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CURRENT PERSPECTIVES ON
CAMPYLOBACTER ECOLOGY
Campylobacter
Campylobacter
Histological development
Histological development
• Ecology of microflora impacts histology of the GI
tract
• Germ-free birds show reduction in rel...
Mucus layer
Mucus layer
Mucus layer
Intestinal community
• Educate the immune system
• Protection from pathogen colonization
• Taking up space
• Production of...
Intestinal community
Campylobacter
Dynamics of the intestinal community
Campylobacter
Campylobacter
Microbial Populations
Functions and Actions
Microbial Populations
Biofilms
Campylobacter
Campylobacter
Campy and the community
0
20
40
60
80
100
Farm Processing
facility
Carcasses
C. jejuni
C. coli
Campylobacter
Antibiotics
• Tend to “stabilize” the gut populations
• Antibiotics reduce the relative weight and length of the
intestine...
Campylobacter gains resistance from the community
Roxersone
Campylobacter gains resistance from the environment
• Fluoroquinolones used in poultry production
• Results in Cipro-resis...
Campylobacter gains resistance from the environment
• Tylosin – a macrolide used in chickens as therapeutic/prophylactic
a...
Campylobacter control efforts
Preharvest
• Antibiotics
• Direct fed antimicrobials
• Probiotics
• Vaccination
• Bacterioci...
Campylobacter control efforts
Vaccines
Campylobacter
Direct Fed Antimicrobials
Campylobacter control efforts
Belguim study reports lowering load of Campylobacter by 2 logs would reduce
the number of ca...
Campylobacter control efforts
• Increase scalding water temperature
• Improve evisceration techniques
• More water during ...
Consumer food safety
Consumer food safety
Food safety in the home
Campylobacter control efforts
Pre-Harvest
antimicrobials, vaccin
es, probiotics, etc..
Processing
Antimicrobials, tem
pera...
AcknowledgementsU of Arkansas
• Poultry Science
• Mike Slavik
• Dan Donoghue
• John Marcy
• Yan-Bin Li
• Casey Owens
• Bil...
Thank You!
Current Perspectives on Campylobacter Ecology
Current Perspectives on Campylobacter Ecology
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Current Perspectives on Campylobacter Ecology

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Presented at 2013 Arkansas Association for Food Protection annual conference.

Irene Hanning
Assistant Professor
University of Tennessee
Department of Food Science and Technology

Published in: Business, Technology
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  • During the first week of life, the gut undergoes rapid maturation such that elongation of the villi reaches 50 per cent of adult villus size. The expression of total mucosa surface area per bodyweight, i.e., the total surface area of each intestinal segment related to body weight, shows a peak between thesecond and the third week of age. Thus, maximal intestinal development occurs in the period between the day ofhatching and the 2nd–3rd week of life. This coincideswith the exhaustion of the yolk sac contents. At this timethere is an abrupt change in the source of nutrients sincethe yolk sac, a parenteral source of nutrients rich in lipids, is replaced by a carbohydrate-rich solid diet(Buddington and Diamond 1989).
  • During the first week of life, the gut undergoes rapid maturation such that elongation of the villi reaches 50 per cent of adult villus size. The expression of total mucosa surface area per bodyweight, i.e., the total surface area of each intestinal segment related to body weight, shows a peak between thesecond and the third week of age. Thus, maximal intestinal development occurs in the period between the day ofhatching and the 2nd–3rd week of life. This coincideswith the exhaustion of the yolk sac contents. At this timethere is an abrupt change in the source of nutrients sincethe yolk sac, a parenteral source of nutrients rich in lipids, is replaced by a carbohydrate-rich solid diet(Buddington and Diamond 1989).
  • Lets talk about how factors within the gut impact the normal flora because Campylobacter is so dependent on the microflora.
  • During the first week of life, the gut undergoes rapid maturation such that elongation of the villi reaches 50 per cent of adult villus size. The expression of total mucosa surface area per bodyweight, i.e., the total surface area of each intestinal segment related to body weight, shows a peak between thesecond and the third week of age. Thus, maximal intestinal development occurs in the period between the day ofhatching and the 2nd–3rd week of life. This coincideswith the exhaustion of the yolk sac contents. At this timethere is an abrupt change in the source of nutrients sincethe yolk sac, a parenteral source of nutrients rich in lipids, is replaced by a carbohydrate-rich solid diet(Buddington and Diamond 1989).
  • During the first week of life, the gut undergoes rapid maturation such that elongation of the villi reaches 50 per cent of adult villus size. The expression of total mucosa surface area per bodyweight, i.e., the total surface area of each intestinal segment related to body weight, shows a peak between thesecond and the third week of age. Thus, maximal intestinal development occurs in the period between the day ofhatching and the 2nd–3rd week of life. This coincideswith the exhaustion of the yolk sac contents. At this timethere is an abrupt change in the source of nutrients sincethe yolk sac, a parenteral source of nutrients rich in lipids, is replaced by a carbohydrate-rich solid diet(Buddington and Diamond 1989).
  • During the first week of life, the gut undergoes rapid maturation such that elongation of the villi reaches 50 per cent of adult villus size. The expression of total mucosa surface area per bodyweight, i.e., the total surface area of each intestinal segment related to body weight, shows a peak between thesecond and the third week of age. Thus, maximal intestinal development occurs in the period between the day ofhatching and the 2nd–3rd week of life. This coincideswith the exhaustion of the yolk sac contents. At this timethere is an abrupt change in the source of nutrients sincethe yolk sac, a parenteral source of nutrients rich in lipids, is replaced by a carbohydrate-rich solid diet(Buddington and Diamond 1989).
  • During the first week of life, the gut undergoes rapid maturation such that elongation of the villi reaches 50 per cent of adult villus size. The expression of total mucosa surface area per bodyweight, i.e., the total surface area of each intestinal segment related to body weight, shows a peak between thesecond and the third week of age. Thus, maximal intestinal development occurs in the period between the day ofhatching and the 2nd–3rd week of life. This coincideswith the exhaustion of the yolk sac contents. At this timethere is an abrupt change in the source of nutrients sincethe yolk sac, a parenteral source of nutrients rich in lipids, is replaced by a carbohydrate-rich solid diet(Buddington and Diamond 1989).
  • During the first week of life, the gut undergoes rapid maturation such that elongation of the villi reaches 50 per cent of adult villus size. The expression of total mucosa surface area per bodyweight, i.e., the total surface area of each intestinal segment related to body weight, shows a peak between thesecond and the third week of age. Thus, maximal intestinal development occurs in the period between the day ofhatching and the 2nd–3rd week of life. This coincideswith the exhaustion of the yolk sac contents. At this timethere is an abrupt change in the source of nutrients sincethe yolk sac, a parenteral source of nutrients rich in lipids, is replaced by a carbohydrate-rich solid diet(Buddington and Diamond 1989).
  • SO we know that these factors impact the normal microflora, but how does this impact campy? And does Campy change with the community?
  • I like to think about all the organisms within a microcosm and what they are doing, not just the pathogens or the bacteria of interest, because all the other organisms around can have a significant impact on that organism of interest.
  • I like to think about all the organisms within a microcosm and what they are doing, not just the pathogens or the bacteria of interest, because all the other organisms around can have a significant impact on that organism of interest.
  • I want to talk a little about Campylobacter as it’s the pathogen I’ve worked with the most. I did my Ph.D. work on Campy and I continue now to work with it, but I’m also branching out and working with Salmonella, E. coli and Listeria.
  • SO we know that these factors impact the normal microflora, but how does this impact campy? And does Campy change with the community?
  •  arsenate is an uncoupler of glycolysis, explaining its toxicityArsenite is more potent that arsenate and more difficult to remove from the drinking water.
  • The fact that campy colonizes at 2 to 3 weeks poses an additional challenge.Process of colonization to give info which will allow us to effectively design probiotics
  • A large portion of Pre-harvest food animal community microbiology studies are focused on probiotics and prebiotics. Questions like…..Also, we are interested in sources of contamination to our food animals and aim to answer questions like……..
  • Reducing the total load on carcasses by 2 logs has a direct correlation to the reduction of number of campylobacterisos cases. However, reducing the load on carcasses had no impact on the number of positive carcasses. So the load has no correlation with positives in processing because you have cross-contamination regardless of the load. But on the human side it makes sense because increasing the load increases the risk of infection.
  • Transcript of "Current Perspectives on Campylobacter Ecology"

    1. 1. CURRENT PERSPECTIVES ON CAMPYLOBACTER ECOLOGY
    2. 2. Campylobacter
    3. 3. Campylobacter
    4. 4. Histological development
    5. 5. Histological development • Ecology of microflora impacts histology of the GI tract • Germ-free birds show reduction in relative weight and length of intestines. • Altered amounts of lamina propria, lymphoid tissue, reticuloendothelial cells, intestinal weight and moisture in germ-free birds (Stutz et al. 1983).
    6. 6. Mucus layer
    7. 7. Mucus layer
    8. 8. Mucus layer
    9. 9. Intestinal community • Educate the immune system • Protection from pathogen colonization • Taking up space • Production of antimicrobial substances • Synthesize vitamins • Breakdown indigestible substances • Reduce allergic responses • Impact nutrient acquisition
    10. 10. Intestinal community
    11. 11. Campylobacter Dynamics of the intestinal community
    12. 12. Campylobacter
    13. 13. Campylobacter
    14. 14. Microbial Populations Functions and Actions
    15. 15. Microbial Populations
    16. 16. Biofilms Campylobacter
    17. 17. Campylobacter Campy and the community 0 20 40 60 80 100 Farm Processing facility Carcasses C. jejuni C. coli
    18. 18. Campylobacter
    19. 19. Antibiotics • Tend to “stabilize” the gut populations • Antibiotics reduce the relative weight and length of the intestines (Visek, 1978; Postma et al., 1999). • Increase growth rate • Improve health • Reduce infections
    20. 20. Campylobacter gains resistance from the community Roxersone
    21. 21. Campylobacter gains resistance from the environment • Fluoroquinolones used in poultry production • Results in Cipro-resistant Campylobacter • Banned in 2005 • Resistance conferred fitness in the absence of selection pressure…… ……..Hence persistence of resistance
    22. 22. Campylobacter gains resistance from the environment • Tylosin – a macrolide used in chickens as therapeutic/prophylactic agents for the control of chronic respiratory diseases caused by mycoplasmas and as subtherapeutic agents for improving growth rates and feed efficiency • At 0.53 g/L of water -reduced Campy and no resistance obtained • At 0.05g /Kg of feed – Campy resistance emerged • Highly resistant strains with mutation in the 23S RNA gene • Lower resistance levels no mutation, utilized CmeABC efflux pump
    23. 23. Campylobacter control efforts Preharvest • Antibiotics • Direct fed antimicrobials • Probiotics • Vaccination • Bacteriocins
    24. 24. Campylobacter control efforts Vaccines
    25. 25. Campylobacter Direct Fed Antimicrobials
    26. 26. Campylobacter control efforts Belguim study reports lowering load of Campylobacter by 2 logs would reduce the number of cases by 84% (Messens et al. 2007) Danish study reports 2 logs can reduce incidences by 97% (Rosenquist et al. 2003)
    27. 27. Campylobacter control efforts • Increase scalding water temperature • Improve evisceration techniques • More water during processing • Forced air-chilling • Disinfectants in the water ………….Reducing exposure of carcasses to fecal materials
    28. 28. Consumer food safety
    29. 29. Consumer food safety Food safety in the home
    30. 30. Campylobacter control efforts Pre-Harvest antimicrobials, vaccin es, probiotics, etc.. Processing Antimicrobials, tem perature, etc.. Consumer Education Post-Harvest Packaging Temperature
    31. 31. AcknowledgementsU of Arkansas • Poultry Science • Mike Slavik • Dan Donoghue • John Marcy • Yan-Bin Li • Casey Owens • Billy Hargis • Hong Wang • Geetha Kumar • Ann Woo-ming • Food Science • Steve Ricke • Phil Crandall • John-Francios Meullenet • Latha Devereddy • Sun-Yook Lee • Biological Sciences • David McNabb • Ines Pinto • Carmen Padilla • Chemistry • Roger Koeppe • Animal Sciences • Charlie Rosenkrans • Plant Sciences • Ken Korth • Carlos Avilos • UTK • Qixin Zhong • Michael Davidson • Ann Draughon • David Golden • John Mount • Frederico Harte • William Morris • Doris D’Souza • Dwight Loveday • Jennifer Richards • Svetlana Zivanovic • Chayapa Techathuvanan • Bill Brown • Steve Oliver • Chicago Field Museum • Jacques Hill • U of Delaware • Mark Parcells • U of Minnesota • Tim Johnson • Randall Singer • MIT • Eric Alm • Arne Materna • Lawrence David • Cobb-Vantress • Robin Jarquin • Joe Schultz • Tyson Foods, Inc. • John • Pel-Freeze • Regina Stowe • Gerber Products • Melanie Reed • Rama Holloway • Susan Allen • Jarius David • Cargill • Brian Woo-ming • USDA • Ann Donoghue • Bill Huff • Jerri Huff • Naryan Rath • FDA • Rajesh Nayak • Steve Foley • Jin Han
    32. 32. Thank You!
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