. l) Language & Menu Presentation which includes omission of spelling errors, proper descriptions, adhering to same language when written Types of MenusIntroduction Menus can be broadly divided into two: 1) A la carte literally meaning “from the card” 2) Table d’hote meaning “table of the host” A la carte MenuDefinition The A la Carte menu means a multiple choice menu each dish being separately priced.Applicability 1st Class Restaurants, Multi Cuisine Outlets, Various restaurants. Table d’hote MenuDefinition The Table d’hote menu is the one which has fixed number of courses and the price is on the entire menu or any specified number or courses on the offer.Applicability Coffee Shops, Fast Food Joints. Resort Hotels and establishments running on Modified American Plan or American plan, etc.The ABC Of Hospitality 113
  • 116. 019- F & B SERVICE -THE MENU & ITS COURSESThere are also other forms of menu which are discussed below Plat du Jour MenusDefinition These are certain dishes that are displayed or advertised with a& purpose of selling certain dishes as specialty. Literally means “PlateCharacteristics of the Day.” The most notable characteristic these menus will have are: 1) These dishes normally comprises of the main course. 2) They may combine with a la carte or table d’hote menus already in vogue in the restaurant. 3) These dishes will not be found on the main menu. 4) The dishes will be individually priced. 5) They may have a heading like “Our Chef Recommends”. “Today’s Specialty”, “From Our Chef’s Table” etc.Applicability Various restaurants offering specialties of the day and especially the ethnic menus. Carte du Jour MenusDefinition The Carte du Jour menu literary means the card of the day. These& menus are written everyday, one for lunch, and one for dinner. TheyCharacteristics. are a complete meal and may have choice. This form of menus may combine with an a la carte, table d’hote or plat du jour menus. The dishes are priced individually.Applicability Coffee Shops, Fast Food Joints, Resort Hotels & Motels. Etc. Cyclic MenusDefinition These menus come back after a particular time, like on a certain day& of the week, or in a particular month, or a fixed time of the year.CharacteristicsApplicability These menus are normally found in industrial canteens, prisons or hospitals. One important consideration a caterer must have is to provide variety in the dishes prepared, since the basic ingredient is the same.The ABC Of Hospitality 114
  • 117. 019- F & B SERVICE -THE MENU & ITS COURSES Set MenusDefinition By “Set Menu,” it means that the menu is fixed in relation to number& of items, within certain limitations, at a given price. This is usuallyCharacteristics. made where there is mass catering on a pre-decided menu. The choice of items are offered by the establishment with the choice of dishes are that can be served. The dishes are decided in advance by the organizers and the menu is served by the establishment to a group of persons accordingly. The control is not kept on portioning the quantity of each dishes, but on number of plates served.Applicability In out door catering, banquet services, parties and buffets. The Courses of French Classical MenuIntroduction The French classical menu is divided into number of courses. It is a tool that aids in service of dishes in correct sequence and also gives a guideline to planning of a balanced menu in terms of nutritional value, methods of cooking applied, the basics ingredients used, the type of food – hot or cold and sweet or salty etc. There are twelve courses in the menu that forms that basis of continental cuisine. Each course has a typical identity of its own that determines its position in the menu itself. The names of the courses according to their sequence, their importance and some examples of the dishes in that particular course are given below.The ABC Of Hospitality 115
  • 118. 019- F & B SERVICE -THE MENU & ITS COURSES The Name of the Course Description Examples of DishesFrench Name English NameHors d’oeuvre Appetiser The dishes in this course Russian Salad, Tomato comprise of salty and tangy in salad, Potato Salad, nature and by which they Beetroot, Anchovies, stimulate our appetite and Fish Mayonnaise, Egg hence they are called Mayonnaise, Melon, appetisers. Hors d’oeuvre may Oysters, Caviar, also cover items which are Smoked Trout or served before the soup which Smoked Salmon, Fruit are also called as hors d’oeuvre and Shellfish Cocktail, substitute.Potage Soup It is extract of meat fish, Consommé : vegetables or fruits or Consommé Julienne combination of both. Consommé Clair Thick Soups: Cream of Tomato Cream of ChickenPoisson Fish A Fish Course is always Vetki Meunier, included in a dinner or a Fillet of Haddock banquet menu. Steak, Poached Salmon, Fish is a soft fibred and tender Fillet of Sole Orly, meat which is easily digested Fried fillet of Sole in and helps to prepare appetite English style for the heavier courses to come.Entrée Entrance Literally it means entrance to Tournedos Béarnaise, the main course. In other words Sweet Breads, Pastas, it is the first meat course on the Lancashire Hotpot, French classical menu. Mutton Chop with However, they also include Potato Covering, various types of omelets and Chicken Cutlet, hot egg dishes, farinaceous Cottage Pie, Scotch dishes, canapés, cutlets, Egg with Reformé casseroles and stews. They are Sauce well garnished dishes which come from kitchen ready for service.The ABC Of Hospitality 116
  • 119. 019- F & B SERVICE -THE MENU & ITS COURSES The Name of the Course Description Examples of DishesFrench Name English NameRelevé Remove This is considered as the main Roast leg of Lamb, course on the French classical Boiled salted Beef, menu. They are normally large Roast Beef, Grilled meat joints which involve or Fried Pork carving. These joints comprises Chops, Roast of butchers meat which are Mutton either poêléd or roasted. These dishes are always served with accompaniments, roast gravy and sauces which include green and root vegetables, various types of forcemeat stuffing, savoury puddings and sauces.Sorbet Rest This is the rest between the Sorbet Alexandra, courses in order to prepare their Sorbet A La appetite for further courses. In Sicilienne, other words the sorbet Granite, counteracts the richness of the Marquise, dishes already consumed and Spoom, stimulates the appetite for further Sorbet A dishes to come. Normally 10 to L’Américaine 15 minutes is allowed between the courses as a rest period. In this course iced water with a few drops of Champagne is normally served though variation of the beverage with various other alcoholic and non alcoholic beverages are also entertained; At this stage of the meal, establishments where smoking is allowed Russian cigars and cigarettes are also served.Roti Roast Roast Course always consist of Roast Chicken, dishes made from feathered Roast turkey, roast animals or furred or feathered duck, Roast games. Each dish is Pheasant, Roast accompanied with particular Goose, Quail, etc. sauce, gravy, & salad.The ABC Of Hospitality 117
  • 120. 019- F & B SERVICE -THE MENU & ITS COURSES The Name of the Course Description Examples of DishesFrench Name English NameLegumes Vegetables The vegetables can be served Asparagus Hot, with the main course or can Corn on the Cob, exist as a separate course. At Artichokes Hot, this stage of the meal the served with balance of the courses is Hollandaise sauce gradually returning from or Beurre Fondue heavy to light. We now have (melted butter) a hot vegetable dish served with its accompanying sauce.Entremet de Sweets This is the sweet course. Peach Melba,Sucre Coffee Mousse,Or also known The course comprises of hot Rum Omelet,as and cold puddings, cold Caramel Custard,Entremets soufflés, ice creams, Gateau, Baked Alaska, Flans, crepes, etc. Bread & Butter Pudding, Apple Pie, Cassata Ice-cream, etc.Savoureux Savoury This course consist of salty tit Savoury tit-bits: –bits that cuts the taste of the Assorted Canapés, sweetness in the sweet course Angel on the and prepares the palette for Horseback (Poached the forthcoming dessert oysters wrapped in course which is also sweet. streaky bacon and then grilled in This course also includes an skewers), Tuna on array of cheese being Toasts, Sardine on presented to the diners for Toast, Mushroom their personal selection from on Toast, etc. a cheese tray or a cheese trolley. Cheese: Edam, Parmesan, Gruyere, Gouda, Danish Blue, White Wensleydale, Gorgonzola, etc.The ABC Of Hospitality 118
  • 121. 019- F & B SERVICE -THE MENU & ITS COURSES The Name of the Course Description Examples of DishesFrench Name English NameDessert Dessert This is the fruit course Fresh Fruits: comprising of fresh and dry Apple, pineapple, fruits. banana, strawberry, raspberry, mango, litchi, pears, grapes. Dry Fruits: Cashew nut, raisins, pistachio, almond, walnut, coconut.Café Coffee This is not regarded as a Any preparations of course but any service of black coffee. meals winds up normally with the service of coffee, with which liqueurs and other after dinner drinks are also served.The ABC Of Hospitality 119
  • 122. 020- F & B SERVICE -THE SETTING OF A DINNING HALLIntroduction Prior to the service starts in an outlet, it is essential that the outlet be set up properly so that the service staff with minimum movement can give maximum result. This setting up of the food service area is divided into two phases- namely a Mise-en-scene b Mise-en-place.Mise-en-scene The word Mise-en-Scene refers to the setting up of the atmosphere of the restaurant. The job involves a series of action which are denoted hereunder: a) Airing the dinning room by opening all the doors and the windows to allow the fresh air to come in. b) Checking all the electrical gadgets, viz. the plate warmer, the table lights and wall lights are functioning, air-conditioners and room heaters are in working condition. c) Checking the housekeeping of the restaurant by adhering to the objective of the housekeeping, i.e., providing clean, safe, hygienic environment and maintaining the aesthetic standard of the establishment. Especially the carpet is brushed, the curtains have no stains, the floral arrangement on the tables bear fresh look, the walls and fixtures and fittings clean and free of cobwebs, any decorative pieces are spotlessly clean, etc. d) Closing all the doors windows. e) Spraying room freshener but at the same time taking care that it does not interfere in any way with the natural aroma of the dishes that are going to be served. f) Switching on the room heater or air-conditioner if the restaurant is not centrally air-conditioned or heated. In the latter case the vents are to be opened to allow the desired cool/hot air to enter. g) Ensuring the chairs and tables are serviceable.Mise-en-place The word Mise-en-Place literally when translated into English means ‘putting things in place’. The ABC Of Hospitality 120
  • 123. 020- F & B SERVICE -THE SETTING OF A DINNING HALL Restaurant mise-en-place is putting all the tableware, glassware, chinaware, hollowware, and assembling all necessary equipments and restaurant stationary in proper place, and thereby arranging the restaurant for an unhindered service. It includes: a) Briefing by maître d’hotel before service. b) Knowing (i) the days menu if the establishment runs on a table d’hôte menu, (ii) the specialties of the day, (iii) the dishes that have gone off-board, etc. c) Checking the restaurant booking diary and knowing which tables are booked, their number of covers per table booked and also the menu if already been decided. d) Placing of tables and chairs in their proper place. e) Replenishing the dinning area with all the necessary equipments from the scullery. f) Polishing of all tableware that will be required for service. g) Procurement of all necessary items – stationeries, proprietary sauces and ketchups from the store. h) Sending used linen to and procuring clean and ironed linen from the laundry. i) Order for KOT and BOT books from the Accounts/Control department. j) Laying of covers on the table as per the house custom. k) Setting up the sideboard by filling (i) with necessary extra tableware, glassware, chinaware, coaster and doily papers, and other necessary equipments required for service. (ii) the cruet sets with salt, pepper, mustard (iii) the condiment sets with jam, marmalade honey. The sugar basins with sugar, milk pots with cream, butter in butter dish, toothpick in toothpick stands. (iv) candle stands with candles. (v) water jugs with cold and plain water. Other items like placing clean ashtrays, menu cards, adequate quantity of reservation boards, bill folders and arranging clean. (vi) trays and salversThe ABC Of Hospitality 121
  • 124. 020- F & B SERVICE -THE SETTING OF A DINNING HALL (vii) extra clean linen required during the service. (viii) additional specialized items as per house custom. (ix) If the sideboard is equipped with plate or food warmer it should be turned on 15 minutes before the service. The Rules for Laying a TableThe Rules for Laying a Table are as appended below:01. Place the tables in position and see they are not wobbling.02. Check the tables and chairs are clean and the sideboard is properly equipped fro the service session.03. The tables should be covered with a baize or felt cloth. The use of baize cloth are: a) It helps the table cloth to hang freely and firmly. b) It acts as a protector to the table. c) It protects the wrist of the guest from the edge of the table. d) It dampens the noise of the table appointments when they are placed on the table.04. The height of the dinning table should be 30” from the floor and the chair should be 18” from the floor.05. The table cloth should be placed squarely and the centerfold of the table cloth should form a line down the middle of the table. The fall of the tablecloth should be 9” from the edge of the table from all sides.06. Crumpled, soiled, stained table cloths should never be used.07. A centerpiece is essential for every table. It is preferably a bud vase which should have low, non fragrant flower arrangement to facilitate clear view of the guests seated opposite to one another.08. The crockery and other table appointments that are used should be spotlessly clean.09. Each cover should fall a well balanced definite unit and should never be crowded. It should be 24” in length and 18” in breath. A cover can be defined as “a space required for placing all the tableware, crockery and glassware and linen for a person at the beginning of a meal.”10. Place only the required flatware, cutlery, hollowware and other table appointments for the meal on the cover. The sequence of laying the flatware and cutlery are from outside to inside. The ABC Of Hospitality 122
  • 125. 020- F & B SERVICE -THE SETTING OF A DINNING HALL11. With certain exceptions, the knives and spoons are placed on the right side of the cover while the forks are placed on the left.12. The table appointments for the appetizer or hors d’oeuvres should be placed on the cover or it may be placed on the plate with the knife fixed into the prongs of the fork making an angle of 90° at the vertex of the plate.13. While handling of the table appointments at no point of time they should be handled by hand. A salver or service plate suitably covered with a tray cloth or serviette should be used while carrying them from the sideboard to the table. Alternatively bare hands may only be used when the cutlery and flatware are wrapped by a napkin or a waiter’s cloth. While placing them on the cover they may be handled by hand but they should be only held at the farthest end where by no chance they come in contact with the food or guests’ mouth.14. The water tumbler or goblet is placed at the right side of the cover at the tip of the large knife.15. The butter dish should be placed at the center of the cover preferably on the left side.16. The napkin or the serviette may be placed at the center of the cover or on the side plate.17. All the crockery, cutlery, flatware and glassware should be placed at least ½” away from the edge of the table.18. It is customary that while laying a cover they should be laid one opposite to another and never sideways.19. The cruet set should be placed at the center of the table, so also the menu card holder.20. The table number should be so placed that it is easily viewable by everyone, preferably at the side which is used for movement of the guests and the service staff.21. While placing plates, if they have monogram, they should be placed facing the guest, i.e., at 12 o’ clock position.22. The cutting edge of the knives should always be facing the left.23. While laying a table d’hote menu, if the menu is too long, the cover should be laid up to the main course. The remaining cutleries are to be kept at the sideboard.24. For any table d’hote menus there should not be more than total of three comprising of knives and spoons at the right and three forks at the left.25. For laying table for a la carte orders the initial table layout should always be corrected. Proper mise-en-place for all the requisite table wares are to be kept at the sideboard and are to be laid each time after the clearance of the preceding course and before service of that particular course. The ABC Of Hospitality 123
  • 126. 020- F & B SERVICE -THE SETTING OF A DINNING HALL26. The cutlery for the dessert may be laid at the top of the cover, but sometimes it can be laid after the clearance of the main course.27. The wine glasses are laid at the right side of the cover at the tip of the knives corresponding to the dish for which the wine to be served.28. The side plate is kept at the left side of the cover usually with a side knife.Exceptions: i) the side knife which is placed on the side plate at the left hand side of the cover. ii) in case of pasta dishes, when the spoon is placed on the left and the fork at the right. iii) the side knife which is placed on the side plate, the cutting edge faces away from the plate. A la carte & table d’hote Table LayoutsIntroduction Depending upon the type of restaurant, the establishment’s house custom, the type of menu, the type of service, each outlet has got a typical table layout. The two standard layouts are: a) A la carte b) Table d’hôte These layouts are referred as ‘covers.’ In F&B terminology the word cover has two meanings. 1) It means the capacity of the restaurant. Therefore if one describes a restaurant as “a restaurant with 120 covers,” it would mean that the restaurant has the capacity to seat 120 diners at a time. 2) The second meaning is the space allotted to lay all the crockery, cutlery, tableware, hollowware, and glassware on the table for a person to have his meal. So, when a restaurant staff is “asked to lay up a cover”, it would mean that he/she is required to lay all the required table appointments on the table for the guests to have their meals. Since it is a space, therefore, it must have definite dimensions. The allotted space for a cover is: 24” in length and 18” in breadth.The Essentials They comprise of the following :of a Cover The ABC Of Hospitality 124
  • 127. 020- F & B SERVICE -THE SETTING OF A DINNING HALL On the Table On the Side Board 1. Side Plate 1. Water jug on an underplate. 2. Side Knife 2. Crumbing Equipment 3. Cruet Set 3. Bread Tong 4. Center Piece/Bud Vase 5. Ashtray Note: 6. Table Number If the menu is Indian then, Side Knife, 7. Menu Card Holder Butter Dish with Knife and Bread Tong 9. Serviette (on the side plate) will not be required. Table Cloth is 10. Butter Dish with butter knife optional depending on the class of the 11. Water Goblet. outlet. 12. Table ClothThe A La Carte An a la carte cover consists ofCover Layout 1. Side Plate 11.Large Knife 2. Side Knife 12.Large Fork 3. Cruet Set 13. Table Cloth 4. Center Piece/Bud Vase 5. Ashtray 6. Table Number 7. Menu Card Holder 9. Serviette (on the side plate) 10.Water GobletThe Table The table layout will depend on the menu decided.d’hote CoverLayout Types of Table Appointment Course by CourseHors d’oeuvre Side plate with side knife, Fish knife and fish forkPotage Side plate with side knife, soup spoon for thick soup, dessert spoon for thin soupPoisson Side plate with side knife, Fish knife and fish forkEntree Side plate with side knife, Small knife and small forkRelevé Side plate with side knife, Large knife and Large forkSorbet Side plate with side knife, Parfait glass on an under plateRoti Side plate with side knife, Large knife and large forkLegumes Side plate with side knife, Small knife and small forkEntremet Dessert spoon & fork, but may change according to the sweet.Savoureux Meat Savoury: Small knife and small fork Fish savoury : Fish knife and fish fork Cheese: Served on side plate, with small knife and fork.Dessert Fruit knife and fork, grape scissors, finger bowls containing warm and cold waterCafé Demitasse with a coffee spoon with sugar basin with tea spoon and coffee pot on the table. The ABC Of Hospitality 125
  • 128. 021- F & B SERVICE -THE BREAKFAST & AFTERNOON TEA BreakfastIntroduction It is the first meal of the day. But a meal to me termed as breakfast, it must fulfill the following criterion: They are: a) It should be the first meal of the day. b) It should be eaten before noon. c) It should contain breakfast style food. The usual breakfast time is between 7 a.m. to 11 a.m. Each country or region has their own type of breakfast. The ones that are served in the hotels are- a) Continental Breakfast b) English Breakfast c) American Breakfast d) Indian Breakfast. The above types of breakfast are described belowContinental The continental breakfast comprises of:Breakfast (Menu for Continental Breakfast) Choice of Chilled Fresh/Canned Fruit Juice ( Apple, Pineapple, Grapefruit, Orange, Mango, Strawberry, Litchi) -------------- Choice of Bread (Toast, White Bread, Brown Bread, Croissant, Muffin, Danish Pastry, Brioche) with Butter & Preserves ------------- Tea or Coffee ------------ The cover for continental breakfast comprises ofThe Cover forContinental 1 Side Plate & side knife 2 Serviette placed on the side plateBreakfast under the side knife. 3 Bread boat or basket for bread 4 Butter knife with butter dish on a doily on an under plate. 5 Preserve dish on a doily with a 6 Breakfast cup & saucer with a tea preserve spoon spoon 7 Tea pot, coffee pot, jugs of hot 8 Stands for tea pot, coffee pot, hot The ABC Of Hospitality 126
  • 129. 021- F & B SERVICE -THE BREAKFAST & AFTERNOON TEA and cold milk with hot water water jug. jug. 9 Ash tray, table number, sugar 10 For leaf tea- tea strainer with slop basin with tong. basin. Hot milk is given with coffee Cold milk is served with tea. The continental has two more variations – Café Simple which means only Tea or Coffee Café Complete – meaning- Toast or Bread with butter and preserves and Tea or Coffee.English Breakfast It comprises of (Menu for English Breakfast) Choice of Chilled Fresh/Canned Fruit Juice ( Apple, Pineapple, Grapefruit, Orange, Mango, Strawberry, Litchi) -------------- Stewed Fruits (Apple/ Guava) ---------------- Choice of Cereals (Cornflakes/Porridge/Kedgeree) ------------------- Fish fried or Grilled (Grilled Herring, Fried Plaice, or Sole) ---------------- Eggs to order with Fried Bacon (Fried / Scrambled/ Omelet/ Poached/ Boiled) ---------------- Meat ( Fried/Grilled Bacon, Fried/Grilled Sausage, Kidneys, with Grilled Tomato, Sauté Potato, Mutton Cutlet with Finger Chips ---------------- Cold Buffet (Calves’ Tongue/ Cold Chicken/ Cold Mutton -------------- Choice of Bread (Toast, White Bread, Brown Bread, Croissant, Muffin, Danish Pastry, Brioche) with Butter & Preserves ------------- Tea / Coffee/ Hot Chocolate ------------- The ABC Of Hospitality 127
  • 130. 021- F & B SERVICE -THE BREAKFAST & AFTERNOON TEAThe cover for Table appointments on the table:English breakfast 1 Side Plate & side knife 2 Serviette placed on the side plate under the side knife or laid flat between the joint knife & fork. 3 Bread boat or basket for bread 4 Butter knife with butter dish on a doily on an under plate. 5 Joint Knife & Fork 6 Fish Knife & Fork 7 Dessert Knife & Fork 8 Cruet Set (salt, pepper mustard with mustard spoon) 9 Castor Sugar in Sugar basin 10 Preserve dish on a doily with a preserve spoon 11 Breakfast cup & saucer with a 12 Tea pot, coffee pot, jugs of hot tea spoon and cold milk with hot water jug. 13 Stands or under plate for tea pot, 14 Ash tray, table number, sugar coffee pot, hot water jug. basin with tong. 15 For leaf tea- tea strainer with slop basin.American American Breakfast consist of the following:Breakfast Choice of Chilled Fresh/Canned Fruit Juice ( Apple, Pineapple, Grapefruit, Orange, Mango, Strawberry, Litchi) -------------- Choice of Cereals (Cornflakes/Porridge/Kedgeree) ------------------- Eggs to order with Fried Bacon (Fried / Scrambled/ Omelet/ Poached/ Boiled) ---------------- Choice of Bread (Toast, White Bread, Brown Bread, Croissant, Muffin, Danish Pastry, Brioche) with Butter & Preserves ------------- Tea / Coffee ------------- The ABC Of Hospitality 128
  • 131. 021- F & B SERVICE -THE BREAKFAST & AFTERNOON TEAIndian Breakfast Choice of Chilled Fresh/Canned Fruit Juice ( Apple, Pineapple, Grapefruit, Orange, Mango, Strawberry, Litchi) -------------- Poorie-Bhaji/ Parantha – plain or stuffed Aloo, Gobi, Moolie with achar/ Choice of South Indian delicacies- Utthapam, Iddlii, Vada with Sambar, Curd, Chutney/ Thepla/ Chilla ------------- Tea- Masala Tea / Coffee/ Lassi ------------- The Afternoon TeaThe Venue: Coffee Shop, Lounge, Foyer, Garden, etc.Timings 3 P.M. to 7.30 P.M.The Menu Menu Tea ----- Hot Buttered Toast Toasted Tea Cakes Crumpets ----------- Assorted Afternoon Tea Sandwiches ----------- Buttered Scones & White Bread Butter, & Raspberry / Strawberry Jam ------------ Gateaux & Pastries ---------The Cover On the table: Side Plate, Side/Tea Knife, Paper Serviette, Pastry Fork, Tea Cup & Saucer & a Teaspoon, Slop Basin & Tea Strainer, Sugar Basin & Tong, Tea Pot & Hot Water Jug, Stands or Underplates, Ashtray, Table Number. At the side board: Jugs of Cold Milk, Preserve on a doily on an under plate with a preserve spoon. The ABC Of Hospitality 129
  • 132. 021- F & B SERVICE -THE BREAKFAST & AFTERNOON TEA The High Tea Introduction High Tea is, a variation of afternoon tea, heavier than afternoon tea which is regarded as tea meal with hot or cold items. This is usually a service made in occasions such as formal meets and birthday parties especially for children. The Menu Menu Tea ----- Grills, Toasted Snacks, Fish & Meat Dishes -------- Hot Buttered Toast/Toasted Tea Cakes/Crumpets ----------- Assorted Afternoon Tea sandwiches ----------- Buttered Scones & White Bread Butter, Raspberry &Strawberry Jam --------------- Salads ---------------- Cold Sweets Gateaux & Pastries Ice -------------- The Cover On the table : Joint Knife & Fork, Side Plate, Side Knife, Serviette (placed on the side plate under the side knife or laid flat between the joint knife & fork), Cruet Set (salt, pepper mustard with mustard spoon), Tea Cup & Saucer & a Teaspoon, Teapot & Hot Water Jug Stands or underplates, , Sugar basin with Tong, slop basin with tea strainer Ashtray, Table Number. Note: Any other cutlery required may be brought in as for a la carte service. At the side board: Preserve Dish on a doily on a side plate with a Preserve Spoon, Cold Milk/Hot Water Jug, appropriate proprietary sauces. The ABC Of Hospitality 130
  • 133. 022- F & B SERVICE - SERVICE OF FOOD -THE RULES, THE STYLES &THE SEQUENCEThe Sequence of 1. Preparation of the service area as mentioned in the mise-en-Service place which may include taking bookings. 2. Receiving & welcoming of guests by the Restaurant Hostess. 3. Noting their requirement and ascertaining their status- previously booked customer or a walk-in and ascertaining the same is available. 4. Then the hostess would enquire if the guests would like to have an aperitif at the lounge or the reception area or in the restaurant. 5. Leading them to the service area. The reception Head Waiter would indicate the host. 6. Greeting & seating of guests by the station waiter as per the rule. If the service area follows the service irrespective of gender then, unless requested by the party, from the right side of the host. If the service area follows the principle of service according to the gender, then the child followed by the older generation, then the lady followed by the gents. If the lady is the host then she goes the last. 7. The station waiter would open the napkins from the right side of the host, from right side of each guest, with the host last and places them on each guest’s lap. 8. Pouring of water from the right side of the host with the host last. 9. Presentation of the Beverage List for pre-dinner drink from the right side of the host, from the left side of each guest, with the host last. . 10. Taking the pre-dinner drink order. 11. Procure drinks from the bar and bring it to the side board. 12. Arranging the pre-dinner drink on the salver as per the seating of the guests. 13. Service of pre-dinner drink starting from the right side of the host, from right side of each guest, serving the host the last. 14. While the guests are having drink, presentation of the Dinner Menu in the same fashion as in presentation of the beverage list. 15. Take the order for each guest up to the main course. Repeat the order & at last and ascertain the service time for the food. 16. Presentation of the Beverage List for the wine order to go with the food. 17. The food order is placed with the kitchen and a copy of the order is placed with the cashier for billing 18. The wine order is placed with the bar, and a copy is paced with the cashier for billing. 19. Inform the host about the readiness in service of food.The ABC Of Hospitality 131
  • 134. 022- F & B SERVICE - SERVICE OF FOOD -THE RULES, THE STYLES &THE SEQUENCE 20. Before commencement of service correct the cover for the first course, for each guest from the right side of the host, by standing between the 1st and the 2nd guest and placing the required table appointment that comes to the right side of the 1st guest and the required table appointments that come to the left side of the 2nd guest, according to the menu finishing with the host the last. 21. The wine waiter to pace the appropriate glasses in front of each guest staring with the right side of the host and finishing with the host last. 22. Presents the wine and tastes it to the host for his approval, followed by its service. 23. Placement of plates from right hand side of the guests maintaining the same service sequence as in taking order of service of water. 24. Serve the 1st course. 25. After the 1st course is consumed clear the soiled crockery & cutlery. 26. Place the table appointments on the cover for the 2nd course in the same way as described in point “20”. 27. If the style of wine changes, place the appropriate wine glasses, and follow the same method as described in point “21” 28. Serve the 2nd course. 29. In this way continue with the service till the main course. 30. Before clearance of the main course discreetly ask the host if the service and the food had been enjoyable for him and the rest. 31. Clear the soiled dishes, cutleries and crockery, empty wine bottles and soiled wine glasses. 32. Remove cruet set, side plate & side knife, butter dish, and accompaniments, leaving ashtray, center-piece/bud vase, table number & water tumbler behind. 33. Fill up the water goblets. 34. Change ashtrays. 35. Crumb the table. 36. Offer menu to customers for selection of sweet dishes. 37. Take order and place the order with the confectionery & bakery, and forward a copy of the order docket to the cashier for billing... 38. Present the beverage list and take the wine order for the sweet dish. 39. Place the dessert cutleries on the cover in the same procedure as mentioned earlier. 40. The wine waiter will take the wine order, place appropriate glasses, & procure wine form the bar and place the wine orderThe ABC Of Hospitality 132
  • 135. 022- F & B SERVICE - SERVICE OF FOOD -THE RULES, THE STYLES &THE SEQUENCE docket with the cashier for billing... 41. Serve the sweet course, followed by the wine in the same fashion as mentioned earlier. 42. Clear the sweet course and the wine glasses. 43. Enquire if the guest needs coffee to be served & if they wish to take coffee at the lounge or in the restaurant. 44. Present the menu card for the type of coffee to be selected. And take the order. 45. Present the beverage list & take the order for liqueur to go with coffee, place the order with the bar and the other copy to cashier for billing. 46. The food waiter will lay the coffee cover and place the order with the still room and the other copy of the order with the cashier for billing. 47. The food waiter will serve coffee. 48. The wine waiter will procure the liqueur from the bar and serve the guest. 49. Prepare and check the bill. 50. Offer additional coffee and liqueur if required. 51. Present the bill when requested. 52. Accept payment & tender change. 53. The station head-waiter sees off the guests. 54. Clear down the table & re-lay if necessary. THE RULES FOR WAITING AT A TABLEI) Before the The waiters must Arrival of a) Attend the briefing session conducted by the Maitre d’hotel. The Guests maitre d’hotel normally informs here about the menu and price changes, the specials, checks the grooming of the staff, the table reservations and any important message that he might feel important to communicate. b) After the station is allotted, check all the cutlery, glasses and other table appointments are clean, shinning and without ant chips, cracks and scratches. c) Check the tables and chairs are not wobbling and free of dust and dirt. d) Check the general housekeeping of his station and act accordingly. e) Check the sideboard if it is ready for service with filled water jugs, adequate crockery and tableware, service gears, proprietary sauces and ketchups, menu cards and beverage list and KOT pad and other items like cruet sets filled with salt pepper and mustard, toothpick in tooth pick stand, candles in candle stand, etc.The ABC Of Hospitality 133
  • 136. 022- F & B SERVICE - SERVICE OF FOOD -THE RULES, THE STYLES &THE SEQUENCE f) Study the menu of the day. Ascertain the dishes that have gone off-board. g) Clarify the interpretation of each dish, their accompaniment(s) that would go with it, the service gears to be used, the service sequence and the cutlery to be laid on the cover. h) While waiting one must always stand with the left arm folded at right angle, with the waiter’s cloth hanging against it and the right arm hanging by the side.II) Upon the a) The Head Waiter or the Restaurant Hostess must greet the guest Arrival of and seat them specially the women guests. In case of large Guests groups the waiters from other table must come up in helping seating the guests. b) The waiter must then pour water, courteously enquiring about their preferences. The menu must be presented by placing them n front of each guest.III) Taking the While taking the order the waiter mustOrder a) Not show his hurry or pester the guest for the order. On no account the guest should be made to feel that he is being hurried by the service staff. b) He must make him self visible to each guest while taking the order. c) He must suggest dishes only when he is asked to recommend. d) He must explain the guest about the dish and the accompaniments when inquired. e) Correct order must be taken for each guest. If the waiter knows about a particular guest’s likes and dislikes he should give suggestions. f) After the order is taken it should be read out for each guest. g) Special directions from the guest should always be noted as “Fillet Steak ‘rare done’ or “Plain Salad” ‘no onions;IV) General Rules a) The extra covers that have been previously laid on the table for Service should always be removed. b) Always use platter while carrying cutlery to and from the table. On no account any tableware should be carried by bare hands. c) While carrying plates always carry them between serviettes. Wipe them before laying them on the table. d) Some guests have the habit of wiping the crockery and cutlery that have been laid on the cover no matter how clean they are. This should no be looked upon with contempt. e) Always follow the house custom for placing table appointments or serving and clearing. The following procedure may be followed: i) For any formal groups start with the guest of honour whoThe ABC Of Hospitality 134
  • 137. 022- F & B SERVICE - SERVICE OF FOOD -THE RULES, THE STYLES &THE SEQUENCE normally seats at the right side of the host and move in anti clockwise direction with the host last. ii) Medium sized informal groups start with the eldest woman and move anti clockwise. iii) Small intimate groups serve the women first and then the men and proceed in anti clockwise direction. d) Any cutlery that falls on the floor, while carrying, should be returned to the wash up. If it drops in front of the guest while laying the table first replace that particular cutlery that had fallen from the sideboard and then one that had fallen should be picked up. e) The waiter should not put any cutlery or flatware on the guest plate. The guest should always be given the privilege to do so. f) When about to serve an order, if the guest is reading on talking among his friends, he must be interrupted by saying “excuse me sir or madam.” g) While correcting the covers, the table appointments that should be laid at left should be done from left hand side; those from right should be collected from right itself. The waiter should never cross the guest while laying any cutlery. h) Hot dishes should be served hot and the cold ones cold. i) Always handle glasses at base, cups at handles, knives, forks and spoons at the extreme end of the handle and the plates by the rim. j) Food should be served in proper sequence, with proper table appointments. k) All the accompanying sauces, condiments and spices should be placed before serving the dish. l) Never fill glasses or cups to the brim. It should be 1/3rd below the rim of the glass or cup. m) When food is served on a bowl or cup, like soup bowl or ice cream cup, it should be served on an under plate. While serving any chilled or frozen food they should be served on a doily placed on an under plate. n) A serviette on the waiter’s palm while serving any food from an entrée or platter before placing the serving dish. o) Always time the service properly so that guests do not have to wait between the dishes. p) All food items must be served from the left and the beverages from the right. q) All clearance should be done from right, except the side plate and the side knife. r) While the guest is about to finish the main course the station head waiter must ask discreetly about the food and the service. s) After clearance of the main course, if there be any sweet to be served always do crumbing and then proceed for the service. t) After dinner coffee cups should never be cleared when the guestsThe ABC Of Hospitality 135
  • 138. 022- F & B SERVICE - SERVICE OF FOOD -THE RULES, THE STYLES &THE SEQUENCE are still seated or the check has been paid. The waiter must have close notice on guests’ cup and ask the host if he would like the cups to be replenished. u) All checks must be presented in concealed manner to the host from his left had side. v) If the guest has used his hand while eating, finger bowl on an under plate should be passed from the right hand side of the guest after the dish has been cleared. w) Any tip should be acknowledged with a polite thanks. Even if the guest does not tip, a word of “thanks” is a must. x) Always follow the work study procedure. The waiter should do the maximum work with minimum movement. The Types of ServiceThere are five basic types of service.They are: Table Service Service to customer at laid cover. Consumption is made on the laid cover. Clearance by the staff. Assisted Service Combination of Table Service & Self Service. Consumption is usually at the laid cover. Clearance by the staff. This form of service exists in buffet. Self - Service Self service of customers. Consumption at the premises of take-away. Clearance by the staff. Payment made at the cash counter before taking the dishes or it can also be made at the cash counter after taking the dishes. This form of service exists in cafeterias. Singe Point Service Where the customer orders, get served, and pay at the same point. Consumption at the premises of take-away. Clearance by the staff. Such service is predominant in kiosk, take-aways, vending machines, etc. Specialised or In situ Service Service to customers at areas primarily not designed for service. Clearance is various. Such service can be seen in out door catering, passenger seat on airplane, room service in hotels, etc. .The ABC Of Hospitality 136
  • 139. 022- F & B SERVICE - SERVICE OF FOOD -THE RULES, THE STYLES &THE SEQUENCEThe Types of Table Name of the ExplanationService Service Silver Service The silver service is a table service where the waiter serves the food to the guest with the aid of service gear- service spoon & fork on to an empty plate placed in front of the guest. French service The French service is a modification of silver service. Here the platter or entrée dish is presented to the guest with the service gears and the guest help themselves Both Silver & French Service are broadly identified as Platter to Plate Service. Pre-Plated service Here the food is pre plated on to the guest’s plate in the kitchen which is served by the waiter. Other forms of pre-plated service are: Russian service Here the whole food item is brought in front of the guest on a carving trolley or in a platter and placed at the side station for the guests to see. Thereafter the waiter or the craver would work, carving the food and plating it on the guests’ plate before serving. Guéridon service The service of food from the Guéridon Trolley. It includes preparation of salads or cutting of fruits and even finishing the cooking of partly preparing dishes in front of the guest. Sometimes the work also involves flambé. This is after cooking the food setting it aflame with the aid of spirit and serving the food onto the guest’s pre-heated plate with the blue flame. Family Service Here the host plays a very important role. The Host decides the portioning and either pre- plates them himself on to plates that are placed in front of them or after portioning hands over the serving dish to the waiter and telling him which portion is to be given to whom. Therefore this service can be performed as pre plated as in the fist case or be a silver service preformed by the waiter.The ABC Of Hospitality 137
  • 140. 023-F & B SERVICE- THE RESTAURANT CONTROL SYSTEMControl Control may be defined as a process by means of which an establishment attempts to direct, regulate and restrain the actions of the employees in order to achieve the desired goals of the establishment viz: financial success, preservation of sound environment, etc. Therefore, the objective of control is: 1. It controls efficiently on all the items issued from various departments. 2. It reduces to the minimum any pilferage and wastages. 3. It provides the management with any information they require for costing purposes so that the estimation for the forthcoming year can be done properly. 4. It helps the cashier to make the bill properly so that the guest is neither overcharged nor undercharged. 5. It shows a breakdown of sales and income received in order that improvements and adjustments can be made. The nature of control may vary between an organisation to organisation or even between departments, but the objective remains the same provided it a) Is easy to follow by the job operators. b) Is easily implemented by the control staff. c) Accounts methodically the items issued, used, and the returns earned. d) Does not hinder the objective of the control.How Control in an The initial instruments of control are:Outlet Works a) KOT (Kitchen Order Ticket) b) BOT (Beverage Order Ticket) The above two are also often referred as Food Check & Bar Check respectively. The KOT covers the order for all food and still room beverages. The BOT covers the order for all Bar Beverages. When a guest orders, the order taker would write the order for food & still room beverages on KOT and all bar beverages on BOT. The ultimate instrument for control is the bill, which when settled by the guest, guarantees that revenue has been recovered against the food & beverages served through KOT & BOT.The ABC Of Hospitality 138
  • 141. 023-F & B SERVICE- THE RESTAURANT CONTROL SYSTEM A specialized department called “Control” inspects the total proceeds and daily tallies the KOT & BOT received from the various outlets with the bill. If any discrepancies noticed the concerned process owner, be it the waiter or the cashier, on whose negligence the discrepancy has occurred, is called for explanation. This department acts in close liaison with the Accounts section.The Features of a Whatever the design a food service outlet may adopt for a KOT or aCheck BOT, generally it would have the following headings: i) The Name of the outlet. ii) The Check Number iii) Waiter Number iv) Table Number v) Date vi) Time for order vii) Number of Guests viii) A three columned space showing the a) Description of the item ordered b) The quantity ordered c) The rate ix) Signature of the order taker.Control System in a The control system in a restaurant varies greatly on the type ofRestaurant service and the menu it follows. Popularly there are two systems, viz: a) Triplicate checking system. b) Duplicate checking system. a) Triplicate checking system: This control system is applicable in a restaurant having a la carte menu. The check consists of three copies. The first copy of the KOT is send to the kitchen for preparing the food and in case of BOT to the bar for dispensing the beverages. The second copy goes to the cashier for making the bill. The third copy is a flimsy copy which retained in the pad for the waiter’s reference. b) Duplicate Checking System: This system is effective in restaurants following table d’hote menus. The first copy is the copy that goes to the kitchen and the second copy is treated as the bill.The ABC Of Hospitality 139
  • 142. 023-F & B SERVICE- THE RESTAURANT CONTROL SYSTEM Other Control Systems a) Waiter’s Billing Machine: It works on the principle of duplicate checking system. It can be operated by the waiter by keying in a number that had been allotted to him on the date of his commencement of the service with the outlet and therefore, this system, eliminates the need for a cashier. it has different set of numerical keys from 0-9 for different operations, like one set of keys will be for typing the table numbers, another set for the dishes which are numerically coded and the other set for the quantity of dishes ordered by the guest. The rate of each dish is set on the memory and so by typing the code number of a particular dish, the machine can recall from its memory the rate of that dish and thus the bill would be made in duplicate. Like the duplicate checking system, the first copy will be the order copy for the kitchen and the second copy will act as a bill. b) Electronic Hand held Check Pad: Each waiter is allotted a separate machine, that resembles a palm sized calculator, and from the machine number the issuer of the order from a particular machine is recognized. There would be separate set of keys for each function like noting the table number, the dish, its quantity, etc. After the waiter notes on the machine and ensures the order is correct he would press a button engraved “SEND.” The machine is linked by a wireless network to the computers – one in the kitchen and one with the cashier. Upon pressing this button, the order would be going simultaneously to these two points and they would be displayed on the individual screens. Serial No. Waiter No. Serial No. Waiter No. Amount -------------- ---------- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- …063……………………21 …21. 063 21 …063……………………21 …21. 063 21 …063……………………21….21. 063 21 …063……………………21…21. 063 21 …063……………………21…21. 063 21 …063……………………21…21. 063 21 063 Total Amount Total Amount Table No. Date: Table No. Date: Top Copy Diagram showing Duplicate Check 2nd CopyThe ABC Of Hospitality 140
  • 143. 023-F & B SERVICE- THE RESTAURANT CONTROL SYSTEM NAME OF THE ORGANISATION Logo NAME OF THE OUTLET KOT NO. …… TABLE NO. TIME: ……… …… WAITER NO. NO. OF COVERS QUANTITY DESCRIPTION RATE …… …… DATE: SIGNATURE Diagram showing Food /Beverage BillLogo & Name Bill No. Food/ XXXXof the Wine/XXXXOrganisation KOT No. Room No. Waiter No. Table No. Name of the OutletQuantity Description Rate Amount Rs. P. Total S. Charge S. Tax Grand TotalVAT No. Slogan of the Organisation ….……… Cashier E & OE Customer’s CopyThe ABC Of Hospitality 141
  • 144. 024- F & B SERVICE - BEVERGAES & ITS CLASSIFICATIONIntroduction The word beverage comes from the French word “boire” which means to drink. Therefore a substance to be a beverage a Must be liquid b Must be safe for consumption which in other word means “potable”Classification of The beverage on a broad base is classified into non-alcoholic andBeverage alcoholic beverages. The beverage that contains 0 to 0.5% ethyl alcohols by volume is considered to be non alcoholic beverage. Those beverages that contain more than 0.5% to 75.5% ethyl alcohol by volume are considered as non alcoholic beverage. A substance containing above 75.5% alcohol is said to be medicine.Non-Alcoholic The non-alcoholic beverages can be classified initially as hot or cold.Beverage Hot Beverages: Hot beverages are – tea, coffee, milk, Horlicks, Boost, etc. Beverages such as tea and coffee contain caffeine and therefore are stimulating. On the other hand Milk, horlicks, boost are nourishing beverages. Cold Beverages. They can be grouped as under: Stimulating Nourishing Refreshing Aerated fruit juices- Mineral waters Aerated beverages mazza, appy fizz Cold milk based Non aerated beverages beverages Energy drinksThe ABC Of Hospitality 142
  • 145. 024- F & B SERVICE - BEVERGAES & ITS CLASSIFICATION Mineral waters: They can be natural or manufactured: The natural mineral waters are those that come from the subsoil or mountains as streams and springs which carry minerals that are essential for our human body. E.g. Vittel, Malvern, Aix la Bain, Aix la Chapelle, Baden-Baden, Carlsbad, etc. Some of the natural mineral waters they contain carbon dioxide and therefore known as aerated mineral water. E.g. Perrier, Vichy, etc. The most popular manufactured mineral water manufactured in India is Himalaya. Cold Milk based beverages : Energy drinks: Lassi, Red Bull Flavoured lassis Power Horse Ice cream Floats Glucon-D Milk Shakes Aerated beverages: Non-Aerated beverages: They can come under various Pepsi These beverages groups: Coca Cola, are charged with Tonic water carbon dioxide Fruit Juices: The liquid is obtained Ginger ale gas after the fruit is crushed and then Soda water strained to separate the pulps - mango, pineapple, etc. which can be either fresh or canned. Syrups: These are concentrated fruit flavoured liquids. - Like rose syrup, strawberry syrup, etc. Squash: These are made by extracting juices from fresh fruits and then sweetened by adding sugar to it. E.g. - orange squash, lemon squash. Pulp: Unfiltered fruit juice containing the pulp of the fruits in suspension. E.g.- ampanha, belpanha, etc.The ABC Of Hospitality 143
  • 146. 024- F & B SERVICE - BEVERGAES & ITS CLASSIFICATIONAlcoholic Beverages Any beverages containing 0.5% to 75.5% of ethyl alcohol by volume is considered as Alcoholic Beverage.Classification of Alcoholic beverage can be classified as under :Alcoholic Beverage Fermented Distilled Compounded Fermented Beverage: Fermentation is chemical reaction brought about by the yeasts when they act as a catalyst to change the sugar contained in a liquid substance into alcohol and thereby gives of carbon dioxide and heat energy. This when represented by a chemical equation it is: C6H12O6 →2C2CH5OH+2CO2+HEAT ENERGY Sugar Alcohol Carbon dioxide Therefore sugar is the most important constituent required during fermentation. The fermented beverages are of two types Wines Beers Wines are alcoholic beverages produced fermented juice of grapes. The process of fermentation is carried out by the local customs and traditions. Apart from grapes wines can also be produced from other fruits – apple, cherry, pear, etc., but then the name of the fruit will be prefixed before the word wine like cherry-wine, apple wine, etc. Types of wines : They can be distinguished i) by colour ii) by taste iii) by its origin iv) by its properties v) by its year of production vi) other types The ABC Of Hospitality 144
  • 147. 024- F & B SERVICE - BEVERGAES & ITS CLASSIFICATIONA Distinguishing wine by Colour : - Red, White & Rose Red Wine:- They can be obtained a) From juice of black grapes b) Allowing the skins of the black grapes to remain in the juice so that the pigments give off their colour. c) Mixing white and red wines in definite proportions Examples: Château La Tour, Château Haute Brion, Château Neuf du Papé, Graves, Chianti. Alcohol Content: 9% - 15% White Wine:- They can be obtained a) From juice of white grapes b) Removing the skins of the black grapes from the juice immediately after the juice is made so that the pigments cannot give off their colour. Examples: Chablis, Mâcon Blanc, Pouilly Fuisse, Le Montrachet. Alcohol Content: 9% - 15% Rose Wine:- They can be obtained a) By pressing black grapes so that some colour is extracted. b) By mixing red and white wine together in definite proportions c) From the black grapes fermented on the skins for 48 hours. Examples: Tavel Rosé, Cabernet d’Anjou, Oeil de Pedrix (partridges eye) from Switzerland, Bordeaux Rose, Pinot Noire Alsace. Alcohol Content: 9% - 15%B Distinguishing Wine by Taste:They can come under two heads- dry or sweet. This results from unutilized sugar in the wine.There are varying degrees of dry to sweetness. They are:Bone dry, Extra Dry, Dry, Medium Dry, Medium Sweet, Sweet. The ABC Of Hospitality 145
  • 148. 024- F & B SERVICE - BEVERGAES & ITS CLASSIFICATIONC Distinguishing Wine by its Origin:They can be either a Varietal wines: Which means they are named according to the grapes from which they are made. E.g. : Chardonnay, Riesling, Shiraz, Sauvignon Blanc, Pinot Noire b Generic Wines: They are named according to the region where they are made according to the local customs and traditions. E.g. Moselle, Hock, Chablis, Château Laffitte.Distinguishing wine by its Properties: - Still, Sparkling, Fortified, & Aromatised.They are as under: a Still Wines: These wines do not sparkle and therefore are called “still”. They are consumed during meals and hence they are also called Table Wines. They can be red, white or rose in colour. b Sparkling Wines: these wines are having carbon dioxide for which they sparkle and set of bubbles when poured in the glass. The introduction of carbon dioxide can be brought about by secondary fermentation by addition of further yeast and sugar solution. The method of making such fermentation may vary; the most prized wines are obtained by secondary fermentation that takes place in the bottle and the method is called Method Champ noise. However there are some cheaper varieties of sparkling wines where the carbon-dioxide gas is injected into the still wine bottle which lets the wine to sparkle. The gas diffuses as soon as they are poured into the bottle. Alcoholic Content: 14% by volume. Examples: Moet Chandon, Ayla, Bollinger, etc. c Fortified Wines: These wines have their alcoholic content increased by addition of spirit, preferably brandy. The addition of brandy 1) Increases the level of alcohol 2) Increases the shelf life of the wine 3) Controls its sweetness or dryness of the wine. The wine remains sweet when the brandy is added during fermentation. The wine is dry when the brandy is added after fermentation. The ABC Of Hospitality 146
  • 149. 024- F & B SERVICE - BEVERGAES & ITS CLASSIFICATION Examples: Some very good examples are: Sherry (Spain) comes in different styles – fino (dry) is usually served as an aperitif before meals and often forms an unique accompaniment with shell fish soups, other styles are amontillado (medium sweet) and oloroso (sweet). Port (Portugal) -usually taken after meal as a digestive. Various styles of port are crusted port, ruby, tawny, vintage port, etc. Marsala (Sicily) a dark sweet wine usually taken as dessert wine. Madeira (Portugal) is made from Malmsey, Bual, Cercial, and Verdleho grapes. Most are sweet grapes and the raisins have a strong bouquet. Unlike other fortified wine these wines are fortified with a spirit obtained from sugar cane. Alcoholic Content: 15% - 21% by volume. Service Temperature: Generally served at room temperature with exception of Fino Sherry which should be served chilled.d Aromatised Wines: These are fortified wines which are flavoured and coloured. They are usually pre-dinner drink wines. Flavourings can be made of herbs, roots, botanicals, flowers, bark of tree or quinine. Examples: Dubonnet, Vermouths – (Cinzanno, Martini, Martini Rose, etc), Lillet, Byrrh, St. Raphel, Cap Corse, and Bitters.Other Wines:a Organic Wines: These wines are produced, from the time the grapes were harvested with no chemicals being used. They are also known as Environment Friendly Wines.b Fruitti Wines: these wines are made from fermentation of fruit juice other than grapes. But in this case the name of the fruit will be prefixed before the wine. Like pear wine (Perry) or apple wine (cider), etc.c Dessert Wines: These wines are rich and sweet. They are still/table wines that are designed to be served to be consumed in the sweet course. Sauternes is a famous dessert wine from France and Spätless and Aussels are German types of dessert wines.d Non Alcoholic Wines: These are prepared from fruit juice base and can be still or aerated with no alcoholic content.The ABC Of Hospitality 147
  • 150. 024- F & B SERVICE - BEVERGAES & ITS CLASSIFICATIONBeer Beer is an alcoholic beverage made from fermentation of cereals - barley, wheat oat, maize and rice, etc. and the process is called ‘brew.’ Alcoholic Content: 4-12 % by volume. (This differs from brand to brand). May be classified by the process of brew: 1. Lager: In this process the fermentation takes place at the bottom of the vat. The lager style brewed beers are – Pilsner & Dark Pilsner 2. Ale: here the fermentation takes place at the top The ale style brewed beers are – Porter & Stout. It may also be classified how they are packed for marketing 1. Bottled & canned beers: After the bottles or cans are filled with the beer, it is sterilized, the carbon dioxide gas is injected and the bottle is sealed. 2. Draught beers: The beer is dispensed from barrels which are connected with pipes with the aid of pump to the point of sale. The carbon dioxide gas is also dispensed from a separate gas cylinder or they may be mixed with the beer before the beer is dispensed. Brands: Indian: Brand Names Foreign Brand Name Country 1) Guru 1) Beck America 2) Asia 72 2) Shanturi Japan 3) Black Label (Kalyani) 3) Asahai Japan 4) Sun Lager 4) Kari Japan 5) London Pilsner 5) Takara Japan 6) Haywards - Scoll, 2000, 5000 6) Sappora Japan 7) Golden Eagle 7) Al Shops Denmark 8) Thunder Bolt 8) Amstel Holland 9) Vazir 9) Tuborg Holland 10) Kingfisher 10) Heineken Holland 11) Rosy Pelican 11) Orange Boon Holland 12) Tenents England 13) Ramer Germany The ABC Of Hospitality 148
  • 151. 024- F & B SERVICE - BEVERGAES & ITS CLASSIFICATIONSpirits The spirits are alcoholic beverages that are produced by distillation of fermented beverages. They are Whisky : produced from distillation of fermented barley, wheat or maize Brandy: produced from fermented juice of grapes. Rum : produced from fermented juice of sugar cane. Gins : produced from fermented grains and flavoured with juniper berries. Vodka : produced from fermented grains. Tequila: produced from the undergrowth of Mescal Cactus. Mexican Origin. Fenny : produced from fermented cashew and coconut. Indian, Goa. Quality Ones are: Whisky: Scotch, Irish, American and Canadian. The Irish & American ones are spelled as WHISKEY. Brandy: Cognac & Armagnac. Rum: Cuban & Jamaican, Gin: Dutch and English Vodka: Polish, Russian Brand Names: Whisky: Scotch: Johnnie Walker Blue Label, Highland Queen, 100 Pipers, Teachers, VAT69, Old Smuggler. Irish: Julliamore Dew, Old Bushmills, Bushmills Malt, Power’s Gold Label, Middleton Rare. American: Jack Daniels, Old Overholt, Wild Turkey, Imperial, Calvert Extra . Canadian: Black Velvet, Canadian Club, Crown Royal, Crown Royal, Golden Wedding, Royal Reserve Indian Brands: Royal Challenge, Peter Scot, McDowell’s, Mc Dowell’s Premium, Blenders Pride, Antiquity, Signature Brandy: Cognac: Hennessey, Courvoisier, Martell, Otard, Rémy Martin, Hine, Monnet, Bisquit Dubanche, Bisquit, Camus. The ABC Of Hospitality 149
  • 152. 024- F & B SERVICE - BEVERGAES & ITS CLASSIFICATION Armagnac: Delord, Janneau, Sempé, Castignon, Claverie, Christian Brothers, Hiram Walker, Marquis de Montesquieu. Brandies of other countries : Brand name Country Brand name Country Asbach Uralt Germany Vechha Romagna Italy Christian Brothers USA Stock Italy Korbel USA Oude Meester S. Africa Paul Masson USA Cambas Greece Fundador Spain Metaxa Greece Lepanto Spain Anglias Cyprus Conte de Osborne Spain Five Kings Cyprus Bobadilla 103 Spain Peristiani VO31 Cyprus Indian Brands : Doctors Brandy, Honey Bee, Golconda, Bee Hive, Gold Cup Rum: Foreign Brands: Ron Bacardi, Ron Rico (Puerto Rico), Lemon Hart, Bacardi White, Captain Morgan. Indian: Old Monk, Sea Pirates, Captain Henry, Tropicana, Contessa. Gin: Foreign Brands: Old Town, Gordon’s, Ballantine London, Beefeater, Seagrams, Gilbeys. Indian: Blue riband, Dunhill, High Society, Aristocrat. Vodka: Foreign Brands: Smirnoff, Count Pushkin, Volga, Stolichnya Indian: Shark Tooth, Fuel, White Mischief, Romanov, Red Czar,Compounded Beverage The compounded beverage consists of: Liqueurs Bitters The ABC Of Hospitality 150
  • 153. 024- F & B SERVICE - BEVERGAES & ITS CLASSIFICATION Liqueurs: Liqueurs are flavoured spirits that are sweetened and often coloured. They are also known as digestives, and being spirit based they are called grain based alcoholic beverage. They are usually taken after meals with coffee. Examples of some liqueurs are as follows: Liqueur Colour Origin Base Flavour Abricotine Red France Brandy Apricot Advocaat Yellow Holland Brandy Egg Bénédictine Yellow France Brandy Herbs Calvados Amber France Brandy Apple Cherry Deep red Denmark Brandy Cherry Brandy Cointreau Clear France Brandy Orange Drambuie Golden Scotland Scotch Honey Whisky Grand Reddish France Cognac Orange Mariner Yellow Irish Mist Golden Ireland Irsih Orange Whiskey Kirsch Colourless Germany Cherry Cherry brandy Kummel Colourless Germany/ Grain Caraway & Holland spirit- cumin seed type of Vodka Southern Golden USA Whiskey Orange Comfort Tia Maria Brown Jamaica Rum Coffee Van der Hum Pale golden South Brandy Citrus peels Africa Bitters: These are aromatized wines of many varieties: The most popular ones are: Campari: It is a pink Italian aperitif. It is bitter sweet in taste and has a slight flavour of orange peel and quinine. Angostura: This is named after a town in Venezuela. But now it is mainly produced in Trinidad. It is brownish red in colour and is used mainly as flavouring agents with gin or in various cocktails.The ABC Of Hospitality 151
  • 154. 024- F & B SERVICE - BEVERGAES & ITS CLASSIFICATIONMixed drinks Cocktails: They are a mixture of beverages in which at least one of them is an alcoholic beverage. Cocktails are made in following ways: Shaken & Strained: These are mixed in a cocktail shaker and then strained. e.g.- Southern Peach, Rob Roy Stirred and Strained: They are mixed by stirring and then filtered. e.g.- Manhattan, Whisky Sour. Build up Cocktails: They consist of mixture of beverages of varying densities, The heaviest one lies at the bottom and the lightest beverage comes at the top. . e.g.- Sherry Flip, Apple Sour, Irish Coffee. Blended: Cocktails can also be made by passing the mixture through a blender. This is an alternative method to cocktails mixed on cocktail shaker. e.g.- Perfect Lady, Orange BlossomSome Popular Cocktails are given below:Whisky Rob Roy : Scotch + Sweet Vermouth + Angostura Bitters Manhattan: Whisky + Vermouth Whisky Sour: Whisky + Powdered Sugar+ Lime Juice Los Angeles: Whisky+ Sweet Vermouth +Lime Juice +Egg WhiteBrandy Alexandra : Brandy + Cream de Cacao + Sweet Cream Side Car: Brandy + Cointreau + Lime Juice Brandy Collins: Brandy+ Powdered Sugar+ Lime Juice + Soda Rolls Royce: Brandy + Cointreau + Egg WhiteRum Daiquiri : Rum+ Powdered Sugar+ Lime Juice Bacardi: Rum + Grenadine+ Lime Juice Cuba Libre: Rum + Lime Juice + Cola Rum Collins: Rum + Powdered Sugar+ Lime Juice + SodaVodka Bloody Mary : Vodka + Tomato Juice + Lime Juice + Worcestershire sauce + Tabasco Sauce. Screw Driver: Vodka + Orange Juice Vodka Gibson: Vodka + Dry Vermouth Vodka Gimlet : Vodka + Lime Juice Cordial The ABC Of Hospitality 152
  • 155. 024- F & B SERVICE - BEVERGAES & ITS CLASSIFICATIONGin Gimlet : Gin + Lime Juice Cordial White Lady: Gin + Cointreau + Lime Juice Pink Lady: Gin + Grenadine + Egg White Martini: Gin + VermouthTequila Margarita: Tequila + Fresh Lime Juice + Fresh Lime JuiceMocktails Virgin Mary: Tomato Juice + Lemon Juice +Worcestershire Sauce +Celery Salt Cinderella : Lemon juice + Orange juice + Pineapple juice Florida Cocktail Grapefruit Juice + Orange Juice +Lemon Juice +Gomme Syrup +Soda Water + Salt + Mint Leaf- for decoration Iced Mint Tea Fresh Mint +Boiling Water + Cold Water + Granulated Sugar The ABC Of Hospitality 153
  • 156. 024A -VARIOUS COFFEE PREPARATIONSNAMES OF THE COVERCLASSICAL ACCOMPANIMENTS & AT THE SIDECOFFEE GARNISHES ON THE TABLE STATION REMARKS & METHOD OF PREPARATIONPREPARATIONPercolator Brown or white sugar, Demitasse, sugar Jugs of cold & A required quantity of coffee is placed in the percolator, which is then filled withCoffee hot or cold milk, basin hot milk and freshly drawn water. The water is heated electrically or by fuel lamps, which cream. cream to be eventually starts to boil and rises through a tube and percolates the coffee grounds, placed after extracting the full flavour, colour and strength. The heat is subsequently reduced, the the guest is infusion stops, and the liquid with the ground coffee, infused, falls back into the seated. percolator and the coffee is ready to be served. This coffee is also called “Long Percolator Black,” if it is served without milk or cream in a tea cup. machineCona Coffee Brown or white sugar, Demitasse, sugar Jugs of cold & It consists of two chambers - the lower and the upper. The upper chamber consists of hot or cold milk, basin hot milk and a filter fitted to a container in which the required amount of ground coffee is cream cream to be provided. The lower chamber is filled with freshly drawn water, which is heated by placed after spirit lamps or electrically. To speed up the process fresh, warm, but not boiling the guest is water may be added instead of the cold water. Upon reaching the boiling point the seated. Cona water rises through the tube into the upper bowl mixing with the ground coffee. At Coffee this point the mixture may be stirred to ensure that the entire quantity of coffee that machine was placed in the container infuses well with the water. This is because the ground coffee on the top prevents the water fro percolating in through it forming a cap on the top. The stirring is done gently so that the filter is not disturbed or else the grains may pass into the bottom chamber. The heat is then reduced and the coffee liquid as it now is flows into the lower bowl, leaving the ground coffee on the top chamber. The upper bowl is removed and then filtered and washed for re-use. The coffee is served at approx. 82 deg. centigrade If served Brown sugar Small glass cups This method is Italian in origin. Very fast method of dispensing coffee through this black machine to individual cups. Around 300/400 cups can be made in an hour. Each cup If served After the froth is Small coffee is freshly made for the customer. The coffee used must be finely ground.Espresso Coffee with made by steam, it is cups. Steam is passed through the finely ground coffee and infusing under pressure. milk/cream topped with cream & Served black is espresso. then garnished with Served with milk it is cappuccino. Milk is heated for individual cups by high- grated chocolate. pressure steam injector. The coffee is garnished with chocolate and mint. ½ Kg. Coffee yields 80 cups coffee of good strength. For care of the equipment – follow the manual provided.The ABC Of Hospitality 154
  • 157. 024A -VARIOUS COFFEE PREPARATIONSVARIOUS FORMS OF ESPRESSO COFFEENAME SERVED SERVED IN STRENGTH DESCRIPTIONLungo Without milk or cream Tea cup Freshly percolated Made in an espresso machine.Short Black Without milk or cream Demi tasse or small coffee cup Normal Made in an espresso machineRisretto (meaning restricted) Without milk or cream Demi tasse or small coffee cup Double strength Made in an espresso machineFlat White With heated milk but not Tea cup The proportion of milk to Made in an espresso machine frothed. coffee is 2/3 espresso and 1/3 milk)Espresso Without milk or cream Demi tasse or small coffee cup Strong black coffee Literally means pressed out coffee. Made in an espresso machine. It must have a creamy golden froth.Cappuccino With frothed milk Served in tea cups. Strong It is named after the head cover worn by Italian monks. It is milky with creamy frothed crest. Garnished with grated chocolate or powdered cocoa.Café Latte Higher proportion of milk than Usually served in a Glass As strong as cappuccino Made in an espresso machine cappuccino but the milk is not frothed.Machiatto A dash of cold milk, barely Long or short glass. Extra strong Machiatto means to stain. Made enough to change its colour. in an espresso machineThe ABC Of Hospitality 155
  • 158. 024A -VARIOUS COFFEE PREPARATIONS NAME OF THE CLASSICAL COVER COFFEE PREPARATION ACCOMPANIMENTS & AT THE SIDE GARNISHES ON THE TABLE STATION REMARKS & METHOD OF PREPARATION Filter Coffee Brown or white sugar, Demitasse, sugar Jugs of cold & This method is widely used in France. By this method coffee is hot or cold milk, basin hot milk and made individually by cup or in bulk for a party. The entire cream cream to be equipment must be hot or else the resultant coffee may be cold. It placed after serves as a good method of advertising by placing it on a bar top the guest is and the service is done along with hot or cold snacks. Apart form seated. Cona serving as an eye appeal for the customer, it also gives a feeling of Coffee personalizes service as the coffee has been made exclusively for machine her or him. It takes around 3-4 minutes times for making a cup of coffee in this method. Fresh boiled water is poured into a container up to its required level. The container is fitted with a very finely meshed bottom containing the required amount of ground coffee, which stands on a cup. The boiling water causes the seal & the infusion takes place in the container and the coffee liquid trickles into the cup. A lid should be placed over the water in the filter to help to retain the temperature. Still Set Coffee Brown or white sugar, Demitasse/ Tea Coffee Pot, The most widely used system in all catering establishment and in hot or cold milk, Cup& tea Jugs of cold & all Stillrooms. It normally consist of a small central container into cream spoon/coffee hot milk and which correct size filer paper is placed with ground coffee on top, spoon -as per cream to be and urn of varying capacities according to requirements from 4 ½ occasion, sugar placed after to 18 litres. Boiling water is passed through the grounds and the basin with tong the guest is coffee passes into urns at the side. For a 4 ½ litre capacity urn the or tea spoon as seated. infusion is complete in 6-8 minutes. The temperature should be per the sugar, constantly maintained at 65.5 deg. Centigrade. Too high a Stand for Coffee temperature/ boiled or heated too soon will destroy the flavour and Pot. taste of the coffee and discolour the milk, upon coming in contact with the coffee. The coffee and milk should be held at correct temperature ready for service. The urns should be cleaned and serviced regularly, rinsed before & after each brew, until the water runs clear. It must be ensured that the urns are clear of the thin layer of cold coffee that clings to the side of its body, lest it will spoil the flavour and aroma of the next brew.The ABC Of Hospitality 156
  • 159. 024A -VARIOUS COFFEE PREPARATIONS SPECIALTY COFFEE NAME OF THE SPECIALTY ACCOMPANIMENTS COVER COFFEE PREPARATION & AT THE SIDE GARNISHES ON THE TABLE STATION REMARKS & METHOD OF PREPARATION Normal Coffee Demitasse/ Tea Infuse required ground coffee in hot water. Strain and serve Cup& tea as per the taste. Serve at 80 deg. Centigrade. spoon/coffee Coffee Pot, Jugs of Instant Coffee Add required amount of coffee in the pot and pour water. Hot/Cold milk or spoon -as per cold & hot milk and Serve at 80 deg. Centigrade. Cream, Brown or occasion, sugar cream to be placed white sugar basin with tong or after the guest is tea spoon as per seated the sugar, Stand for Coffee Pot. South Indian Coffee Sugar basin with Heat milk and water separately. Bring to boil and then brown or cube lower the heat to allow it to simmer gently. Remove from sugar with sugar heat and add finely ground coffee into the water and filter. tong or tea spoon Add hot milk and serve in a small stainless steel glass as required. placed on a small stainless steel bowl. Iced Coffee Cold milk or Cream Straw stand, Ice Pail, cream in Make a strong black coffee in normal way. Strain and chill cream jug well till required. Serve, mixed with cold milk or cream in a tall glass, with ice-cubes added and straws. The glass is placed on a doily on an underplate with a teaspoon. Egyptian or Turkish Small brightly This is made from darkly roasted Mocha Coffee beans. The Coffee coloured coffee cups coffee is made in special coffee pots which are heated on (demi-tasse) top of stove or lamp and the water is allowed to boil. The sugar should be put in it at this stage to sweeten the coffee as it is never stirred once poured out. The finely ground coffee may be stirred in or water may be poured over the grounds. The quantity of coffee used is approx. 1 heap teaspoon per cup. Once the coffee has been stirred in the pot is taken out off the heat, cooled that causes the grounds to settle. It is once gain brought to boil and then taken off for the grounds to settle. This method is repeated once more. After doing this operation thus for three number of times, cold water is sprinkled to allow the remaining grounds to settle. The coffee is then served in small brightly coloured copper cups. While making coffee, it is optional though, to further flavour it with vanilla pods.The ABC Of Hospitality 157
  • 160. 024A -VARIOUS COFFEE PREPARATIONS SPECIALTY COFFEE NAME OF THE ACCOMPANIMENTS COVER SPECIALTY COFFEE & AT THE SIDE PREPARATIONS GARNISHES ON THE TABLE STATION REMARKS & METHOD OF PREPARATION Vienna Coffee Thickened Cream, Demitasse/ Tea Jug of thickened cream The jug of cream with the coffee pot should be should be Brown or white sugar Cup& tea on an under liner placed on the table after the guest is seated. From the right spoon/coffee spoon hand side of the guest the coffee to be pored into the cup. Sugar -as per occasion, is to be added as per the taste of the guest. Then a spoon of rich sugar basin with thickened cream is floated on the top. tong or tea spoon as per the sugar, Stand for Coffee Pot. Coffee Pona Served Plain Demitasse, coffee Filter Machine Filtered finely spoon Hawaiian Coffee Pineapple Juice & Demitasse, coffee Jug of thickened cream Served cold. Black coffee, with pineapple juice and cream Cream spoon and pineapple juice on an under liner Irish Coffee This beverage is often prepared by the waiter Make a strong black coffee and ensure it is kept hot. Heat a in front of the guest. 18.93 cl. Paris goblet, and place in it the coffee sugar required by the guest. Placing a teaspoon in the goblet to conduct the The mise-en-place will consist of heat and avoid cracking the goblet, pour in the strong black 1) Silver salver coffee. Stir well to dissolve the sugar. Now add a measure of 2) Serviette Irish Whiskey. The liquid should now be within 2 ½ cm. of the 3) 18.93 cl. Paris goblet on an top of the goblet. Pour double cream over the back of the underplate. teaspoon on to the surface of the coffee. Until approx. 1.9 cm 4) Teaspoon thick. Do not stir: the best flavour is obtained by drinking the 5) Jug of double cream coffee and whiskey through the cream. Serve in the goblet, 6) ‘6’ out measure placed on a doily on and underplate, in front of the guest. 7) Coffee pot Note:- 8) Sugar basin or coffee sugar with tea 1) A certain amount of sugar is necessary for it aids in floating spoon. the double cream on the surface of the hot coffee. 9) Bottle of Irish Whiskey. 2) If instead of whiskey, brandy is used in the coffee it is known as “Café Royale”The ABC Of Hospitality 158
  • 161. 024A -VARIOUS COFFEE PREPARATIONSIrish Coffee is a classical example of Liqueur Coffee. In this way various liqueur coffees can be prepared that are listed below. Here thisshould not be confused with Coffee Liqueur. Liqueur Coffees are those coffees in which spirit/alcoholic beverage can be added to coffee tomake a coffee as a hot beverage itself, whereas Coffee Liqueur is liqueurs having coffee flavours.Some classical liqueur coffee spirit/alcoholic base is given below.VARIOUS FORMS OF LIQUEUR COFFEE SL.NO. LIQUEUR COFFEE LIQUEUR/SPIRIT 1 Irish Coffee Irish Whisky 2 Café Royale (Napoleon Cognac Coffee) 3 Caribbean Coffee Rum 4 Balkan Coffee Vodka 5 Calypso Coffee Tia Maria 6 Monks Coffee Benedictine 7 Roman Coffee Galliano 8 Yorkshire Coffee Bronte Liqueur 9 After dinner Coffee Tequila & Kalhua 10 Kentucky Coffee Southern Comfort 11 Bonne Prince Charles Coffee DrambuieThe ABC Of Hospitality 159
  • 162. 025- F & B SERVICE -SERVICE OF BEVERGAES 160Service of Non Tea:Alcoholic Beverages: Tea during breakfast is served in breakfast cups During other times of the day in tea cups. Coffee: Coffee if served during breakfast it is served in breakfast cups. Coffee during other times of the day is served in tae cups. Coffee after dinner is served in demi-tasse. Nourishing Hot Beverages Served in a tall water tumbler Aerated Waters Aerated water can be served on their own, chilled and in either tumbler, Paris Goblets, highball glass or a 34.6 cl. Short stemmed beer glass. They also can be used as mixers with other drinks such as Gin with Tonic or Brandy and Ginger Ale, or Rum and Cola Mineral Waters They are usually drunk of their own for medicinal purposes. However some of these waters may also be mixed with alcoholic beverages to form an appetizing drink. Crush Served chilled in Collins Glass on a doily on and under plate with a stirrer or tea spoon, castor sugar with tea spoon on an under plate (specially for citrus crushes) separately, Extra ice on an ice pail may be served on a under plate with a ice tong. Squash Squashes can be either served on its own with chilled water or soda, mixed with spirits like vodka and orange squash, or made a cocktail, mocktail, or used as base of fruit cups. A measure of squash is poured into a tumbler, or short stemmed beer glass placed on a coaster with ice and topped up with iced water or soda. The edge is decorated with a slice of fruit where applicable. Straws in straw stand, ice in ice tumbler with ice tong. Juice Juice is up with iced water or soda. The edge is decorated with a slice of fruit where applicable. Straws in straw stand, ice in ice tumbler with ice tong. Castor sugar in sugar basin on an under plate with a teaspoon is served separately.The ABC Of Hospitality 160
  • 163. 025- F & B SERVICE -SERVICE OF BEVERGAES 161 Syrup Served as flavouring agents in fruit cups, cocktails, milk shakes or mixed with soda water as a long drink Pulp Served with iced water or soda in a tumbler or goblet placed on a doily upon an under plate with a stirrer or teaspoon. The edge is decorated with a slice of fruit where applicable. Straws in straw stand, ice in ice tumbler with ice tong. Castor sugar in sugar basin on an under plate with a teaspoon is served separately.Service of Non Wines:Alcoholic Beverage Except Fortified and Aromatized Wines, wines are sold in bottles of varying sizes. Service Temperatures: Red Wine: 19° Celsius (65°F )(Room Temperature) White Wine: 11° Celsius (52°F) Rose Wine: 13° - 16° Celsius Sparkling Wines : 8° Celsius, (45°F) Fortified Wines: Generally served at room temperature with exception of Fino Sherry which should be served chilled. Aromatised Wines: These wines are generally served at room temperature. But when served as aperitif wine they should be served chilled. General Rules: a Red wine goes with red meat b White wine goes with white meat c Rose wines goes with red meat. d Champagne can be drunk throughout the course of the meal. e Champagne is a must-drink during any festivals, merry making, celebrations etc. f Fortified wines can be either aperitif wines, or after dinner wines. Sweet Fortified wines can be served as dessert wines. g Aromatised wines are normally aperitif wines. Other Rules to be observed: a Before the service, the wine bottle should always be presented to the host with the label facing towards him to get his service. b Red wine is served in Red Wine Glass,The ABC Of Hospitality 161
  • 164. 025- F & B SERVICE -SERVICE OF BEVERGAES 162 c White Wine is served in White Wine Glass d Champagne is served in Champagne Saucer or Champagne. Tulip, or Champagne Flute e For red and white wines a quantity of 30 ml. should be pored in the host’s wines glass for his approval. f For old red wines, it is customary to keep a decanted handy to separate the crust from the wines. g Champagne and white wines must be presented chilled by placing in a wine bucket three-fourths filled with crushed ice and one fourth with water. The water helps the wine bottle to sink into the ice. h Champagne is usually not sampled before the host. i It is customary to leave the cork of the red wine bottle on a quarter plates to show the name of the vineyard or the year of bottling. j The wine waiter should refill the glasses when the host and his guests finish the drink. k When the bottle is about to finish, the host must be informed discreetly about it so a new bottle can be replenished. l Always change glasses with the change of style in wine Spirits: ( Whisky, Brandy, Rum, Gin, Vodka, Tequila) All spirits sold from off-shops in bottles of 750 ml, 325 ml. (pint) 150ml. (nip). Spirits sold in on-shops in measures- large- 60ml. and small- 30ml. Whisky: Whisky is served in thick bottomed whisky glass which is also called On the Rocks glass or Old fashioned Glass. Whisky can be served a) Neat – when nothing is added to a measure of spirit. b) On the rocks ( when 3-4 cubes of ice added to a large or small peg of neat whisky) c) With ice and chilled water – this gives the actual taste and aroma. d) With soda and ice e) With mineral water – this mellows down its cutting effect. f) With tonic water. g) Whisky is also served with ginger wine. When Scotch is served with ginger wine it is known as Whisky Mac and when with Irish whiskey it is called Whiskey Mic h) As a base for cocktails- e.g. Manhattan, Rob Roy, Whisky Sour, Los Angels, Bobby Burns, etc.The ABC Of Hospitality 162
  • 165. 025- F & B SERVICE -SERVICE OF BEVERGAES 163 Brandy Brandy should be served at room temperature, without ice, in thin glass that can be easily warmed in the hand to enhance the bouquet and flavour. The glass heaters that are used by some establishments for warming the glasses are merely a gimmick and have no use. Brandy balloons are the best glasses to use as they curve narrowly at the top to arrest the aroma from escaping out of the glass and their design enables one to sniff the aroma by their nostrils when the glass is raised to the mouth. Over large balloons are wasteful and pretentious. They not only hinder the concentration of the aroma but also make the measure appear stingy. Brandy can also be served with mixers such as ginger ale, soda, or 7- Up, but some schools proclaim such mixers are only used with cheaper varieties to hoodwink its quality. Brandy also forms as a base of some cocktails, e.g. - Brandy Alexander, Brandy Sour, Rolls Royce, Brandy Collins, Between the Sheets, etc. Rum: Rum is served in plain tumblers, Collins glass, etc. In rum producing countries Rum is drunk straight. They can be also mixed with cola, soda, water, etc. In USA it is chiefly used as cocktails, such as Daiquiri, Planter’s Punch, etc. Rum is extensively used in cooking, specially sauces for desserts, and candies. Rum is also used for flavouring tobacco. Gin Served in Collins glass. It may be drunk straight, or mixed with lime cordial, or gin-lime, when a slice of lime is put at the bottoms of the glass It may be used in cocktails as Gimlet, Pink lady, Dry Martini, etc. Vodka Vodka is a flavourless, colourless spirit. Vodka when served neat it should be chilled served in a chilled frosted toto glass. It was earlier customary to smash the glass after drinking, but this custom is abandoned for cost control purposes. Neat vodka is preferred with Caviar, a classical hors d’oeuvre. Vodka can be also mixed with water, iced water, soda and ice, tonic water, and served in large narrow tumblers.The ABC Of Hospitality 163
  • 166. 025- F & B SERVICE -SERVICE OF BEVERGAES 164 Tequila The art of drinking tequila is ceremonious. It is taken neat and straight in one gulp, from a toto glass, with lime wedge and salt. It can also be used in cocktails- e.g. Margarita. Liqueurs: Liqueurs are served after dinner. They are served in liqueur glass and are sold per glass. A liqueur trolley in a restaurant, which can be wheeled up to the guests’ table, is a good form of advertisement for selling liqueurs. It is customary to change glasses whenever fresh liqueurs are being served. Beer: Beer can be served any time of the day, any day of the season of the year, with almost any food. To mark any occasion or regret the absence of any. Service Temperature: Lager: 7° Celsius Ale: 10° Celsius. Beer should be served with a gentle collar of froth round the rim of a glass. For Bottled Beer: Served in Beer Glass, Goblet, and mug schooner. For Draught Beer: Served in Beer Tankard (made us of Pewter)The ABC Of Hospitality 164
  • 168. 026-HOUSEKEEPING- ORGANISTAION & OPERATIONThe Objectives of The objective of this department is to provide clean, safe, hygienicHousekeeping environment and maintain the aesthetic standard of the hotel.The Sections under The various sections with which the Housekeeping department is made upHousekeeping of and their respective functions are as below : Depending on the size of the hotels these sections may vary, or some of these sections may combine together under one section. In a moderately sized hotel the sections are: Section Function Housekeeping This is the housekeeping control hub from where the entire housekeeping Control desk operation is controlled. It is from here all the information are sent and received to all the concerning departments and the concerned sections are informed and directed accordingly. It is manned by the housekeeping supervisor. All guest calls concerning complaints about the accommodation facilities, their requests are attended and actions taken accordingly. It controls the floor master keys. Various records and registers are maintained concerning cleaning operations, room set ups etc and also lost & found records are maintained by the desk. Linen Store This is the room where the current linen is stored for issue and receipt. It is the central depot for all linen – bed sheets, towels, curtains, table cloths, napkins, etc. and from it sufficient clean articles, in good condition, are distributed throughout the house. Depending upon the house custom the operation may vary. But broadly, linen room is responsible for receiving soiled linen, inspecting and sending them for washing. The time of operation is usually 8.00 hours to 17.00 hours or may operate in set hours – usually twice a day. Therefore there may be a sub store with each floor of the hotel or an F&B Linen Store to handle emergency requirements. In some establishments the linen room is aided by: a) Laundry: The laundry may be outsourced also but the quality of laundering is under the strict supervision of the Linen Room Supervisor. b) Tailor room: This sub-section takes care of the stitching and mending of usable linen and also concerned with making of new furnishings- curtains, sofa covers, bed sheets, table cloths as per standard drawing given to them. c) Linen Store: Concerned with storage of linen cloths and new linen for issue to various departments. 165 The ABC Of Hospitalityhe lazy dog and killed
  • 169. 026-HOUSEKEEPING- ORGANISTAION & OPERATION House It stores all small things required in a hotel room. keeping Supply Store Flower Room It takes care of the flower arrangements in various sections of the hotels. Floor Pantry Each guest floor there is a floor pantry. This is the sections where the chamber maids / boys will be stationed and can be contacted when required through telephones. It keeps the guest supplies and cleaning supplies of the floors. It also has provision for storage of linen and cleaning equipments- vacuum cleaners, trolleys, etc. The floor pantry is connected by “Chute”. A chute is a pipe that connects the senders’ and the receivers’ end. It acts by the principle of gravity or pneumatical suction and it is a mode of easy transportation of materials from one end to another. Usually in floor pantry there are two types of chutes- a) Laundry chute connecting the floor pantry and the linen room. b) Garbage chute – connecting the floor pantry and the refuse dumping area. Horticulture It keeps Store a) Various Gardening Equipments – lawn mowers, rakes, pots spades, buckets, pipes, water sprinklers and sprayers. b) Fertilisers: Urea, minerals, bone dusts, etc. Lost & Found This room stores all the lost articles of the guest that are found in rooms and Section public areas. Pest Control This section is concerned of fighting and controlling various insects and pests and rodents– cockroaches, spiders, rats etc.Key Control Apart form the guest keys which are issued to the guest upon arrival and controlled by the front desk upon their exit temporarily or permanently from the hotel, there are two more types of keys. 1. Floor Master Keys: It opens all the locks of the hotels of a particular floor. These keys are controlled by the control desk and are issued to the shift supervisor after a signature is obtained on the register. 2. Hotel Master Keys: It opens all the locks of the hotel. It has two sets. One is maintained by the cashier and the other is kept by the control desk. 166 The ABC Of Hospitalityhe lazy dog and killed
  • 170. 026-HOUSEKEEPING- ORGANISTAION & OPERATIONThe Housekeeping Staff The duties and responsibilities of a house keeping staff are as below:& their Duties &Responsibilities Executive She is required to coordinate the function of the Housekeeping staff and is Housekeeper responsible and finally accountable for the cleanliness and maintenance of the hotel. Assistant These personnel are responsible for managing the resources as per the Housekeeper. direction to be forwarded by the executive housekeeper. The responsibility of this particular post includes the cleanliness, maintenance and attractiveness of the hotel. Public Area The garden, the portico, the lobby, the staircase, the corridors between the Supervisor. rooms is the public areas. This person is allocated with the duty of looking after the cleanliness of these areas along with the outlets and the offices. Linen room She is solely responsible for acquisition, storage, issue and cleanliness of Supervisor. linen in its various forms. Desk Control This person’s responsibility is to receive all complaints, information, etc., Supervisor and communicate them to the other concerned housekeeping staff and to other concerned departments. Floor Is responsible for cleanliness, maintenance and attractiveness of the guest Supervisor floor, staircases, corridors, guest rooms, etc. Night Responsible for handling any aspect of housekeeping at night. Supervisor Uniform These personnel are closely associated with the Linen Room Supervisor Supervisors limiting her attention towards the staff uniform. Laundry They comprise of Laundry clerk, washers, calendar operators, washing Personnel machine operators etc., under the supervision of linen room supervisor and the linen room attendants. Helpers These personnel are found in Laundry, Linen Room, Uniform room assisting the operation by doing manual work in transporting linen, counting, etc. Room They comprise of chambermaids and room boys. They are involved in Attendants cleaning or guest rooms and the bathrooms. Housemen Responsible for carrying out heavy physical cleaning required in guest rooms and public areas. 167 The ABC Of Hospitalityhe lazy dog and killed
  • 171. 026-HOUSEKEEPING- ORGANISTAION & OPERATION Cloak Room Responsible for cleaning, for cleanliness, maintenance and service in public Attendants areas. Horticulturist This person ensures smooth supply of natural beauty with respect to gardening, plantations, flowering of plants, provide consultation of upkeep of outdoor and indoor plants, the spraying of manures etc., to the gardener. Head Supervision of his gardening brigade. Gardener Gardeners They are involved in the actual work of digging, planting , watering of the plants, mowing of the grass, maintenance of outdoor and indoor plants, etc.The Functions of the The functions of the housekeeping department can be broadly divided intoHousekeepingDepartment 1) Cleaning Activities: a) This is the basic job of housekeeping. They comprise of room cleaning. For this they have to employ various cleaning equipments and cleaning agents. b) To achieve highest form of service here one must have knowledge on chemical constituents of the stains and how they are removed. c) Here the laundry and linen room is also taken into account so that bed sheets, towels, serviettes, tablecloths, any linen is spotlessly clean when given to a guest. d) The Pest Control section also becomes a concern while considering the cleaning activities by the department. 2) Upkeep and Designing of various Room interiors: The expertise included here are: a) Knowledge on various surfaces- plastics, bakelite, leather, glass, sunmica. b) Various room and sanitary fittings. c) Floorings and floor finishes. d) Carpets e) Wall coverings f) Fabrics g) Furniture. h) Upholstery & soft furnishing i) Beds and beddings. 3) Other Miscellaneous Functions: They can be like providing valuable supports in theme nights, banquet arrangements, maintenance of records of lost and found guest articles, etc. 168 The ABC Of Hospitalityhe lazy dog and killed
  • 172. 026-HOUSEKEEPING- ORGANISTAION & OPERATIONThe Housekeeping After the housekeeping floor supervisors are allotted with the floors alongCleaning Operations – with their team of room attendants they would come to their respectiveThe Cleaning Suppliesand the equipments. floor and arrange their equipments needed to clean the rooms. The equipments are a) A housekeepers caddie b) Trolley A caddie is a handheld carrying case that can be easily brought into the guest’s room. A caddie will be ideally made up of Glass cleaner Bathroom cleaner Multipurpose cleaner Bath amenities – shampoo, conditioners, soaps, etc. This is put in the trolley which would carry towels, bed sheets, glasses tumblers, vacuum cleaners and other items required to clean the room. Each night these trolleys and caddies are restocked by the floor supervisor and the attendants to the trolleys and caddies stationed in their own floor so that the morning staff do not have any difficulty in preparing themselves for cleaning. After the room is cleaned the housekeeping supervisor would check the room with respects to: Cleanliness Maintenance Problems Bathrooms Guest supplies in the rooms Supplies in the Bathrooms Linen. In addition there are room inspectors who check the rooms in random to find out if anything has gone out of notice and the concerned floor supervisor and the chamber maid is asked to replenish them immediately.The Cleaning Schedules Basically there are three types of cleaning: a) Regular Cleaning: It comprises of those areas which are cleaned daily. The rooms, lobby, outlets are the best example where the regular cleaning is required. b) Periodical cleaning: Cleaning of those areas which are not soiled Regularly. Example the fountain in the 169 The ABC Of Hospitalityhe lazy dog and killed
  • 173. 026-HOUSEKEEPING- ORGANISTAION & OPERATION garden, or marbles walls near the elevator. However to perform the routine cleaning a register maintaining the records of when such areas last cleaned is maintained. c) Spring Cleaning: It includes complete renovation of rooms right from changing its colour schemes, décor, theme, lighting arrangements, etc. It is believed that the word has been derived from the season “spring” which sets the people to action after a long lifeless winter months. Layout of Guest Room Curtained Glass Window TV Study Bed Side Table Table Sofas & Dresser Centre table Double Bed Mini Bar Luggage & Shoe Rack Bed Side Table Wash Room Double Wardrobe CorridorCorridor Door Electrical Switch Board Toilet Door T 170 The ABC Of Hospitalityhe lazy dog and killed
  • 174. 026-HOUSEKEEPING- ORGANISTAION & OPERATIONThe Guest supplies & The amenities and the number & type of guest supplies would vary fromamenities in a Guest hotel to hotel, depending upon the standard and the type of clientele.Room - The general supplies that are provided are: Groups Items Clothes & Bathroom slippers, Hands free audio, Shower Cap, Accessories Bathrobe, etc. Stationeries Pens, Pencils, Erasers, Writing Pad, Envelopes, Consumable Small Bottles- Beer, Alcoholic Beverages, Soft Beverages – Drinks, Mineral Water, Packaged Drinking Water. complimentary or Hot Beverages- sachet of Tea, Coffee, Drinking chargeable Chocolates with Sugar and Milk sachet. Other Packed products. Bathroom They include:- Hand Soap, Toilet Soap, Supplies Shampoos, Moisturisers, Tooth Brush, Tooth Paste, Shaving Cream, Razor, Shaving Blades, etc. The Arrangement of Guest Rooms The amenities and the layout of the room is: A: Bedroom 1. The room opens from a corridor. 2. At the entrance of the room is a narrow passage which is called the vestibule. 105 104 C 3. At one side there would be provisions for keeping shoes and luggage. O 4. Opposite to it lie the bathroom and the switch panel. R 5. Continuing down the room, one side will open up to a space and the 106 103 other side will be walled. R 6. The side where the wall is there, there will be: I a) Mini bar keeping all alcoholic, non alcoholic beverages and D packaged items; on top of which the arrangements for tea and 107 102 O coffee will be kept R b) A dresser consisting of a large sized mirror and a rack will be next. 108 101 c) The study table- which would have – stationeries, study lamp, year planner. In the drawer there will be candle, candle stand Key and a match box. Room No. 7. At the rear end of the room from the corner of the one end of the wall to the other would be a curtained window. Usually there would be two types of curtains. 101 Door a) Heavy Curtain: These are used in night to prevent the room being seen from the dark when the light in the room are switched on. b) Sheer Curtain: The ones which are light in nature and are used 171 The ABC Of Hospitalityhe lazy dog and killed
  • 175. 026-HOUSEKEEPING- ORGANISTAION & OPERATION during the day time to allow the sunlight to come in. 8. At the center, just after the study table there would be a sofa and a coffee table. On the table there may be a flower vase with flowers, or flower and fruit basket with a welcome note, cookie tray, tent cards, magazine, newspaper, ashtray, and matchbox. 9. The other corner of the room there will be a television set. 10. Bed side Table: Depending on the number of beds there would be the number of such tables. For a single room there would be only one for a twin or double room there would be two. The Bedside tables would have the phone, lamp, in-house and outside telephone directory, room service menu card, The Holy Bible/Gita/Quoran – holy books, scratch pads, pen, ash tray with match box room service breakfast menu cards, etc. 11. Bed – it will be covered with pillows and mattresses and bed sheets. There would be lamp fittings at the top over the wall near the head rest. On each side of the bed there would be mattresses with slippers. 12. Wardrobe with hangars – for keeping guest clothes. It would also have extra pillows and blankets inside. 13. A rack for face towels. 14. Rack for hanging bathrobe. B: Bathroom 1. The bathrooms would have a wash basin with provision for keeping the bathroom supplies. 2. Water closet with a sanitizing wrap stuck or attached which says “sanitized for your protection.” 3. Bidet- a low wash basin attached with taps and faucet that allows one to sit and clean his bottom. 4. Bathtub which includes shower curtain, bath soap, shampoo, conditioner bubble bath, bathmat, towel rack with bath towels, hand shower, running hot and cold water. 5. Depending upon the standard there may be provision for steam and sauna baths.The VIP supplies & In the Room:amenities in a VIP Guest a Bathrobe with the guest’s name embroidered on it.Room Full bar set-up in form of full fledged bar with premium beverages in bigger sized bottles, fridge and working table, coffee table, appropriate beverage glasses. b Personalised stationeries, with the VIP’s name printed on the envelope, writing pad, etc c Elaborate flower arrangement. d Big elaborate fruit basket, cookie/chocolate platter. e Welcome note on tent card specially signed by the general Manager. In the Bathroom: 172 The ABC Of Hospitalityhe lazy dog and killed
  • 176. 026-HOUSEKEEPING- ORGANISTAION & OPERATION a Special Toiletries which includes expensive soaps with choices, after shaves and perfume bottles. b Extra luxurious bath towels with the name of the guest embroidered on it.Room Cleaning The best sequence is:Procedures a) Switch of all electrical gadgets – air conditioners, room warmers electrical fans sound systems, etc. b) Draw the curtains; open the windows to air the room. c) Turn mattresses side to side on the following day followed by end to end. Smooth out the mattresses to air it and make the bed for the day. d) Remove all soiled linen from bed and bath and dump in the linen hamper ensuring there is no guest articles trapped within those linen. e) Check the equipments; if there be any disorders, report it to the maintenance. f) If the guest has departed, check nay lost and found articles and report the same to the Control Desk. g) Inform Room service to clear any soiled trays lying in the room. h) If the cleaning is not done by vacuum cleaner then brush the carpet first to enable the dust to settle while doing the other tasks. i) Clean the bathroom. j) Empty all ashtrays into the waste bin. k) Collect other trash papers from the table and throw then into the waste bin. l) Arrange guest clothes if they are lying outside in the wardrobe. m) Re-arrange all loose pares and magazines on the desk. n) Clean all the surfaces by applying circular motion with a dry cloth specially the corners. o) Collect dust in a dust pan without lifting dust in the air. p) Use stiff brush or vacuum cleaner for cleaning upholstered furniture arms, backs and seats. q) Dust and replace each item on the dresser top. Special attention must be given on display or publicity materials. r) Replace stationeries as prescribed by the management. s) Clean the lamp shades with clean, dry duster. t) Disinfect the telephone and check its dial tone. u) Dust closet, shelves, hangers, and rods. v) Supply new laundry bags w) Dust both sides of all room doors, base boards, window sill, inside and out. x) Close the windows. y) If the vacuum cleaner is used it may be used now for vacuuming the carpet as against brushing the carpet as told earlier. z) Before giving the last look, switch on the air conditioner or room warmer at the minimum for rooms cleaned after the guest has checked out; or else, if the guest is staying in the room leave the temperature as it was set by the guest. 173 The ABC Of Hospitalityhe lazy dog and killed
  • 177. 026-HOUSEKEEPING- ORGANISTAION & OPERATION Placed right side down Placed right side up Blanket Bed sheet (2) Bed sheet (1) Mattress with Protector Constituents of a Normal Guest’s Bed 174 The ABC Of Hospitalityhe lazy dog and killed
  • 178. 026-HOUSEKEEPING- ORGANISTAION & OPERATIONThe make up of a Bed A guest’s bed consists of the following in the order, from bottom, as& below:The Bed MakingProcedure 1. Mattress 2. A protector on top as a cover 3. A bed sheet right side facing up 4. Second bed sheet with the right side facing down 5. Blanket. The Bed making procedure: a) Remove the soiled sheets and pillow cases and shake out individually. b) Turn out mattress c) Shake out the mattress protector and relay it on the mattress. Change if smelling or soiled. d) Open out a fresh bed sheet, spread firmly over the mattress, taking care, the centre crease runs through the middle. Tuck it securely at the head, the foot and the sides. e) Open out fresh top sheet and distribute it over the lower bed sheet, with its topside facing downwards. Pull the sheet towards the headboard and tuck it at it foot. f) Open out the blanket and spread it all through evenly, ensuring the label of the blanket is at the bottom. Pull it up by 4 inches from the headboard. g) Give one fold of the top bed sheet over the blanket and fold the sheet with the blanket once again. h) Tuck the blanket and the sheet at the sides and the corners at the foot are folded after being mitred. i) Cover pillows with fresh pillow slips. Fluff the pillow and even out pillow slips. j) Cover the completed bed with bed spread ensuring the right side is facing up and the sides are falling out evenly. Keep extra bed spread towards the head board to crease in between the pillows so as to make it look appealing. k) Fold the extra blanket so that the hotel’s logo appears at the top. Place it in a plastic bag and keep it in the upper or lowermost shelf of the wardrobe.The Evening Service- The turndown service is a service done in the evening to make the roomTurndown Service look warm and inviting to the guest. The common procedure is: 1. Check if the DND (Do Not Disturb) board is not hanging from the knob. 2. Knock at the door and enter as per the prescribed procedure. 3. Check all the bulbs are functioning. 175 The ABC Of Hospitalityhe lazy dog and killed
  • 179. 026-HOUSEKEEPING- ORGANISTAION & OPERATION 4. Draw the heavy curtains 5. Tidy guest clothes if they are lying out and hang them in the wardrobe. 6. Take off bed cover, fold neatly and store in the room cupboard either in the topmost or in the lowermost shelf. 7. Fold one corner of the blanket to enable the guest to slide into the bed. 8. Place the breakfast doorknob card, rosettes, and chocolates on the pillow. 9. Remove soiled glasses and bottles if any. 10. Replenish the water flask with drinking water. 11. Replace soiled towels. 12. Empty and clean ashtrays and waste baskets. 13. Replace missing toiletries and other supplies. 14. Turn of all lights except the passage lamp/night lamp as prescribed. 15. Put on a soft music to play. 16. Lock the door properly. 176 The ABC Of Hospitalityhe lazy dog and killed
  • 181. 027-FOOD PRODUCTION- ORGANISATIONIntroduction The type of staff arrangement in a kitchen depends upon the type of outlet and the menu it serves. As for example, a multi cuisine restaurant will have more elaborate kitchen having more sections than a particular ethnic restaurant serving dishes of a particular region. The sections of a kitchen can be according to the requirement: The sections of a large restaurant are:a)Larder/ This is the cold section of the kitchen. Garde Manger: The purpose it serves are i) Storage of perishable food materials both raw and cooked, where food as meat, fish, games are prepared and made ready for cooking. This section has a butcher who prepares and dresses the meat and poultry and a fishmonger who does the de-scaling, filleting and crumbing of fish. ii) Area for preparation and dressing of raw materials. iii) Area for preparation and dressing of cold hors d’oeuvres, cold dish or meat dishes, cold salads, dishes for cold buffet, etc. The Section is headed by Cold Cook (Chef de Froids).b)Sauce Section The functions of this section are: i) Providing all meat, and poultry, game and offal dishes with exception of those that are plain, roasted or grilled. ii) All meat dishes are cooked and garnished. iii) Provide all basic and finished sauces served hot, that are generally required by all the parties in the kitchen. iv) Preparation of dishes that come under “Plat du Jour” Menu. v) Preparation through cooking methods such as braising and boiling. vi) Mise-en-place for the dishes on the Banquet Menu. The section is headed by Sauce Cook (Chef Saucier).c) Roast Section The functions of this section are: i) Providing all roast dishes of meat, poultry and game. ii) Preparation of grilled dishes of meat, chicken offal and fish iii) Preparation of a number of dishes, including fish, which require roasting and grilling. iv) Deep fat frying of food items. v) Preparation and finishing of savouries. The section is headed by Roast Cook (Chef Rôtisseur). The grilled dishes are however delegated to the Grill Cook The ABC Of Hospitality 178
  • 182. 027-FOOD PRODUCTION- ORGANISATIONd)Fish Section This section is responsible for: i) Provision of all fish dishes with exceptions of those that plain, grilled or deep fried. ii) As a part of mise en place a) The preparation of the following basic sauces: béchamel, white wine sauce, fish veloute, hollandaise and melted butter. b) Preparation of a number of garnishes, which are required to be done before the service in each service period. As there are so many varied preparations of fish dishes, the mise en place got to be very extensive. This helps in preparation of number of dishes like meunière and poached. The section is headed by Fish Cook (Chef Poissonnier).e) Vegetable The vegetable section Section i) Prepares and dresses, which involves cutting in different shapes and sizes according to the requirement, peeling, cleaning and trimming, the vegetables for cooking ii) Prepares all vegetable dishes that are served separately as a course. iii) Before each service period, everyday, prepare, cook and refresh various quantities of vegetables and keep them in the refrigerator. iv) Cooks different types of potato dishes, finished at varying degrees and are kept ready before service. v) Prepares vegetable garnishes and transferring them to other sections. vi) Cooks various savoury egg dishes specially omelettes of various types – plain, garnished, stuffed and flat round. vii) Prepares Italian pastas, except noodles. Items like spaghetti, rice, macaroni are prepared here and send to other sections for garnishes. The mise en place of this section is carried out according to the menu requirements. The section is headed by Vegetable Cook (Chef Légumier).f) Soup Section The responsibility of this section is to i) Prepare all basic stocks. ii) Prepare all soups such as consommés, broths, puree, veloute, cream, chowder and bisque. iii) Prepare cold soups and consommés and pass to the larder for service. The garnishes come from the larder and vegetable section. The section is headed by Soup Cook (Chef Potager)g)Indian Section The Indian Section is responsible for preparation of various Indian dishes. The section may be sub-divided into sub-sections according to the dishes mentioned on the menu. The sub sections can be The ABC Of Hospitality 179
  • 183. 027-FOOD PRODUCTION- ORGANISATION All sorts of Indian breads (chappaties, phulka, poories, bhathura) and rice and rice dishes- (pulao, biriyani, khushka), etc. Vegetables (bhajees and curies). Meat (including egg dishes). Tandoor (Seekh kebab, boti kebab, Tandoori chicken, Indian breads – nan, kulcha, Tandoori roti.) Indian sweets (Halwai) – (jalebis, rasgullas, rabri, malai). Further more a huge part of the Indian population is vegetarian. Keeping such requirement in view there can be a sub-division of Vegetarian Section and Non-Vegetarian Section. The section is headed by Indian Cook (Chef Indienne). The sweet cook is known as Halwai Cook.h)Pastry Section The work of this section is normally separated from the main kitchen and is independent in the matter of cold storage. The functions include preparations of: i) All hot and cold sweets comprising of puddings and soufflés for lunch and dinner. ii) Pastries and cakes for afternoon tea and other occasions. iii) Various pastries – short crust and puff – patties and pastry cases for stuffing of various savoury dishes, for the sauce and the vegetable section. iv) Frying batters for making noodles which is passed on to other sections. v) Sorbets and water –ice. vi) Ice creams and ice cream based dishes, excluding ice cream based beverages. vii) Sweet omelets, coloured sugars for garnishes in cakes or to make flower baskets, icing sugars, fondants, and other forms of various sugar based decorations. viii) Where such section has a bakery then preparation of Bread rolls for lunch and dinner and various types of bread- white and brown, croissants, muffins, etc. for breakfast, which is passed over to the still room for dispensing during those service periods. The section is headed by Pastry Chef (Chef Patisserie). Where there is a bakery there would be a Master Baker (Chef Boulanger). The ABC Of Hospitality 180
  • 184. 027-FOOD PRODUCTION- ORGANISATIONThe Duties of Various Production Staffa) The Executive He is the head of the kitchen. The word “chef” in English means Chef King. He carries the full responsibility and must be a person who can hold command both in administration and also production of various dishes. He is the departmental head and is responsible to the management with respect to: a) Maintaining the food cost and work in accordance with the policy of the organisation. b) Staffing and organisation of duty rosters, c) Requisitioning selection, and dismissal of staff in consultation with the HR- department. If required he should train the cook(s). d) Aid the Materials Department with purchase of kitchen raw materials by appraising them with information like standard specifications, price, quantity to be delivered, etc. e) Maintaining the quality of food and its presentation.b) Sous Chef The functions of Sous Chef are: i) Assisting the Head Chef in all respects. ii) Supervising the service in the kitchen. iii) Organizing efficient day to day service in the kitchen. iv) In absence of Chef he can re-orgainise the roster to relieve pressure. In large organisation there can be a number of sous chefs, especially where there are separate kitchens like grill room, restaurant, banquet service, etc.c) Chef de Partie Each section of a kitchen like roast, soup, vegetable there is a Chef de Partie, under whom there are cooks like roast cook, vegetable cook etc., commis, porters to assist. All the chef de parties may be regarded as the supervisors or foreman of the section who can supervise and cook.d) Barker This person is responsible for calling out the order to different sections and co-ordinate the service between the kitchen hot plate and the food service outlets.e) Sauce Cook The cook is responsible for making various sauces and prepares meat dishes that do not undergo roasting or grilling. He is the future Sous Chef and may be the Head Chef in the making.f) Roast Cook He is responsible for all roast and grills of meat, poultry and game, grilled and deep fried fish, deep fried vegetable, potatoes andThe ABC Of Hospitality 181
  • 185. 027-FOOD PRODUCTION- ORGANISATION savouries. He prepares sauces and accompaniments for roasts and grills. In large establishments there may be a separate grill cook who would work under the supervision of roast cook.g) Fish Cook The fish cook prepares all the preparation of fish except those which are deep fried and grilled. The fish prepared for cooking may come from the larder and the Chef here does the cooking, garnishing, saucing and the dishing of the fish.h) Soup Cook The soup cook prepares all type of soups and is responsible for its garnishes accompanying it. He may have to start his work early and commands an important position because the soup give an impression to the customer the about the type of preparation of the other dishes to follow.i) Larder Cook The larder involves a wide range of work and the larder cook is the busiest chef. The larder has various sections, viz. the cold kitchen, butchery, and store, in each where the larder cook has to supervise. Apart from storing various prepared and raw food materials of the kitchen, he also has to supply various carcasses of butcher’s meat, poultry, game and fish cleaned and dressed according to the specification. Providing with hors d’oeuvres, cold consommés, sandwiches and canapés, cold buffet, salads etc. from the cold kitchen is also his responsibility.j) Vegetable He is responsible for production of various vegetable dishes and Cook potatoes.k) Pastry Cook The pastry cook commands a different status which is no less than the larder or the sauce cook. He works independently and his job is specialized. He prepares hot and cold puddings, cakes, pastries, breads, bread rolls, etc. he is also responsible for making various decorative objects from sugars and also for supply items of pastries to the main kitchen.l) Banquet Cook In many large hotels banqueting is a regular and prominent feature that earns a considerable amount of business. Therefore, it becomes necessary to have a separate brigade consisting of a Banquet Chef assisted by one or two commis. Though there may be a separate section for the banqueting chef to work, but sometimes he may have to move his service staff from one point to another, like he may have some cold buffet display to be prepared at the larder, and then he may have to come to the Pastry for to complete a sweet dish. While carrying out his job he is required to a) Co-ordinate with the banquet manager and organize the service.The ABC Of Hospitality 182
  • 186. 027-FOOD PRODUCTION- ORGANISATION b) Know the time for the party, number of persons attending the function, special dishes required and any special instructions that are with the waiters. c) Co ordinate with the Chefs de Partie with supplying of various dishes. d) Provide with the dishes and service on time e) Ascertain the number of dishes coming from various sections. f) Know what dishes are finishing and replenishing the same while the service is on. g) Make necessary arrangements to carry out completion at service points.m) Relief Cook The relief cook takes over the duty in a section when its chef goes for leave or has his day off. This person is usually a senior commis having capability and knowledge of various dishes prepared in various sections.n) Breakfast The breakfast cook starts his day early. He is not in the rank of chef Cook de Partie but he is required to be skilled enough within his limited field. He is responsible for the breakfast service. After the breakfast service is over he makes the mise en place for the service for the following morning. Apart from his breakfast duties he may also assist the soup and the vegetable cook.o) Staff Cook In smaller establishments the duty meals for the staff is prepared by different chefs de partie. In large hotels there is a separate kitchen that prepares the meals. The food is meant for lower or supervisory staff. The executives eat their meals in restaurants. While preparing meals the chef must see that the dish is wholesome but inexpensive. Staff. It may be noted here that nowadays such requirement is being looked after by a staff canteen.p) Kitchen Porter This section is responsible for carrying out various duties apart from cooking, as and when required. It is headed by the head porter who controls the issue and collection of kitchen linen – staff uniform, dusters, etc., from the laundry. Although the job require a very little skill, but nevertheless by proper training and monitoring they can become a valuable member of the brigade.q) Commis The commis are those who have joined after graduating themselves from catering schools. The lowest category being commis III form where they are required to come to the position of commis I. Apprentices are those who join without any qualifications.The ABC Of Hospitality 183
  • 187. 028A FOOD PRODUCTION- THE METHODS OF FOOD PREPARATION & COOKINGAims & Objects The cooking renders the food toof Cooking A be Sterilized – The growth of bacteria flash rapidly as the food reaches the temperature of 40° Celsius and is finally muted when the food is subjected to a temperature of 45°. B be Easily Complex foods are often split into simpler Digested – substances during cooking. This helps the body to absorb and utilize the food more easily and readily than raw food. C be Palatable The food substances taste better when cooked. D be Attractive in It makes the food look better and hence make it Appearance appetizing. E be in Variety It brings variety. Many types of dishes can be prepared with the same basic ingredient. F provide a Various ingredients that are added combine Balanced Meal together to provide the human body with nutrients in balanced proportion.The Cooking The ingredients that are used in cooking include:Materials A Foundation Ingredients – The food contain certain nutrients which may be present in varying proportions or a particular a particular nutrient may be only present which are essential for human body. They include carbohydrates, proteins, fats, minerals & vitamins whish act differently according to their characteristics when hear is applied. B Cooking Medium: They are fat, water etc in which the food is cooked. C Raising Agent: They consist of materials which incorporates the air inside the food and allows it to be light and fluffy. D Eggs: The uses of eggs are numerous. Apart from adding to the nutritive value of the food or improve the flavour and colour or even used to decorate a dish, they also can be used as below: i) When beaten they incorporate air and when that is added to the food the food is light. ii) It is used as binding agent iii) As thickening agent The ABC Of Hospitality 185
  • 188. 028A FOOD PRODUCTION- THE METHODS OF FOOD PREPARATION & COOKING iv) As a coating in fried foods. v) As an enrichment of a dish. E Salt: The uses of salts are: i) Provide with a mineral that is essential for the body, ii) They improve the taste of the dish, iii) Softens certain food, iv) Acts as preservative v) It speeds in coagulation of protein vi) Lowers the freezing point and increases the boiling point of a substance. F Liquid: The uses are: i) Binds dry ingredients together ii) Helps the food to mix together and give uniformity to the dish. G Flavourings & seasonings: It accounts for the taste of the food. H Sweetening: This is not as essential as salt but the lack of it will affect the texture of the food. I Thickening: These items make gravies thick and give the desired consistency.Texture By texture it is meant to what extent the food is crispy, soft, hard etc.The Methods of The Different methods by which a food can be cooked are:Cooking A Roasting Cooking on open fire where the food is brought in direct contact with the flame (barbeque) or cooking in a closed chamber (in an oven) where the food is subjected under open heat with fat. B Baking Cooking of food by hot air in closed oven. C Frying Cooking of food by direct contact with hot fat or oil. There are three types of cooking: Shallow frying: Cooking in very little fat or oil. Deep Fat frying: Cooking food where the food is submerged in fat. Sauté: Its stir frying where the fat is just smeared on the utensil where the food is cooked. The ABC Of Hospitality 186
  • 189. 028A FOOD PRODUCTION- THE METHODS OF FOOD PREPARATION & COOKING D Boiling Food is cooked surrounded by boiling water or any liquid. E Poaching Cooking food in very little water. F Steaming Cooking food by steam. G Stewing Gentle method of cooking food in closed pan in a small quantity of liquid. H Smoking Cooking food by smoke. The smoke imparts flavour an increases it shelf life. I Braising This is a combined method of roasting and stewing. In a closed pan with a tight fitting lid. J Grilling Cooking food under a direct heat in a griller. K Broiling Cooking food by direct heat in a pan where the heat comes from the bottom.The ABC Of Hospitality 187
  • 190. 028B-FOOD PRODUCTION- THE BASIC COOKERY- STOCKS, SOUPS, GRAVIES & SAUCESStock Stock is an unsalted flavoured & nutritious liquid extracted from meat, fish or vegetables and are used as foundation for sauces, soups and stews. They are made by simmering the ingredients in water on a slow fire overnight for about 12 hours and continuously the scum formed is being removed till all the nutrients are extracted. Mainly fresh bones of meat with portions of fat removed, cuttings from fish or peels of vegetables are used. Depending on what ingredients used they are termed as Meat stock, Fish stock or Vegetable stock. The liquor thus obtained is separated either by decantation or strained by passing through a sieve. There are two basic stocks: (a) White Stock: Discarded, but not stale bones are added to cold water. As flavouring peels of carrots, onions, bay leaf, parsley, etc are added. The mixture is simmered submerged in cold water. Whole vegetables and aromatic agents are added to flavour. E.g. of Stock: Chicken Stock, Veal Stock, etc. Uses: Soups: – Chicken Velouté Soup, Velouté oh White Bait, etc. Sauces:- Velouté Sauce, Court Bouillon (poaching liquor for fish), Cucumber sauce (b) Brown Stock: The bones are fried or roasted and then submerged in cold water with other aromatic ingredients – parsley, carrots, bay leaf etc. The colour imparted is brown and hence called as Brown Stock. E.g. of Stock: Beef Brown Stock, Mutton Brown Stock, etc. Uses: Soups: – Any Consomme, French Onion Soup etc. Sauces:- Espagnole Sauce, Devilled Sauce, Brown Chaud- froid Sauce.Gravies Gravies are basic liquid foundation in Indian Cookery. They are of three basic types – White, Tomato (Red) & Brown. a) White Gravy: 1. Grind dry together: cashew, peanuts and bread. 2. Grind wet together: onion, ginger, chilies, and poppy seeds with milk. 3. Heat fat in a heavy pan; add onion mixture, sauté for 3-4 minutes. 4. Add curds and cook, stirring continuously till whiteness of curds disappears. 5. Add milk, bring to a boil, add sugar, salt, dry mixture, spice powder, cream. 6. Stir gently till boil resumes. Add vegetables, etc. at this stage. 7. Cook covered for few minutes till thickened. 8. Garnish with grated cheese, coriander and cherries E.g. Chicken Shajahani, Mutton Rezalla, Mirchi ka Salaan, etc. The ABC Of Hospitality 188
  • 191. 028B-FOOD PRODUCTION- THE BASIC COOKERY- STOCKS, SOUPS, GRAVIES & SAUCES b) Red Tomato Gravy: 1. Dry roast peanuts or cashews lightly. Dry grind coarsely. 2. Semi puree of tomatoes and capsicum together. This should be done in a food chopper or grated. 3. Chop onions very fine or run in a chopper. 4. Heat oil or ghee in a heavy pan. 5. Add ginger garlic and stir for a moment. 6. Add onions and stir fry till light pink. 7. Add tomato capsicum puree, stir bring to boil. 8. Add all other masalas, salt, sugar and crushed nuts. Stir. 9. Add veggies at this stage. Mix. 10. Cover and simmer till gravy is thick and fat starts separating. 11. Garnish with coriander before serving. E.g. Chicken Butter Masalla, Paneer Butter Masalla, etc. c) Brown Gravy: 1. Dry roast wheat flour to a light pink, stirring continuously. Keep aside. 2. Heat oil, add onions, fry till well browned. Drain well by pressing, putting back oil in pan. Cool onions a bit. Grind in mixie. Keep aside. 3. In remaining hot oil, add cumin seeds allow to splutter. 4. Add asafoetida, capsicum, ginger, and garlic stir fry for a minute. 5. Add all dry and ground masalas, flour, stir well. 6. Add tomatoes, tamarind water, salt, and stir. 7. Simmer till gravy is thick and oil starts to separate. 8. Add prepared basic ingredients- prepared meat/fish/vegetables and stir, keep cooking for 2 minutes. 9. Finish with a garnish of chopped coriander leaves. E.g. Chicken Curry, Aloo Dum, etc.Sauces Sauces play an important role in the continental cookery. The importance of a sauce are as follows: a) It balances the taste of the dish. b) It adds to nutritive requirement. c) It adds to flavour of the dish. d) It enhances the taste of the dish. e) It moistens the food. f) It acts as digestive. g) It sometimes they give the name to the dish. h) It acts as an eye appeal. The ABC Of Hospitality 189
  • 192. 028B-FOOD PRODUCTION- THE BASIC COOKERY- STOCKS, SOUPS, GRAVIES & SAUCES In continental cookery there are six basic (mother sauces). They are so called because all other sauces are derived from them. They can be either hot or cold. Their basic ingredient is flour, tomato, or egg. They are: Basic Ingredient Flour Tomato Egg (a) Béchamel Sauce (a) Tomato Sauce (a) Mayonnaise Sauce (b) Velouté Sauce (b) Espagnole Sauce (b) Hollandaise Sauce A brief description of how they are made and their ingredients used are given below. (a) Béchamel Sauce: Ingredients required : Flour, Butter, Milk Method: This is prepared by making a white roux out of flour and butter in equal quantity, till it reaches a sandy texture. Milk is added little at a time and stirred to avoid lumps. An onion with clove and bay leaf is added for flavour. Seasoning is added to taste. This is then passed through a fine strainer. Derivatives: Parsley Sauce, Cheese Sauce, Egg Sauce (b) Velouté Sauce : Ingredients required : White Stock (made out of chicken, fish or beef), Flour, Butter Method: It is made by adding white stock made from chicken, fish, beef, etc., to brown roux. The Velouté is named according to the type of stock added. If made from chicken stock it is called as chicken Velouté , from fish then fish Velouté , from beef, then beef Velouté . Derivatives: Supreme Sauce, Sauce Aurore, Sauce Normandy. (c) Tomato Sauce : Ingredients required: Fresh Tomatoes, bacon, chopped onion and garlic, brown stock, light brown roux. Method: Blanched, de-seeded, chopped tomatoes are cooked in brown stock with chopped carrots, onions, garlic, and bacon. The mixture is then passed through a sieve and thickened with light The ABC Of Hospitality 190
  • 193. 028B-FOOD PRODUCTION- THE BASIC COOKERY- STOCKS, SOUPS, GRAVIES & SAUCES brown roux. Derivatives: Neapolitan Sauce, Barbeque Sauce, Allemande Sauce (d) Espagnole Sauce : Ingredients required: Tomato Puree, Flour, Butter, Brown Stock, and Mirepoix (a mixture of herbs- bay leaf, thyme, etc mixed with flavouring agents –onions. Carrots, peppercorns and bacon trimmings and sautéed vegetables) Method: A brown roux is made with flour and butter. Tomato puree is added to make the mixture smooth and avoid formation of lumps on a gentle fire. The product is then simmered for 4 to 6 hours. Dérivatives: Sauce Robert, Reformé Sauce, Piquant Sauce (e) Mayonnaise Sauce : (It is the only basic cold sauce which is not cooked) Ingredients required: Salad Oil, Egg Yolks, Seasonings (Salt, Pepper, and Mustard), Vinegar or Lime Juice. Method: Salad oil is incorporated into the beaten egg yolk. It is seasoned with salt, pepper and mustard and the taste is sharpened by vinegar or lime juice. It is extensively used as dressing for cold hors d’oeuvres, and salads. Derivatives: Thousand Island Dressing, Cocktail Sauce (used in shell fish cocktails), Tartar Sauce, Sauce Alexander, Vinaigrette Sauce. (f) Hollandaise Sauce : Ingredients required: Peppercorns, Vinegar, Egg Yolk, and Melted Butter. Method: Vinegar and peppercorns are reduced. It is then transferred to a double boiler when egg yolks are added. The mixture is cooked on a gentle flame, stirring all the time with a wooden spoon to avoid formation of lumps till it attains a thick consistency. Finally it is finished with melted butter which is blended uniformly. It is a warm sauce used extensively with grilled or baked fish, eggs and vegetables. The ABC Of Hospitality 191
  • 194. 028B-FOOD PRODUCTION- THE BASIC COOKERY- STOCKS, SOUPS, GRAVIES & SAUCES Derivatives: Chorion, Charcutière, Béarnaise.Soups Soup is defined as extracts of meat, fish or vegetables. They can be classified as under:Classification of Soups SOUPS COLD HOT THIN THICK THIN THICK COLD/JELLIED VEGETABLE FRUIT CREAM CONSOMME CREAM SOUP SOUP (UNPASSED) (PASSED) BROTH CONSOMME PUREE CREAM VELOUTE CHOWDER BISQUE PASSED CONSOM ME Introduction Soups are broadly divided into two categories: a) Hot Soups: - The ones that are served hot. b) Cold Soups: - The ones that are served cold. Examples of Hot Soups: i) Thick hot soup: -Cream of Tomato, ii) Thin Hot Soups:- Consommé Clear Examples of Cold Soups The ABC Of Hospitality 192
  • 195. 028B-FOOD PRODUCTION- THE BASIC COOKERY- STOCKS, SOUPS, GRAVIES & SAUCES i) Thick Cold Soup (also termed as cold or jellied consommé):-Melon Soup ii) Thin Cold Soup: - Cold Consommé. Classification The hot soups may be classified as of Hot Soups A Thin hot soups B Thick hot soups A The thin hot soups may be classified as: a) Broths b) Hot Consommés a) Broths: These contain the ingredients, meat, vegetables and chicken, cut into regular shapes, by which they are made in suspension in the soup which makes it look cloudy. E.g. Scotch Broth, Minestrone b) Hot Consommés: They are richly flavoured clear soups. It is made from beef, mutton or chicken stock to which lean meat (fatless meat) is added along with finely chopped or diced carrots, onions, seasonings and egg whites. It is brought to boil, then simmered and then reduced. The protein in the egg white and mat coagulates and bind most of the cloudy material which renders a clear liquid which is the strained through a muslin cloth. These consommés take the name from the garnish by which they are made. E.g. Consommé Breton, Consommé Carmen, Consommé Royale B The thick hot soups may be classified as: a) Puree b) Cream c) Velouté d) Chowder e) Bisque a) Puree: These are pulps of vegetables like carrots, peas, spinach turnip, tomatoes and potatoes. Except the starchy vegetables, others need extra thickening agent to be added to give a body to the soup. E.g. Tomato Puree, Puree of Green Peas, etc. b) Cream: These soups are blended with béchamel or Velouté sauce with the puree of vegetables, meat, and poultry. Milk may be added to reduce the thickness and to give an even consistency E.g. Cream of Chicken, Cream of Cauliflower, etc. The ABC Of Hospitality 193
  • 196. 028B-FOOD PRODUCTION- THE BASIC COOKERY- STOCKS, SOUPS, GRAVIES & SAUCES c) Velouté : This is prepared by a blend of stock, roux and puree and finished with mixing cream and egg yolk which enhances the taste and the texture. E.g. Chicken Velouté Soup etc. d) Chowder: These soups thick heavy soups from America. Their bases are tomato or milk with seafood, potatoes, onions, pieces of bacon and various seasonings for flavour. E.g. Oyster Chowder, Prawn Chowder etc. e) Bisque: This is puree or shellfish in fish stock thickened with cream or rice. It is a hot thick soup to which wine is added to flavour. E.g. Crayfish Bisque, Crab Bisque, Lobster Bisque etc. Classification The cold soups may be classified as of Cold Soups A Thin soups B Thick soups A The thin cold soups are cold consommés made in the same way as the hot consommés, but then later chilled to jellied consistency. E.g. Consomme Madrilène, Consomme l’essence, Consomme en tasse. B The thick cold soups are cold creamed soups which are essentially purees of vegetables or fruits thickened with cream. E.g. Vichy Choise, Melon Soup. International Soup Country of Origin Soups Minestrone soup Italy Green Turtle Soup England French Onion Soup France Petite Marmite France Mulligatawny soup India. The ABC Of Hospitality 194
  • 197. 029-FOOD PRODUCTION- A BRIEF KNOWLEDGE ON FOOD MATERIALSPotato PreparationsIntroduction Potatoes make an important accompaniment in continental cuisine. They are used as hors d’oeuvres or as an accompaniment to the main dish or can form as a dish by itself in the vegetable course.01 Allemande Cook potatoes in their jackets, peel and cut into thick rounds and well Potato butter. Serve hot.02 Allumettes Cut potatoes into match stick shapes fry in deep fat. Add salt just (Straw Potato) before serving.03 Anna Potato Cut potato in cylindrical shape into slices of 1/16” thick. Grease Anna mould with butter and cook in the oven.04 Arlie Potato Mashed potato, scooped out from baked jacket potato which is mixed with chopped onion, butter and cream and then piped back into their jackets and put under a salamander with cheese topping.05 Baked Potato Wash and wipe equal sized potatoes with their skins. Place in a bed of (au Four) salt and bake in oven. When cooked make slits- cross and open by pressure from either sides. Place a dot of butter and a sprig of parley and serve hot.06 Boulanger Slice potatoes and onions and sauté. Season, add stock and cook in Potato oven.07 Chateau Potato Turn the potatoes to the shape of large olive, blanch, sauté in butter and place in the oven for finishing and cooking.08 Chips Cut slices of potato very thin. Deep fry till golden brown.09 Cocotte Potato Pick small sized potatoes. Turn them into shape of olive, blanch, sauté in butter and place in the oven for finishing and cooking.10 Creamed Cook potato in shallow water, peel and slice. Moisten with milk and Potato butter. Season and bring to boil. Add cram before serving.11 Del Monaco Cut potato in dices in ½”. Place in a tray, add milk, sprinkle bread Potato crumbs, dot with butter and place in the oven for cooking.12 Duchess Potato Mash potato with egg yolk, milk, butter, nutmeg and seasoning. Stir well till it leaves the side of the pan. Pipe the mixture (appareil) mixture into rosettes, brush eggs and put in the salamander to brown on top. The ABC Of Hospitality 195
  • 198. 029-FOOD PRODUCTION- A BRIEF KNOWLEDGE ON FOOD MATERIALS13 Fondantes Turn the potatoes into drum shape in the size of eggs. Sauté in butter Potato and place in a tray. Add stock and seasoning and finish the cooking in the oven.14 Fried Potato Cut potato in 2” length and ½” square and then deep fry. (Finger Chips)15 Hongroise Chop onion, sauté in butter and sprinkle paprika. Add tomato concasse Potato and large roundels of potatoes. Add stock, cook and then place in oven and finish. Sprinkle chopped parsley and serve hot.16 Jacket Potato Potato baked with their skins.17 Lyonnaise Slice potato and sauté them. Then sauté slice onions and mix together. Potato Season. Place in a tray and finish in the oven.18 Macaire Potato Baked jacket potato mashed, seasoned and then mixed with butter. Then they are shaped into balls and thereafter flattened, dusted with flour and sautéed in butter.19 Maître d’hotel Cook potato in shallow water, peel and slice. Moisten with milk and Potato butter. Season and bring to boil. Add cream and parsley before serving20 Mignonette Cut potatoes double the matchsticks and then deep fry. Potato21 Mousseline Mashed potato, adds whipped cream, mix well and serve hot. Potato22 Pailles Potato Cut potato in large julienne and then deep fry.23 Parsley Potato Shape the potatoes, cook in a steamer and season. Sauté in melted butter and chopped parsley.24 Steamed Potato Shape the potatoes, cook in a steamer and season.Salads & Salad DressingsIntroduction A salad is a dish made up of a single or multiple food items usually consisting&Definition of vegetables such as carrots, beetroot, tomatoes, onions, celery, potato or, fish, egg, meat, chicken, served cold, well seasoned, having a strong and spicy taste, and presented in a crisp, colourful state. It consists of three parts: a) The Base: The underliner as it is usually called, it consists of leafy vegetables such as lettuce, water cress, cabbage, etc. b) The Body: This is the most important part of the salad. It consists of the actual ingredients used – salad greens, fruits in moulded aspic jelly, sliced cooked potatoes, raw cabbage, tomato stuffed with tuna fish, dices or strips of chicken and meat, etc . Therefore, it gets its name from the The ABC Of Hospitality 196
  • 199. 029-FOOD PRODUCTION- A BRIEF KNOWLEDGE ON FOOD MATERIALS particular ingredient used, such as Apple Salad. Apart from giving it a name, it also balances the flavour and taste. c) The Garnish: This intends to add the eye appeal of the finished product and it may also improve the taste.The Purpose of Salads take an important position in the meal. It can be served as an horssalad d’oeuvre when served at the beginning of the course being served in small quantities. It can be served as a main dish, or a course as a salad course, and even can be served as an accompaniment to entrees and main courses.The Importance The most essential requirement of a salad is it should be piquant and wellof Salad seasoned apart form being cold, crisp, colourful and attractive.Dressing To achieve the first two objectives it becomes necessary to add dressings to the salads. A dressing is a liquid or semi liquid form of mixture of spicy elements with its liquid base being cream, olive oil, lime juice, vinegar, alcoholic or non alcoholic beverage or raw eggs. A dressing adds to salad a) The Flavour, b) Some Food value. c) Its Digestive capability d) Improved palatability e) It’s Appearance. Some very popular dressings are discussed below Salad DressingsMayonnaise It is a coating of mayonnaise sauce (made out of egg yolk, and olive oil as theDressing main ingredients seasoned with mustard, sugar, white pepper and salt). The sauce is thinned down by adding lime juice or vinegar to a pouring consistency which usually forms a coating for meat, chicken, egg etc. as for salads like egg mayonnaise, chicken mayonnaise, etc.Vinaigrette A dressing consisting of olive oil and vinegar as the main ingredient mixed inDressing varied proportions in various types of derivatives- namely French, English and American and with seasonings and mustards to enhance its taste. a) French: 3 parts of oil and 1 part of vinegar with French mustard and seasonings. b) English: 1 part of oil and 2 parts of vinegar with English mustard and seasonings. c) American: Equal parts of oil vinegar with sugar and seasonings. The ABC Of Hospitality 197
  • 200. 029-FOOD PRODUCTION- A BRIEF KNOWLEDGE ON FOOD MATERIALS d) Lemon: A mixture of olive oil, lime juice and seasonings.Acidulated 3 parts of thin cream and 1 part of vinegar or lemon juice, salt and pepper.Cream Dressing A Brief Introduction on Various Popular SaladsSl. No. Name of the Salad Description Dressing01 Andalouse Salad Quarters of tomatoes, julienne of sweet Vinaigrette pimentos, plain boiled rice, crushed garlic, onions and chopped parsley.02 Assorted Cold Cuts Cold hashes of roast mutton, roast chicken, Vinaigrette roast beef, smoked ham, salami, on a bed of lettuce and finely chopped cabbage, garnished with vegetables like cold boiled broccoli, olives, gherkins, radish, etc.03 Beetroot Salad Diced cold boiled beet root Vinaigrette or Vinegar04 Caesar Salad Golden brown fried white bread of 5mm cube Egg, garlic and on a bed of lettuce leaf, with quarter boiled egg, olive oil cheese, croutons, anchovies and seasonings.05 German Sauerkraut Sauerkraut (pickled cabbage), cooked in Vinaigrette Salad consommé or water set in piles, seasoned and garnished with hard boiled egg and beetroot cut into roundels,06 Cole Slaw Salad Sliced cabbage, capsicum and carrots Vinaigrette or Mayonnaise07 Egg Mayonnaise Sliced eggs on bed of lettuce, garnished with Mayonnaise cherry chopped celery and leeks08 Fish Mayonnaise Fish mayonnaise with tomato and parley for Mayonnaise decoration09 French beans Salad Seasoned French beans Vinaigrette10 Fruit Salad Diced assorted fruits – apples, pineapples, Sugar syrup with banana, mango cherry, etc. a few drops of brandy or apple wine. The ABC Of Hospitality 198
  • 201. 029-FOOD PRODUCTION- A BRIEF KNOWLEDGE ON FOOD MATERIALSSl. No. Name of the Salad Description Dressing11 Greek Salad Thickly cut slices of tomatoes with green Olive oil and pepper, de-seeded cucumber, olives, and cheese lemon juice seasoned and then garnished with crumbled cheese and serve with pita bread.12 Japonaise Salad Tomatoes, pineapple, orange dices and lettuce. Lemon or cream dressing.13 Lobster Salad Boiled cold lobster mixed with mayonnaise on Mayonnaise a bed of lettuce, decorated with olives and parsley14 Meat Salad Cold cuts of meat Vinaigrette15 Niçoise Salad Flakes of tuna with tomatoes, olives, cucumber, Garlic dressing, beans and eggs cut into quarters, garnished with sprinkled with anchovy fillets. chopped parsley and basil16 Potato Salad Diced cooked potato Thin Mayonnaise17 Russian Salad Diced vegetables and fruits- carrots, Thin Mayonnaise cauliflower, French beans, turnip, potato and apple18 Spiced Duckling & Roast shredded duckling meat, flavoured with Olive oil mixed Orange Salad curry powder and marmalade, seasoned and with white wine decorated with orange slices, thin strips of duck vinegar and skin, chives and parsley. mayonnaise.19 Tossed Salads Made out of green vegetables – celery, lettuce Vinaigrette or cabbage, herbs, onions, shallots and chives. Mayonnaise20 Waldorf Salad Pieces of celery apples and halved and shelled Thin Mayonnaise walnuts. Cheese Definition Cheese is obtained from pure fresh milk, cream or milk and cream mixed together. The ABC Of Hospitality 199
  • 202. 029-FOOD PRODUCTION- A BRIEF KNOWLEDGE ON FOOD MATERIALSProcess of making The quality of cheese, which includes the character, texture andCheese flavour, and the climatic condition, depends upon a) Quality of milk. b) The source of milk. The source may be cow, buffalo or soybean. c) The type of feed the cattle gets d) The ambient temperature, moisture, etc. that prevails in the area of manufacture Milk is pateurised. It is then curdled by addition of rennet and creation bacteria. The resultant product is “curd”- the solid product and the liquid which is termed as “whey”. The curd is skimmed out of the whey which is allowed to run out. The skimmed curd is put into aluminium moulds and they are put to rest to mature in particular location having a particular climate which also makes the cheese so famous and much sough after. The local customs and traditions for maturing cheese play a very important role.Classification of Depending upon the type of milk used and the method ofCheese manufacture, cheese is divided into four categories: Type of Cheese Example Hard Cheese Cheshire, Derby Edam, Gouda Semi Hard Cheese Caerphilly Soft or Cream Cheese Brie, Camembert, Bel-paese Blue Vein cheese Gorgonzola, Roquefort, Danish Blue, Cottage Cheese Paneer. Hard, semi-hard or soft cheese depends upon the type of cheese, and pressure is applied; hard cheeses are subject to heavy pressure while cream cheese is subject to light pressure. Blue Vein cheese are made by pressing the cheese and then after passing copper wires through them they are injected with a type of penicillin mould which renders the cheese having a bluish tinged net all over it inside. Processed Cheese is made by grinding the cheese and then cooking then cooking in vacuum cooker. Thereafter they are poured into moulds and then packed in tin foils. Cottage Cheese is made by curdling milk and the curd thus obtainedThe ABC Of Hospitality 200
  • 203. 029-FOOD PRODUCTION- A BRIEF KNOWLEDGE ON FOOD MATERIALS is tied in a muslin cloth and subjected to pressure till the curd sets and the water drains off.Uses of Cheese Cheese may be used in A Cookery: As for i) Paneers can be used in curries and pakodas. ii) Garnish in soups. iii) Grated and used as a covering as in Au Gratin. iv) In sauces – Cheese Sauce. B Served: As for i) Salads ii) In sandwiches iii) Canapés iv) Hors d’oeuvres v) Savoury. When served in savoury course then it is served from assorted cheese tray or cheese trolley and served on to guest’s plate with the aid of cheese knife. The cover on the table for cheese as savoury would consist of : Side plate, Side knife & Small Fork It should be served with i) Cruet Set-Salt, Pepper, & Mustard. Butter in butter dish on a doily on an underplate with a butter knife. ii) Celery served in a celery glass partly filled with crushed ice on an underplate. iii) Water cress in a coupe. iv) Radishes (seasonal) placed in a glass bowl on an underplate with a tea spoon. v) Castor sugar for cream cheeses. vi) Assorted cheese biscuits – cream crackers, Ryvita, sweet digestive, etc.The ABC Of Hospitality 201
  • 204. 029-FOOD PRODUCTION- A BRIEF KNOWLEDGE ON FOOD MATERIALSDetails of some quality cheese are given below: Name of the cheese Country Type Bel paese Italy Soft Cheese. Mild sweet flavour Brie France Soft. Reddish colour with brown crust. Caerphilly Wales Cream cheese, whitish Camembert France Cream cheese. Cheddar England Hard cheese, yellowish in colour Cheshire England Semi hard. White, orange in colour. Derby England Hard cheese. Dorset Blue England Semi hard, blue vein cheese. Double Gloucester England Hard cheese Edam Dutch Soft cheese. Yellow in colour with red rind. Emmenthal Swiss Soft cheese. Colour varies from ivory to light yellow. Gorgonzola Italy Semi-hard blue vein cheese. Gouda Dutch Soft cheese. Pale yellow in colour Gruyere Swiss Semi hard cheese. Lancashire England Semi hard with crumbly texture. Leicestershire England Semi hard and mild flavour. Parmesan Italy Hard cheese. Used extensively in cookery. Roquefort France Semi hard, blue vein cheese Stilton England Hard blue mould, table cheese. Wensleydale England Flaky semi-smooth texture with honey flavour.English- Hindi – Equivalent Terms of Various Food MaterialsVegetables English Hindi Bitter gourd Karela Brinjal Eggplant Cabbage Band gobi Capsicum Shimlai mirch Carrot Gajar Cauliflower Phool gobi Coriander leaves Dhaniapatta Cucumber Khira Mint Pudina Mustard leaves Sarso ka saag Pumpkin Kaddu Radish Moolie Spinach Palak Turnip Shalgam Water chestnut Paani singaraThe ABC Of Hospitality 202
  • 205. 029-FOOD PRODUCTION- A BRIEF KNOWLEDGE ON FOOD MATERIALSEnglish-Hindi – Equivalent Terms of Various Food Materials - Cont’dFruits English Hindi Apple Sev Apricot Khoomani Banana Kela Custard apple Sharifa Grapefruit Chakorta Grapes Angoor Guava Amrood Lemon Nimbu Mango Am Papaya Papita Peaches Arhoo Pineapple Anaras Plum Aloobokhara Pomegranate Anar Sweet lime MusambiSpices English Hindi Asafœtida Hing Bay leaf Tejpatta Cardamom Elachi Cinnamon Dalchini Cloves Laung Coriander Dhania Cumin Zira Fennel Saunf Fenugreek Methi Hot spices Garam masala Mace Javitri Nutmeg Jaiphall Oregano Ajwain Red Chillies Lal mirch Turmeric HaldiThe ABC Of Hospitality 203
  • 206. 029-FOOD PRODUCTION- A BRIEF KNOWLEDGE ON FOOD MATERIALSNames of some Fishand Shell Fish Fish Shellfish i) Anchovy, i) Snails ii) Bel ii) Oysters iii) Cod iii) Lobster iv) Herring iv) Prawn v) Salmon v) Crab vi) Sole vi) Crayfish vii) Turbot viii) Trout ix) Pomfret x) Beckti xi) Rohu xii) KatlaNames of some Herbs are leaves or plants that are used fresh or dry toHerbs & herbmixtures a Flavour b Garnish c Stimulate palate d Act as preservative e Season the dishes f Impart medicinal value. Herb Uses Oregano Meat, sausages, soup, pizzas Chervil Garnish in salads. Flavouring hollandaise sauce Chives Flvouring salads and garnishing soups. Dill Garnishing salads, white meat dishes, salmon Marjoram Stuffing, roast pork, cream soups. Rosemary Lamb dishes and barbequed meat Tarragon Used with fines herbes mixture- in sauces Thyme Rubbed over beef or lamb before roasting, bouquet garni. How some mixture of herbs are used in cookery. Bouquet garni A bunch of herbs used as flavouring for stock, soups, stews & other savoury dishes. It generally consist an assortment of herbs & spices viz. 2 to 3 sprigs of parsley, a sprig of thyme, half a bay leaf, a blade of mace, peppercorns & a clove. If the herbs are fresh they can be tied together in a piece of thread; if dried they must be tied in a small piece of muslin. The bouquet garni is removed before the dish is served.The ABC Of Hospitality 204
  • 207. 029-FOOD PRODUCTION- A BRIEF KNOWLEDGE ON FOOD MATERIALS Mirepoix A mixture of vegetables – carrots, onions, etc, with herbs like thyme, with bacon, tomatoes etc. used together to get an extract for flavouring like in velouté sauce. Fines Herbes A mixture of finely chopped herbs – chives, chervil, parsley, tarragon, used in omelets, fish, poultry and salads.The ABC Of Hospitality 205
  • 213. 030 -THE CULINARY TERMSabats Offal - kidneys, hearts, liver, heads, etc.Aboyeur The person who announces the food orders to the kitchen staff for preparationAbricot Apricot- a small peach like fruit.Agneau LambAiguillettes Thin strips of duck breast or other poultryAiguiser To sharpen- specially knivesAil Garlic- a pungent flavouring agentA la broche Cooked on a spitA l’Anglaise In English style- specially indicating plain cookingA la crème Creamed or with addition of creamA la gelée JelliedA la Poèle Poached- cooked in simmering waterAilment FoodAlimentation Service of food stuffsAllonger To stretch as in the making of pastryAllumettes Matchsticks- potatoes cut in very fine strips and deep fried.Aloyau Sirloin of beefAmande Almond- a nutAmer Bitter tasteAmidon Carbohydrate- e.g. sugar, starch , etc.Ananas PineappleAnchois Anchovy- a small fish, very salty, used as garnishAngelique Angelica- sweetened plant used for cake decoration- green in colourAnguille Eel- a long snake like fishAnis Aniseed- a pungent spiceAnneau Napkin ring- a metal or wooden ring for holding napkinsAnnouncer To announce – Kitchen OrdersApprêt To prepareAprès AfterArachides PeanutsAromates Spices, herbs and rootsArôme Aroma- fragrance or appetizing smell of a dishArroser To baste – cover roast meat with its juicesAsperges Asparagus- green of white stick like delicate vegetableAspic Aspic- a savoury jellyAssaisonnement Seasonings- salt, pepper, etc.Assez EnoughAssiette PlateAssiette rusée Deep plateAssiette a entremets Dessert plateAssiette a pain Bread or side plateAssiette plat Flat plateAssiette a potage Soup plateAssimilation Digestion The ABC Of Hospitality 211
  • 214. 030 -THE CULINARY TERMSAubergine Egg plant- brinjalAujourd’hui TodayAutomne Autumn- the season before winterAvant BeforeAvec withBaba Yeast sponge cake or bun soaked in syrupBain Marie Hot water bath for keeping food at a constant warm temperatureBanane BananaBarder To wrap meat with fatBaron de Bœuf Whole sirloin of beefBarquette Boat shaped small tartlet shaped pastryBasilic Basil – a herbBécasse Woodcock- a small game birdBéchamel Basic white sauceBeignet Fritter- a deep fried pastryBetterave Rouge BeetrootBeurre ButterBeurre Noisette Golden brown butter heated to taste of nutsBien Cuit Well done (cooked)Bière BeerBifteck Beef steakBisque Shellfish soupBlanchir To blanch; a method of taking the outer skin of vegetables by putting them in hot water and then soaking them in cold water, thus allowing a shrinkage of the topmost skinBlanquette A stew of white meat, usually vealBlette Overripe fruitsBleue Blue – very rare done steakBœuf BeefBœuf bouillon Beef brothBoire To drinkBol Bowl or dishBol a confiture Jam dishBombe Ice cream, sweet dish – half moon shapedBonbons Sweets or sugar candiesBordelaise Rich red wine sauceBordure EdgeBouchée Small pastry caseBoucher ButcherBouchon CorkBouillon Stocks for making soups or saucesBoulette Meat ballBouillir To boilBouquet Garni Seasoning – parsley stalks, bay leaf and thyme, used together.Bouteille Bottle The ABC Of Hospitality 212
  • 215. 030 -THE CULINARY TERMSBouteille a huile Oil cruetBouteille a vinaigre Vinegar cruetBraiser To braise- a method of cooking meatBrioche Yeast roll, used for breakfastBrunir BrownBrunoise Tiny dice of meat or vegetables, used as garnishBuffet froid Cold BuffetCafetière Coffee PotCaisse enregistreuse Cash registerCaissier CashierCanard DuckCannelle Cinnamon – a pungent flavoured spiceCâpres Capers – pickled nasturtium seedsCaramel Burnt sugarCaraméliser To coat with caramelCarre Best end- usually of lambCarte de vins Wine listCasse noix Nut crackerCasserole Earthenware – a covered saucepan used for baking items in the oven and serve the food in themCaviar Caviar –roe or eggs of sturgeon fish, usually found in the Black Sea and Caspian Sea and hence it is an appetizer from Russia & Iran.Cayenne Hot red pepper – a spiceCelestine Strips of savoury pancake, used as garnishCendrier AshtrayCéréale CerealCerf Deer- a wild game animal giving the meat “venison”Cerfeuil Chervil – a herbCerise CherriesCervelle BrainsChaleur HeatChampignons MushroomChandelier CandlestickChapelure Fresh Bread crumbs (grated)Chapon Capon – a castrated chicken bred for eatingChâteau Briand Double fillet steakChaud-froid Sauce with aspic used for cold buffet workChef de Cuisine Head Chef, literally – King oh the KitchenChemisier To line a mouldChiffonnade Salad, shredded and lightly cookedChoucroute Sauerkraut – pickled cabbageChou-fleur CauliflowerChoux CabbageCiboulette Chives – a herb of onion family The ABC Of Hospitality 213
  • 216. 030 -THE CULINARY TERMSCiseaux a raisin Grape scissorsCiseler To carve or chopCitron LemonCitron presse Lemon pressClair ClearClarification To clarify – to make clear as in consomméCloche Bell or coverCloche de Fromage Cheese cover – made of clear glass for easy displayCocotte Small earthenware potComfiture JamCommande OrderConcasse Roughly chopped tomatoConcombre CucumberConsommé Clear soupCoquetier Egg cupCorbeille a Fruites Fruit BasketCorbeille a Pains Bread BasketCoriandre Coriander – a spiceCote de Veau Veal ribCôtelette CutletCoupe a Champagne Champagne saucerCoupe a fruite Fruit cupCoupe a Glace Ice cream cupCouper To cutCourge PumpkinCourgettes Baby marrowsCourt Bouillon StockCouteau KnifeCouvert A “cover” on the table or “place setting”Crabe CrabCrème CreamCrêpe PancakeCresson Water cress – a salad vegetable grown near water and used extensively as garnishCrevette ShrimpCroquette Minced meat or vegetables, rolled in the shape of a cork, coated with egg and breadcrumb and then deep fried.Croustades Scalloped tartlet shellsCroûtons Cubes of fried bread used often as garnish for cream soups.Crudités Raw fine cut vegetables served as hors d’oeuvresCrustacés Collective name for all types of shellfishCuillère SpoonCuire To cookCuisine KitchenCuisseau de Bœuf Veal leg The ABC Of Hospitality 214
  • 217. 030 -THE CULINARY TERMSCuivre CopperCure-dont Tooth pickDariole Small beaker shaped mouldDarne Thick slice of fish with central bone left inDatte Date- a sticky fruit form date plantDaube Method of stewingDe brasseur To clearDe brasseur la table Clear the tableDe jour Of the day e.g. menu of the day: carte de jour.Déboucher To open or uncork a bottleDécanter To pour liquid form one container to another leaving the sediment behind.Décorer To decorateDéjeuner BreakfastDélayer DiluteDemain TomorrowDemi glace Thin stock flavoured and coloured, used as adjunct to brown sauce.Dessert Fruit courseDessous de bouteille CoasterDétrompe To soakDiable Grills prepared with hot spices. (literally - Devil.)Dinde Hen turkeyDindon Cock turkeyDiner DinnerDissoudre DissolveDorer To brush with egg wash before baking to give glaze or shine to the food.Duxelles Fine minced stuffing of onions, mushrooms, etc.Eau Waterébullition Boilingécailler To scale a fishécaler To shell (like to shell peas)échalote Shallotécorcer To strip or peelécumer To skim- soup or stewembouteiller To bottle – to bottle a wineembrocher To cook on a spitémincer To cut in thin slices.Ensuite AfterwardsEntier Whole, entire.Entrecôte Fillet form the sirloin of beef.Entrée Meat dish with sauce. Modern usage – denotes all meat courses.Entremets Sweet courseEnveloppe Envelope or wrappingEnvoyer To sendépépiner To de-seed fruit The ABC Of Hospitality 215
  • 218. 030 -THE CULINARY TERMSEpices Spiceséplucher To peelEscargot Edible snails- a delicacyété SummerEtuver To steamFade TastelessFaisan PheasantFaisander To hang meat after killing to make it tenderFarce StuffingFarcir To stuffFaience EarthenwareFarine FlourFécule Starch- thickening for soups and sauces.Fenouil Fennel- a pungent vegetableFève Broad beanFilet de bœuf Fillet of beefFilet mignon Fillet form saddle of lambFiltre café Filter coffeeFlageolet White beansFlambé Flamed with spirit of liqueurFlute á Champagne Champagne Flute – a glass in which champagne is served.Foie LiverFoie gras Liver of fattened gooseFond BottomFond d’artichaut Artichoke bottomFond Blanc Basic white stockFond Brun Basic brown stockFond de veau Back of vealFour OvenFais / Fraîche FreshFraise StrawberryFramboise RaspberryFrapper To ice of mix with ice.Fricassée White stew of veal or poultryFourchette ForkFrite FriesFromage CheeseFumet Essence of fish or poultry with herbsFruit de met Assorted shell fish (literally fruits of the sea)Fumer Smoked meat or fishFlourens Crescents or shapes of puff pastryFines Herbes Mixed herbs- parsley, thyme, etc.Garçon WaiterGarnir To garnish, decorate or to accompany. The ABC Of Hospitality 216
  • 219. 030 -THE CULINARY TERMSGastronome Writer or one knowledgeable about foodGâteau Sponge cake, iced and decorated.Gélatine Gelatin – a dried substance which when placed in hot water melts and when added to any mixture and refrigerated it helps the mixture to set.Gelée JellyGlace Ice , usually used to mean ice-creamGnocchi Farinaceous dish – an a par with spaghetti, but flat shaped.Gourmet One knowledgeable about food. Also means an exorbitant dinner.Goûter To tasteGraisser To greaseGrande Couteau Large knifeGrande Cuiller Large cooking spoonGrande Fourchette Large forkGratin (Au) Dish topped with cheese and browned under the grill.Grenouille Frog – the leg of which is considered as a delicacy in certain parts of EuropeGrillade Frilled meatGriller To grillGuéridon Service in the restaurant from side board or trolley from where the food is given the finishing in front of the guest to make it edible and/or presentableHacher To minceHachis Minced meatHareng Herring- a fishHareng fumé Smoked herringHaricots BeansHaricots Vert Green BeansHeure HourHier YesterdayHiver WinterHomard LobsterHors d’œuvre Hors d’oeuvres – appetizers or small tit-bits served as starters,Hôtelier Hotel manager or ownerHuile OilHuiler Oil cruetHuître Oyster – a shell fishIndigeste IndigestibleIngrédient IngredientInsipide Insipid or tastelessJambon HamJardin GardenJardinière Mixed vegetables – used when mentioning a particular garnishJaune d’œuf Egg yolkJour DayJournal NewspaperJus Juice The ABC Of Hospitality 217
  • 220. 030 -THE CULINARY TERMSJulienne Fine strips of vegetablesLait MilkLaitue LettuceLangouste Cray fish, Spiny lobsterLangouste Cray fishLapin Rabbit – a game animalLard BaconLarder Insert strips of fat into meat or poultryLaurier Bay leaf – used for seasoningLaver les vaisselles Wash the dishesLégume VegetablesLégumier Vegetable dishLentille LentilLevure YeastLièvre Hare – a game animalLimonade LemonadeLinge LinenLiqueur Liqueur – a flavoured and sweetened spiritLis LilyLouche LadleMacédoine Diced vegetables or fruitsMacérer Marinate or soak in liqueurMaigre ThinMais Maize cornMaitre d’ hôtel Head waiterMandarine Mandarin – an orange like fruitManger To eatMaquereau Mackerel – a fishMariner Marinate or soak meat in wine or other flavouringsMarjolaine Marjoram- a herbMarmelade Marmalade – orange jamMarmite Stockpot or casseroleMarron ChestnutMédaillon Round slice of lobster or meatMélanger To mixMelon MelonMenthe MintMenu Menu – a list of dishes prepared by an establishment with priceMeunière Fried in butterMiel HoneyMiette Crumb of bread – a morsel.Mijoter Simmer slowlyMirepoix A mixture of vegetables – carrots, onions, etc, with herbs like thyme, with bacon, tomatoes etc. used together to get an extract for flavouring like in veloute sauce. The ABC Of Hospitality 218
  • 221. 030 -THE CULINARY TERMSMoelle Marrow from bonesMoileton Green flannel for table tops (the baize cloth)Morilles Edible fungi of mushroom familyMoudre To grindMoule Mussel – a shellfishMoulin à poivre Pepper grinderMousse Light sweet or savoury cold pudding made with beaten egg whites to which gelatin is added to setMousseline Puree with creamMoutarde MustardMoutardier Mustard potMouton MuttonMuscade Nutmeg – a spiceMuseau de bœuf Beef cheekNappe TableclothNapper To coat with sauce or aspicNapperon Place matNature Plain- raw or boiledNouilles NoodlesNoisette Small nuts like hazelNoyau Stone - of fruitNoix Large nut like walnutNom NameŒuf EggŒuf à la coque Boiled egg in shellŒuf à cocotteŒuf Brouillés Scrambled EggŒuf Dur Hard-boiled eggŒuf Frit Fired EggŒuf Poche Poached eggOie GooseOignon OnionOlive Olive – small oil rich fruit used frequently as garnish and appetizersOmelette OmeletOrange OrangeOrangeat Candied orange peelOrge perle Pearl barleyOrtolan A game birdOs BoneOseille Sorrel or a spinach type of vegetableOui YesOurs BearOursin Sea urchin – a spiny shellfishPain BreadPanade Dough made from flour and milk or eggs. The ABC Of Hospitality 219
  • 222. 030 -THE CULINARY TERMSPanais ParsnipPané Covered or fried in bread crumbsPaner To coat with breadcrumbs before cookingPaner To cover with breadcrumbsPanera BreadcrumbsPanier BasketPapillote Grease proof paperParer To peel or trimPasta Dried pastes – spaghetti, lasagnaPatate Sweet potatoPassoire à thé Tea strainerPastèque Water melonPâte Paste or pastriesPaupiettes Slices of meat or fish, rolled and stuffedPavot PoppyPatisserie PastriesPaysanne( à la) Literally means farmer; a type of garnish with uniformly cut fresh vegetablesPêche PeachPécher To fishPelle a gâteaux Pastry slicePelure Rind or skinPerdreau Young partridge – a game birdPerdrix PartridgePersil ParsleyPetit pois (pois) Green peasPied FootPilaf Rice cooked in the oven (pulao)Plier To pound or crushPincer To colour slightly in the ovenPince de forgeron Lobster tongPince de sucre Sugar tongPince de glace Ice tongPintade Guinea fowl – a game birdPiquant Spicy or sharp tastingPipe Icing tubePistache Pistachio nutPlat du jour Literally Plate of the Day; i.e., Speciality of the DayPlat Maigre Vegetable dishPlateau TrayPocher To poachPoèle To casserole in butterPoêle Frying panPoire PearPoireau Leek The ABC Of Hospitality 220
  • 223. 030 -THE CULINARY TERMSPoisson FishPoivre PepperPomme de terre PotatoPomme PotatoPorc PorkPorcelaine China crockeryPot à eau Water jugPorte cure dont Tooth pick holderPotage Soup with vegetablesPot bière Beer mugPotiron PumpkinPoularde FowlPoule HenPoulet ChickenPoulpe OctopusPoussin Baby chickenPrendre la commande Take commandPrintemps SpringProfiteroles Small balls of cooked choux pastePrune PlumPruneau PruneQueue TailQueue de bœuf Ox tailQuenelles Poached dumplings of forcemeatRadis RadishRagoût Brown meat stewRaisin GrapeRaisin de Corinthe Current – a type of berry like fruitRassir To go staleRave – TurnipGrosse RavePetite Rave RadishRecevoir To receiveRéchaud Hot plateRéchauffer To reheat foodRéduire To reduceRepas MealRince RinseRince doigts Finger bowlRis de veau Calves sweetbreadsRiz RiceRissoler Toss in hot fat or butterRognon Kidney The ABC Of Hospitality 221
  • 224. 030 -THE CULINARY TERMSRomarin RosemaryRôti RoastRoux A mixture of equal quantity of flour and butterRosbif Roast beefRosé Pink ( in relation to wine colour)Safran SaffronSaignant Rare done meatSalade SaladSaladier Salad bowlSalaison SaltingSalamandre A gas over grillSalière Salt cellarSalle à manger Dinning hallSalmis Stew of game birdsSalpicon Diced mixed food bound with sauceSang BloodSardine Sardine – a small fishSaucer To pour sauceSaucière Sauce boatSaucisse SausageSauge Sage – a herbSaumon Salmon – fishSaumon fumé Smoked salmon – a popular hors d’ oeuvreSauté Browned in butter, fat or oil; stir-frySauteuse Sauté panSeau à Champagne Champagne bucketSec Dry in relation to taste of wineSel SaltSelle Saddle of lamb or vealSemoule SemolinaService à Café Coffee serviceSinger To sprinkle with flourSole Sole – a flat sea fishSoubise Onion pulp or sauceSoucoupe SaucerSoupe SoupSouper SupperSous Tasse Literally means under cup; i.e. saucerSucre SugarSucre cristallise Granulated sugarSucre cube Cube sugarSucrier Sugar bowlSuer Sweat – to cook in pan without browningSupremes Fillet of chicken from breasts The ABC Of Hospitality 222
  • 225. 030 -THE CULINARY TERMSTable TableTable de service Service tableTable d’hote Menu of the dayTabouret StoolTamiser To strain through a muslinTapis Cloth or coverTartelette TartletTartare A derivative of Mayonnaise sauce – served with fried fishTasse CupTasse à café Coffee cupDemi tasse Literally means half cup, so named because the cup having half the volume of breakfast cup. Means cup in which certain speciality coffee and after dinner coffee is served.Temps WeatherTerrine Earthenware pot. Also applies to pate of liver and porkTête de Veau Veal’s headThé TeaThon Tuna fishThym Thyme – a herbTiède Lukewarm or tepidTire bouchon CorkscrewTomate TomatoTimbale A conical mould or dish named so when cooked in this mouldTorréfier To scorchTorchon A cloth for cleaningTranche SliceTrancheur Carver; usually a kitchen staff engaged in the service area for portioning joints of meatTournedos Round fillet steakTripes TripeTruite Trout – a fresh water fishTruffe Truffle – a circular mushroom type fungiVache CowVaisselles Dishes (plates)Vanille VanillaVase a fleur Flower vaseVeau VealVelouté A mother sauce prepared with brown roux and stock from chicken, fish, meat or beef. They are named in accordance to the stock from which they are made.Verre Glass tumblerVerre à glace Ice cream glassVerre à pied Stemmed glassViande MeatVin Wine The ABC Of Hospitality 223
  • 226. 030 -THE CULINARY TERMSVinaigre VinegarVinaigrette A dressing for salad where vinegar is used as the baseVinaigrier Vinegar cruetVol au vent Round case of puff pastry- filled with savoury stuffingVolaille Poultry – a large chicken over 1 kg in weightZeste Zest – the yellow film of the rind of orange or lemon. The ABC Of Hospitality 224