Greek and Roman Mythology - Jessie M. Tatlock
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Greek and Roman Mythology - Jessie M. Tatlock



Greek and Roman Mythology

Greek and Roman Mythology
Autor: Jessie M. Tatlock
The Century Co, New York, 1917, 408p



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Greek and Roman Mythology - Jessie M. Tatlock Greek and Roman Mythology - Jessie M. Tatlock Document Transcript

  • Copyright, 1917, by THE CENTURY Co. 297 Printed in U. S. A.
  • PREFACE WHILE familiarity with classical mythology is generally recognized as essential to the understanding of literature and art and to the preserva- and valuable part of our artistic heritage, the method of assuring tion of a great and spiritual such a familiarity to the rising generation differs in different schools. In many the stories of the gods and heroes are read in the lower grades from one or another of the children's books based on the myths, and any further knowledge of the subject depends upon the study of Vergil and other Latin or Greek writers and on the use of reference books in connection with reading in In many schools, however, English literature. has proved that as even the most eleexperience mentary knowledge of mythology gained in childhood cannot be presupposed, and as the knowledge gained from the occasional use of reference books is unsubstantial and unsatisfactory, a systematic course in mythology for students of highschool age is necessary. It might seem that to such students this subject would be so simple as no difficulties, but the fact is that to to present those who come to its study, as surprisingly many
  • Preface vi do, with such entire un familiarity that the name of Apollo or Venus conveys nothing to them, the mass of new and strange names and the divergence of the conceptions from those to which they are accustomed make the study not a little After many years' experience with such students the writer has been led to believe that difficult. there is need for a text book in a style to appeal who have outgrown children's books, but of content so limited and treatment so simple as to make it possible for the average boy or girl to those to assimilate it in a course of about thirty lessons. To secure brevity and simplicity only the most famous and interesting of the stories have been incorporated in this book; certain others are In reading a briefly mentioned in the index. narrative it is difficult for an inexperienced student to distinguish between the important names and those that merely form part of the setting of the story. The mention of any names beyond those that should be remembered has therefore been avoided, and the effort has been made by reiteration and cross-reference to impress these names upon the student. In preparing an elementar y book on mythology there are naturally two pu /poses to be kept in mind: (i) By a sympathetic and accurate treatment to give understan (ing and appreciation of the character and ideals of the people among whom the mythology developed. Any study that
  • vn Preface gives this understanding and appreciation of one of the peoples through whom our own spiritual life and civilization has come what to be it is is believed by the writer to be important to an intelligent valuation of our present life and ideals and to a sane building for the future. (2) By placing the familiar stories in their proper relation to enable the student better to understand references in literature and representations in art, Because of the subjective ancient and modern. element in the treatment of mythology in later It ages the conceptions have become confused. is the writer's belief that to avoid confusion and misunderstanding on the student's part the subject should not be treated through the medium of modern writers and artists, whose interpretation of Greek thought and religion has been affected by the thought and religion of their own times, but that by the use of ancient sources, careful study of the people's own understanding of their mythology, direct quotation and free reproduction of the works of Greek and Latin poets, illus- drawn from Greek sculpture and paintthe effort should be made to leave an honest ing, Therefore picture of the mind of the Greeks. trations reference has not been lish made in the text to poems based upon the myths, but it Eng- has been left to the individual teacher carefully to intro- duce such illustrations and parallels an appendix Another suggests a few of the more notable. ;
  • Preface viii misunderstanding that it is sought to avoid is the popular association of these anthropomorphic conceptions and imaginative tales with the Romans. The writer has wished to make it clear that what known as classical mythology is a product of is Greece, and that in general the Latin writers have merely retold stories that were not original with The Greek names have their people. therefore been employed primarily, even though they are less familiar than the Latin. It may seem in- when the work of some consistent that this has been done even version of a tale as it appears in the Latin poet, e.g., Ovid, has been followed, but it is not the nomenclature, which is Latin, but the subject matter and the conception of the tale, Where Greek, that has been followed. the story is mainly of Latin development Latin which is names have been Perhaps it may seem that too scant attention has been paid to Roman gods, but when one deals with Roman deities used. one quickly gets out of the realm of mythology into that of ritual and history, subjects which seem out of place in such a book as this. In spelling Greek names the most familiar and the simplest English spellings have been used. In most cases has been transliterated by English i. (Poseidon is a common exception, and e takes the place of before the terminations has been renus, as de'a, Au ge'as. ) a, as, K Me dered c, at by cc. os by Latin us. In these incon-
  • Preface IX and permissible custom is folIn the index and upon their first mention the accent on names of more than two syllables sistencies the usual lowed. is indicated, and in an appendix a few simple rules of pronunciation are given. While in many instances in a foot-note the version of a story followed has been indicated, and in case of direct quotation the reference has been given, in an elementary book such as this the use of many notes has been avoided as undesirable. In many one author has not been stories followed exclusively, but various features have been borrowed from various sources. Those chiefly followed are Homer, : Hymns, Hesiod, Pindar, the yEschylus, Homeric Sophocles, Euripides, Apollodorus, Apollonius Rhodius, Hy- In quoting ginus, Pausanius, Vergil, and Ovid. from the Iliad the translation of Lang, Leaf, and Myers has been used; from the Odyssey, that of Butcher and Lang; and from the Homeric Hymns, that of Lang. Of modern authorities Preller's consulted the most important are: Griechische Mythologie revised by Robert (unfortunately incomplete) ; Wissowa's Religion itnd Kultus der Romer; separate articles in Roscher's Lexikon der griechischen imd romischen Mythologie; the Pauly-Wissowa Real-Encydopadic Frazer's der classischen Alter tumszvissenschaft. Golden Bough, Jane Harrison's Prolegomena to the Study of Greek Religion, Lawson's Modern
  • x Preface Greek Warde Folklore and Ancient Fowler's Roman other books and articles suggestive. Greek Religion, and many been helpful and have Festivals, The comprehensive works of Col- lignon, Baumeister, Overbeck, Furtwangler, and others have, of course, been taken as authorities in dealing with representations in J. December, 1916. art. M. TATLOCK.
  • CONTENTS PAGE INTRODUCTION PART I. xix THE GODS CHAPTER I II ... THE WORLD OF THE MYTHS THE GODS OF OLYMPUS: ZEUS III HERA, ATHENA, HEPH^STUS i Hera ii Athena in Hephaestus IV . . ... APOLLO AND ARTEMIS i 55 HERMES AND HESTIA 91 ii 55 Hermes 91 Hestia 98 ARES AND APHRODITE i ii VII 36 36 40 49 80 i VI 16 Apollo Artemis ii V 3 THE i ii 105 105 109 Ares Aphrodite LESSER DEITIES OF OLYMPUS Eros Other Deities of Olympus . THE GODS OF THE SEA IX THE GODS OF THE EARTH X THE WORLD OF THE DEAD . .139 VIII xi 122 122 143 . . . .153 . . . 186
  • Contents xii PART II. THE HEROES CHAPTER XI XII XIII PAGE STORIES OF ARGOS 199 HERACLES 210 STORIES OF CRETE, SPARTA, CORINTH, JE.TOL.IA i ii Stories of Crete Stories of Sparta in Stories of Corinth iv Stories of ^tolia .... .... 228 228 234 236 . . . . . . . . 241 XIV STORIES OF ATTICA . . . . . 244 XV STORIES OF THEBES . . . . . 256 . . 266 . . 280 . . 305 . . 326 . 331 THE ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION XVII THE TROJAN WAR XVIII THE WANDERINGS OF ODYSSEUS XIX THE TRAGEDY OF AGAMEMNON XX THE LEGENDARY ORIGIN OF ROME XVI . APPENDIX A APPENDIX B INDEX ... . . . ....... . . . ... . 355 356 363
  • LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS PARE FIG. 1. Omphalus, copy of a stone bound with fillets that was set up at Delphi to mark the center of the earth (Museum at 4 Delphi) Rhea . 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. offering Cronus the stone in place of Zeus (Vase in Metropolitan Museum) Zeus (Metropolitan Museum) 6 ... 17 Dirce tied to the bull (National Museum, Naples) 27 Head View of Zeus found at Otricoli (Vatican) of ruins at Olympia " Hera, Borghese Juno" (Glyptothek Carlsberg, Copenhagen) 33 Ny 37 10. Ganymede and the eagle (Vatican) Head of Hera (Museo delle Terme, Rome) Lemnian Athena (Albertinum, Dresden) 11. Birth of Athena 12. Athena 8. 9. . . 13. 40 41 43 Minerva of Velletri " (Louvre) 45 Hephaestus and the Cyclopes preparing the shield of Achilles (Palazzo dei Conservatori, 14. 39 Auserlese- (Gerhard ne Vasenbilder) " 31 Rome) 50 Apollo from the pediment of the temple at 54 Olympia Xlll
  • xiv Illustrations PAGE FIG. 15. The sun-god ish in his chariot (Vase in Brit- Museum) 56 16. Foundations of Apollo's temple at Delphi 17. Apollo as leader of the 1 8. Muses (Vatican) Niobe and her daughter (Uffizi, 60 Florence) 69 Museum, Rome) 19. Asclepius (Capitoline 20. Artemis of Versailles (Louvre) Artemis of Gabii (Louvre) 21. 22. . . 83 86 Endymion 24. Rome) Hermes 25. 26. Hestia, so-called 27. Genius and Lares 28. Pompeii) Ares with Eros (Capitoline Museum, (National Museum, Hermes (Olympia) . in 87 '. repose 93 Naples) 97 (Rome) 99 (Wall-painting from 101 (Museo Terme, delle Rome) Bearded 104 Mars (Museo Terme, delle 106 Rome) Aphrodite of Cnidos (Museo delle Terme, Rome) 31. 107 Birth of Aphrodite from the sea delle 32. 81 Actaeon killed by his dogs (Vase in Eoston Art Museum) Sleeping 30. 75 .... 23. 29. 57 . (Museo Terme, Rome) Judgment of Paris (Tomb in Rome) 33. Venus of Aries (Louvre) 34. Eros, or Rome) Cupid no of the Anicii, (Capitoline 114 Museum, 123
  • xv Illustrations PAGE FIG. 35. Cupid and Psyche (Capitoline Museum, 36. Clio 37. Thalia (Vatican) 38. Terpsichore (Vatican) 39. Poseidon (Athens) Marriage of Poseidon Rome) 40. 127 (Vatican) 140 . 141 . 142 145 and Amphitrite (Vase in Glyptothek Ny-Carlsberg) 148 . 41. Head of a sea-god in ....... her car (Metropolitan Museum) 153 .155 42. Cybele 43. Demeter (Glyptothek Ny-Carlsberg) 44. Demeter, Triptolemtis, (Athens) 45. Triptolemus and in the 149 . Persephone 159 dragon-drawn chariot 162 (Eleusis) delle Terme, Rome) 46. Dionysus (Museo 47. Silenus with Dionysus (Vatican) 48. Bacchic 49. Naples) Youthful Dionysus Naples) 50. Bacchic procession (Vase in Metropolitan 51. Pan and 52. Minor) 175 Votive offering to Pan and the nymphs (National Museum, Athens) 179 procession (National 168 Museum) a nymph (Terra 172 173 Cotta from Asia . . Dancing Satyr (National Museum, Na180 ples) 54. 163 . (National Museum, . 53. . .167 Museum, . Faun of Rome) Praxiteles (Capitoline Museum, 181
  • xvi Illustrations PAGE FIG. 55. Athena and Marsyas (Reconstruction made in Munich) 182 Apollo and Marsyas (National Museum, Athens) 183 Charon in his skiff (Vase in Metropolitan . 56. 57. . . . . . Museum) 58. 188 Heracles carrying off Cerberus (Gerhard. Auserlesene Vasenbildcr) .191 . 59. Parting of Orpheus and Eurydice (National Museum, Naples) .193 . 60. . . . . Carpenter making the chest for Danae and Perseus (Vase in Boston Art Mu- 20 1 seum) 61. Head of Medusa Rondanini (Glyptothek, Munich) 203 62. Perseus killing Medusa (Metope for Selinunte) 205 63. Atlas supporting the heavens (National Museum, Naples) 207 64. Heracles 65. Heracles strangling the serpents painting from Pompeii) 66. . . . . .211 (Wall- 214 Five of Heracles' labors (Borghese Gallery, 67. (Vatican) . Rome) Heracles killing the Hydra Auserlesene Vasenbilder} 215 (Gerhard. . . . .217 68. Heracles carrying the boar (Metropolitan 69. Museum) Amazon (Capitoline Museum, Rome) 70. 218 . 219 Heracles in the bowl of the sun (Gerhard. .221 Auserlesene Vasenbilder) . . .
  • xvii Illustrations PAGE FIG. 71. Nessus running off with Dejanira (Vase 226 in Boston Art Museum) .... 73. Europa on the bull (Wall-painting from 228 Pompeii) Daedalus and Icarus (Villa Albani, Rome) 231 74. The Dioscuri (Ancient 72. now set up Rome) 234 FlorMuseum, statues before the king's palace in . . 75. Chimsera (Archaeological 76. Bellerophon and Pegasus (Palazzo Spada, 77. Meleager (Vatican) 237 ence) Rome) 78. 79. 80. 239 242 Cephalus and the dawn-goddess (Vase Boston Art Museum) in Theseus killing the Minotaur Boston Art Museum) in ..... (Vase 251 and the rescued Athenians 252 (Wall-painting from Pompeii) Theseus . . 81. 82. 83. 84. Centaur and Lapith Parthenon) . (Metope from the ........ Cadmus and the dragon (Vase politan Museum) in CEdipus and the Sphinx (Vase Art Museum) in 253 MetroBoston 257 261 Mu- Phrixus and the ram (Metropolitan 266 seum) 85. Centaur (Capitoline Museum, Rome) 86. Medea preparing hard. 87. 246 the magic brew Auserlcscnc Medea preparing to Vasenbildcr) kill her (Wall-painting from Pompeii) . 268 (Ger. . 276 children . . . 278
  • xviii Illustrations PAGE PIG. Mu- 88. The 89. Sacrifice of Iphigenia (National 90. Priam ransoming Hector's body (Vase 91. Vienna) Laocoon and persuasion of Helen (National seum, Naples) 285 Museum, Naples) 92. 289 in 299 his sons (Vatican) . . . 302 Priam slain on the altar (Vase in the 304 Louvre) and the Sirens (Vase in British Odysseus . 93. Museum) 94. 95. 96. 97. 98. 313 before Odysseus appearing 318 (Vase in Munich) makes himself known to TeleOdysseus machus (Vase in Metropolitan Mu322 seum) Odysseus avenging himself upon the suit. . ors (Vase in Munich Museum) 325 yEneas wounded (Wall-painting from 332 Pompeii) yEneas fleeing from Troy (Gerhard. Auserlesene Vasenbilder) 99. Nausicaa The wolf .... Romulus and Museum, Rome) (Capitoline 337 Remus with . . . 349
  • INTRODUCTION PRIMITIVE people, as they have looked out on * the world about them, on the sea and the trees, on the sky and the clouds, and as they have felt the power of natural forces, the heat of the sun, the violence of the wind, have recognized in these things the expression and action of some being more powerful than themselves. Able to understand only those motives and sensations that are like their more or own, they have conceived these beings less after their own nature. The He- an early time recognized one brews, supreme God, who had created and who directed all the world according to his will, but most other indeed, at early people have seen living, willing beings in the forms and powers of nature, and have wor- shiped these beings as gods or feared them as devils. Physical events, such as the rising and and ripening of the grain, are to them actions of the beings In accounting for identified with sun or grain. setting of the sun, or the springing these acts, whether regularly recurring, as the rising of the sun, or occasionally disturbing the or- dinary course of nature, as earthquakes, eclipses, or violent storms, stories more or less complete Myths and mythology.
  • xx Introduction grow, are repeated, and believed. These stories superhuman beings and believed by a whole told of people are myths, and form a mythology. The interest mythology, all The mythology of any because it these myths together people reflects their individual is interesting nature and de- veloping life; that of the Greeks is more interesting to us than any other, first, because it expresses the nature of a people gifted with a peculiarly fine and artistic soul secondly, because our own thought and art are, in great part, a ; Much heritage from the civilization of Greece. of this heritage comes to us quite directly from whose works have been preserved. The dramas of Sophocles and Euripides hold an audience in America as they the Greek writers and artists held those in Athens, because their art is true and great; the noble youth of the Hermes of Praxiteles, or the gallant action of the horsemen in the frieze of the Parthenon satisfy us in the twentieth century as they did the Greeks in the and fourth centuries B.C. But more of this fifth down to us through the Romans, whose genius taught them to conquer and govern without destroying, and who learned from the nations that they conquered, Egypt, Asia, and Greece, all that centuries of rich civilization had The civilization of the modern world. to give. America as well as Europe, is rooted deeply in the civilization of Rome, and through Rome in that heritage comes
  • xxi Introduction Greek thought and Greek principles run through our law, our government, our standards of taste, our art, and our literature. The of Greece. very personages of Greek mythology are familiarly known to-day in the United States, divorced from meaning but religious set up before our eyes as symbols of truths that are in the very nature of things. The winged Mercury (the of travelers, whose Greek name was Hermes) god magic wand above the main entrance to the Grand Central Station in New York; the noble head of Minerva (the Greek Athena, the goddess of wisdom) is set above the doors of our libraries and colleges, and the adventures of Ulysses (or Odysseus) and of many other Greek heroes are painted on the walls of our Congres- waves his sional Library. is still a hint of Even our daily language there mythology our troops still march in : to martial music, the music of the and we eat at breakfast war-god Mars, cereals, the gift of the corn-goddess Ceres; the Muses of Pieria are not too far away to inspire the music of our western world. These beliefs and stories have been handed down through so many ages and modified in so many ways that confusion as to their real origin has naturally arisen. It is Greek, not Roman. The Romans did not develop an original mythology but took over stories from the Greeks and others and told them of their own gods. It was classical truly Greek*
  • Introduction xxii the Greek Zeus, not the so many love adventures dite, not the golden apple Roman ; it was Roman Venus, from Trojan Jupiter, who had the Greek who Aphro- received the Paris. Classical the expression of the nature and mythology of the Greeks, not that of the Romans. thought is For the Greeks were by nature artistic; they in- stinctively expressed their ideals, the truth as they saw it, in poetry, story, and sculpture, and be- cause imagination, insight, and love of beauty were united in them, their stories and their art veiopment mythology. have an appeal that is universal. ^he ren gi n an d mythology of the Greeks was not a fi xe(i and unchanging thing; it varied with different and changed with changing For when we speak of Greece we localities conditions. do not speak of a nation in the strict sense that is, a people under one central government " but of the Greek race Wherever the Greeks : are, there is Greece." So the mythological stories grew and changed as they passed from Asia Minor to Greece, or from Greece to the islands of the ^Lgean Sea, to Italy and Sicily. Moreover, the independence of the individual in the Greek states, where men thought for themselves, and no autocratic government or powerful priesthood exerted undue restraint, fostered variety and permitted artists and poets so to modify tradition as to express something of their individual ideas. This added infinitely to the richness of mythology
  • Introduction xxiii Local conditions, too, and local pride, in a country broken both geographically and po- and art. litically into small divisions, added variety to re- In mountain districts the god ligious customs. of the sky and storms was most feared and worfertile plains, the gods of earth and harvest, while on the coast men needed the favor of the gods who were powerful over the shiped, in the sea and protected commerce. Local heroes gathered stories about themselves, and local pride led people to place important events, birth of a such as the god or some important manifestation of his power, in their own localities. Many different places claimed to be the birthplace of Apollo, within and the many a fires volcano of Hephaestus burned (called after his Latin name, Vulcan). Furthermore, as they came in contact with other peoples and became familiar with their religious stories and ceremonial, they incorporated much that was of foreign origin into their own religion. The stories connected with Dionysus, or Bacchus, and the extravagant honor were imported from the East, and the Aphrodite of Asia Minor was far more Asiatic and sensual in character than rites celebrated in his the Aphrodite of Greece. Finally, since mythology is not based on authority but grows from the soul of the people, it necessarily fol- lows that as Greek life and thought grew and developed, as social conditions changed, as art
  • xxiv Introduction was perfected and poetry and philosophy grew less simple, the telling of the myths and their interpretation changed and developed. Mythology was a living, growing thing, impossible to seize and fix in a consistent system. It must be as a mass of legend, handed down regarded through the people and poets of generation after generation, continually reflecting the developing When life and soul of a great and vital race. different versions of a story are found, one is not necessarily more authentic than another; in the present book that version is given which has become most famous rhe character of the Greek religion, in art and literature, Before proceeding to the mythological stories that spring from the Greek religion, it is well to notice some of the more marked characteristics of that religion. was was the worship of " father many gods. The supremacy of Zeus, of gods and king of men," over the other gods did not make the religion a monotheism any more (1) It polytheistic, it than the hegemony or leadership of one Greek state over others made Greece one united nation. (2) The religion was, in origin, a worship of the powers of nature. This is natural to primitive men everywhere, because these are the first powers outside of themselves of which men The intensity of the Greek sun, are conscious. the nearness of the sea and its daily life of the people, the importance in the mountain barriers
  • xxv Introduction about them, all pendence upon tended to emphasize men's deBut as the Greeks de- nature. veloped in intelligence and civilization, as their thoughts and their lives became less simple, and abstract ideas entered into the government of gods assumed ethical their actions, these nature or moral meanings. So the thunder of Zeus. his weapon as sky-god, became the of his world power as god of law and orsymbol der. The clear, illuminating brightness of the originally sun made of the seeing prophet, god of who light, Apollo, the all- in his worshipers required Athena, who, owing to the story of her from her father Zeus's head when Hephaeshad cleft it, is generally supposed to have purity. birth tus represented the descent of the storm when the thunderbolt has opened the heavens, almost lost this original meaning, and became the goddess wisdom and of skill in war. was an anthropomorphic religion (3) that is, the gods were conceived in the forms of men, greater and more beautiful and of a finer of practical It substance, yet such as While a represent. men more could understand and spiritual conception leads to a loftier ideal, this Greek conception of the gods as of like nature with men exalts and ennobles and the human body and and sculptors. A purely god can never be so represented as even human life offers subjects for poets spiritual in part to satisfy his worshipers, but the noble
  • xxvi Introduction dignity of Zeus, the king cf gods, was so realized by the sculptor Phidias that his great gold and ivory statue quite worthily expressed to the peo- What gulf there was between and men was bridged by the existence of gods heroes or demigods, sons of gods by mortals, and of nature and powers half human, half divine. (4) To worship and propitiate these gods, in ple their ideal. nature so close to men, so easily understood, men needed the help of no powerful priesthood gifted with peculiar sanctity and mysterious knowledge and powers. At the great shrines, it is true, there were priests and priestesses devoted to the gods' service, and there were men and women peculiarly inspired by the god to interpret his will and give warning and promise for the future; but these prophets only occasionally trolled people's actions determining religious father was or indirectly con- and had little authority in belief and practice. Each his family's priest; each man could own prayers and his own sacrifice and be understood and accepted by the god he adoffer his dressed. When the family ate and drank, part of the meat and drink was offered to the gods. When they danced and sang, the gods, called on to be present, enjoyed a pleasure like their own. Even games and athletics were shared by the gods. Apollo threw the discus with his friends, and Hermes was famous for his swiftness of foot. So athletic contests became a form .
  • xxvii Introduction of worship. Business as well as pleasure was a repetition of divine actions and therefore joined with religion. Hermes was a shepherd and understood the needs of other shepherds; Hephaestus was a smith, and no human smith needed an upon him for aid in his craft. The gods experienced and understood, too, the different relations of life. The maiden Artemis lent an ear to girls who were in trouble, readily and the offering of their childish playthings was Hera, as wife and mother, acceptable to her. was always ready to champion mortals in those interpreter to call relations, while the rights of kings were very dear to Zeus, the king of gods. So all the acts of daily life, all the simple things that men used, rinding their counterpart were ennobled and The gods of the rilled among the Olympians with religious meaning. Romans were just J r i pear to their worshipers as distinct personalities. No act of life, from the cooking of the family meal to the declaration of war, but was under the special care of thing, some from the oven in divinity. No material which the bread was city of Rome, but had its own inEven to know the names of all dwelling deity. baked to the much more to give characters and to determine the these innumerable divinities, them all distinct B" as closely The character of th e connected with daily life as were those of the Greeks, but the number of deities to be recognized was vastly multiplied, and they did not ap- . . religion.
  • xxviii Introduction to approach each one, was quite imfor the busy practical citizen. Hence, possible a purely conventional system of religious cere- best way monial and invocation ran through Roman life, just as unquestioningly observed as the other conventions and regulations to which the citizens were subject. head worshiped Each family under its father as own gods of the home and own hearth, and no one could its family about its hold his place in the family without performing his duty to the family gods. So the state, as the greater family, had its own deities, its own hearth in the shrine of Vesta in the Forum, its own religious head, first the king, later under Maximus. State and were one and indivisible; failure in religious duty was failure in national duty, and a wrong committed against the civil law was a the Republic the Pontifex religion This was a strong civilizing side of religion that made for good morals and good citizenship, but it lacked the inspirasin against the gods. tion of a more personal Nor had faith. the Roman gods sufficient individuality to bring into existence any body of mythology, such as that of the Greeks. The stories we are accustomed to associate with the Roman gods are either bor- rowed from the Greeks or were late creations of imagination inspired by and modeled on the traditions of Greek mythology.
  • GREEK AND ROMAN MYTHOLOGY CHAPTER I THE WORLD OF THE MYTHS THE knowledge that the world we sphere and but one of an endless live in is a number Mythical geography. that are whirling through space with incredible speed, is not a knowledge that we have by nature or by we must be persuaded of this scienFor as we look around us and above us, we seem to stand at the very center of a circular plane, vaulted by the sky, across whose spacious arch the sun travels by day and the moon by night. This was the view held by the Greeks of early times. To them the world was flat and round, a disk whose central point was in experience; tific their fact. own native land, in Central Greece, at Del- phi, the holy place of all their race. were counted from Delphi ; it Near and far was with the sacred permission of the oracle established there that those daring colonists set out who brought Greece to the shores of Asia Minor, to Africa, and Italy. Beyond those lands to which -Greek enterprise and civilization penetrated lay distant lands in- Distant
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 4 habited by strange people and monsters, the tiny race of Pygmies, one-eyed giants, and serpents. Far the Fig. in the Hy i. was North per bo're good and happy people, and to the South " the ans, lived a Omphalus, copy of a stone bound with fillets that up at Delphi to mark the center of the earth. set These had no dealings Ethiopians.'' with other men, but were specially loved by the gods, who paid them frequent visits and ate at blameless their tables. Beyond all lands, and circling the disk of earth, ran the Stream of Ocean, a great and mysterious river without a farther shore.
  • The World The account of of the Myths 5 the beginning of this world, The begin of ning as the Greek poets tell unlike the account that ter it, is is in found one respect quite the wor ii in the first chap- For while the Hebrews were God, who existed from the beginning, of Genesis. taught that created our universe of heaven, earth, and sea, and all the forms of life, ending in man, the Greeks believed that the natural world came into being by birth or generation, and that even the gods whom they worshiped were the children and successors of an earlier race of beings. Thus, in the beginning and more elemental was Chaos, a formless misty void; next came Gaea (Earth), and Eros (Love), most beautiful of immortals. From Chaos sprang Er'e bus (the darkness under the From these two were born earth) and Night. ^Ether (the light of heaven) and Day. But Gaea, touched by Eros, bore U'ra nus (Heaven), Then Uranus and Gaea the sea and all the hills. were united by Eros and became the parents of who represent the great ungoverned forces of nature, and the three Cyck/pes, who the Titans, are the rumbling thunder, the lightning, and the thunderbolt; lastly, they gave birth to the hun- dred-handed giants, of the sea. who represent the violence When Uranus, fearing his children, the Cyclopes and the hundred-handed giants, drove them back into the earth, Gaea in her distress called upon the Titans for deliverance. The earlier gods.
  • 6 Greek and Roman Mythology The greatest of them, Cronus, obedient to his call, attacked his father, and having mother's maimed him with a Birth of the gods. After this, sickle, seized his Cronus married power. his sister Rhea and became the father of six children but since he had been told that a son should overthrow his ; Fig. 2. rule, as Rhea offering Cronus tne stone in place he had overthrown that of his of Zeus. own father, he adopted the extraordinary precaution of swallowing his children as soon as they were born. Thus Hes'tia (Vesta), Deme'ter (Ceres), and Hera (Juno) Posei'don (Neptune), and Hades (Pluto), came to the light only to be devoured.
  • The World When Rhea she saved sisters bore her of the last son, him from the Myths 7 Zeus (Jupiter), and fate of his brothers by giving to Cronus a stone wrapped baby's clothes in his place. The in was kept where he was infant for safety in a cave in Crete, nourished on honey and the milk of the goat al the'a, while the Cu re'tes, mountain spirits Am of Crete or priests of Rhea, drowned his cries by clashing their spears on their shields. When Zeus was grown, by giving Cronus a 5 strong potion he forced him to disgorge the five children he had swallowed. He then declared war upon him. The gods, brothers and sisters should as now Zeus and his be called, forti- themselves on Mt. Olympus, in Thessaly, and for ten years the war raged without ceasing. fied The rugged mountains and jumbled rocks of Thessaly bear witness to the fury of the battles. Finally Gaea advised Zeus to loose from their prison under the earth the Cyclopes and the hundred-handed giants. After this, armed with the thunderbolts given him by the Cyclopes, and assisted by the convulsions of sea and land caused by the hundred-handed giants, Zeus gained the Those Titans who had taken Cronus' victory. were buried deep in Tartarus, as far below part the earth as earth The is three brothers below heaven. now divided the world be- The Zeus, chosen as king, was supreme over heaven and earth, as truly a sky-god as his tween them. division of the worlo.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 8 grandfather Uranus had been. lord over all the waters, and to Poseidon was Hades was given name below the earth, and dominion over the dead. Although Gaea had aided and abetted the gods the realm that bears his Typhon. in their war against Cronus, she resented the Therefore sons. complete she brought forth Typhon, a fearful monster, from whose shoulders grew a hundred serpent subjugation of her heads, with darting tongues and fiery eyes, and from whose throats came fearful sounds, like the bellowing of bulls, the howling of dogs, the roarUnder ing of lions, and the hissing of serpents. him all the earth was shaken, the waters seethed even Hades below trembled at the convulsion ; of But Zeus seized the thunderbolts, his gift from the Cyclopes, and overthrew Typhon, This monster, scorching all his hundred heads. the world. too, his was buried beneath the earth, but still from writhing at times the earth trembles, uneasy and the flames from his nostrils shoot up through the craters of volcanoes. The wr with the giants. To Zeus were born many sons and daughters, ' and when other enemies threatened his power, he had their assistance in overcoming them. This new war was brought on by a race of giants who had sprung from the blood of Uranus, when he was wounded by his son Cronus. Not all are agreed as to just what the form of the giants was, but artists sometimes depicted them with
  • The World the tails of serpents, of the Myths 9 and armed, as a tribe of with tree-trunks and rocks. savage men might be, These, too, Zeus with the help of his brothers and children overthrew and buried. After this his rule was undisputed. Much of this story of the world is allegory. J r T^ Day springs from night; heaven and earth are , the parents of the powers of nature. It is from the lower to the higher, development all Meaning of the myths. a from unordered forces of nature, to nature ordered by thought, justice, and beauty. And this development comes through love and birth, and through struggle, in which the higher gains the by crushing the lower. It science, history, and the spiritual rule the story of life, told as an is allegory. the origin of man in the world the Greeks The had three explanations he was born of the earth, Of : as in the story of the earliest king of Athens, who rose from the ground, half man, half serpent; or he was descended from the gods, Zeus is called " " or and this came Father of gods and men ; to be the accepted account of clay by the Titan's son, he was molded out Pro me'theus, and by A the'na, the wise daughter of Zeus. given Greek gentleman of the second century A.D., traveling in his own country, was shown a small brick hut in which, he was told by the natives of life A the place, man. Prometheus had fashioned the first Large masses of clay-colored stone lay creation
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 1O about, and the credulous tourist says that the odor of human flesh. 1 he of When ft fire! it had he had created man, Prometheus gave him the gift of fire, which raised him above all other animals and enabled him to make use of him by forging weapons and Fire was the means and tools for agriculture. the symbol of civilization. But Prometheus fell the world about under the displeasure of Zeus for ward man for ; when a his favor to- joint meeting was held to determine what part of beasts offered in sacrifice was due to the gods and what to men, he pre- pared a cunning device. divided it He two portions; in in cut up an ox and one was the flesh covered by the hide, and in the other the bones temptingly covered by fat. Then he told Zeus once for all what should be to choose his portion. And Zeus, although he saw the deceit, chose the bones and fat, because he wanted to bring trouble on Prometheus and gods deprived means of men livelihood, man. So the and denied them their until Prometheus stole it his creation, of fire once more from heaven, bringing it secretly in a hollow reed. For this defiance of his power the god punished Prometheus by having him bound to a rock in the Caucasus Mountains, where an eagle ever tore at his liver, which ever grew again. Although 1 at any time he might have won Pausanias, X. 4. 3. his
  • The World of the Myths 11 freedom by telling Zeus a secret which he alone knew, the much-enduring Titan bore this torture The two were at last reconciled and for ages. Prometheus set free, by Her'a cles (Hercules), the son of Zeus, who, as part divine, part human, was suited to act as mediator between the gods and man's self-sacrificing friend Because of the theft of Zeus devised For shall rejoice, and benefactor. against men, too, evil. fire will I the father of fire, give them an evil thing wherein they embracing their own doom. So spake gods, and laughed aloud. And men and he bade glorious Hephaestus speedily to mingle earth with water, and put therein human speech and strength, and make, as the deathless goddesses to look upon, the fair form of a lovely maiden. And Athena he bade teach her handiwork, to weave the embroidered web. And he bade golden Aphrodite shed grace about her head and grievous desire and wasting passion. And Hermes, the messenger, the slayer of Argus, he bade give her a shameless soul. (Hesiod, Works and Days, 56 ft. Translation by A. W. Mair.) Now when he had fashioned the beautiful bane in the place of a blessing, he led her forth where were the other gods and men. And amazement held immortal gods and mortal men, when they beheld the sheer delusion unescapable for men. For from her cometh the race of woman-kind. .Yea, of her is the deadly race and the tribes of women. A great bane are they to dwell among mortal men, no help-meet for ruinous . . . poverty, but for abundance. Translation by A. W. Mair.) (Hesiod, Theogony, 585 ff. Pandor*.
  • 12 Greek and Roman Mythology Although Prometheus (Forethought) had warned his brother Epimetheus (Afterthought) never to accept anything from Zeus, Epimetheus foolishly received this woman, Pan do'ra, at the hands of the gods' messenger, Hermes. She had with her a jar which she was commanded on no account The strong. ten thousand to open. But curiosity was too was raised out flew instant the lid little winged plagues, diseases, pains, no one on earth could escape them. Only Hope stayed within the mouth of the jar and never flew out. So in this Greek story the hitherto peaceful, innocent world received its burden of trouble through the curiosity of the and sins; first woman, just as in the Bible story the inno- cence of the Garden of Eden was lost through Eve. The Four The Greeks were not Ages. quite consistent in their explanations of the coming of sin and trouble into the world, for while in the one account it all came when Pandora opened her jar, the account of the Four Ages shows a gradual deterioration. For, first of all, in the Age of Gold mortal men lived like gods, knowing neither sor- The generous earth bore fruit of herself, and there was neither numbing frost nor burning heat to make shelter necessary. This was during the reign of Cronus, known among The men of this age the Romans as Saturn. never grew old and feeble, but when death came, row nor toil.
  • The World of the Myths 13 came like a peaceful sleep. And when this was hidden in the earth Zeus made of them good spirits who watch over mortals. The second race, that of the Silver Age, the gods made inferior to the first in mind and body. The time of helpless infancy was long, and the time of manhood short and troubled, for they could not refrain from injuring one another, and they failed to give worship and sacrifice to the gods. Yet the men of this age, too, had some honor, and lived on as spirits under the earth. Next came it race the in Age war. of Bronze, when men insolently delighted Of bronze were their homes, of bronze their armor, and their weapons. By day there their hearts Last of all was no end were as hard as was the Age of Iron. to their weariness and woe, nor by night to their anxieties. Family and friendship parents neglected, and the rights of hospitality forgotten. Might became right, and respect for truth and plighted faith was made of no account. Reverence and their heads, forsook men and Justice, veiling withdrew to Olympus. When Zeus, then, saw how utterly wicked men had become, he resolved to clear the earth of them all. To the council summoned in heaven destruction by fire seemed a method too dangerous to the homes of the gods; a flood over the earth was a safer plan. To this end, Zeus shut the north wind and all the others that drive up love was lost, The Flood of Deucalion.
  • 14 Greek and Roman Mythology the clouds, and sent out the rainy south wind, and he called upon his brother Poseidon away to let out the waters under his control. it standing grain; carried The and broke .down the flood spread over the fields away their shepherds, the houses the flocks with and the holy shrines. was one now, a limitless ocean. Fishes swam in and out among the branches of the trees, and awkward seals stretched themselves where lately the nimble goats had played. The water-nymphs swam wonderingly among the houses. The birds, flying long in search of a restSea and land, ing-place, all fell The human exhausted in the watery waste. all but the son of race perished, Prometheus, Deu ca'li on, and his wife Pyrrha. These good people, taught beforehand by the wise Titan, had constructed a great chest in which they had gathered all that was necessary for life, and when the flood came they took refuge in it themselves, and floated for nine days until the chest touched ground once more on Mt. Parnassus. When Zeus looked down and saw all the violent race of men swept off the earth, and only this one man, a lover of justice and a devout worshiper of the gods, left alive with his wife, he called upon the north wind to disperse the clouds and upon Poseidon to recall his waters. Then Deucalion and Pyrrha stepped out of the saw a waste and unpeopled earth about and in their loneliness they called upon them, chest and
  • The World the gods for help. of the The oracle Myths 15 made answer that they should cast behind them the bones of their mother. Knowing that the god could never or- der them to be guilty of the impiety of disturbing the tomb of their mortal parent, Deucalion divined the true meaning of the mysterious comThe earth is the mother of all and the mand. stones are her bones. With heads reverently they descended the mountain, casting stones behind them. Those that Deucalion threw veiled assumed the forms of men, those that Pyrrha So the earth was threw, the forms of women. 2 repeopled. 2 Apollodorus, I. 7; Ovid, Metamorphoses, I. 260 ff.
  • CHAPTER II THE GODS OF OLYMPUS: ZEUS Mt, oiympus. WHILE the gods of the Greek religion were personifications of natural powers, yet they were conceived after the fashion of human beings, both form and in their needs and passions. They were born, grew, married, and suffered, though death never came to them. These beings, like men, only greater and more beautiful, must have cities and homes like those of men, only So the Greeks of greater and more beautiful. in bodily the mainland looked up to the cloud-capped peak of Mt. Olympus, majestic, mysterious, eternally enduring, and saw there, under the arch of heaven, the golden halls of the divine There, as they say, is city. the seat of the gods that stand- Not by winds is it shaken, nor ever nor doth the snow come nigh thereto, eth fast forever. wet with rain, but most clear white light glad for all it cloudless, and the Therein the blessed gods are (Odyssey, VI. 42 ff.) air is spread about floats over it. their days. was a true celestial city, conceived after the model of the Greek city-states. At the gates of It Hours stood as guardians, within the walls rose the palaces of the gods, and on the cloud the 16
  • Fig. 3. Zeus.
  • The Gods of Zeus Olympus: 19 topmost peak, the acropolis, was the great hall where the members of the Olympic Council gathered for deliberation or for feasting. Ambrosia was the food served at these banquets, and nectar, poured into the cups by Hebe, the goddess of youth, nourished the ichor flowing in the gods' veins instead of blood. The nostrils of the feasters were filled with the rich odor of sacrifices of- fered on earth, and their ears charmed by the songs the Muses sang to the accompaniment of Apollo's lyre. In the place of honor sat Zeus on his golden zeus (Jupiter) throne, and Hera, his sister and wife, sat beside him, while about them assembled the other ten Olympians, all brothers, sisters, sons, or daugh" father of gods and king of men." ters of the For after his victory over the Titans Zeus ruled supreme over heaven and He earth. the other Olympians to dispute his challenges power : Go to now, ye gods, make trial that ye all may know. Fasten ye a rope of gold from Heaven, and all ye gods lay hold thereof and all goddesses; yet could ye not drag from Heaven to earth Zeus, counselor supreme, not though ye toiled sore. But once I likewise were minded to draw with all my heart, then should I draw you up with very earth and sea withal. ... By so much am I beyond gods and beyond men. (Iliad, VIII. 18 ff.) As sky-god he drew the clouds over the face of heaven, sending storm and rain upon the earth, ,
  • 2O Greek and Roman Mythology or he dispersed them and looked down over all as a benignant father. The weapon of his anger was the thunderbolt; Victory stood at his right hand. Yet his rule was not one of arbitrary was the author and promoter of law and order, of a civilized and regulated intercourse between men, of hospitality and just treatment of man by man. Hesiod calls upon the Muses to sing of him in words that recall the violence; he song of the Virgin Mary: Muses of Pieria, who glorify with song, come sing of Zeus your father, and declare his praise, through whom are men famed and un famed, sung and unsung, as Zeus Almighty will. Lightly he giveth strength, and lightly he afflicteth the strong; lightly he bringeth low the mighty and lifteth up the humble lightly he maketh the crooked to be straight and withereth the proud as ; chaff; Zeus, who thundereth in in the height. (Hesiod, Works HIS marriage Zeus was married to Heaven, who dwelleth and Days, i ff.) his sister, "Hera of the golden throne," a beautiful, queenly goddess, yet, as Homer portrays her, a very human woman, jealous of Zeus's other loves, intriguing to get her own way, using against her For lord all the traditional weapons of a woman. implacably power and majesty, Olympian Zeus went in dread of his wife's reproaches and persistency and drew the thickest of clouds between them when he indulged in any pleasure of which she would not approve. Though she had no choice all his
  • The Gods of Olympus: Zeus 21 but to yield when he asserted his will, she reserved to herself the compensation of taunts and On one occasion when he had promised a favor to another of the god- a sullen demeanor. desses, this altercation took place : Anon with taunting words spake she to Zeus, the son the gods, thou crafty of with thee? It is ever thy mind, hath devised counsel good pleasure to hold aloof from me and in sweet medof Cronus, " Now who among itation to give thy judgments, nor of thine own good will hast thou ever brought thyself to declare unto me the thing thou purposeth." Then the father of gods and men made answer to " Hera, think not thou to know all my sayings hard are they for thee, even though thou art my wife. But whichsoever it is seemly for thee to hear, none sooner than, thou shalt know, be he god or man. Only her : ; when I will to take thought aloof from the gods, then do not thou ask of every matter nor make question.'.' He said, and Hera the ox-eyed queen was afraid, and sat in silence, curbing her heart. (Iliad, I. . . 539 . ff.) Though Hera was Zeus's queen and lawful many other god- wife, he united himself with desses and mortal women. Many of these unions originated as symbols of natural facts, others as symbols of philosophic truths. Thus as sky-god, god of sun and union with De rain, Zeus must join the in marriage grain-goddess, that Per seph'o ne, the young corn of the new year, may be born. Again, as the great, creating, regume'ter, m s otter
  • 22 Greek and Roman Mythology mind, he must unite with Mnemosyne (nemos'ine) or Memory, that the Nine Muses, the goddesses of poetry, music, and science, may draw from father and mother what is needed for all great creative work. But the extraordinary number of Zeus's unions was due to the fact that Greek mythology was not the creation or inheritance of one land and people, but was drawn from the religion and traditions of Greeks in many different lands and under many different lating The conditions. peoples with were traditions religious whom incorporated of many the Greeks had intercourse by them into their own mythology. Moreover, each Greek state had its own local hero, the ancestor or early king of that group, and these heroes were always of divine origin, very many of them the sons of Zeus by mortal women. Thus the Arcadians traced their descent from Areas, a son of Callisto by Zeus, of whose love the following story is told. Cal lis'to was a nymph, a of the huntress Ar'te mis. favorite companion One day, wandering down upon the ground alone in the woods, she lay Zeus saw her there, and thinking himto rest. self quite safe from the jealous eyes of Hera, came down secretly and wooed her. Callisto would gladly have escaped the attentions of the 'Following the story as told by the Latin poet Ovid (Metamorphoses, II. 410 ff.), but retaining the original Greek names.
  • The Gods god and gone of Olympus: Zeus 23 Artemis and her nymphs but who could withstand Zeus! Artemis, who, as herself a maiden, would have none but maidens in to rejoin ; her company, turned Callisto away would have rejoined nymph her. woods lived in the when she Solitary and sad the until she bore to Zeus a son, Areas. Now Zeus's love for Callisto was " You shall not go unpunished," to Hera. known " for I shall take away nymph, beauty by which you charmed my husband's said she to the that love." In vain Callisto begged for pity. Her arms began to be covered with coarse black hair crooked claws grew from her hands, which now served as forefeet; that face which once aroused Zeus's love was deformed by huge ugly jaws. When she would have prayed for mercy, the power to speak was taken from' her, and an angry frightened growl was all that she could utter. But under her bear's form her human heart, her How often in her grief and her love remained. ; solitary anguish, fearing to rest woods, she sought her old home! she a huntress, dark often Once the barking dogs she was now the hunted. was driven away by herself the How in ! Often she hid from the bears she met in the moun- forgetful that she was now of their kind. One day her fifteen troubled years passed. tains, So son Areas, out hunting wild beasts, met with his mother in the forest. She recognized her child and ran to greet him. Terrified by the rush of
  • 24 Greek and Roman Mythology the great bear, he aimed at her his hunting-spear. Zeus checked his blow and raised Callisto to the heavens, where he set her as the constellation of Hera's jealousy was not at all the Great Bear. satisfied by this. "Behold I took from her her human form and now she made a goddess! Is guilty woman! is punishment for a " She went to the sea-gods and power! that they would never permit Callisto to prayed The prayer was granted, dip below their waves. and thus it is that the Great Bear can always be Is this the this my seen in the heavens and never sinks below the waters. ID.* Another that shows the unrelenting hatred with which Hera pursued those favored by Zeus is that of lo. story lo was the daughter of In'a chus, a river-god. Zeus loved and wooed and won her, coming to her secretly under cover of a cloud spread be- tween their meeting-place and Hera's watchful But the jealous queen, looking down upon eyes. the realm of Argos, and wondering to see the low-lying cloud under a clear sky, at once suspected some wrong-doing on her husband's part. She glided down from heaven and bade the cloud recede. Zeus, however, had foreseen the coming of his wife and had changed the daughter of Inachus into a beautiful white heifer. ing the trick, 4 Hera requested Suspectthe heifer as a gift, Following Ovid, Metamorphoses, I. 583 ff.
  • The Gods of Olympus: Zeus 25 and Zeus was constrained to yield or acknowledge lo was given by her mistress in charge his love. of Argus, a monster of whose hundred eyes but two were closed at one time. When she would have held out supplicating hands to Argus, she had no hands to hold out. When she tried to She speak, she was terrified by her own lowing. came to the banks of the river Inachus where she was wont to play; when she saw the reflection of her great mouth and new- formed horns, she The Naiads fled from her own image in terror. know know her. did not not her; her own father Inachus did She followed her father and sis- and offered herself to be petted and admired. She licked their hands and kissed her father's palms, nor could she keep back the big tears from ters down her rolling nose. At last with her hoof she traced in the sand the letters of her " " lo. upon Woe the is me heifer's ! cried her " own name, father, and fell have sought you Better were it that I had never neck. I through all lands. found you." Hundred-eyed Argus parted them as they lamented, and put her in a new pasture. But Zeus could not endure to see her so unhappy. He sent Hermes, his son and messenger, most wily of gods, to destroy the ever-watchful Argus. Laying aside his winged sandals and disguised as a shepherd, Hermes approached Argus, who, weary of his lonely and tedious watch, called to him to come and share the shade of his tree.
  • 26 Greek and Roman Mythology Seated beside Argus, Hermes piped to him charmingly on his shepherd's pipes, varying with song the long stories with which he beguiled the hours. Two by two the hundred eyes were closed, until no eye was awake to watch his charge. at once slew him and set lo free. The hundred eyes Hera took and placed in the tail of her sacred peacock, where they may be seen But her jealous wrath still pursued unto-day. fortunate lo. She sent a gad-fly to torment her and drive her from land to land. In her weary at last Hermes search for peace, strait that divides the heifer passed over the Europe from Asia, whence it name, Bosphorus, the way of the cow. Over the sea, too, that bears her name, the Ionian derives its Sea, she wandered, until at last she arrived in Egypt, where she was restored to her natural form and gave birth to a son, the ancestor of the Ionian Greeks. Antiope. An ti'o pe was Thebes. By Zeus the daughter of the king of she became the mother of two Am phi'on and Zethus. Immediately after were taken from her and exposed on Mt. Cithaeron, where they grew up among the shepherds. Antiope fell into the power of her uncle Lycus, whose wife Dirce treated her with the greatest cruelty. After some years she made her escape and fled to Mt. Cithreron, sons their birth the babies where she happened to take refuge in the hut where her sons lived. As one of a company of
  • The Gods of Olympus: Zeus 27 Bacchantes, votaries of the wine-god Bacchus, Dirce came, by chance, to the same place, and finding the hated Antiope, she ordered Amphion and Zethus to kill her Fig. 4. by tying her to the horns Dirce tied to the bull. They were about to carry out this barbarous command when the shepherd informed them that the victim was their own of a fierce bull. mother. Releasing her, they now executed the
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 28 same sentence on Dirce, who was instantly torn the angry bull. pieces by Lycus, too, was killed, and the brothers became kings of Thebes. in It is said that when they were building walls about the city Zethus' strength enabled him to lift huge stones into place, but that Amphion's a musician was so great that when he played his lyre stones yet more huge rose of themselves and took their places in the wall. skill as The story of Baucis and Phi le'mon shows how Zeus could reward those who respected the law of hospitality and punish those who violated it. Baucis and fbuemon.D a certain place where now is a marsh freHere quented by wild birds was once a village. in Zeus came his son went in the guise of a mortal, Hermes, winged sandals and with him laid aside. They and were barred against them. Yet refreshment; one, a little house thatched with reeds, received them. Here good old Baucis and her husband Philemon had grown old together, making hapto a thousand dwellings seeking rest all piness even out of their poverty by bearing it Here then came together with contented hearts. the Immortals, and bending down their heads entered the low door. The man placed a seat and bade them sit down, while Baucis bustled to throw over it a coarse covering. Then she gathold ered together the dying embers, added dry leaves and fuel and blew it into a flame with her feeble 5 Following Ovid, Metamorphoses, VIII. 620 ff.
  • The Gods of Olympus: breath. Her husband brought the Zeus 29 garden, cut a fat piece little cabbage from from the longof bacon, and put them over the cherished flitch fire to cook. They shook up in a their cushion of on the dining-couch, and over it a covering that, poor and patched put though it was, they used only on great festivals. While the gods reclined on the couch, the trembling old woman, with skirts tucked up, set out soft sedge-grass, laid the table. One it foot of the table was uneven; and a handful of greens cleaned the top. off The feast began with olives, stewed berries, endive, radishes, cottage-cheese, and eggs a brick steadied it, carefully fried, all served in earthenware dishes. After this the mixing-bowl and cups, made of beech-wood lined with smooth wax, were set out for the wine not rich old wine, but the best There were nuts, figs, dried dates, and fragrant apples served in baskets, and plums, purple grapes gathered from the vines, and in they had. the middle of the table the honey-comb. Above there were cordial looks and eager good-will. all And now the astonished couple began to notice that the mixing-bowl, as often as it filled up again of its own accord. was emptied, They trem- and holding out their hands in supplication, asked forgiveness for the humble fare. There was one single goose, the guardian of the little farm; this its masters now prepared to slaughter bled, for their divine guests. It escaped them, and
  • 30 Greek and Roman Mythology flapping and its wings, dodged about the room little at last took refuge at the feet of the gods. The Immortals forbade gods," said they, " its " slaughter. and while this We are neighborhood pays the penalty for its inhospitality, you shall be free from misfortune. Leave your house and The two follow us." old people obeyed and, with their sticks, climbed the hill. hobbling along When a little way from the top, they looked back and saw their all marsh only While they wondered the village covered by a own house was and bewailed left. their neighbors' fate, that hut of theirs was transformed. ; little old In place of the forked sticks supporting a roof thatched with reeds, rose marble columns crowned with gilded beams; the doors were of embossed metal, and the pavement of marble. Then the son of Cronus " Ask, righteous old man and worthy spoke : woman, what you will." Philemon consulted a " moment with Baucis and then answered We : ask to be priests and to keep your shrines; and since we have lived happily together, let the same hour take us both, and let me never see the grave my wife nor have to be buried by her hands." of Their prayer was granted; they were guardians of the temple as long as they lived. One day as stood side by side before the temple each they saw a change come over the other. Now their forms, bent with age, grew straight and strong and rooted firmly in the earth. Then as the wav-
  • The Gods of Olympus: Zeus 31 grew over their heads, each said: "Farewell, O Wife! O Husband!" and then ing tree-tops the bark covered their mouths. And so, in after years, the shepherds pointed out the oak and the " The linden growing side by side, and said : Fig. 5. Head of Zeus. gods care for the godly, and protect those who do them service." Zeus was represented in art as a man of gener.,, 11 j j ous build and majestic bearing, usually draped from the waist down. His head was massive, his brows heavy, his hair and beard extremely , , . . , zeus: MS appearance and worship,
  • 32 Greek and Roman Mythology thick, as though his face looked out from masses Beneath his overhang- of piled thunder-clouds. ing eyebrows gleamed those eyes whose glance was lightning, and the heavily lined forehead foreboded that frown at which the heavens shook. His whole appearance was that of the majestic and powerful god of heaven and earth. He was generally represented as seated upon a throne, holding in one hand his scepter or a spear, and in the other his weapons, the winged thunderbolts. With him often appeared by his bold heavenward descent upon his prey the eagle, the bird that and lightningassociated with the flight was On his scepter or beside him appeared sky-god. a winged female figure, Victory, for he held the balances of fate and gave victory to this or that warrior as he willed. selves the statue and ivory set the Greeks them- most admired was that of gold up southern Greece. Among in the temple at Before Olympia, in this representation of the greatest of their gods, Greeks from all parts of the Hellenic world met once in every four years to offer sacrifice and to compete in athletic contests, honoring their divinity by the exhibition of perfect bodies under perfect control. So great was the honor paid to successful contestants that the most famous lyric poets of Greece devoted their. genius to celebrating them in hymns, which were sung by choruses to the accompaniment of
  • The Gods Fig. 6. of Olympus: View of when own triumphal in 33 ruins at Olympia. the lyre or flute cities Zeus the victors returned to their state. Moreover, the greatest sculptors joined to do them honor; for the proudest glory of an Olympic victor was the right he gained of having his statue set up in the As one walks now through precinct of the god. the ruins at Olympia, here he can make out the plan of the palestra in whose wide spaces Greek youth wrestled, ran races, rivaled one another in throwing the discus. Here was the long colonnade or stoa beneath whose shade poets read their works; in front, long rows of statues of youths, nude as they appeared when winning their
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 34 Here was the victories. line of treasuries of the states of Greece, and in the center, even all now impressive for the great drums of its colfallen and piled in confusion by the earth- umns, quakes of centuries, rise the high foundations of the great temple of At Do do'na, in Olympian Zeus. Epirus, was a famous oracle of Zeus, one of the oldest holy places in all Greece. Here the priestess read the will of the god from the sound of the rustling leaves of the great oak, a tree especially sacred to Zeus. In every part of the Greek world were places set apart for his worship, and each state claimed his favor for some special reason. As late as early Christian times in Crete the grave of Zeus was pointed out, for conceptions of immortal gods were Jupiter. strangely combined with thoughts of death. Zeus was identified by the Romans with their old Latin god, Jupiter or Jove, and the stories told of the one were transferred to the other. Jupiter was originally a sky-god, as Zeus was, and king of gods and men. Temples in his honor crowned many high hills in Italy, and he was On upon to send rain in time of drought. the Alban Mount the temple of Jupiter called Latiaris was the religious center of the Latin Jupiter Optimus Maximus was on the Capitoline Hill at Rome as worshiped guardian of the state and giver of victory in Confederacy.
  • The Gods of Olympus: Zeus 35 war, and to him generals returning victorious to celebrate a triumph offered the best of the spoils Roman Jupiter was protector of right and truth and the sanctity of of war. oaths. Like Zeus, the
  • CHAPTER III HERA, ATHENA, HEPHAESTUS HERA (JUNO) golden-throned Hera, whom Rhea I. I sing of bore, an immortal queen, in beauty preeminent, the sister and the bride of loud-thundering Zeus, the lady renowned, whom all the Blessed throughout high Olympus honor and revere no less than Zeus whose delight is in the thunder. (Homeric Hymn to Hera. Translation by Andrew Lang.) The wife of Zeus. As wife of the supreme god, Hera was naturally The bride the guardian of the marriage state. sacrificed to her, and matrons of the city were the priestesses of her temple. At Samos the annual celebration of her marriage with Zeus was By Zeus she had three the greatest of festivals. Ares (Mars), god of war, Hephaestus (Vulcan), god of the forge, and Hebe, goddess of youth. Though Hebe was originally also children, cup-bearer to the gods, for some reason, perhaps because she slipped one day when pouring the was displaced by Gan'ymede, a TroZeus saw the boy on earth and loved jan prince. him for his boyish charm and beauty. Assuming the form of his royal eagle, the god came nectar, she 36
  • Fig. 7. Hera.
  • Hera, Athena, Hephaestus 39 upon Ganymede when he was watching his flocks on Mt. Ida, and carried him off to Olympus to This aroused Hera's anger, be his cup-bearer. not only against her husband but against the whole race of Trojans, whom ever after she pursued Indeed all Zeus's favorwith relentless hatred. Fig. 8. Ganymede and the Eagle. mortals and his children by mortal wives were objects of jealous hate to Hera. ites among was the wind-footed, fleet messenger of Hera, who bore her commands to other gods and to mortals. As she flew down from Olympus Iris men knew trail of her coming by the many-colored she left behind her; for Iris was the rain- iris.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 40 bow, the symbol of connection between earth and heaven. Greek Appearance uid emblems. conceived of artists in the full Hera as a woman bloom of her age, of majestic form and carriage, with a serene and beautiful face, a conception inspired by the ideal for which she stood, the queenly protector of wifehood and motherhood. As a matron she was portrayed clad in a long full garment, and on her head a crown. Often she held a scepter, sometimes a pomegranate, the symbol of fertility plants. Fig. Juno. Head 9. of in old women and n. of Atbena. women and Beside her often ap- pears the peacock, his tail of adorned by the hundred ArHera. (See p. 26.) gus eyes. Corresponding to Hera as wife of Zeus, in Roman worship stood Juno, the wife of Jupiter. She too The Birth for Of all times had been the special guardian the marriage-tie. ATHENA (MINERVA) the children of Zeus the one who most nature and power and resembled her father who most enjoyed his respect and confidence was in the maiden goddess, Pallas Athena. The story
  • Fig. 10. Athena (known as " Lemnian Athena").
  • Hera, Athena, Hephaestus of her birth tion, since is 43 consistent with this special rela- she sprang, fully grown and fully armed, from the head of Zeus. Her all did Zeus the counselor beget from his holy head for war in shining golden mail, while in awe armed did the other gods behold it. Quickly did the goddess leap from the immortal head, and stood before Zeus, shaking her sharp spear, and high Olympus trembled in dread beneath the strength of the gray-eyed maiden, Pig. II. Birth of Athena from the head of Zeus. while earth rang terribly around, and the sea was boiling with dark waves, and suddenly brake forth the foam. Yea, and the glorious son of Hyperion checked for long his swift steeds, till the maiden took from her shoulders her divine armor, even Pallas Athena; and Zeus the counselor rejoiced. Hail to thee, child of aegis-bearing Zeus. (Homeric Hymn to Athena.) immortal The Greek birth of artists. Athena Zeus is is a favorite subject with Her and represented seated upon his origin nature.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 44 him are others of the OlymBefore him stands the god of pian divinities. the forge, Hephaestus, still grasping in his hand the ax with which, to assist the miraculous birth, throne, while about he has cleft the skull of Zeus. beside her Athena stands triumphant, brandishing her her breast protected by the aegis, or sacred spear, breast-plate, adorned with the head of the Gorfather, gon Medusa. (See p. 209.) Originally, in the ancient nature myth, Athena seems to have represented the waters of heaven let loose from the clouds (represented by the head of Zeus) when the thunderbolt (the ax of Hephaestus) cleaves them. The dreadful Gorgon's head with its snaky locks, on the breast-plate, suggests the thunder-cloud and the forked lightning. At an [early time, however, Athena ceased to be regarded and was worshiped as godreason and practical wisdom, and as On the other hand, patroness of arts and crafts. as a nature goddess dess of she was the goddess of war-strategy, the de- fender of cities, especially her own city of Ath- As champion of civilization and justice, the almighty father granted it to her to wear his Thus she represents, as has been well said, aegis. ens. " the warlike courage that gives peace, and the intellectual activity that The Parthenon. To makes it fruitful." Athena, as guardian of the city of Athens, was dedicated the Parthenon, the crowns the height of the Acropolis. temple that Here was
  • Hera, Athena, Hephaestus 45 the great gold and ivory statue by the sculptor Phidias, and hither each year the Athenians came offer to the goddess the in procession to peplos or robe, woven by the women new of Athens as an offering to the goddess of handicrafts. is represented as of strong and noble dressed in a long form, Athena Her flowing garment. finely molded features express courage and In high intellectuality. addition to the aegis she usually wears a helmet, surmounted by a sphinx and and she hand a frequently, a griffins, holds her in spear, or, small winged figure of Other emVictory. blems are the snake and The emblem the owl. of the olive is given her as guardian of the city of Athens. When Athena (known as "Minerva of Velletri"). Fig. 12. the great city of Athens was founded . all the gods desired to have Athena and Poseidon it as their own. were recognized as having the best claim to it, and it was determined that of the two that one should be chosen who (Neptune) should give the best gift to the city. The contest over Athens.
  • 46 Greek and Roman Mythology The twelve gods assembled to act as judges, and the king of Athens, served as a witCecrops, ness. The scene of the contest was the height of the Acropolis. Poseidon struck the rock with his trident and a salt Then Athena advanced and spring gushed forth. struck the rock with her spear; an olive tree sprang up. To Athena was adjudged the victory, for the olive was al- ways a great source of wealth to the Athenian state. The sacred olive tree was preserved in the temple precinct, and the story of its miraculous sprouting in a night, when the Athenians returned to rebuild their citadel after in the Persian To this Wars, is one may d?; told see, its by Greek also, burning historians. the mark of Poseidon's trident in the rock below the ancient Some say that Poseidon's gift temple. a spring, but a horse. was not In the story of A rach'ne, Athena appears as goddess of handicrafts. Arachne was a mortal who excelled all other in weaving. Her work became so famous that the very nymphs deserted their woods and streams to see it. Nor was it more the maidens finished work that excited this admiration than the grace and skill of the maiden while she wove. One would think that she had been taught by Pallas. Yet she herself denied this and chal- lenged the goddess to compete with her. 6 Following Ovid, Metamorphoses, VI. I ff. Angry
  • Hera, Athena, Hephaestus 47 goddess determined to at this presumption, the She put on the form of a whitehaired old woman, her feeble limbs supported by " a stick. Take the advice of an old woman," humble her. she said to Arachne, more skilful than all " you wish to be mortal women; called yield at and ask forgiveness for your boastful words." The maiden angrily eyed her visitor and answered rudely: " You have grown weak-minded with old age. least to the goddess, rash girl, you have any daughters, bestow your advice upon them! I can attend to my own affairs. Why does not the goddess come herself? Why If does she avoid a trial of skill?" "She has come," said the goddess, and threw aside her The nymphs and all the bystanders worshiped, only the maiden was unterrified, and The daughobstinately insisted on the contest. disguise. Zeus did not refuse. ter of weave ; she Arachne began to A wove a web thousand colors were as fine as a spider's. there, so finely shaded that each faded into the other until the whole was like the rainbow. contest with Pallas Poseidon. wove There the scene of her sat the twelve gods in august assembly, kingly Zeus in their midst. There was Poseidon with his trident, and Athena herself, her breast protected by the aegis, and beside her the newly-sprung olive tree. Then, that the presumptuous girl might learn by example, Athena wove the stories of mortals who
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 48 had dared and had suffered was not daunted. to compete with gods punishment. But Arachne She wove into her web stories of the weaknesses and strifes of the gods, Zeus and his loves, and jealous Hera many were the foibles there held up to derision. border. Then about it she wove a lovely Athena herself could not but wonder at the maiden's skill, but her arrogance aroused her resentment. She struck the delicate web with her shuttle, and it crumbled into bits; then she touched Arachne's forehead. sense of her A impiety rushed over the girl; she could not enit, and hanged herself with a skein of her dure own ful a But Athena did not wish that so skilworker should die; she cut the skein and, silk. sprinkling upon her the juice of aconite, transformed the maiden into a spider, that through ages she might continue to spin her matchless webs. all Minerva. Minerva was an old Etruscan goddess whom Romans worshiped as patroness of handiHer crafts and goddess of practical wisdom. festival was celebrated by guilds of artisans and physicians, and on it school-children were given the a holiday. By her later identification with the Greek Pallas Athena she became known as goddess of military strategy and as protectress of cities. Jupiter, Juno, and Minerva formed a di- vine triad worshiped on the Capitoline Hill.
  • Hera, Athena, Hephaestus in. 49 HEPHAESTUS (VULCAN) Half-brother of Athena, and son of Zeus and The god of fire. Hera, was He phses'tus, the lame god of fire, the forge and metal-work, and as such, together mighty helper of men with his great sister, a their for civilization. struggle dressed in the Homeric He is in thus ad- Hymn: Sing, shrill Muse, of Hephaestus, renowned in craft, who with gray-eyed Athena taught goodly works men on earth, even to men that before were wont to to dwell in caves like beasts; but now, being instructed in craft by the renowned craftsman, Hephaestus, lightly the whole year through they dwell happily in their own homes. (Homeric He was of his fall Hymn to Hephastus.) born lame, but two stories are told from heaven that would more than account for any such deformity. the one, Hera, chagrined at According to finding her son physically imperfect, threw him out of heaven. To avenge himself for this cruelty on his mother's part, Hephaestus cunningly constructed a golden chair and brought it as a present to Hera. When she had taken her seat upon it, invisible chains The gods with Hephaestus in vain, until Di o ny'sus pleaded held her fast, nor could she be freed. (Bacchus), the wine-god, made him drunk and so brought him to Mt. Olympus and induced him to undo his own handiwork. other story Zeus, resenting his According to the championship of
  • 50 his Greek and Roman Mythology mother in one of the the royal pair, seized quarrels between the foot and hurled many him by him from Olympus. All day and Appearance I flew, little life was Hcphsestus and in at the set of me. made gods on Olympus; Fig. 13. (Iliad, sun I. I fell in Lemnos, 592.) the glorious palaces of the he mac'e the scepter of Zeus Hephaestus and the Cyclopes preparing the shield of Achilles. and the shield of Achilles; he helped to mold Pandora. His workshops were under the earth, where volcanoes gave an outlet to the fires of his forge. Thus saw his home in the Lemnos, and the Greeks of and Sicily, under Mt. yEtna or on the Greeks volcanic island of South Italy
  • Hera, Athena, Hephaestus On one of the Lipari Islands. 51 the latter, was it the popular belief that if the metal were left over-night near the crater, and due prayer and sacrifice made to the god, a marvelously forged sword would be found in the morning. To aid in his work he had wonderful maidens of him He gold. Homer described is his in workshop by : He bulk, The said, and from the anvil rose limping, a huge but under him his slender legs moved nimbly. bellows he set away from the fire, and gathered all his gear wherewith he worked into a silver chest and with a sponge he wiped his face and hands and sturdy ; neck and shaggy breast, and did on his doublet, and took a stout staff and went forth limping; but there were handmaidens of gold that moved to help their In them is underlord, the semblance of living maids. standing at their hearts, in them are voice and strength, and they have the skill of the immortal gods. (Iliad, XVIII. 410 Ever ff.) friendly and helpful, often a peace- maker, Hephaestus was beloved of men and gods, though his limping gait subjected him to ridicule. Then he poured forth wine to laughter unquenchable arose the gods, from right from the bowl. And all to left, ladling the sweet nectar among the blessed gods to see Hephaestus bustling through the palace. 597 (Iliad, I. .) Hephaestus is when he appears not a favorite subject in art, but it is as a strongly-built man. his
  • 52 Greek and Roman Mythology lameness only hinted at. He is dressed in a workman's short tunic and wears the workman's Probably he originally represented the lightning; hence the story of his fall from heaven, Vulcan, the fire-god, was more feared than courted in Rome, with its close-built streets, so cap. vuican. His worship, theresubject to destructive fires. fore, as originally that of the war-god Mars, was kept outside the city.
  • Fig. 14. Apollo, from Olympia.
  • CHAPTER IV APOLLO AND ARTEMIS I. APOLLO THE purest and highest worship of the Greeks was perhaps that offered to Phoebus Apollo, the glorious god of light, who in later mythology took healin g- the place of the Titan Helios. In his chariot he drives across the heavens, attended by the Hours and Seasons, and horses in the at evening stables his golden west. Nothing false or impure might be brought near to him; his was a cleansing and enlightening power. With his arrows, the rays of the brilliant Greek sun, he destroyed his enemies and brought pestilence and death upon those that had fallen under his disBut he was a destructive god only pleasure. when provoked to anger; he was preeminently the god of healing and medicine. It was he that inspired physicians to divine the hidden cause of disease; he was was their patron. especially exercised vine physician As This healing gift by Apollo's son, the cle'pi us, who di- incurred Zeus's wrath by even restoring the dead to life. But Apollo's greatest importance in the Greek world was as god of prophecy, the giver of the 55 The Oracle at Delphi.
  • The most famous of prophetic gift. all oracles that at Delphi, a town of central Greece situated on the slopes of Mt. Parnassus. Here the was on a tripod over a cleft HI the was thrown into an inspired frenzy by the priestess, seated rock, Fig. 15. The Sun-God vapors that rose about her. in his Her Chariot. incoherent ut- terances were interpreted by the priests of the shrine. Hither came those seeking guidance, not only from all the Greek world, but from distant and non-Hellenic lands. No great undertaking might be entered upon without the sanction and
  • Fig. 16. Foundations of Apollo's Temple at Delphi.
  • Apollo and Artemis 59 guidance of the god; especially those seeking to found a new colony must first consult the oracle of Apollo. cities, Thus the god was the founder of the promoter of colonization, the extender of just and civilized law. In all his manifestations Apollo stands for the The god of beauty and Greek ideal of manly strength and beauty, of the music highest and purest development of body and in- He inspires not alone physicians with their art and prophets with their power, but to tellect. him He poets and musicians owe the divine spark. On the giver of all beauty and harmony. all is Parnassus he led his chorus of the Nine Mt. gods he charmed the Olympians by the music of his Muses, golden and at the banquets of the lyre. always represented as in the prime of youth, with smooth face and refined (in later art almost feminine) features. As the archer Apollo is usually entirely nude and holds the bow. As sun-god he appears in his chariot drawn by " " winged horses, while rosy-fingered Dawn throws open before him the gates of the East and he is Hours and Seasons accompany the chariot. As god of music and leader of the Muses, he is the dressed in the long flowing garment of the Greek bard and holds the lyre. About his forehead he wears the wreath of laurel, sacred to him and always the reward of the poet. Apollo was the son of Zeus and the goddess
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 60 Leto (Lato'na). The story of his mother's wanderings, driven by the cruel jealousy of Hera to seek a birthplace for her children, and of how at last the little refuge, is rocky told in the Fig. 17. isle of Delos 7 offered her a Homeric Hymn. Apollo as leader of the Muses. But the lands trembled sore and were adread, and none, nay not the richest, dared to welcome Phoebus, not till 7 Lady Leto set foot on Delos, and speaking winged Delos had up to that time been a floating island; in return for its hospitable reception of Leto, Zeus fastened it to the bottom with adamantine chains.
  • Apollo and Artemis 6l " words besought her Delos, would that thou wert minded to be the seat of my son, Phoebus Apollo, and to let build him therein a rich temple. ." And forth leaped the babe to light, and all the goddesses : . raised a cry. washed thee in . Then, great Phoebus, the goddesses water holy and purely, and wound fair thee in white swaddling bands, delicate, new-woven, with a golden girdle around thee. Nor did his mother suckle Apollo, the golden sworded, but Themis with immortal hands first touched his lips with nectar and sweet ambrosia, while Leto rejoiced, in that she had borne her strong son, the bearer of the bow. (Homeric Hymn to the Delian Apollo.) After the birth of the twins, Apollo and Artemis, the story tells how once in Lycia Leto came, weary and parched with thirst, to a pond where some countrymen were gathering reeds. The boors refused her the privilege she entreated of quenching her thirst, and threatened the fainting goddess with violence. They even waded into pond and stirred up the mud to make the water undrinkable. In just anger at their boorishness and cruelty the goddess prayed that they the There they live often coming to the top to breathe, or squatstill, ting on the bank, croaking their discontent with hoarse voices. Their backs are green and their might never leave that pool. bellies are bodies; white their ; eyes blooded creatures pond. their heads bulge. like them grow out of You can bloated see cold- in the nearest frog-
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 62 python. At site Delphi, before the coming of Apollo, the of the oracle was guarded by a pestilential earth-born serpent, Python, who laid waste all the land. This monster of disease and darkness god of light killed with his golden shafts and made the oracle his own. Exulting in his victory, he now sang for the first time the Paean, the song of triumph and thanksgiving, and on the the scene of his victory he planted his sacred laurel tree. How came to be sacred to Apollo is told by the Latin poet Ovid as follows Eros (Cupid) was responsible for Apollo's unhappy love for Daphne. Once the sun-god saw him fitting an arrow to the string, and being the laurel : Daphne. s haughty because of his recent victory over " MisPython, he taunted the little god of love. chievous boy, what have you to do with such weapons! These are arms that become my shoulders I, who lately with my arrows laid Be you content to track out love-adventures with your torch; do not aslow swelling Python. pire to him my honors! " " Aphrodite's son answered Your arrows pierce all things, Phoebus mine pierce you." As he spoke he drew from : ; his quiver inspires With two arrows; the one with point of gold love, that tipped with lead repels it. he wounded Apollo; with the second he pierced Daphne, the daughter of a river8 the first Fol!ovinp- Ovid, Metamorphoses, I. 452 ff.
  • Apollo and Artemis 63 god. Straightway the god loved, but the nymph hated the very name of lover and gave herself, like the maiden goddess Artemis, to hunting wild things in the woods. Many suitors sought her, but she refused them all and persuaded her father But permit her always to live a maiden. He saw her hair in charming conloved. Apollo fusion about her neck; he saw her eyes beaming to lips and longed to kiss her hands and her shapely praised arms; he thought her all beautiful. She fled from him more elusive than the light breeze, nor " did she stay to hear his entreaties Nymph, like stars he saw her ; He them. : I pray you, stay Nymph, enemy. if stay! love Alas! what pursuit. who I ! if you should the horrid thorns should and pursue you am no is the cause of my fall! wound your What innocent should be to you the cause of pain The ground is rough; run not so fast! I, too, will follow more slowly. I who love you am no ankles, I ! am no rough shepherd. Rash girl, you know not whom you flee. Jupiter is my father. Through me what was and is and will be is disclosed through me the notes ring boorish mountaineer; I ; harmonious on the strings. My arrow is sure, yet one arrow is surer it has wounded my heart. ; Medicine through cure my is all my the world. love, others save invention; I its called savior Alas! no medicine can nor can the master." am skill that saves all
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 64 But the nymph still fled and the god still pur- sued, she swift through fear, he swifter yet as he drew so close upon winged with love. Now her that she felt his breath upon her neck. She her strength go from her and in her despair " called upon her father, the river-god Help felt : me, O else change Let the earth open for me, or " form that has been my ruin Father! this ! As she ceased her prayer a heaviness seized her limbs; her soft bosom was inclosed in a delicate bark ; The her locks became leaves, her arms branches. foot, lately so swift, was rooted in the Phcebus only her beauty remained. loved her, and placing his hand upon the trunk, he felt her breast tremble beneath the new- ground; still He put his arms about it and wood shrank from his kisses. " Then said the god Since you cannot be my wife, you shall surely be my tree, O Laurel, and formed bark. kissed the wood ; the : ever shall you adorn quiver. And as my my head, head is my lyre, and my ever crowned with youth and beauty, so shall your branches ever be crowned with green and glossy leaves." As the ever-green laurel recalls the story of Apollo's unrequited love for a nymph, so the fragrant hyacinth springs from his unhappy attachment to a mortal youth snatched away by an untimely death. There was a time when even Delphi was de9 Following Ovid, Metamorphoses, X. 162 ff.
  • Apollo and Artemis 65 by Apollo, when the bow and the lyre lost charm for him. He spent all his days with serted their Hy a cin'thus, carrying his hunting-nets, holding accompanying him on the hunt or in his sports. One day the friends, having taken off their clothes and been rubbed with oil, were in his dogs, amusing themselves throwing the discus. Apollo threw it high and far, exhibiting skill and strength in the sport. Hyacinthus rushed forto get the discus, not counting for the strong ward rebound from such a throw. It glanced upward and struck the boy full in the temple. The god caught him in his fall and held him close, trying to wound and staunch the For once herbs. lily applying medicinal For as a his art failed him. when upon faints it the rays of the sun have struck hot droops its head towards the earth and and dies, his head upon so the mortal youth his breast and fell drooped lifeless from the god's embrace. In his grief Apollo upbraided himself as its cause, and, since he could not restore the boy to life, declared that at least his name should ever, celebrated by him in song. the red blood had flowed out And live for- lo ! upon the where earth, there sprang up a splendid purple flower with " a form like a lily. It bore on its petals Ai, " Ai (Alas, Alas), a memorial of the sun-god's mourning. And as often as the fresh young spring drives away the winter, so often are these
  • 66 Greek and Roman Mythology flowers fresh in the fields. Hyacinthus rises again. Marpessa. There was an occasion when Apollo presented himself as rival to a mortal and was rejected. Mar pes'sa was a beautiful maiden, loved by Idas, who, with the help of winged horses given him by Poseidon, stole her from her father. Apollo overtook the runaway couple and seized the maiden for himself. But Idas, fearing not even the god in defense of his beloved, against him. drew his bow To prevent the unequal contest, Zeus gave Marpessa her choice between the two. On the one side stood the glorious sun-god, offering immortality, power, glory, and freedom from all earthly trouble. On the other stood Idas, offering only faithful love and partnership in his life with its mingled joy and sorrow. The woman chose the mortal, fearing unfaithfulness part, since immortal youth was not on the god's and preferring with one capable die, grow old, of a like love and destined to a like fate. granted her with immortal Niob. 10 life, and to live, love, In the tragic fate of Ni'o be and her fourteen children, Apollo with his sister Artemis appears as his mother's avenger, and his golden arrows bring destruction. The story of Arachne's punishment for her presumption towards Athena should have been a warning to 10 all. But Niobe was too haughty Following Ovid, Metamorphoses, VI. 146 ff.
  • Apollo and Artemis 67 to heed it. Many things made her proud. Her husband was a celebrated musician on both sides of her family she was descended from the gods, and she ruled over a great kingdom. More than ; all, she was proud of her children, seven sons and seven daughters. The Priest of Leto had cried through the city: " Come, all ye people, offer to Leto and the children of Leto the sacrifice of prayer and incense Bind your heads with laurel Leto bids it by ! ! All the people obeyed and offered sacrifice. Then came Niobe, dressed in purple and gold, moving stately and beautiful among her and casting haughty looks about. subjects my " lips." What madness," beings of seen! whom Why is said she, is Atlas, starry heavens. to place celestial you have only heard above those Leto worshiped at the altars, while no incense rises in father " my honor? My grand- who bears on his shoulders the My other grandfather is Zeus. as queen. Moreover, Wide kingdoms own me my this beauty is worthy of a goddess. Add to all my seven sons and seven daughters, and see have for pride! I know not how Leto, who is you dare to prefer Leto to me the mother of but two! I am beyond the power of Fortune to injure. Go! enough honor has what cause I been paid to her and her offspring. Put off the from your heads!" Niobe was obeyed; the worship of Leto was neglected or celebrated laurel
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 68 in secret. her to The goddess was indignant and two children said " Lo, I, your mother, proud of having borne you, and second to no one of the goddesses, unless it be Hera, am brought to doubt whether I am a goddess. I am cut off from the honor due, unless you help me. Moreover, this woman adds insults and has : set her children above you." Apollo and Artemis heard her. Hidden in clouds they came to the city of Thebes. dared to Two of Niobe's sons happened to be practison the race-course near the city. ing their horses The elder was just nearing the end of when he received Apollo's arrow full in the course the breast. Dropping the reins from his dying hand, he fell from his chariot in the dust. His brother, hearing the whizz of the arrow and seeing no man, gave free rein to his horses, hoping to escape. unescapable shaft overtook him, and his blood reddened the earth. Two others of the Apollo's sons were wrestling in the palestra. One arrow pierced the two, locked as they were in one another's arms. As they fell, another brother rushed up to save them he fell before he could reach them. A sixth met his death in the same ; The youngest way. " raised his hands in prayer : " ye gods, spare -me! Apollo might have been moved, but the arrow had already left the O all string. Chance report and the prayers of those about
  • Apollo and Artemis 69 Niobe of her calamity. Her husband, unable to bear his grief, had fallen on his own sword. How different was Niobe now from her who had lately driven the worshipers from her first told Leto's altars and had passed in haughty state through her city envied then by all, now pitiable ; With her seven daughters even to her enemies. Niobe and her Daughter. Fig. 18. she came to the place where the bodies lay and, my grief, " Gloat over upon them, cried Yet Leto, satisfy your cruel heart! throwing herself are you the victor! : More remains to me in my wretchedness than to you in your vengeance." Hardly were the words spoken than the cord of Artemis' daughters bow twanged. fell One by one six of the dead beside their brothers. But
  • 70 one remained, the youngest; her mother tried to " shield her with her own body. Leave one, and that the youngest! she " she cried; but she for Niobe whom and a sat, prayed the corpses of her sons and daughwidow, among In stony grief she sat there no breeze ters. fell. childless ; stirred her hair; her cheeks were pallid, her eyes unmoved her blood was frozen in her veins she was turned to stone. Magically borne to her ; ; fatherland in Asia, there she still sits on the mountain, and from her marble cheeks the tears flow. still Pha'e thon was the son of Apollo by a nymph, ne. When one of his playmates mocked Clym'e him Apollo was really his Phaethon made no answer, but, coming father, home, asked his mother to give him some assurfor believing that ance of his parentage. all by that was sacred Clymene swore to him him truly, he was not satisfied, he that she had told but suggested that if should go and put the question to his father himself. The boy eagerly traveled toward the sunrise, beyond the borders of earth, and came to the palace of the sun. Phcebus, dressed in a purple was seated on a throne glittering with gems. To right and left stood the Days, the Months, the Years, and the Ages. There too were the Seasons; young Spring, crowned with robe, 11 Following Ovid, Metamorphoses, I. 750 ff.
  • Apollo and Artemis 71 Summer, nude but for her wreaths Autumn, stained with trodden grapes; fresh flowers of grain; ; and icy Winter, rugged and hoary-haired. Before this company appeared the boy Phaethon, and stood hesitating near the door, unable to bear his father's brightness. But the sun, look- him with those eyes that see all things, greeted him kindly and asked the reason of his ing at Phaethon, encouraged by his recogni" answered O light of the vast world, coming. tion, : my father, if that name permitted, I that I may be pray you pledge In answer the recognized as your very son." father embraced him and promised to grant what- Phoebus, to give is me some by the Styx, an oath no god might break. But when Phaethon asked for the privilege of driving for one day ever he should ask ; he swore it the chariot of the sun, Phoebus did all in his to dissuade him, telling him the dangers of the way, and that not even Zeus, who wields the thunder, could drive that chariot. Surely it power was no task But Phaethon was and Apollo had sworn demand, for a mortal obstinate in his ! by the Styx. The was Hephaestus' work, all of gold ivory, set with gems, and marvelously wrought. As Phaethon wondered at the work, wakeful Aurora threw wide the golden gates and chariot and opened the courts fled away. When full of rosy light. The stars Phoebus saw the earth grow
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 72 red and the pale moon vanish, he bade the Hours Then he touched his harness the fiery horses. son's face with sacred ointment that it might bear the scorching flame, and on his head he " If placed the rays, giving him this last advice. heed your father's words, my boy, Keep spare the whip and firmly hold the reins! to the middle course, where you will see the you can still my wheels; for if you go too high you burn the homes of the gods, if too low, the tracks of will earth. I commit the rest Fortune. to As I speak, clamp Night has reached its western goal we may no longer delay; we are demanded, and ; Dawn has put the shades to reins, if you are The boy still flight. Take the resolved." joyfully mounted the chariot and thanked his father. The horses sprang forward, outstripping the wind that rose at dawn from the east. But the chariot seemed light withfiery out the accustomed weight of the mighty god, and the horses bolted and left the trodden road. Phaethon neither knew which way to turn, nor, had he known, could he have guided the horses. When from his dizzy height he looked down on the lands lying far below him, he grew pale and his knees trembled in sudden fear; his eyes were blinded by excess of light. And now he wished that he had never touched his father's horses; he wished that he had never even known of his high birth. What should he do? He looked at
  • Apollo and Artemis 73 the great expanse of sky behind his back yet more was before him. He measured the two with his ; Trembling, he saw about him the monsters of which his father had warned him. The Sereye. from his age-long lethargy by the too near approach of the sun's chariot, hissed horripent, roused there Scorpio, curving menacing arms, threatened death with his poisonous fangs. At sight of this monster Phaethon's heart failed him and bly he ; dropped the reins. The Moon wondered The horses ran wild. to see her brother's chariot running nearer the earth than her own, and the all on fire. Then all the moisture in the clouds was dried up and the ground cracked. Trees and crops, cities with their inhabitants, all were turned to ashes. They say that this was how the people of Africa were turned black, and how Sahara became a sandy waste. The nymphs earth pined away, seeing their fountains dried up about them, and the river-beds were dusty hollows. The ground cracked so wide that the light pene- and startled Hades and his queen. The seas shrank and the fishes sought the bottom. Three times Poseidon dared to raise his head above his waters, and each time trated even into Tartarus the heat forced him back. At last Earth, the mother of all, faint and scorched, appealed to Zeus for help, calling him to witness her own undeserved distress, and the clanger to his own realm of heaven if this wild conflagration continued.
  • 74 Greek and Roman Mythology Then Zeus hurled his The horses lo's son. left the chariot thunder-bolt against Apoltore themselves loose and a wreck. Phaethon shooting star, leaving a trail until the waters of the river Then Apollo over him. of fire Po fell, like a behind him, in Italy closed hid his face in grief, and they say that one whole day went by without a sun. The raging fires gave light. The waternymphs found Phaethon's body and buried it, raising " Here over lies it a tomb Phaethon, with this who drove chariot; if he could not control it, inscription his father's : yet he fell nobly daring." Another son of Apollo, As cle'pi us, the divine Asciephysician, has already been mentioned. was widely worshiped as god of medicine, and at his temple in Epidaurus marvelous cures were wrought. Here his priests cared for the sick, and about the shrine rose a great establishment to which flocked those needing his ministrapius tions. not so The god appeared by night often in his own form as to the patients, in that of the It was in this form that serpent sacred to him. the Romans ^Es cu la'pi us) Asciepius (called by was brought is to Rome at the time of a plague. It said that the serpent left the ship before it to an island in the Tiber. came to land and swam There his worship was teresting to is still know there. established, and it is in- that at this day a city hospital
  • Fig. 19. Asclepius.
  • Apollo and Artemis When 77 Zeus, in anger at Asclepius' presumption dead to life, struck and slew him in restoring the by a thunderbolt, Apollo rashly attempted to avenge his son's death by shooting with his arrows the forgers of the thunderbolt, the CyIn punishment for this insubordination, Zeus compelled him for one year to serve a mortal. During this time of exile he kept the sheep clopes. of Al the Ad me'tus, a prince of Thessaly. the wife of Admetus, gained a place just ces'tis, among the women famous in story by an act of noble self-sacrifice. When the day approached that was destined for Admetus' death, that prince won the reward for his just and wise treatment of his divine shepherd for Apollo gained for him the promof a postponement of that evil day, on condi; ise tion that he could induce place. With full some other to take his assurance that some one of his devoted friends and servants, or, most certainly, one of his parents, would feel disposed to offer his life as a ransom, after another. All Admetus appealed refused; even his to one father, though reminded by his son that in any case he had not long to live, and that he should feel quite content to die since he would leave a son to carry on the family, quite obstinately refused. It al- most seemed that Death must have his own, and Then Admetus' Apollo's promise be unfulfilled. 12 Euripides, Alcestis. Aicestis. 12
  • 78 Greek and Roman Mythology young wife, Alcestis, took his fate upon herself, and for love of her husband, offered to go to the dark home of Hades in his place. The day of the sacrifice came, and Apollo, whose brightness and purity might not be polluted by nearness to the dead, prepared to leave the house of his servitude. Meeting Death by the way, he vainly tried to persuade him to spare Alcestis too, but that relentless enemy passed inside the house to cut from his victim's head the lock of hair that consecrated her to the gods of the lower world. Meanwhile Alcestis had been preparing herself She put on her finest for her terrible visitor. robes and her ornaments, she decked the house with garlands, and before the shrine of Hestia, the guardian of the home, she prayed that her two little children might find in the goddess a And when the protectress loving as a mother. children came running to her and the servants sadly crowded round her, she bade them each one a loving and courageous farewell. Admetus came and with tears entreated her not to leave him forlorn. He did not offer to meet Death for her. Only one request she made strength ebbed, let as her husband bring no her step- mother to tyrannize over her children. To the house of mourning the hero Heracles (Hercules), on one of his many adventurous The journeys, came and begged entertainment.
  • Apollo and Artemis servants 79 would have turned him away, unwilling that their attentions to their dead mistress should be interrupted, but Admetus, true to the Greek law of hospitality, concealed his trouble and or- dered a feast to be prepared for his guest. The warmed by food and wine, became so noisy in his enjoyment of it that the servants could not hero, contain with him was was a indignation and reproached Great inconsiderate behavior. their his Heracles' mortification at finding that it house of mourning he had unwittingly invaded, and swearing that the courteous Admetus should never regret his kindness, he hurriedly left the house. The funeral ceremonies were over and Alcestis Her husband to the tomb. widowed home, bowed with grief and half awakened to the selfishness of his own choice. At this moment Heracles reappeared, with him a veiled woman whom he urged leading the prince to keep for him for a time. Admetus, his promise to Alcestis, was unwillremembering had been committed returned to his ing to admit any woman to his roof, wishing to avoid even the appearance of setting up any one wife's place. Only by much insistence could the hero induce him to take her by the in his hand and lead her in. Then Heracles drew off and disclosed Alcestis herself, whom he had rescued by wrestling with and overthrowing the veil Death.
  • 8o Greek and Roman Mythology The worship of the Greek god Apollo was introduced into Rome under the same name. early With the introduction of his worship was associated the acquisition of the Sibylline Books, sold, according to the legend, to King Tarquin by the These precious books of prophwere kept beneath the temple on the Capecy itoline Hill and in time of danger to the state were solemnly consulted by those ordained for Sibyl of Cumae. that purpose. ii. The goddess of the moon and the chase, ARTEMIS (DIANA) Ar'te mis was the child of Zeus and Leto, twin of Apollo. As Apollo took the place of the Titan Helios as god of the sun, so Artemis sister took the place of Se le'ne as goddess of the moon. In her chariot she too drove across the heavens ; her weapons, like his, were the bow and arrows. But Artemis was more generally known as goddess of the chase and of all wild things in naDressed in the short hunting-dress, pulled up through her belt to give her freedom of motion, with quiver and bow over her shoulder ture. she scoured the forest in pursuit of game. Her were the mountain nymphs and the companions To her the of the woods and streams. huntsman made his prayer and to her he offered the first fruits of his game on rough stone altars. But though a huntress, she was yet the friend and protectress of beasts, both wild and dospirits
  • Fig. 20. Artemis of Versailles.
  • Apollo and Artemis and mestic, 83 young were under her their special care. Artemis represented as a graceful, active Appearance and emblems maiden, dressed in a short hunting-dress coming only to the knee, and armed with bow and quiver. is When as represented moon-goddess she in pears her chariot. Her emblems and crescent, ap- are the bow the and quiver, and she ofhas ten beside or deer a her some other animal of the chase. As Apollo the ideal stood The patroness for of maidens. of youthful manly beauty, so Artemis was the ideal of maidenhood, of modand of graceful esty, was activity. She patron goddess young and girls the of her worship was served by them. sacrifice Fig 2I " " Before marrying, Greek Artemis of Gabii ' girls offered in a lock of hair, together with their dolls when in trouble it was to her they or other toys ; called for help. Ar e thu'sa, now a fountain in the Sicilian city Artimsa. 13 Following Ovid, Metamorphoses, V. 577 ff. is
  • 84 Greek and Roman Mythology of Syracuse, was once a nymph, a follower of She Artemis, and lived in southern Greece. cared nothing for admiration and love but was wholly devoted to the chase. One day when she was tired and hot, she came upon a clear, cold She stream, flowing silently through the woods. drew near and dipped in, first her toes, then as far as her knees; the cold water was so refresh- ing that she took off her clothes and plunged into the stream. While she was enjoying her bath, she heard a murmur under the water, and as she hastened to the bank in sudden fear, the hoarse " voice of the river-god Al phe'us Whither are : " She fled and the you hastening, Arethusa ? hard upon her. Through eager god pressed fields and pathless woods, over rocks and hills she ran, and ever the sound of his pursuing feet grew nearer. At last she was exhausted and cried to Artemis, the protector of maidens. The goddess heard and threw about her a thick mist hide her from the eyes of her pursuer. to god still sought her. A cold sweat poured from the maiden's limbs, drops fell from her hair; she was transformed into a But even in this form Alpheus recogspring. Though baffled, the nized her and, to mingle his waters with hers, laid aside the human form he had assumed. Then Artemis opened the earth, and Arethusa flowed down through black underground ways until she rose again across the sea in Sicily. But
  • Apollo and Artemis 85 the river-god endured even the darkness of the under-world in pursuit of his love, and in that bright Sicilian land at last joined his waves with hers. That Artemis could be cruel in punishing one who offended her maiden modesty is seen in the story of Ac tae'on. In a valley thickly wooded with pine and pointed cypress trees was a natural cave, wherein bubbled a spring of clearest water. Here Artemis, when tired with hunting, used to bathe. She would enter the cave, hand her hunting-spear one of her attendant nymphs, her bow and to quiver to another, to a third her mantle, while others took off her hunting-shoes. Then she would step into the spring, while the nymphs poured water over her. was high noon, hot with the heat of the dogdays, and Actaeon, satisfied with the morning's sport, had left the other hunters and wandered It Hoping to find water At sight of him the nymphs raised a shrill outcry and crowded about Artemis Insulted by to hide her from his profane eyes. innocently into the grove. he entered the cave. the intrusion, unintentional though it was, Artemis protected herself even better. She splashed water from the spring in Action's " as she did so have seen 14 : me Now, if you can, boast that you At touch of the " unappareled face, saying ! Following Ovid, Metamorphoses, III. 138 ff. Actaeon. 14
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 86 water his human form was changed to that of a stag and not his form alone, for trembling fear entered his once bold heart and he fled, dreading ; alike the woods and companions. As he own home and former fled, his own dogs, driven his mad by fifty Artemis, saw him and gave chase, all of them. Over hills and rocks he fled and Fig. 22. Actaeon killed by his Dogs. " I am Actaeon know longed to stop and cry " master! But the words would not come, your and all the air resounded with the baying of the : ; dogs. They closed in on pieces, while the hunters, him and tore him to who had urged them on, called loudly for Actaeon, eager that he should have a share in such good sport. It is said that
  • Apollo and Artemis 87 when the dogs recovered from their madness, they ran howling through the woods, seeking their master. Once even the maiden Artemis loved a mortal. En dym'i on was a shepherd Fig. 23. on Mt. Latmos, in Sleeping who kept his flocks Endymion. Asia Minor. As she drove her chariot across the sky by night, Artemis down and saw the youth sleeping. His looked beauty as he lay drew the moon-goddess to him in love. Each night she left her course to descend to the mountain-top and kiss the shepherd. long absences and her paleness when Her she returned
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 88 aroused the suspicions of the other Olympians, only too glad to detect a sign of weakness in the maiden. Wishing to remove temptation from her way, Zeus gave Endymion his choice between death in any form and perpetual youth cold with perpetual sleep. Endymion chose the latter, and still he sleeps in his cave on Mt. Latmos, visited each night by the moon-goddess, who silently and sadly kisses his pale cheeks. Nor do Artemis drives them by night and watches over their increase. pastures his flocks suffer, for to rich This story was originally told of Selene, but Greeks transferred it to the younger later the goddess. The onon. giant O ri'on, too, won the affection of Artemis, though perhaps, in this case, she looked upon him rather as a congenial companion in hunting than as a lover. He was a son of Po- seidon and had from his father the power of walking through the sea as easily as he walked Because he was too hasty in his of a certain girl, her father made him wooing drunk and then put out both his eyes. Finding on the land. his way by the sound of the in hammers to He- Lesbos, he borrowed one of phaestus' forge the lame god's assistants to act as his guide, and The so came to the far east where the sun rises. brightness of the sun-beams restored his sight, and Orion became a constant companion of Artemis. Apollo disapproved of the friendship,
  • Apollo and Artemis 89 and one day he challenged his sister to hit with her arrow a dark speck that was moving on the water; it was too late when she learned that the mark was Orion's dark head. As she could not restore him to life, she put him in the heavens as a constellation, one of the brightest and most All the winter nights beautiful that we can see. he races across the heavens with his dog, Sirius, at his heels, or he pursues the seven Ple'ia des, maidens changed to stars that one sees all crowded together and pale with fright as they flee. In the summer, Orion appears in the east at dawn, for he loves the dawn-goddess and, great and brilliant as he is, grows pale before her. Artemis appeared under quite a different character as Hec'a is te, for that mysterious deity, who and the horrors of associated with witchcraft night and darkness, is bright moon-goddess. but another form of the Her dark and mysterious knowledge, such knowledge as sorceresses and witches made use of in their evil charms, came from her association with grave-yards and from the celebration of her worship by night at crossroads, a time and place that open the superstitious mind to impressions of terror and the pres- ence of mysterious powers. 13 15 In New She was a goddess England, at the time of the witchcraft panics, those people suspected of being in league with the Devil were believed to hold their dark and hateful assemblies by midnight at the cross-roads. Hecate,
  • QO of Greek and Roman Mythology triple form; her three faces looked down the where her statue was The baying of dogs on moonlight up. three forks of the roads often set nights was thought to be a warning of her ap- proach. Diana. The Latin goddess Diana was originally a speof women. A temple was dedicated to her in a lonely wood beside the lake of Nemi, in the Alban Hills. Here all the towns of the cial deity Latins united in her worship. This shrine is famous because of the gloomy legends connected with it. It was said that in the wood grew a tree on which was a golden bough, and that he who could pluck this bough and slay the priest who kept the shrine thereby succeeded to his honor and retained it until he himself was slain by another. Diana, as a goddess of women and of became identified with the Greek Artemis nature, and was then worshiped as goddess of the moon and the chase.
  • CHAPTER V HERMES AND HESTIA HERMES (MERCURY) i. HERMES was the messenger of Zeus, the con- The wind- god's infancy ductor of souls to the lower world, the guardian of ambassadors, of travelers and merchants, the patron of trade, skilled in all wiles, deceit and trickery, the mischievous thief on the other hand, ; a shepherd and patron of shepherds. He was " the son of Zeus by Maia, a fair-tressed nymph," who gave him birth in a cave in Arcadia " rich in sheep." 16 by mid-day he In the morning he was born, and and stealthily left his cradle On forth to seek adventure. met a set the threshold of waddling along on the At once the ingenious boy saw what use grass. " Hail darling and dancer, he could make of it. the cave he tortoise, ' friend of the feast, gottest thou that welcome art thou! Whence gay garment, a speckled shell, Then he thou, a mountain-dwelling tortoise?' scooped out the flesh of the tortoise, bored holes through it its shell, covered it with ox-hide, put on it seven strings. two horns, and stretched across 16 Following the Homeric Hymn to Hermes. from the translation by Andrew Lang. tions 91 Quota-
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 92 Touching the strings he sang gaily to the accompaniment of the newly-invented lyre. When the chariot of Apollo had sunk into the waves of Ocean, this nimble infant left his cave and lyre, and ran to the shadowy hills, where fed the cattle of the sun. cattle From and drove them the herd he separated fifty hither and thither to con- tracks. Next, he made sandals of woven twigs and fastened them on his own feet fuse their to obscure his tracks, and so drove the cattle back- ward to the river. Then he made a great fire and roasted two of the beasts. Carefully covering up the marks of the fire and the feast, and throwing aside his sandals, back to his mother's cave he flew, in the east Through a before the and catch the sun-god should rise thief at his work. hole, like a breath of wind, he en- tered the cave, and treading noiselessly, climbed into his cradle and wrapped about himself the But Apollo, when morning swaddling-clothes. rose from the stream of Ocean, missed the cattle and questioned an old man who was digging in From the old fellow's a vineyard on the hillside. account of the marvelous child who had stolen the cattle Apollo at once recognized his newborn brother. When that little thief saw Apollo, " he sank down bent on vengeance, enter the cave, within his fragrant swaddling-bands and curled himself up, feet, head, and hands, into small space, though really wide awake, and his tortoise-shell
  • Fig. 24. Hermes in Repose.
  • Hermes and Hestia 95 But Apollo saw he kept beneath his arm-pit." through the wiles of the cunning baby and angrily threatened to throw did Hermes plead " him into Tartarus. In vain knew nothing of that he the ' Other cares have I, sleep and mother's and about my shoulders swaddling-bands, milk, and warmed baths.' He dared even to add a cattle : ' was great oath that he far to from go to As Apollo was innocent. was nothing for satisfied, there it but Olympus and put their dispute before Even there the crafty little their father Zeus. thief dared to repeat his lies, " ' The Sun Thee I I love, greatly revere, and him I adding submissively: and other gods, and dread . . . but do Thou ' But perhaps because the inaid the younger.' fant could not refrain from adding a wink to his " Zeus laughed aloud at the sight innocent tale, of his evil-witted child," and bade the brothers Hermes show Apollo his catApollo was again roused to anger be reconciled and tle. When by the sight of the hides of the slain cattle, Hermes drew forth his lyre and played and sang bewitchingly that Apollo was pacified and gladly formed a compact with his clever little so brother; Hermes was and give afterwards to to be keeper of the cattle Apollo the his lyre, favorite myth, on the nature side, which was ever instrument. we see In this Hermes, a wind- god, driving off the clouds, the cattle of the sunsee, too, Hermes as the herdsman, god. We
  • 96 Greek and Roman Mythology the inventor and the cunning thief; perhaps also, in his compact with Apollo, we see him as the trader. The patron of athletes, traders and travelers. Clever and agile, good-humored and young, Hermes was the patron of young men, and to him they prayed, especially for success in athletic contests. His statue was set up in gymnasia he ; games of chance. Both by his speed in hastening from land to land, and by his smoothness of address and his nimble wit, he was the natural patron of traders. In the market-place, the commercial and financial center of Athens, statues of Hermes had a prominent As he was the guide of travelers, square place. blocks topped by a head of Hermes marked the cross-roads and the important street-crossings in the city. It was the mutilation of these Hermre presided, too, over that caused such a panic at the time of the Athe- nian expedition against Sicily. Alcibiades was recalled from the war to answer to the charge of having impiously destroyed them. The nerald Zeus and of con- ductor of souls to the lower world. Hermes known as herald of the gods. At Zeus's bidding he binds on his winged sandals, takes his herald's staff in hand, and flies swiftly is best father. when Appearance and emblems. It is men commands of the he who conducts to Hades the soul to earth to carry to the leaves the body, and gives it into the of the gods of the lower world. charge Hermes is represented as a young man with it close-cropped curly hair, vivacious look, and
  • Hermes and Hestia 97 He wears his winged sanvigorous frame. dals, often a traveler's hat or a winged cap otherwise he is usually nude. In his hand he carries agile, ; his caduceus, or herald's staff, with winged two serpents twined about it. at the top, He most fully expresses the character of the Greek peo- Fig. 25. pie, Hermes from Olympia. as a French writer inventive the (Collignon) says, "the alert the intelligence, genius, physical vigor, developed and training of the palestra." made supple by the The worship of Hermes under the name of Mercury was introduced into Rome at a time when there was anxiety about the grain trade Mercury.
  • 98 Greek and Roman Mythology with South Italy. commerce was, one in Rome. HESTIA (VESTA) ii. ddes8 of"t!ie hearth-fire, His function as patron of his most important therefore, fire of the forge is typified by HeHes'ti a represents another aspect, the phaestus, fire on the hearth, the natural altar and the spir- While the itual center of family life. About the hearth the gods of the family had their places here the family celebrated their festivals; here the stranger ; found protection, and about infant it every new-born his admission was carried as a symbol of to the family family, had life. its So, too, the city, as the larger hearth whereon the holy common of Hestia must always be kept lighted. And when a group of citizens, self-exiled from their fire home, set out under Apollo's sanction to found a colony, the hearth of the new home on the foreign shore must receive a fire kindled at the hearth of Hestia in the mother-city. Thus the spiritual bond between. the parted kinsmen remained unbroken, and the same goddess held the new homes under her protection. Moreover, the essential brotherhood of all true Hellenes was symbolized in the great hearth-fire of Hestia at the center of the Greek world, Delphi. So closely is Hestia identified with the fire of the hearth that no further outward are rare. As form was needed statues of her eldest sister of Zeus she is, how-
  • Hermes and Hestia 99 woman of stately form and calm, benign expression, dressed in the double ever, represented as a Fig. 26. Hestia. chiton or tunic of a Greek lady, her head covered with a A veil. passage in the Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite shows the respect that Hestia enjoyed among the gods of Olympus:
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 10O Nor to the revered maiden Hestia are the feats of Aphrodite a joy, eldest daughter of crooked-counseled Cronus, that lady whom both Poseidon and Apollo sought to win. But she would not, nay stubbornly she refused; and she swore a great oath fulfilled, with her hand on Father Zeus of the ^Egis, to be a maiden forAnd to her Father Zeus gave ever, that lady goddess. a goodly mede of honor, in lieu of wedlock; and in mid-hall she sat her down, choosing the best portion and in all the temples of the gods is she honored, and ; among vesta. all mortals is chief of gods. The Roman Vesta is identical with Hestia of At Rome the small round temple the Greeks. of Vesta in the Forum was the religious center of the community. Here no image of the goddess was needed, but her fire, kindled yearly on 1 5th from the rays of the sun by means of a burning-glass, was kept always lighted by the Vestal Virgins. These maidens were drawn June from the noblest families of Rome, and served the goddess for thirty years under a vow of vir- Every honor was paid them, and they ginity. could extend their protection over whom they would even a criminal who met a Vestal on his ; way Any to execution might thus gain member of his freedom. was and their influence on state punished by death, affairs was often considerable. On the other disrespect to a the order hand, as any breaking of the vow of virginity brought pollution to the city hearth and evil to
  • Hermes and Hestia the community, such unfaithfulness was 101 pitilessly punished; the guilty priestess was buried alive. When the Roman emperor wished to demonstrate that he was the center of the political life Fig. 27. as well of the religious as of Rome, he transferred the Genius and Lares. hearth of Vesta from the Forum to the Palatine where his palace was. Associated with the worship of Vesta at the of the Lares and family hearth was the worship Pe na'tes, the gods of home and of the household Hill, store. Their images must be guarded jealously family
  • 1O2 Greek and Roman Mythology by the householder, and must go with him, should he be forced to leave his old home for a new one. So JE ne'as, when fleeing from Troy, bids his father on the flight to hold fast to the penates. (jEneid, II. 717.)
  • Fig. 28, Ares with Eros.
  • CHAPTER VI ARES AND APHRODITE ARES (MARS) i. IF Athena, as the warlike defender of right The god of war. and justice, the protector of cities, enjoyed the honor of all men and the fullest share in her mighty father's confidence, it was with Ares, the god of war and far otherwise battle. Zeus de- clares in his anger, " Most hateful dwell on and to Olympus battles." ; me art thou of all the gods that thou ever lovest strife and wars V. 890.) (Iliad, Athena addresses him as, " Ares, Ares, blood-stained bane of mortals, thou stormer of walls." (Iliad, V. 31.) He was the personification of battle, alwaysfor blood his worship originated among thirsting the savage tribes of Thrace. He was drawn in ; by his fiery horses, Fear and Dread, borne by a Fury to the North Wind, and was attended by Strife, Rout, Terror, and Battle-din. his chariot In art, however, this blood-stained Ares gave 105
  • Greek and Roman Mythology io6 place to a much milder In the fourth conception. he appears as a young man with spircentury ited but somewhat thoughtful face, and slender, Often he has no arms graceful, nude form. B.C. Fig. 29. Bearded Mars. other than a helmet and a shield or club. He is frequently seen with Aph re di'te (Venus), goddess of love and beauty, or their child, Eros (Cupid). For Aphrodite, t<red of her marriage with the lame god of fire, Hephaestus, into which she was forced by Zeus, Ares. Homer tells yielded to the love of phaestus, told of his how H wife's infidelity by the sur -god, forged a net, fine as a spider's web, whe, ein he insnared the
  • Fig. 30. Aphrodite of Cnidos.
  • Ares and Aphrodite guilty lovers so that they could not Here he held them all 109 move a limb. prisoners, a laughing-stock to the gods. 17 From Ares was gus, of the derived the name, where cases of murder were Worshiped cupied a as Mars, in much A re op'a- near the Acropolis in Athens, hill tried in old times. Rome the war-god oc- Mars, higher place than in Athens. To him was dedicated the Campus Martius, a field where the army met to be numbered, and to him, on the return of a victorious army, were dedicated the spoils of war. Through Romulus, the legendary founder of the Rome, the Romans claimed his city son of the special favor of the war-god. With Mars was (See p. 348.) associated Bel lo'na, a goddess personifying war. n. Aph APHRODITE (VENUS) was the goddess of love and According to one story she was the ro di'te . beauty. daughter of Zeus and the goddess Dio'ne; according to the better known story she sprang from the foam of the sea and was wafted gently over the crest of the waves to Cyprus, her sacred island. Her did the golden-snooded Hours gladly welcome, and clad her about in immortal raiment, and on her deathless head set a well-wrought crown, fair and golden, and in her ears put ear-rings of orichalcum and Odyssey. VTIT. 266 Her birth and marriages.
  • 11O Greek and Roman Mythology Fig. 31. Birth of Aphrodite from the Sea. Her delicate neck and white bosom adorned with chains of gold, wherewith are bethey decked the golden-snooded Hours themselves, when of precious gold. they come to the glad dance of the Gods in the dwelling of the Father. And when they had adorned her in all goodliness they led her to the Immortals, who gave her greeting when they beheld her, and welcomed her with their hands; her home to and each God prayed that he might lead be his wedded wife, so much they mar- veled at the beauty of the fair-garlanded Cytherean. (Homeric Hymn to Aphrodite.) But Zeus gave her as wife to the lame fire-god how she Hephaestus. left him for Ares, and how Hephaestus avenged himself and held them up to the ridicule of the other Olympians. Because of her beauty and It has been already told her power over the hearts of men and gods, Aphrodite naturally aroused the jealousy of the
  • Ares and Aphrodite ill Hera never forgave the Troother goddesses. jan Paris for awarding her the famous golden apple. To and the sea-godcless Thetis all the gods were invited except Ens, To avenge herself for the Goddess of Discord. this neglect, Eris threw among the guests a " For the golden apple bearing the inscription, the marriage of Pe'leus Fig. 32. Judgment of Paris. Fairest." Hera, Athena, and Aphrodite each claimed the apple. Unwilling to expose himself to the storm of wrath a choice among the three would raise, Zeus sent them to appear for judgment before Paris. This Paris, the son of the king of Troy, had been exposed as an infant and brought up among shepherds, and was now keepThe three goddesses ing his sheep on Mt. Ida. came before him, arrayed in all their charms, and The Apple of Discord.
  • 112 Greek and Roman Mythology each demanded judgment in her favor. bribe, Hera Athena, glory in woman beautiful Whether As a him power and riches; war; and Aphrodite, the most offered in the world as his wife. influenced by her promise or by the sur- passing charms of golden-crowned Aphrodite, Paris decided in her favor, and she triumphantly bore off the golden apple. To Paris and the Trojans judgment proved a this curse, since the of Aphrodite's promise in giving to Paris Menelaiis' wife, Helen, was the cause of fulfilment the Trojan War, which ended in the utter de- Her appear- struction of the city. j In the figure of Aphrodite Greek artists tried emblems. to express their ideal of beauty charm. She and of womanly than Hera, with less .if*'i Athena. intellectuality than is less stately strength and Earlier artists represented her covered by a thin clinging garment, but the statues of a later date of Her emblems are the and pomegranate, the rose and the myrtle, apple and the tortoise. Her chariot is drawn by sparrows or doves, or, on the waters, to betoken her birth from the sea, by swans. Not only men and gods, but all creation witness to Aphrodite's power. By her child Eros (or Cupid) all nature is given life and the power are usually quite nude. Her powers. to reproduce itself. Through her power birds and beasts mate and give birth to their young; through her all green things grow and put forth
  • Ares and Aphrodite seeds. And spring, and when the gentle so her divine over the land and all 113 shown in the west wind breathed power the earth is grew green and fertile, the Greeks sang songs of praise to violetcrowned Aphrodite and held a festival in her But when the hot Greek summer came, scorching the blossoms and robbing the fields of their beauty, then a note of deep sadness came honor. worship of Aphrodite with the celebration of the Adonis feast. into the A do'nis was a beauti f ul youth who grew up under the care of the nymphs. Aphrodite, victim of the same love that made her powerful over all others, loved this youth and devoted herself enjoyment of his company. For his sake she dressed herself like the huntress Artemis and to the spent her days roaming over the hills with him and following the chase. Dreading his rashness, she made him promise to hunt no dangerous beasts, but to be content with deer and hares and other innocent game. One day, after warning thus, she entered her chariot drawn by swans him and drove away to Olympus. Adonis, on the track of a wild boar, forgot his promise, entered on the chase, and wounded the boar, which turned on him and drove its white tusk into his As the boy lay dying. Aphrodite, with anguish, came to him. Unable distraught to save her lover, she caused to grow from the tender side. drops of his blood the anemone or wind-flower, Adonis,
  • 114 Greek and Roman Mythology a delicate purple flower that grows plentifully in the Greek meadows in the spring of the year. In this story Adonis is the springtime, killed by the fierce heat of summer. Each year in com- memoration of his death the people Fig. 33- Venus of went through Aries. the city in procession, carrying a bier whereon lay a wax while the figure of Adonis, covered with flowers, women chanted the lament. Low on the hills is lying the lovely Adonis, and hi? thigh with the boar's tusk, his white thigh with the boar's tusk, is wounded, and sorrow on Cypris (Aphro-
  • Ares and Aphrodite dite) 115 he brings, as softly he breathes his (Bion, Idyl, I. 7 ff . Translation by life away. Andrew Lang.) At dawn the image was thrown into the sea. Yet the mourning ended with joyful anticipation of Adonis' return from the lower world at the coming of the next spring. Venus was an old Italian goddess, the giver of bloom and fruit fulness in nature, the protectress Venus, The Romans identified her with the Greek Aphrodite, the bountiful goddess of love and beauty. of gardens. Aphrodite or Venus was always ready to help who were wise enough to go to her. The lovers following famous love stories are some of the many that witness to her power. At a lan'ta had been warned by the gods that J she should never marry; she therefore lived a maiden in the forests and devoted herself to the and the hunt. To the throng of lovers who sought her hand she always an" I am not to be won unless first vanswered in a race. Contend with me quished My hand service of Artemis : ! shall be the victor's reward, death the penalty of the vanquished." Yet so great was the power of her beauty that even on these hard conditions many entered the contest. Hip pom'e nes had come as a spectator, and, despising women, had laughed at the folly of 18 Ovid, Metamorphoses, X. 560 ff. Atlanta's race, is
  • n6 Greek and Roman Mythology who entered the race. But when he saw maiden the mocking laugh died on his lips. As she ran Atalanta grew continually more beautiful in his eyes; he hated his rivals and dreaded The goal was reached, the crown their success. of victory placed on Atalanta's head, and her suitors paid the penalty. Hippomenes was by no those the means deterred by their fate; he leaped into the " It is an race-course and facing Atalanta said easy title to fame you seek against those slow runners Contend with me, the grandson of Poseidon, and if you win you will gain a name worth " Atalanta looked at him and seemed winning! to doubt whether she would rather vanquish or : ! " be vanquished. to destroy him and at such a risk? It is not that though I What bids god," said she, him to seek am not worth am touched by I I might well be touched by me " wishes as wife, such a price. his beauty it but he is moves me. Depart, stranwhile you can; some other maiden would ger, be willing to be your wife. Yet why should I pity you, when I have let so many others meet their fate ? But I wish that you should depart still a boy; his youth or, since you are so foolish, I could wish that you were swifter!" So she hesitated; but the on-lookers demanded the race. Then Hippomenes help From a daring lover, called upon Aphrodite to and the goddess heard. a tree of golden apples she picked three
  • Ares and Aphrodite 117 and gave them to Hippomenes. The trumpeters gave the signal the racers darted forward. The ; spectators shouted encouragement to the youth: " Now, now is the time Quick, quick, Hip! when she could have pomenes!" Many passed him the maiden delayed an instant; but the goal was still far off, and averting her eyes times Then Hippomenes threw one golden apples. The maiden's eye was she darted ahead. of the caught by the gleam of the gold; she turned aside and passed by ; up the fruit. Hippomenes resounded with applause. At- picked the air made up for the delay by an effort and was once more ahead. Delayed by the throwing alanta of a second apple, she again caught up and passed her competitor. Only a short space remained. " Now be with prayed. all me and Toward the " he help me, Aphrodite side of the course with ! his strength he threw the last of the golden apples. The girl seemed for an instant to hesi- tate, but Aphrodite forced her to turn aside once more. Hippomenes was victor and claimed his reward. In his victory, Hippomenes unluckily forgot to give thanks to Aphrodite, and she, wishing in her anger to destroy him, tempted him to profane the temple of Cybele (see p. 153), the great mother In the gods. the pair into lions changed draw her of chariot. punishment Cybele and forced them to
  • n8 Greek and Roman Mythology Pyg ma'li on was Gaiatea. the king of Cyprus and a out of ivory a statue great sculptor. of Aphrodite, so beautiful that he fell in love with it. As if he had a living woman before He made him he spoke it. He to the image, embraced and kissed brought to her all sorts of presents such as please maidens, costly dresses, necklaces, and He called her his wife. At a fesear-rings. tival of Aphrodite, who was especially worshiped island, he offered sacrifice and prayed the on the goddess to give him a wife exactly like the ivory When he came home and embraced the image. statue it seemed to him to return the pressure; the ivory cheeks glowed with a warm flush; the eyes answered his tender glances the lips opened to respond to his endearments. The goddess had granted him more than he had dared to ask. In Abydos, on one side of the Hellespont (now the Dardanelles), lived a young man named Le; Hero and ander; on the opposite side in Sestos, a maiden named Hero lived in a tower by the shore and cared for Aphrodite's sacred swans and sparrows. At a festival of the goddess the two met and immediately fell in love. Though they were forbidden to see one another, every night Leander swam across the Hellespont and stayed with Hero until dawn began to break. One night the wind was high and the water dangerous, but the lover was not deterred. At first love bore him up, and the light his lady showed guided his way.
  • Ares and Aphrodite 119 But the wind blew out the flame; his strength failed him and the waters closed over his head. Hero watched out the night in an agony of fear; dawn she found her lover's body washed at ashore. 19 Pyramus Pyr'a mus and Thisbe, living: in adioinins; Thisbe. 20 J houses in Babylon, came to know one another, > and time the acquaintance grew into love. in They would have married, but bade their fathers for- They could speak only by nods and but the more the love was kept secret the it. signs, more ardent became. In the high wall that separated the two gardens they had found a tiny it crack, through which, without exciting suspicion, they might wall," they murmur would endearments. " say, why do you " O hateful stand in the How small a thing it would be way for you to allow us to be united, or, if that is too much to ask, that you would at least open a way of lovers? for our kisses fess that it is We are not ungrateful we conto you we owe the chance to hear ! ; each other's voices." Speaking thus they said good-night and pressed their lips each to his side of the unresponsive wall. indulging 19 in these vain regrets, The English Leander poet Byron, One own day, after to a they came who swam the strait as did, says that at this point the Hellespont is not more than a mile wide, but that the swimmer is carried down so far by the swiftness of the current that the distance covered 20 is not less than four miles. Following Ovid, Metamorphoses, VI, 55 ff. and
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 120 When the silence of night had would escape their guardians' watchful eyes and go out from home. They agreed to meet at the tomb of Ninus, where a white desperate resolve. fallen they mulberry tree grew beside a spring. The long day wore away and at last night Thisbe cautiously opened the door and She had come to the out unobserved. passed tomb and seated herself under the mulberry tree, came. when a lioness, her lo! with the blood of foaming jaws smeared cattle, came to fresh-slain drink at the spring. By the rays of the moon poor Thisbe saw her, and with trembling feet she fled to a cave near by. As she fled she The lioness, having drunk her cloak. dropped her was returning fill, to the chanced to see the cloak where it left late, she She tore lay. with her bloody jaws and so Pyramus, coming somewhat it when forest it. saw in the He grew pale. " One garment stained with blood. " shall destroy two lovers," said he. Unnight I it is I that have been your death. happy girl, and bade you come by night to a fearsome place, came not first myself. Tear my body in pieces and devour my flesh, ye lions that live among the rocks! But it is the part of a coward only to wish for death." He raised Thisbe's mantle, " and weeping, pressed kisses upon it. Receive sand the tracks of the beast. He saw my the blood " ! he cried, and plunged his sword into
  • Ares and Aphrodite 121 The blood spurted high, and falling upon the mulberry tree stained the white berries a dark purple. his breast. Thisbe, ing to When trembling with fright, yet unwillher lover, returned to seek him. still fail came she to the spot the changed color of the berries made her uncertain whether she was While she hesitated right. in bewilderment, she saw the body lying on the ground. Shuddering, she recognized her lover and raised a cry of anguish, beating her breast and tearing her hair. She embraced the limp form and, raining kisses " Pyramus, what upon the cold lips, cried : cruel fate has snatched of lift Thisbe, heavy And dearest Thisbe calls you. " At the your drooping head! Pyramus in death, she, raised his and having seen eyes, Hear name already her, closed them. recognizing her cloak and the naked sword, cried aloud again: "If your your love have destroyed you, unhappy I Pyramus, Your answer! me, and O you from me ? hand and Pyramus, too have a hand bold for this one deed. Love me too strength for the blow. follow you, at once the cause and the companion of your death. You who could be torn from me I shall shall give by death alone shall be torn from me not even by death." She spoke, and placing the point under her breast, fell upon the sword. The ashes of the lovers rest in one urn, and still the mulberry mourns in dark purple.
  • CHAPTER VII THE LESSER DEITIES OF OLYMPUS OF the twelve great gods and goddesses that the Olympic Council, ten have been al- made up These are ready described. : Zeus, Hephaestus, Hermes, Ares, Hera, Athena, Hestia, The two that remain are Artemis, Aphrodite. Poseidon, god of the sea, and Demeter, the Apollo, grain-goddess, of whom later chapters will tell. Besides these greater gods there were many lesser deities. Those that had a place in Olympus are described in this chapter. i. EROS (CUPID) Eros, or Cupid, was the child of Aphrodite, some say by Ares. The conception of him as a little winged boy is later, originally he was conceived as a youth. Against his arrows no man or god was safe, for they inspired the passion of love. But once his weapons wounded their master himself and he fell under the spell of Psyche. 122
  • The Lesser Deities of Olympus THE STORY OF CUPID AND PSYCHE 123 21 There were once a king and queen who had While the beauty of the two three daughters. Fig. 34. elder sisters Eros or Cupid. was remarkable, was beyond the power 21 that of the youngest of human tongue to ex- Apuleius, a Latin poet of the 2d Century A.D., tells this its fully developed form. It differs greatly in story in style and character from the mythological stories of early
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 124 The fame of her beauty drew people from most distant lands to see her men said that this was no mortal maid, but that Venus herself had deserted the heavens and come to dwell on earth. The shrines of the goddess were deserted, and the ashes grew cold on her altars; the worship due to her was paid to the maiden. press. the ; Enraged at this transference of her another, Venus called to honors to her help her winged son Cupid, that pert and mischief-making boy. " I conjure you by your love for your mother," " said she, punish this rebellious beauty and the insult to me. avenge Inspire her with love for the lowest of beings, one so degraded that in the wide world is not his like." Now married while the two elder sisters were happily to princes, the divine perfection of Psyche's beauty and the ill-will of the goddess had hindered suitors from aspiring to her love. Her way parents, therefore, suspecting that in some they had offended the gods, consulted the oracle " Hope of for The was given: no mortal son-in-law the maiden is Apollo. answer ; destined to be the bride of a monster before whose flames and weapons Jupiter himself tremGreece, and has many of the features of the fairy tales of other European peoples. To omit the details would so detract from its interest and charm that it is here given at some length. ployed. Following Apuleius, Latin names are em-
  • The Lesser Deities of bles. To meet Olympus 125 her husband the maiden must be mountain and there left." queen, though overcome with grief, obey the oracle. Dressed as a bride led to the top of the The king and prepared to and accompanied by a procession, funereal rather than bridal, Psyche was led to the destined spot. A day of mourning was proclaimed in the city, and the parents and friends were dissolved in tears. Scarcely was Psyche left alone upon the moun- when Zephyr tain, (the west wind), tenderly lifting the trembling maiden, wafted her gently to a flowery valley below. Before her she saw a grove and the in the midst of it a fountain. fountain rose a wonderful palace Near surely the home of some god No one appeared, but a voice spoke softly to her: For the ceilings of cedar and ivory were supported on golden columns, while the walls were covered with silver wrought in marvelous designs. The pavement was a moFilled with wonder and saic of precious stones. delight, Psyche plucked up courage to enter and examine the unguarded treasures of the place. " Why ! you astonished, Lady ? All these Yonder is your bed-chamber. When you have rested and refreshed yourself by the bath, we, your attendants, will wait upon you diligently, dress you and prepare for you a are riches are yours. Her fears allayed by the gentle royal banquet." did as she was bidden, and in due voice, Psyche
  • time partook of a feast exquisitely prepared and served by invisible attendants, while bodiless musicians lyre. sang to the accompaniment of an unseen That night the master of the place came to her and made her his wife, but before the light he Thus it happened each night, and disappeared. she learned to look forward to his coming and to love him for his sweet voice and his tender caresses, though she had never seen him. In the day, however, with only the bodiless voices to people her solitude, she felt lonely, and sor- rowed to leave her family in ignorance of her She told her trouble to her husband and At entreated him to allow her to see her sisters. he unwillingly yielded to her caresses, warnlast ing her solemnly, however, that she must not listen to her sisters' persuasions and attempt to fate. see or inquire about her husband's form. " " Dis- sorrow upon and destruction upon you, sweet Wife." obedience," said he, The following to the day, mountain and will bring when called the two sisters me came upon Psyche by name, beating their breasts and lamenting her fate, obedient Zephyr carried them down to the valley and set them before the palace. After they had embraced and rejoiced together, and Psyche had showed them the beauties of the palace and had regaled them with the delicacies prepared by the invisible of the attendants, sisters, and envy crept into the hearts insatiable curiosity to know
  • Fig. 35. Cupid and Psyche.
  • The Lesser Deities of Olympus 129 happy master of all these riches. Psyche told them that her husband was a beautiful youth, who passed his days hunting on the mountains. Then she loaded them with gifts and bade Zephyr carry them back to the mountain. the The more the sisters talked over their visit to the palace the more angry and envious they They complained that they were given over to old, bald-headed, stingy kings in foreign lands, while the youngest was married to a beauEven tiful god and had control of untold wealth. became. the winds were her servants They persuaded themselves that she had acted arrogantly toward them, and they resolved to bring about her down- On fall. their ! third visit, therefore, assuming a tone of sisterly solicitude, they told her that her husband was well known to be a venomous who was serpent, often seen gliding mountain at daybreak. until she was down the He was well fatted ; keeping her only then he would devour Let her conceal in the bed a lamp and a sharp knife, and when her husband was buried in sleep, let her kill him and so make her escape. her. The girl, though at first she indignantly the suggestion, was at last persuaded. rejected Night came, and with the darkness came her hus- simple As soon as he was asleep. Psyche, sumher courage, uncovered the lamp and moning seized the knife. But when by its light she saw band. all no awful monster, but the gentlest and loveliest
  • 130 Greek and Roman Mythology all creatures, Cupid himself, the beautiful God of Love, overcome with delight and shame she fell upon her knees. So enchanted was she with of the beautiful sight, the golden curls, the ruddy cheeks, the delicate wings that sprang from his shoulders, that she remained wrapped in admiration and forgot to extinguish the At light. the foot of the bed lay his bow and arrows. Curious to try how sharp they were, Psyche pressed the arrow point against her finger. Tiny drops of blood welled out, and thus did Psyche fall in love with Love. But while she pressed kisses on his and hung over him, bewildered with delight, oil fell upon his shoulder. The god sprang up and, seeing the signs of his from her wife's tore himself faithlessness, face a drop of burning frenzied embraces and flew away. one instant her " : O obedient to in his flight, Pausing for he turned and addressed simple Psyche, my mother for you I was dis- Venus, and when she bade me give you over to some base marriage, instead to come to you myself as a lover. I chose I, the most famous of archers, have wounded myself with my own arrow and have made you my wife. And you would believe me to be a monster and would cut off my head It was of this that I so for those wicked plotoften warned you. As ! ters, they shall feel my by my flight alone." wings and flew away. anger; you will I punish So saying he spread his
  • The Lesser Deities of When Olympus 131 Psyche had recovered her senses, she of Cupid. Towards evening she found herself close to the city where her eldTo her she recounted what had est sister lived. set forth in search happened, only that she changed Cupid's parting " words. Quit my house this instant," she " I will at once marry your quoted him as saying, The wicked queen, goaded by love of and glory, left her home and her husband gold and hurried to the mountain. Then calling on Zephyr to waft her to the valley, she leaped from the rock and was dashed in pieces on the stones sister." below. ond In the same sister, and in the way Psyche visited the sec- same manner she, too, suf- fered the penalty of her treachery. In the meantime the sea-gull had brought word to Venus, who was bathing in the sea, that her son was lying at to die. He home grievously sick and likely added malicious gossip that Cupid had been guilty of a disgraceful love affair with a mortal girl, and that, in consequence of his Hot with anger neglect, love had left the world. the goddess hastened to her golden chamber, and finding him as she had been told, cried to him " in a passion of rage This is fine behavior : and becoming your birth and character! You trample upon the commands of your mother and take to wife that base girl whom I had sent you to torment with an ignoble love! But you were troublesome and disrespectful, even to me; always
  • and your father Mars you fear not are ever driving him into love affairs. repent of it! I shall at all, You but shall adopt one of the sons of and give to him the bow and arrows my I must have that you so little know how to use. slaves recourse to my old foe Sobriety; she will soon " blunt your arrows and extinguish your torch So she turned her back upon her wounded son ! and left the house. Meanwhile Psyche, still distractedly wander- of Cupid, came by chance to a teming of Ceres. Here was a confused heap of corn ple and grain, and near it scythes and other tools in search lying in disorder. Piously anxious to win the favor of any goddess that might help her, Psyche set to work to bring order out of the confusion. The goddess came to the temple while she was Throwing herself at her feet the " her girl besought By thy plenty-giving hand, thus engaged. : rites of harvest, by thy secret mysby thy dragon-drawn car, by the Sicilian fields and that thieving chariot and the descent of Proserpina (see p. 154) to a lightless wedlock, and the return of thy child to the world by the joyful teries, above, Amid days, suppliant, luckless Psyche! of grain let me hide for a few heap " until the wrath of Venus is abated pity your this Ceres was ! moved but feared to offend Venus. Regretfully she drove Psyche from her temple. As she left the shrine of Ceres, Psyche saw in
  • The Lesser Deities of Olympus 133 the valley beneath a shrine of Juno. Thither she turned her weary steps, and falling down before the altar, prayed the goddess to help her in her desperate need. Juno listened kindly but answered that she could give no protection to a daughter-in-law Venus. no hope of help lay in any other, resolved to surrender herself to her slave fugitive of her Then Psyche, convinced mistress that Venus and humbly to propitiate her. to heaven in her golden Venus, repairing dove-drawn chariot, had asked and secured the Now He help of the herald Mercury. maiden through all the world: lost can seize in her flight or slave of Venus, had cried the " If any one can discover the fugitive a king's daughter, Psyche by him repair to Mercury, the herald, at the temple of Venus he shall receive as a reward from Venus herself seven sweet kisses." This name, let ; proclamation further persuaded Psyche that the only course now open to her was one of sub- She therefore hastened to the house of Venus, who, when she saw her, raised a joyful " At last," said she, " have you deigned laugh. mission. pay your respects to your mother-in-law ? Or perhaps you came to visit your husband, who lies still in danger from the wound you gave him? But take courage! I shall receive you as a good to mother-in-law should. Where " are my servants, and Sorrow ? These, immediately appearing, scourged and otherwise tortured the Solicitude
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 134 unhappy Psyche, and then brought her again be- fore her mistress. Venus next set the girl before a great heap of wheat, barley, millet, poppy, beans, and every other kind of grain and seed, and said scornfully to her " : You seem to me that only by industry can so deformed a slave you deserve your hus- I shall make trial of you. Separate the various grains in this heap, and see that the work is finished before evening!" So she left her. band. Despairing at the impossible task, Psyche sat still without moving a finger to the confused mass. But a little ant took pity on the wife of Cupid and called together the populous ant-hill. neighboring tribe from a In a very short time the grains and seeds were piled neatly into separate Then the little ants disappeared. Venus, heaps. returning from a feast, fragrant with perfumes and wreathed with roses, saw with anger the suc" Worthless girl," said cess of her hated slave. " this is not the work of your hands but that she, " And throwing her a of your wretched lover! crust of dry bread she retired to rest. At dawn Venus called Psyche, and pointing wood by the river, ordered her to out to her a get a lock of golden wool from the sheep that fed there. Psyche gladly set out, not hoping to secure the lock of wool, but intending to throw herself into the river. spoke to her " : O But a reed of the river sorrowful Psyche, pollute not
  • The Lesser Deities of Olympus 135 waters, nor dare to approach the sheep on For while the sun is hot, they my the farther bank ! are fierce and destroy any who come near them, but when at noon they go to rest under the trees, then with safety you may cross the river, and you shall find the golden wool caught on the bushes. So shall you accomplish the task safely." Venus greeted her ter smile " I : know successful return with a bit" that you well," said she, Now I did not perform this task by yourself. will make trial of your courage and prudence. Bring me from the fountain on yonder lofty mountain liquid dew in this crystal urn." Psyche hopefully received the urn and hurried to the But when she reached the top, she saw the impossibility of the undertaking. For the fountain rose from the top of an inaccessible rock and plunged down thence into a terrible chasm where fierce dragons kept perpetual watch. mountain. And the roaring waters called to her as they " " crashed down Depart, or you will perish As she shrank back in dismay, the eagle of Jupi! : ter came to her " : Can you, a simple mortal, one drop of the Stygian waters, hope " terrible to Jove himself ? 'Give me the little urn to steal ! Psyche, therefore, receiving the returned to Venus. The goddess was only laid on her another task. full urn, joyfully more enraged, and Take this box," said the "
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 136 " she, Pluto. and direct your steps to the abode of There say to Proserpina that Venus begs her to give her a little of her beauty in this box, for she has exhausted all her own in anxious Return at once, for must dress for the theater of the gods." And now truly Psyche saw that she was face to face with destruction. She therefore ascended to the attendance on her sick son. I top of a high tower, meaning to cast herself down and so reach the infernal world by the shortest " wretched way. But the tower spoke to her : O girl, why do you seek to destroy yourself before the last test of your endurance? Listen to me! Near Lacedsemon in Achsea is the cavity through which Pluto breathes. Here is the entrance to the lower world. Go from thence by a straight road to the palace of Pluto. Take with you two pieces of bread soaked in honey, and in your mouth two pieces of money to pay Charon (see 1 88) for The ferrying you across the river. bread will appease the fierce three-headed dog, p. Cerberus. But be careful not to stop to listen to from those you meet, for send many wretched beings to induce the appeals for help Venus you you will to stop or lay aside the sop or the coin that need for your return journey. Proserpina will receive you kindly and will offer you a soft bed and a dainty banquet. Decline them both When you have received what you came for, return at once to the upper world. On no ac- !
  • The Lesser Deities of Olympus 137 count open or even look at the box that you " carry ! Psyche started on her enterprise, and all She obeyed his out as the tower had said. fell in- structions resolutely until the danger were passed and she was just about to emerge into the light of day. Then she was seized with a rash curi- osity and a longing to take for herself a little of the divine beauty she carried so that she might appear better in the eyes of her lover when she should see him again. But when she opened the there came forth no beauty but only a box, Stygian sleep that instantly overpowered her, so that she fell down where she stood and lay mo- tionless. Cupid, being now quite recovered of his wound, had flown through the window of his room and come to find Psyche. When, therefore, he saw her lying there motionless, he took the sleep and shut it up again in its little box, and arousing Psyche by the touch of one of his "Unfortunate girl, a second time arrows, said: would have perished by that fatal curiosity! you But now fulfil your task to Venus; I will take care of the rest." So saying he flew away and carried the box to Venus. Psyche Meanwhile Cupid flew straight to heaven, and presenting himself before his grandfather JupiThe father of gods, smilingly ter, asked his aid. stroking the cheeks of Cupid, answered kindly:
  • ' you, my child, presuming on your never pay me the reverence that is my power, due, and by your arrows cause me to act un- Though worthily of my tion, yet I will dignity and so injure all that you ask." do my reputaHe there- Mercury to call the gods to a council meeting, and addressing them, he told them that fore sent he thought it best that Cupid should marry. Venus he bade submit, promising to make the marriage legal by raising Psyche to the order of gods. Mercury brought the bride before him, and she received from Jupiter the nectar " " and ambrosia. and be Take this," said he, the Cupid ever depart from your embraces, but this marriage shall be eternal." Then the wedding banquet was served. Cupid reclined beside Psyche, Jupiter by Juno, and so all the other gods and goddesses in order. Ganymede poured the nectar for Jupiter, and Bacchus for the other gods, Vulcan prepared the immortal ; nor shall supper, the Hours scattered roses all about, the Graces scattered balsam, and the Muses sang melodiously, while Apollo accompanied them on and Venus danced to their music. his lyre Psyche is the soul. By her own act she de- stroys her happy and inno:ent life with Love, endures in the world every trial and suffering, and even goes down to Haaes, to be in the end reunited with Love and to 'jive with him forever
  • The Lesser Deities of The in heaven. to a late time. II. Olympus 139 story as it is told here belongs a philosophical fairy tale. It is OTHER DEITIES OF OLYMPUS The Graces (or Chart tes) presided over the The the gracious and festive For the Greek ideal side of social intercourse. feast and the dance, Graces, all demanded their that men's everyday life, no less than worship, should be ruled by grace and beauty, and the deities who brought this harmony were fittingly conceived as the daughters of no less a one than Zeus. They were three in to life number and were represented nude or in trans- parent drapery, adorned with spring flowers and roses. , The Nine Muses, daughters of Zeus and Mnemosyne (nemos'ine, Memory), presided, each over a distinct form of poetry, art, or science. They formed the chorus of Apollo, the god of music, and with him haunted the heights of Parnassus or Helicon, or danced about the springs of Their names, their functions, and their Pieria. emblems are as follows: muse of hisli'ope, the muse and pen Mel pom'- Clio, the tory, holds a roll of writing ; Cal of epic poetry, holds a tablet e ne, the muse of tragedy, holds a tragic mask; Tha li'a, the muse of comedy, holds a comic mask ; or wears the distinctive costume of the actor of comedy Terp sich'o re, the muse of the choral lyric and the dance, wears a long garment and ; The Nine Muses.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 140 holds a lyre; Er'ato, the muse of love poetry, wears a thin garment and holds a lyre Eu ter'pe, ; muse of music, holds a double flute; ra'ni a, the muse of astronomy, holds a globe; Po lym'ni a, the muse of religious poetry or the the flute U pantomime, is represented in an attitude of medi- Fig. 36. love, The Three To Muses poets offered prayers and is he whomsoever the Muses and sweet flows his voice from his lips." tation. vows " : Clio. the Fortunate (Homeric Hymn to the Muses.) The Three Fates held in their hands the thread of life, and when man's allotted life was spun,
  • The Lesser Deities of the shears of the fates cut are given in the little it Olympus off. 141 Their names verse from Lowell's Villa "Spin, spin, Clotho, spin! Lach'e sis, " and At'ro pus, sever They tell of the Franca: twist ! past, present, ! and future. Fig. 37. Thalia. Nem'e sis, a darkly mysterious power that overshadowed even the gods themselves, for evil done or for excess of pride brought divine vengeance from which there was no hope of escape.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 142 The winds were under the control of JE'o lus, whom Zeus gave the power to rouse or to them. In a vast cave in one of the volcanic quiet Lipari Islands, he and his twelve boisterous children, the winds, lived a life of feasting and merrito Fig. 38. Terpsichore. There they struggle against their prison doors and cause mighty rumbling of the moun- ment. tain. away tive If let loose, Vergil says, they would sweep earth and sea and sky in their destruc- course. Zeph'y rus is Bo're as is the wild north wind the gentle west wind. ;
  • CHAPTER VIII THE GODS OF THE SEA Po SEI'DON was the son of Cronus and Rhea the waters, fresh as well as He salt. supplanted Oceanus of the older dynasty. The early Greeks thought that the waters were beneath the earth and held it up; earthquakes were due to them. Moreover the Ocean flowed of the earth as a great " all about the salt river. Homer circle speaks he that girdleth the world, the shaker of the earth." Though he was a member of Poseidon as, of the Olympic Council, he had his palace in the depths of Ocean. There was his famous palace in the deeps of the mere, his glistering golden mansions builded, imperishable forever. Thither went he and let harness to his car his bronze-hoofed horses, swift of flight, clothed with their golden manes. He girt his own golden array about his body and seized the well-wrought lash of gold, and mounted his chariot, and forth he drove across the waves. And the sea-beasts frolicked be- neath him, on knew their asunder. all lord, sides out of the deeps, for well they and with gladness (Iliad, XIII. x (Neptune). and brother of Zeus. To him, after the overthrow of the Titans, was given control over all 21 ff.) 143 the sea stood
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 144 " Beside him was seated his wife, fair-ankled the daughter of Nereus (see p. phi tri'te," Am 148, while before and about the Tritons, half man, half lord's approach by blasts on his chariot fish, swam heralding their their shells. In addition to his lordship over the waters Poseidon presided over horses and horsemanship. One version of his contest with Athena over Ath- ens, as was said earlier, attributes to him the creation of a salt spring, but the other version attributes to him the creation of the horse. The waiis After the overthrow of the giants, Apollo and fell under the displeasure of Zeus, who Poseidon therefore forced them to serve a mortal. agreed with They La om'e don, king of Troy, for a certain reward to build the walls of his city. When the work was completed, Laomedon re- fused to abide by his bargain and insolently dis- missed the gods. floods and a Poseidon in his terrible sea-monster to anger sent ravage the To appease the monster no sacrifice was acceptable but that of He si'o ne, daughter of Laomedon. The princess was about to be decoast. voured by the monster when Heracles, that friend of troubled mankind, appeared and rescued her. he too was cheated of his re- How ward by the his faithless Laomedon, and how he will be told later in the story avenged wrongs, of Heracles. (See p. 220.)
  • Fig. 39. Poseidon.
  • The Gods of the Sea 147 It is as sod of horses and horsemanship that Poseidon appears in the story of Peiops and Hippo da mi'a. This Hippodamia was the daughter of (En o ma'us, king of Elis. Many young men wished to marry her, but her father had been warned by an oracle to beware of his future son-in-law. fleet as the As he was the owner of horses as wind, he made the condition that who would win the daughter must first contend with the father in a chariot-race, the he reward of success .being the hand of Hippodamia and the price of failure the suitor's life. Many had staked their lives on the venand the maiden remained unmarried. ture, Peiops hajd_been^_granted by Poseidon extraordinary skill in horsemanship; now he obtained in addition four winged steeds, and so offered himself for the perilous race. Nor was Poseidon Peiops' only divine helper, for, by the power of Aphrodite, Hippodamia's heart was so won at first sight that she bribed her father's charioteer tilus to Myrfrom his chariot-wheel beon the race. So (Enomaus perished take out the bolt fore starting and Peiops led away Hippodamia as his wife. The lovers, however, by their ingratitude and treachery brought down upon their already accursed family the further displeasure of the gods, for Peiops, in a fit of rage, hurled Myrtilus into the sea. The tragic history of the race of Peiops Peiops and Hippodami?.
  • 148 Greek and Roman Mythology associated with the Trojan War and will be told in that connection. (See p. 281.) is Neptune. The Romans had from early times worshiped of moisture and of flowing water, Neptune god when they identified him with the Greek Poseidon, they recognized him- also as god of the sea. " Old Man of the Ne'reus, the wise and kindly as Kerens. Sea," lived with his fifty charming daughters a great shining cave. He personifies the sea as a source of gain to men, the sea on whose calm and friendly surface mer- below the waters in His fifty chants and sailors venture out in ships. the sea in all daughters, the Ne'reids, represent its many phases. They live together happily in their deep-sea cave, but often rise to the surface, Fig. 40. Marriage of Poseidon and Amphitrite. and in sunlight or in moonlight may be seen sitting on the shore or on a rock covered with seaweed, drying their long green locks, or riding on the dolphins, or playing in the waves with the TriIf a mortal comes near, they will slide tons. down into the sea and disappear, for their bodies end in green fishes' tails and the deep water is their real home. Three of the fifty are especially famous: Amphitrite, Poseidon's wife; Thetis
  • The Gods (see 283), p. Gal a te'a, mother of the whom of the Sea the Cyclops 149 Achilles, and Pol y phe'mus loved. A stranger and the Sea " was more mysterious " Old Head and hold him. tell of a Sea-God. He had don's flock of seals. ecy, of Proteu. Pro'teus, the shepherd of Posei- Fig. 41. and would Man the future the gift of prophif one could catch But, like the sea itself, he con- form, and when one had tinually changed seized him as a roaring lion, he glided away as a serpent, or if one still held to that slippery his
  • 150 Greek and Roman Mythology form, suddenly he was a flame of fire, or as running water he slipped through the hands. The sirens. Although from the earliest times the Greeks were a sea-faring people, they never forgot the perils that lurked in the deep, nor the uncertainty of trusting themselves to its waters. Especially in the west, near Sicily and Italy, fable told of the dangers that lay in wait for the rash voySomewhere in that part of the sea was ager. the island of the Sirens, beautiful maidens in face and breast but winged and clawed as birds. By the charm of their singing they lured mariners to drive their ships upon the rocks. He who heard their magic voices no longer remembered his dear native land, nor his wife and children, but only heard the charmer and cast himself into All the beach below where they sat and the sea. was white with the bones of men. Fair sang they seemed as the smooth bright surface of the sea that treacherously smiles over the bones of victims. The much-enduring Odysseus was warned of these alluring maidens and passed by them safely only by having the ears of his companions stuffed with wax, while he himself was kept from the fatal leap by being fast bound to its his me Harpies. own mast. Wholly terrible, without the malign charm of the Sirens, were the Harpies, with their huge wings and strong talons. They were goddesses of storm and death, who snatched and carried
  • The Gods away of the Sea 151 on the wings of the wind. had ignorantly landed on the their booty as if When weary sailors Harpies' shores, and, having prepared their feast, down sat to enjoy down swooped it, and carried birds off the these vile food in their claws. Their coming brought not alone famine but the mournful omen of approaching death. The passage between the coasts of Sicily and scyiia and T Charybdis. i was Italy -1-1 -11 i Here in the side was a cave where lurked beset with danger. of a precipitous cliff the monster Scylla. From out the dark cavern she stretched her six heads, armed with rows of Woe to the unlucky mariners great sharp teeth. who had steered too close to shore! Drawn in as by a drag-net were crunched bones were caped by her twelve long arms, they and only the in the great jaws, And left to tell the tale. on the other this horror, if men es- side lay Char- yb'dis, sucking down the water into her black whirlpool and belching it forth again, three times each day. Against these monsters even Posei- don's help was of no avail. Fresh water as well as salt had each its own From the river at any moment its god deity. might rise up, the water streaming from his hair and beard. So Alpheus rose to pursue Are- thusa (see p. 84) so the god of the Xanthus near Troy rose and fought with Achilles. (See Sometimes the river-god took the form p. 296. ) ; of a bull. (See p. 225.) Each little brook and River-gods and nymphs
  • 152 Greek and Roman Mythology own nymph, a lovely maiden with tossing hair, with laughing voice and lightly (See p. dancing feet. These are the Naiads. spring had 184.) its
  • CHAPTER IX THE GODS OF THE EARTH THE skies that rule over all, and the great seas, are male beings; Zeus and Poseidon rule there. The earth, that gives life to plants and animals and men, that cares for and generously nourishes her children, is the great mother goddess, Gsea. Fig. 42. Cybele in her Car. Rhea, the mother of the gods, was also an Rhea or cybele the Great The people of Asia Minor knew Mother, earth-goddess. her as Cy'bele or the Great Mother, and represented her crowned with a turreted crown like the wall of a city; for she was the bringer of
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 154 civilization, the protectress her ban'tes, who of cities. and about her were chariot, Lions drew the Cor y- acclaimed her with shouts and the clashing of cymbals, and led her worship with wild dances. This worship never took firm root in Greece, but it was introduced into Rome and was there one of the most influential of the for- eign religious cults. More Demeter (Ceres). characteristic of the Greek people was the worship of De me'ter, the bountiful goddess of the grain. She was the sister of Zeus and Olympic Council. We see and kindly aspect, draped from head to foot, holding a torch, or ears of wheat and corn mingled with poppies. Per seph'o ne had her place in the her, of generous (or Proser'pi na), the fresh young corn of the year, was her only daughter, looking to Zeus, the giver of rain and sun, as her father. new The worship of these two is a beautiful, natural harvesters' worship, but trouble and loss enter in. The Rap? of Persephone (Proserpina), When Persephone was still a young girl she j was playing with the ocean nymphs one day, in the sunny land of Sicily. She had wandered a little way from her friends and stooped to pick a . . . , , i As she uprooted the fragrant flower, out of the earth sprang the black horses and golden chariot of Hades, or Pluto, the king of the narcissus. lower world. In spite of her cries for help, the Mm; as black god carried the maiden off with
  • Fig. 43. Demeter.
  • The Gods of the Earth 157 she passed, the flowers fell from her hands. Then the earth opened at the word of the god, and Pluto descended with his prize into the gloomy Here he made her regions over which he ruled. his queen. Demeter, who had gone to Asia Minor to Cybele, heard of her loss, but did not know the robber search visit who was nor where she should begin her for her wandered over all daughter. Disconsolately she her serene and kindly the earth, and soiled, Without her ministry the fields yielded no crops, men and beasts starved, and though they called on her, she would not hear nor answer. At last, in her wanderings she came to the fountain of Cy'a ne, in Now the nymph Cyane had seen Pluto Sicily. with the stolen girl and had vainly tried to bar his passage. In grief at her failure she had wept herself into a fountain and so had lost the power of speech. All that she could do was to wash face befouled by tears, her clothes torn her corn and flowers abandoned. up at the mother's feet the girdle that the girl had dropped in her passage. Then Demeter, in her anger and despair, cursed the ground, and above all the lovely land of Sicily that had be- Not far from Cyane is antrayed its trust. other fountain, once a nymph, Arethusa, who, was told above (see p. 84), in her flight from the river Alpheus rushed down into the earth in as Greece and rose again in Sicily. On her way
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 158 through the lower world she had seen Persephone From her, Demeter sharing Pluto's throne. learned at last the truth and at once went to Zeus demand Induced, not alone by Demeter's tears and prayers, but by the agonized to redress. cries of all the suffering earth, Zeus decreed that Pluto should give up his stolen bride on one that no food had passed her lips during condition, her stay beneath the earth. By ill fortune she had been persuaded by Pluto to taste the seeds of a pomegranate. A compromise was made: Persephone should return to her mother, but each year she should descend again into the lower world to stay as many months as she had eaten seeds of the pomegranate. And so each winter when the seeds of grain are sowed, the daughter of the grain-mother goes down into the dark ground, and the fields are bare and unlovely while the mother mourns. But when the time agreed upon light, is over, and Persephone comes again to the is glad and looks to her then Demeter The young spears of grain come out when the time comes and the crops begin to ripen, Demeter makes the fields beautiful with poppies, and then, when the ears are full, men gather them joyfully and bring them into their barns and praise the bountiful Demeter and her lovely daughter. El eu'sis is a small town a few miles distant from Athens. Here were celebrated the Mysfields. fresh of the dark earth, and Mysteries.
  • Fig. 44. Demeter, Triptolemus and Persephone.
  • The Gods teries in of the Earth 161 honor of Demeter. All Athens took and the purification, but part in the procession to the Mysteries themselves only those been initiated were admitted. were kept very who had The ceremonies seems that the rape of Persephone and her return were dramatically represented, and that the initiate gained some secret, but it deeper trust in a happy immortality than was The story of the institution to others. known of these El eu sin'i an Mysteries is connected with Demeter's search for her daughter. Exhausted by nine days of fasting and useless J wandering, Demeter had come to Eleusis and had sat down beside a well. Here came the four daughters of the king of that land to fill their Seeing the tired old woman, they spoke to her kindly and brought her with them to their father's house. The king's wife had water-jars. borne a son, and the disguised goddess took the baby to nurse. She anointed him with lately ambrosia, and each night as he slept she placed in the embers on the hearth, for so she in- him tended to burn him away the mortal part and make But the anxious queen as one of the gods. watched through the door one night, and rushed in with terrified cries to rescue her baby from Then the goddess rose in majesty and said to the mother: the fire. all her divine "O foolish woman! now have you brought incurable evil upon your son I would have made him immortal ; Demeter and Trlptolemus.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 162 and given him everlasting youth, but now must he suffer the common lot of men. Yet I will give him imperishable honor since he has lain on my breast. But come now, build temple, and the scribe/' ple, in me here a will I myself preSo they built to Demeter a great tem- and when the Fig. 45. rites it child Trip tol'e Triptolemus in the mus had grown dragon-drawn Chariot. up, the goddess taught him to raise grain and corn and sent him in a dragon-drawn chariot through every land to teach men how to sow and reap. Through him, too, she gave the Greeks her Mysteries and a better hope for the future " life. As the Greek poet Pindar says Happy is he that hath seen those things ere he go beneath the earth; he knoweth life's end, he knoweth its be: ginning given of God."
  • Fig. 46. Dionysus or Bacchus.
  • The Gods of the Earth 165 was soon after the expulsion of the kings, at the time of a failure of crops, that the Romans, It ceres, a command of the Sibylline the worship of Demeter. Even then she was not worshiped under her Greek name, but was indentified with an old Latin obedience in books 22 to introduced goddess named Ceres, and Persephone was given the Latinized form Proserpina. Ceres was al- ways the special protectress of the plebeians. Di on y'sus or Bacchus is familiarly known as .... the convivial wine-god but while the vine is most ...... Dionysus or Bacchus. ; closely associated with him, he vital strength power of of fertility His mother was Sem / e (see ther p. grows, the joyful, springing life. everything and of in truth, the is, le, that daughter of Cadmus 256), the founder of Thebes, and his faThough Semele was of divine was Zeus. descent on both sides of her family, she was herself a mortal, and to make love to her Zeus put on form of a mortal. At first she rejected his attentions, but when he told her who he was, she Hera knew of yielded and gladly received him. Disthis and was filled with angry jealousy. the guising herself as Semele's old nurse Ber'o e, she led the girl on to talk of her love. When she had heard the story, she pretended not to "If he were, believe that the lover was Zeus. why 22 all should he not come to you in Books of prophecy all his glory, said to have been received quin, the legendary king of Rome, from the Sibyl. by Tar- His with and travels.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology i66 as he does to He Hera? is treating you with Semele's pride was touched. respect." very her lover came she induced him The next time little to swear that he demand. would grant whatever she should that he should show Then she asked Olympian majesty. The oath by the Styx had been given; even to himself to her in fatal all his save one he loved Zeus could not recall came to her as thunder-bolts. it. He God No of Heaven, armed with the mortal could endure his glory or the flame of the lightning; poor Semele was reduced to ashes. So the earth is scorched by the full blaze of the Greek sun at midsummer, or seared by the lightning; only the seeds within it remain alive. Just so Semele's baby, Dionysus from his mother's and ivy sprang up miraculously to shade him from the hot sky. His grieving father took him and gave him to the mountain nymphs of or Bacchus, came to birth ashes, Nysa to nurse. As he grew older Si le'nus, one of the lesser divinities of earth, was given to him as a tutor, and with his help he discovered all the secrets of nature, especially the culture of He taught his followers, the rustic the vine. deities, to make from the grapes wine, the myswomanish weakness, power and joyous freedom from terious source at once of and care. invincible Intoxicated by the new drink, they Wherever thronged of women, he went, he was joined by crowds together in Bacchic revels.
  • The Gods called Bac chan'tes, of the Earth who 167 celebrated his worship by wild dances, the clashing of cymbals, the beating of drums, shrill flutings, and unrestrained shouts. Always so accompanied, Bacchus trav- eled over the world, teaching the cultivation of Fig. 47. Silenus with Dionysus. the grape and the power of wine. to India, where even the panthers He penetrated and lions fell under his charm and obediently drew his triumphal chariot. As a conquering hero he returned to Greece and demanded worship every-
  • 168 where. Greek and Roman Mythology And everywhere his revels. the women flocked to Dressed in the skins of beasts, with streaming hair, brandishing snakes or the ivytwined wand or thyrsus, they joined in the wild With they tore in pieces the sacrificial animals and devoured the raw flesh. dances. The Bacchic rites. shrill outcries At Thebes Pen'theus, the king, forbade revels, and when the women of his city, in Fig. 48. fiance of his the de- Bacchic Procession. commands, went out to join the Bacon the secret rites. chantes, he followed to spy Enraged at this opposition, Bacchus made the women mad. They mistook the king for a wild beast and tore him to pieces, his own mother There is probleading in the murderous assault. some historical basis for this story, for these ably extravagant wild rites, introduced from Thrace
  • The Gods of the Earth 169 or Asia Minor, met with bitter opposition in some But the promise they offered parts of Greece. of raising the worshiper above the bounds of the natural, plodding human life and giving a high and divine power through mystic union with the god, overrode all opposition, and the Bacchic mysteries were received and practised with immense enthusiasm. Bacchus and his travels, and of how he punished his enemies and rewarded his friends. On one occasion, as he was Many stories are told of lying asleep on the shore of an island, some pirates came upon him, and thinking that the beautiful youth might be held for a large ransom, they The helmsman, carried him off to their ship. recognizing the god in his divine grace and beauty, implored his companions to set him free, but they were deaf to his words. When the god awoke he tearfully besought his captors to take him to the island of Naxos. Pretending to consent they steered the other way. Suddenly the ship stood rooted in the sea; ivy trailed up the mast, and vines wreathed the sails; a sweet odor filled the air, and wine flowed about the deck. The capbonds dropped from him, and in his place tive's crouched a lion. In their terror the sailors leaped overboard and were instantly transformed into whom but god-fearing helmsman, Bacchus saved and made his follower. dolphins all the The good
  • 170 Midas.23 Greek and Roman Mythology Midas was a king in Phrygia. One day Silenus in a dazed and drunken condition was brought before him. Recognizing Bacchus' tutor in the muddled old man, Midas entertained him well and sent him back to his pupil. In return for this good office, Bacchus offered to fulfil whatever wish the king should make. When Midas, being excessively fond of riches, asked that whatever he touched might become gold, Dionysus was sorry for the foolish wish, but could not withdraw his Midas returned home in delight. To new power he touched an oak branch; it offer. try his be- came golden. He lifted a stone from the ground it was a mass of gold. The very earth became hard and yellow at his touch. He picked some ears of grain golden was the harvest. He pulled an apple from the tree; one would have thought : ; it one of the golden apples of the Hesperides. If he touched the door-posts with his fingers, the When he washed his hands posts shone as gold. in fresh water, the drops that fell were like the (See p. golden shower that deceived Danae. 200. ) The servants placed a banquet before him; when he touched the bread it hardened under his fingers when he raised a dainty morsel to his lips, his teeth closed on a lump of gold. ; He mingled wine with his water; molten gold flowed down his throat. And now he hated and loathed the wealth that he had loved 23 Following Ovid. Metamorphoses. XI. 85 ff. ; he was
  • The Gods of the Earth 171 starving in the midst of plenty. Raising his hands and gleaming arms to heaven he cried: " Have pity on me, kindly Bacchus, I have sinned " Oh, pity me, and take away the cursed boon Bacchus heard him. He bade him go to the ! ! river Pac to'lus and wash in the spring from which it rises. There the golden touch left him and was transferred to the river, whose sands are mixed with gold to this day. Dionysus married A ri ad'ne, whom cess of Crete, a beautiful printhe hero Theseus (see p. Ariadne, 250) had carried away from her home and had then deserted on the island of Naxos. Her divine lover Dionysus came to her while she slept and wakened her by a kiss. The wedding of the was celebrated with great magnificence and joy, and as a wedding gift the god gave his bride a crown studded with brilliant stars. When she died, her grieving husband threw the crown up into the heavens. There it can still be seen as or Ariadne's Crown. Corona, Although the Di on -/si a, or Bac cha-na'li a, ...... were always celebrated with wild orgies and expair . travagant enthusiasm, Dionysus also received worship of a different character. Praise was given to him as the hospitable and genial deity who brings joy to the feast, frees men from care, and makes them of friendly and kindly feelings towards one another. He brought to men civilization and law he was a lover of peace. By his ; The Dionysia,
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 172 exhilarating power he inspired poets and musicians and thus is associated with Apollo and the Muses. The drama originated at the festiThe rough dances and music form; the choral dances became Attic vals of Dionysus. were reduced to pantomimic, and the songs took on character. From and comedy. Dionysus: appearance and emblems. The this dramatic was developed tragedy great theater of Athens in is the precinct of Dionysus. There is much variation in the representations of the god; two distinct types are especially familiar. In the one he appears as a mature man, bearded and heavily draped this ; was the regular type times. in early other he In the appears as a smooth-faced young man, of grace and charm that His is almost feminine. sometimes and sometimes caught up on his head hair is long, hanging in curls like that of a woman. He is either nude or wears a panther's or lion's usually Fig. 49. Youthful Dionysus. skin over his shoulder. crowned with ivy or grape-leaves, and he holds in his hand Sometimes he grapes or a shallow cup of wine. is His head is represented as the eastern conqueror in his
  • The Gods of the Earth 173 triumphal car, drawn by lions or panthers, while about him throng his followers, Satyrs, Sileni, 179), mingling with his votaries, Bacchantes, who brandish snakes or ivy- Maenads (see the p. twined staves. Fig. 50. Bacchic Procession. Tell me, Muse, concerning the dear son of Hermes, the goat-footed, the two-horned, the lover of the din of revel, who haunts the wooded dells with dancing nymphs that tread the crests of the steep cliffs, calling upon Pan the pastoral god of the long wild hair. Lord is he of every snowy crest and mountain peak and rocky path. (Homeric Hymn to Pan.) This that mysterious pastoral god, Pan, the spirit of the mountains and woods of Greece. The daughter of a mortal bore him to Hermes as is he tended her father's sheep in the hills of Arcadia. A strange child he was, as the poet sings, goat-legged, with horns and a goat's beard, laughing and jumping even from his birth. His
  • 174 Greek and Roman Mythology mother was frightened when she saw him, but Hermes was glad and wrapped him in the skins of hares and carried him off to Olympus to show him to the gods. They were all delighted with him, especially Dionysus, and they called him Pan. Hither and thither he goes through the thick copses, sometimes being drawn to the still waters, and sometimes faring through the lofty crags he climbs the highest peak whence the flocks are seen below; ever he ranges over the high white hills, and ever among the knolls he chases and slays the wild beasts, the god with keen eye, and at evening returns piping from the chase, With him breathing sweet strains on the reeds. then the mountain nymphs, the shrill singers, go wandering with light feet, and sing at the side of the dark water of the well, while the echo moans along the mountain crest, and the god leaps hither and thither, and goes into the midst, with many a step of the dance. On his back he wears the tawny hide of a lynx, and his heart rejoices with shrill songs in the soft meadow, where crocus and fragrant hyacinth bloom all mingled amidst the grass. (Homeric Hymn to Pan.) . . . So one can almost in the hills to the see him to-day as one listens Greek shepherds piping to their sheep, just as they did in the old days before died. But it is not safe to see him, for he Pan is a shy god and a mischievous, and if one spies upon him when he is sleeping or at play, one may have good cause to repent. Indeed it is best to avoid certain shady spots by springs at noon-day, for there Pan chooses in the sun-light to sleep while the big and all else is still, flies buzz and he does
  • Fig. 51. Pan and a Nymph.
  • The Gods of the Earth 177 At night he lives in not like to be disturbed. caves in the him. cliff There and those places are sacred to one of these sacred caves in the hills, is forms the Acropolis, right that Pan in the city long ago, and tars to Christian saints were set up near by. of Athens, but deserted it al- He had no worship in Athens until the time of the Persian Wars, and then the story goes that just before the battle of Marathon a runner sent to Sparta to ask for help against the- Persians was met on the road by Pan, who told him that he wished well to the Athenians and would help them in the battle, although they had hitherto paid him no honor. And after the battle they remembered the unreasoning fear that had fallen upon the Persians and how they had fled before the Greeks, though so much fewer in number, and they set Such fear as this apart this cave as his shrine. is known as Panic terror. Sometimes it mysteriously comes upon men in the woods often it seizes a flock of sheep and without cause they rush upon ; their own destruction. But Pan is not always dangerous or ill-natured The he sends increase of their flocks ; to those he favors and keeps their herds safe from harm. Some shepherds whom he loved he taught to play on the pipes, and they taught others, and so the shep- herds in the lonely loves as Pan hills pipes to the can pipe to their lady- nymphs. the nymphs, although they are a For Pan loves little afraid of syrinx,
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 178 and his goat's legs his queer goat-like face, and sometimes run away from him. So, they say, he wished to press his love on the nymph Syrinx, but she fled from him, and when he had followed her to the bank of a stream and thought he was just seizing her, his hand closed on a bunch of From reeds. his windy sighs a sweet, plaintive sound rose among the hollow reeds, so he broke off a few of unequal length, fastened them together with wax, and so made the syrinx, a sical instrument of that form. The worship of Pan. "Great pan is dead." mu- As he is the mysterious soul of nature, Pan is wise and knows even what the future holds, very and so throughout Greece his oracles were con- sulted, and to Pan and the nymphs people prayed and brought offerings of milk and cheese and honey, or a kid from their flocks. But "Great Pan is dead." The story is told * In the time of the emperor Tiberius a ship was sailing from Greece to Italy. As it passed by a certain island, all on board heard a " voice calling, Thamus." Three times the call by Plutarch. was repeated and at the last an Egyptian of that name, who was of the ship's company, answered. He was told that when they came to a certain place off the coast of Epirus, he was to announce, " Great Pan this place, is dead." a calm fell, When the ship reached did as he had and Thamus Immediately a sound of lamentation answered from the shore, as if an unseen multi- been told.
  • The Gods of the Earth 179 The Christian tradition tude were mourning. told vthat this was about the time of Christ's death, and that the mysterious voice announced the end of the gods of Greece/ who withdrew lamenting v before the cross of Christ. Votive Offering to Pan and the Nymphs. Fig. 52. Pan is not always represented with the goat's HIS . legs and beard ; sometimes his form is ap- pearance. entirely human except for the slightest indication of horns In this he is almost to mark his animal nature. indistinguishable Not only in from the Satyrs. appearance but in nature and origin satyrs.
  • 180 Greek and Roman Mythology Pan's companions, the Satyrs, bear a close resemblance to him. They, too, are wild spirits of the woods and hills, half timid, playful animals, and half human. They have noses, little pointed ears, flat and sometimes, too, They follow legs. tails, goats' Dionysus, and short, play they dance with Pan and or nymphs, and are always hankering after wine and women. The country the people feared them, for they sometimes stole away the herds and killed the goats and sheep, but they imitated their rough, lively and their noisy and so developed a songs, popular kind of drama, called satyric drama, in which the chorus was composed of men dressed as Satyrs. These dramas were given in honor of Fig. 53. Dionysus. dances Dancing Satyr - In later times Satyrs appear in art as younger, gentler, and more innocent, just as one may see in the graceful young Satyr or Faun of Praxiteles, who leans pensively against a tree, holding a Funus. . Faunus was an herds, hand. flute in his old who through his pastoral character Roman god of flocks and power of prophecy and became identified with Pan. his
  • The Gods of the Earth 181 many Fauns were conceived of and confounded with the Satyrs. Another of the company of Dionysus was his * tutor Silemis, he who was brought in an intoxiFinally condition cated many to King and they were where they were Sileni, Minor, Midas. first There were heard of in Asia with horses' represented ears and tails and were with connected fountains and running water and were credited with the gift of prophecy. That same Midas King wine in a mixing by fountain and forced him to the like other of the deities, the dis- flute, but when she saw what tion of face disgust. as, It its him To Athe- attributed covery sy said Sileni, rural were musicians. is tell The future. na is have caught a Silenus to Faun of Fig. 54. Praxiteles. distor- use required, she threw was picked up by who became so skilful in it aside in the Silenus, Mar'its use that he im- pudently challenged Apollo to a musical contest When the prize of victory, as was right, had been adjudged to Apollo and his lyre, Marsyas paid a terrible penalty, for Apollo had him flayed and Marsyas and Midas,
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 18.2 empty skin hung on a tree as a warning to Some say that Midas was present at this contest and that in punishment for his foolish judgment in favor of the Silenus he was given his all. Fig. 55. ass's ears. Athena and Marsyas. that this indigfor his decision in favor of Ovid, however, nity came upon him Pan in tells a musical contest with Apollo. tried to hide his The king deformity by wearing a large but his barber, unable to contain the seturban,
  • The Gods cret, dug a hole On the earth. they rustled in has ass's ears." of the Earth 183 ground and whispered it to that place reeds grew up and, as " the wind, ever repeated, Midas in the 24 The Sileni usually appear as the most repulsive and ludicrous of Dionysus' company. They have short, bloated bodies, and ugly, drunken faces; Apollo and Marsyas. Fig. 56. they are rarely separated from their cherished wine-skins. The original and higher type when is re- Silenus appears as the nurse of DiGreece he was sometimes regarded onysus; simply as the eldest of the Satyrs and was repre- tained in sented accordingly. 24 Ovid, Metamorphoses, XI. 146 ff.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 184 The nymphs. The name nymph in Greek simply means young W0 man; it is used of all those nature-spirits of trees and brooks, woods and ceived under maiden form. hills, that were con- In their groves and brooks they lived, spinning and weaving, singing and dancing in the meadows, or, when no one was them, bathing in the clear springs. They accompanied Artemis in the chase, followed Dionysus' noisy throng, or played and quarreled by to see with the mischievous Satyrs. Sometimes, too, loved mortal men, and many of the heroes they had nymphs for mothers or for brides; but it was an uncertain relationship, for often the morlonging for his own people, deserted his nymph, or she grew tired of human restraints tal, and returned to her wilds. There were different kinds of nymphs. The Naiads were the bright elusive spirits of the springs and brooks, the Oreads were the mountain spirits, the Dryads and Hamadryads lived in Unlike a god, a nymph was not imwhen the hour came and the tree the trees. mortal, and died, the man Dryad died felled too. a great tree aside with a When some woods- in the forest, murmured prayer as he turned it fell, for then nymph sighing passed out of her body and vanished. The Greek writer Hesiod says that a crow lives nine times as long as a man, a deer four the times as long as a crow, a raven three times as long as a deer, a phoenix nine times as long as a
  • The Gods of the Earth 185 raven, and a nymph ten times as long as a phoenix. Echo was a nymph whom Pan loved and pur- sued, but she loved a Satyr, or, as others say, she He did loved the beautiful youth Nar cis'sus. not return her love, but seeing his own reflexion in a stream, own eyes, loved that, and ever gazing into his withered away with vain passion. Then Echo, too, pined from disappointed love until she was nothing but a disembodied voice that on among the rocks and hills. nymphs were worshiped throughout Greece, and offerings of lambs, milk, oil, and wine were brought to their groves and grottoes. lives The
  • CHAPTER X THE WORLD OF THE DEAD The Greek view of death. THE that Greeks, was who found interesting, in this beautiful, and world so much heroic, utterly dreaded the coming of death to take them from very real present life and plunge them into an unknown future. They believed, indeed, in a life after death,. but it was a shadowy and unthis real one, not to be drum compared to the existence on the sun-lit earth. most hum- The great hero Achilles, when his shade appeared before Odysseus on his visit to the world of the dead, earnestly declared : Nay, speak not comfortably to me of death, O great Rather would I live upon the earth as the Odysseus of another, with a landless man that hath no hireling great livelihood, than bear sway among all the dead ! that be departed. The realm the dead. of T us t J (Odyssey, XI. 488 ff.) where the realm of the dead was is un- In the Odyssey Homer tells of a land far to the west, by the river Ocean, beyond the certain. setting of the sun, where in eternal darkness and mist lived the souls of the departed but generally people thought of this gloomy land as being far ; 186
  • The World of the Dead 187 beneath the earth, in the darkness of the lower world. Near Cumse, in the vicinity of Naples, where volcanic vapors, hot springs, and strange upheavals of the ground suggest the nearness of mysterious powers below the earth, a cave with unexplored depths offered entrance to the land of the dead, and A ver'nus, deadly vapors, was thought flow of the rivers of Hades. a lake whence rose to* be but the over- Other localities in Greece and the islands afforded passage for the long home, and permitted occasional intercourse between the dead and the departing soul to its living. To this gloomy land, wherever it The was, the soul, of journey the soul when it left the body, journeyed under the guidance of the god Hermes. Though the body of the dead might lie upon his bed in his own home, or upon the battle-field, the soul, thought of as a winged creature in form like the living man, but insubstantial and shadowy, joined the grea f tiny throng of pale shades that were always unhappily waiting on the shores of the river Ach'e ron. Here he must wait in uneasy expectation until him should give the friends he had left behind body due burial with sacrifice and provide him with a small coin, an obol, for his passage money. Only then would old Charon, the terrible ferry- his man and of the dead, receive him into his leaky skiff him across the hated stream. For all set Hades was cut off from approach by its rivers, after death,
  • i88 Greek and Roman Mythology and its branches, Co cy'tus, River of Wailing, and Phleg'e thon, River of Fire. The fourth river of Hades was the Styx, by which the gods swore their unbreakable oaths. Once across the Acheron the soul Acheron, River of Woe, . Fig. 57- riiaron in his Skiff. must pass by the three-headed watch-dog, Cer'ber us, to appease whom he was provided with a little cake made of seed and honey. Then he entered through the wide gates of Hades into that immense home of the dead, open in hospitality to all men, as the Greeks grimly said.
  • The World of the Dead 189 Here Hades, or Pluto reigned, the dark and hateful brother of Zeus, and beside him the stolen Persephone (Proserpina), no longer young and happy as when she played with the nymphs in the bright fields of Sicily, but stern and cruel on the throne beside her black lord. When the Cyclopes gave to Zeus the thunderbolts and to Poseidon the trident as the symbols of their power, they gave to Pluto the helmet of darkness that made its wearer invisible. Only twice do we hear of the infernal king leaving his kingdom to appear in the light of the sun; once when he came to carry off Persephone, and again Heracles had wounded him, he visit Olympus when the hero was forced to to get the help of the divine physi- cian. Pluto had deputed judges to weigh each dead man's good and evil deeds and assign each to his proper place Minos (see p. 230) the former just king of Crete, his brother Rhad aman'thus, and y'a cus (see p. 283), the righteous If the soul was grandfather of the hero Achilles. Eu men'i des, avengers of crime, terrible with their snaky locks, drove the criminal before them to a place of punishment condemned, the Furies, or yet lower than Hades and buried in threefold night, while the righteous were led to the place of the Blessed. 23 25 This conception of a judgment with punishment and reward was not developed the time of Homer. its consequent until long after
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 190 Tartarus. In the place of torment, Tar'tar us, were those Titans giants, whom Zeus had overthrown, the rebellious and wicked men who here paid the penalty for their crimes against the gods. Impious Ix- inhuman cruelties was bound to a fiery wheel and racked and torn by its swift revolui'on for his Sis'y phus (see p. 236) who tried to cheat even Death, must forever roll up-hill a heavy Tantalus (see p. stone, which ever rolled down. tions. , 281), who abused the hospitality of the gods, ever tortured by hunger and consuming thirst, tried vainly to reach fruits hung just above his head, or stooped to drink the water which always eluded his parched lips. From this comes our word tantalize. Dan'a us, The forty-nine who had murdered daughters of husbands, their (See hopelessly fetched water in leaky vessels. All the air sounded with groans and p. 199.) e Fie idf ly8ian shrieks, and the Furies drove the victims who would escape back to their endless torture. "^ e Elysian Fields were originally regarded as the last home only of a few favored heroes, sons of the gods, but afterwards men thought of too, those who, through them as peopled by others their noble lives or perhaps through participation Demeter, were admitted to companionship. These fortunate in the Mysteries of this glorious in calm happiness in the Elysian Fields or Island of the Blest. ones lived
  • The World Far from gods and men, of the Dead at the farthest 191 end of the where the earth bears Works and Days, 197 ff. a year. in Hesiod, snow is there, nor yet great storm, nor any rain earth, in the deep-flowing ocean, thrice No ; but always ocean sendeth forth the breeze of the shrill west to blow cool on men. Odyssey, IV. 566 ff. Here the heroes feasted or wandered together games through the flowery fields, contended in Fig. 58. Heracles carrying off Cerberus. and enjoyed a repetition of the pleasures of the 26 upper world. was generally closed some few heroes visited it in life. Heracles came to carry off the watch-dog Cerberus. The hero Odysseus (Ulysses) came Though the lower world to the living, yet 2(5 It is not possible to give a simple and consistent aclife after death that will accord with the descriptions in the Greek poetry of different count of the various periods. Bt0 the lower world -
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 192 by the advice of the sorceress his future course. of the Romans, These Orpheus and Circe, to ask about ^Eneas, the Trojan ancestor came for the same purpose. stories will be told in detail later on. pp. 223, 311, 343.) One man won his entrance Eurydice. . through divine his gift of (See and safe departure This was music. Or'pheus, son of Apollo and the Muse Calliope, who had learned from his father to play the lyre so marvelously that at his song wild beasts bethe earth to came tame, serpents came out of listen, wife the very stones obeyed his will. When his ryd'i ce died from the sting of a snake, Eu he followed her to Hades, by his music persuading even grim Charon and the dog Cerberus to him pass in. Pluto, too, yielded to his song and allowed him to carry away Eurydice, on condition that he would not look back at her until he should reach the upper world. But just as they were about to come to the light of earth, the delet sire to see his beloved wife overpowered Orpheus, and he turned and looked at her. Then Hermes gently took Eurydice by the hand and led her back to the home of the dead. Orpheus refused to be comforted and rejected the advances of all In the end, he met his death by other women. the violence Charmed by of some frenzied Bacchantes. his music, the stones they threw harmless at his feet, until women drowned the mad fell shouts of the the strains of his lyre. Then
  • Fig- 59- Parting of Orpheus and Eurydice.
  • The World of the they killed him and tore His head and Dead him limb from lyre, floating down 195 limb. the river, still gave forth melodious sounds. The Muses buried the fragments of his body, and above his grave the song of the nightingale where else in the world. is sweeter than any-
  • CHAPTER XI STORIES OF ARGOS THE family of Dan'a us and his famous deJ scendant Perseus sprang from that lo, the daughter of the river-god In'a chus, whom Zeus had loved. (See hei f er, she to her Some 24.) p. came in the form of a where she was restored Still to Egypt, human form and gave birth to a son. of her descendants remained in Egypt and ruled there as kings. One of these Egyptian kings had two sons, JE gyp'tus and Danaus, of whom the former was the father of fifty sons and the latter of as many Danaus had cause to fear his daughters. nephews, and when they wished to marry his daughters, he fled to Argolis; but yEgyptus and his sons followed them and pressed the marriage. Danaus ordered his daughters to carry concealed daggers and each to murder her husband on the wedding night. While pretending to yield, Eorty-nine of the fifty obeyed, but the fiftieth, Hy perm nes'tra, spared her husband, Lynceus. some difference of opinion. Some say that Danaus found suitors so scarce after this that he was compelled About the fate of the forty-nine there 199 is Danatis ana his fifty daughters.
  • 2OO Greek and Roman Mythology to give them say that brothers, Others to the contestants in a race. them all to avenge his Lynceus and that they were punished in Hades killed by being compelled eternally to carry water leaky vessels. Perhaps these sent the springs of Argolis, Da na'i des in repre- whose waters quickly run away and are absorbed by the dry and porous of that country. soil a and pe?s eus Hypermnestra and Lynceus had a grandson named A cris'i us, to whom was born one daughWhen he sent to the ter, Danae, and no son. oracle at Delphi to know whether he might hope for a male child, he received the answer that he was fated to have no son and that he should meet death at the hands of a son of Danae. Hoping had a great bronze chamber constructed in the earth, and here he imprisoned his daughter with her nurse. After some years, when he was one day passing near the opening of this strong prison, he was astonished to avoid this danger, he Summoning his daughter before him he inquired who was the father of her child. She answered him to hear the voice of a little child at play. that through the opening in the roof of her prison Zeus had come to her in the form of a golden shower, and that it was he who was the father of her child, Perseus. Acrisius, by no means believing this story and determined to be rid of his dangerous grandson, had the mother and child shut up in a great chest and set adrift on the
  • 201 Stories of Arsros Fig. 60. Carpentei making the chest for Danae and Perseus. The Greek poet Simonides and despair of the young mother sea. When, in the carven chest, The winds that blew and waves tells of the love : in wild unrest Smote her with fear, she, not with cheeks unwet, Her arms of love round Perseus set, And said O child, what grief is mine : !
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 202 But thou dost slumber, and thy baby breast Is sunk Here in rest, in the cheerless brass-bound bark, Tossed amid starless night and pitchy dark. Nor dost thou heed the scudding brine Of waves that wash above thy curls so deep, Nor the shrill winds that sweep, Lapped in thy purple robe's Fair little But if this face embrace, ! dread were dreadful too to thee, Then wouldst thou lend thy listening ear to Therefore I cry, Sleep, babe, and sea be And slumber our unmeasured ill. Oh may some change of Descend, our woes to end fate, sire ! But if this Thy me; still, Zeus, from thee ! prayer, too overbold, offend justice, yet be merciful to Zeus did not fail me -7 ! to hear her cry, but guided Se ri'phus, where a drew it ashore in his fisherman, Dictys by name, the chest to the island of Unlike the other inhabitants of the island, he was a kindly man and he cared for the unnet. The quest of fortunate castaways in his own home. It happened that a brother of the fisherman, who was king of the island, fell in Danae and, as he was an unjust and man, wished to make her accept his love Pol y dec'tes, love with cruel even against her will. But by this time Perseus had grown into a particularly strong and brave young man, and Polydectes was afraid of him. He therefore formed a plan to get him out of his 27 Translation by John Addington Svmonds.
  • Stories of Argos way. feast, 203 number of young men he asked them each to bring him some Inviting a to a valu- Perseus impulsively declared that he was ready to attempt anything, even to getting the head of the gorgon Me du'sa, the most imable gift. possible feat imaginable. Now Medusa had once been a beautiful maiden, who was over-proud of her beauty, and especially of her glorious hair. Fig. 61. When Head of Medusa. she dared to compare herself to Athena, the goddess avenged the insult by turning her hair into snakes and her face into so terrible a sight, with its great glaring eyes, and its huge mouth with protruding tongue, that any one who looked upon it was turned to stone. Polydectes at Perseus' offer, and while he demanded caught only a horse as a gift from each of the other young men, he insisted that nothing but this hor-
  • 204 Greek and Roman Mythology head would be acceptable from him. One cannot wonder that Perseus was thrown into the rible depths of despair at the thought of this hopeless adventure. As he wandered along the shore, however, Hermes met him, urged him not to lose hope, and instructed him how he should accomplish the task. For his success three things were necessary, the helmet of Hades, which made its wearer invisible, the winged sandals, and the magic wallet. These were in the care of the nymphs, and no one could tell him where these nymphs were except the Grae'ae, three extraordinary old women just one tooth and one great who had among them Hermes, therefore, sent Perseus off bright eye. under the guidance of Athena, to find these old The Grseae. women. But when Perseus came to them, the Grseae refused to tell him where the nymphs lived, and it was only when he adroitly seized the eye, as the old women passed it from one to another, that he compelled them to tell him what he wanted upon pain of being forever deprived of sight. Having thus found the nymphs and having received from them the helmet of Hades, the winged sandals, and the magic wallet, still under the guidance of Hermes and Athena the young hero flew far away to the west, where the stream of Ocean encircles the world. Here, by the
  • Stories of Argos shore, two 205 were sleeping the gorgons, Medusa and her and immortal sisters. terrible Fig. 62. Now the wise Perseus killing Medusa. Athena had warned Perseus that he must not look directly at the gorgons, but must fly down from above, guiding himself by The gorgon Medusa slain.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 2o6 the in reflection his brightly polished shield. Perseus did exactly as he was told, and with one blow of his sharp sword severed Medusa's head from her body, and thrust it into the magic walBut the two sisters were awakened by the hissing of the snakes, and as the hero flew away on the winged sandals, they pursued him and would certainly have caught him had not the helmet of Hades made him invisible, On his return journey, Perseus came to the entrance of the Mediterranean Sea, where the giant Atlas ruled, rich in flocks and herds and proud of his Garden of the Hes per'i des, where grew trees of golden apples. Now Atlas had learned from an oracle that one day a son of Zeus would come who would rob him of the cherlet. turned to stone. ished golden fruit. When, therefore, Perseus came, announcing himself as the son of Zeus and demanding rest and a hospitable welcome, Atlas not only refused him but tried violently to drive him from Perseus was no match for his land. drew from the wallet Atlas was changed beard and hair became trees, the giant in strength, but he the terrible gorgon's head. into a mountain ; his his bones, rocks his head towered high among the clouds, and the sky with all its stars rested upon his shoulders. This is the Mt. Atlas in and Africa ; that still guards the entrance to Mediterranean Sea, rising opposite Gibraltar. the
  • Stories of Argos Next the hero came 207 to the land of Ethiopia, where Cepheus and his wife Cas si o pe'a ruled. Because the queen had boasted that she was more beautiful than the ocean nymphs, Poseidon in Fig. 63. Atlas supporting the Heavens. anger had sent a terrible sea-monster to devastate and the oracle had pronounced that only of the princess An drom'e da by could the land be freed from this terror. So, when Perseus came flying by on his winged san- the coast, the sacrifice
  • 208 Greek and Roman Mythology he saw a lovely maiden chained to a rock and raising tearful eyes to heaven. He stopped, learned of the cruel sacrifice, and secured from dais, Cepheus the promise that if he should kill the monster and free the maiden, he should have her The sword that had severed Meas his wife. from her body now put an end to Poseidon's monster, and the grateful parents received the conqueror as a worthy son-in-law. dusa's head But while they were celebrating the weddingfeast, Phineus, to whom Andromeda's hand had been promised, but who had held back while the terrible sea-serpent threatened, rushed in with a strong band of followers and attempted to claim his bride and slay his courageous rival. Again Medusa's head was drawn out, and Phineus and his company were turned to stone, poiydectes turned to stone. During Perseus' absence Polydectes had be come more violent and tyrannical than ever, and Dictys and Danae had been compelled to take Here they were when the refuge at a shrine. . hero returned in triumph to Seriphus. Polydectes was seated in the midst of his wicked court, assembled foolish to witness the discomfiture young man who had gone of the out on such an Even when Perseus came impossible adventure. before them and showed the wallet, the king refused to believe that head. As the hero the it contained the dreadful company looked scornfully on him. drew forth the head, and instantly Poly-
  • Stories of Argos 209 became stone images. was made king of Seriphus, the gorgon's Dictys head was presented to Athena, on whose breastdectes and his whole court plate, or aegis, it ever after appeared, and Per- accompanied by seus, his mother and his bride, returned to his native land of Argos. The hero's grandfather, Acrisius, had heard that his grandson was coming and had fled to an- other town to avoid his fate, but Perseus, innocent of any evil intention, followed him, wishing to persuade test him to return. In an athletic con- Perseus threw a discus, aside, hit Acrisius death on the and bringing the which, bounding foot, thus causing his fulfilment of the old After this Perseus felt unwilling to prophecy. succeed to the throne of his grandfather; he therefore effected an exchange with his cousin and became king of My cense and Tiryns.
  • CHAPTER XII HERACLES (HERCULES) birth. OF known bv was by far the most widely honored and the greatest, and the stories of his deeds of prowess are many. His mother was Ale me'na, a grandchild of Perseus, and a his all the heroes, Her'a cles, better Roman name, Her'cu les, daughter of Elec'tryon, king of Mycenae. father married her to a famous warrior, Her Am- who by accident killed his was forced with his wife to phi'tryon by name, father-in-law and On one occasion when Amphitryon was away fighting, Zeus visited Alcmena in the form of her husband, and later, when twin flee to Thebes. sons were born to her, the one, Heracles, was declared to be Zeus's son, while the other son of Amphitryon. Hera's Now just before Heracles' birth was the Zeus had de- enuiity. clared in the assembly of the gods that a descendant of Perseus would soon be born who should rule mightily over Mycense. Hera, always jealous of Zeus's children by other wives, plotted to She extracted from him a purpose. promise that the child first born on a certain day foil his axo
  • Fig. 64. Heracles.
  • Heracles (Hercules) should be the ruler in that land. this, she retarded the birth of 213 Having secured Heracles and brought his cousin Eu rys'theus first to the light. Nor did her jealous hatred end there, for throughout his life Heracles suffered labors and great unhappiness at her hands. His troubles and dangers began in his babyT? u* u j ror one night when TT Heracles and u- twin his brother were ten months old, their mother had laid them side by side in their father's great J hood, t- i curved shield, and rocking the shining cradle had " hushed them to sleep Sleep, my babes, sleep : sweetly and light ; sleep, brothers twain, goodly Heaven prosper your slumbering now and your awakening to-morrow." At midnight Hera sent two terrible serpents with evil gleamchildren. ing eyes and poisonous fangs to kill Heracles. Then the babies awoke, and the mortal's son cried aloud and tried to slip from the cradle, but Her- acles gripped the poisonous serpents by the throats and strangled them with his baby hands. Alcmena heard the cry and called upon her hus- band to make haste and see what was wrong. Calling on his slaves to follow, Amphitryon sprang from his bed and rushed to the cradle. There was Heracles capering with joy and holding out the strangled serpents for his father to His parents, appalled at the evil omen, consee. sulted a seer as to told that their son what it might mean, and were was to be a mighty hero, who, Heracles Bangles serpents, the
  • 214 after Greek and Roman Mythology many labors, should go to share the life of the immortals. 28 c educa uon ^ Heracles, on's son, commonly known grew strong and Fig. 65. active ; as Amphitry- from his father Heracles strangling the Serpents. he learned to drive a chariot, from a son of Hermes all kinds of athletic games, and from a son of Apollo he learned music. tunate tutor for in a was the moment a blow of his lyre. as Theocritus, Idyl This unfor- to feel his pupil's power, of rage the boy killed him with first Then Amphitryon XXIV. sent him
  • Heracles (Hercules) 215 to be brought up among the shepherds. It is told met two women, Duty and Pleasure, and that each asked him to take her as his guide. Notwithstanding the enthat once at cross-roads Heracles ticing offers Pleasure made him, the hero chose Duty and followed her through life. When he was grown, Heracles married the daughter of the king of Thebes. Fig. 66. But Hera, who Five of Heracles' Labors. hated Alcmena's son, sent a cursed madness upon him so that he threw his own children into still Seeking purification from his crime, he left his country and his wife and journeyed to The god commanded that he should Delphi. the fire. serve his cousin Eurystheus and so make atone- Thus, as Hera had planned, Zeus's son became the servant of Eurystheus, at whose bidment. ding he performed twelve great labors. The The Twelve Labors.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 216 (1) The Nemean i-ion. number was twelve because Heracles is a sun-god, and the labors follow the course of the sun through the months, beginning near at hand in Argolis and ending in the lower world. A ferocious lion, whose lair was a cave in the mountains of Argolis, was ravaging the country round. of this Eurystheus ordered Heracles to rid him terror. Finding that his arrows did not even pierce the beast's hide, Heracles finally caught him in his cave and strangled him; then he bore him back to Mycenae. But Eurystheus was so terrified by the sight of the dead lion that he ordered the hero never thereafter to enter the city, The but to display his spoils outside the walls. skin of the lion, impervious to all weapons, Heracles always afterwards wore. (2) The In the marsh of Lerna, also in Argolis, lived Lernean Hydra. the Hydra, a serpent with nine heads, and so poisonous that its touch or its foul breath caused This beast Heracles attacked with his death. sword, but finding that as he cut off one head two grew in its place, he ordered his nephew and companion lo la'us, to burn each neck the had severed the head. One head was immortal; this he buried under a stone. The faithful instant he represent the malaria coming from a marsh, until it is dried up by the sun. The scene of the next three labors was Ar- Hydra seems The ryman <3j to a First, in a net Heracles caught a and brought it fierce wild boar alive to Eurystheus, who
  • Heracles 217 (Hercules) was so fearful of it that he jumped into a large and only peeped out at it over the rim. Next, a golden-horned doe, unlike most does Its brazen very dangerous, had to be caught. hoofs never knew fatigue, and it led Heracles a chase for a whole year before it was caught and jar (4) The Doe. brought to Mycenae. Near the Stvm * pha'li an Lake lived huge birds with arrow-like feathers and mighty talons, Fig. 67. who (p) The Stymphaliau Birds. Heracles killing the Hydra. men and and carry them Heracles aroused away. suggestion, these birds with cymbals and then shot them with used to snatch beasts At Athena's arrows which he had dipped in the Hydra's poison. His next task carried the hero to he was sent to clean the stables of had not been cleaned Elis, Au ge'as, in thirty years. where which This he ac- (e> The
  • 218 Greek and Roman Mythology complished by turning the course of the river Al phe'us so that it flowed through the stables. King Augeas cheated him of the reward he had promised, and later, when he was free, Heracles took vengeance upon him and, at the same time, Fig. 68. Heracles carrying the Boar. established in Elis the Olympic Games in honor of his father Zeus. (7> The King Minos of Crete had been presented with a beautiful bull by Poseidon, but, as he refused to offer it in sacrifice, it had been driven mad and was a menace to the whole island. Heracles tamed the brute and rode it across the sea back Later the bull escaped and went to to Greece.
  • Heracles 219 (Hercules) Marathon, where the hero Theseus finally killed it. Di o me'des was a son of Ares and ruled as king savage land of Thrace. marvelous horses whom in the he fed on the men. flesh When attempted (8) The He had of Heracles to capture these fierce beasts, the Thracians in great num- bers attacked him, but and lolaiis drove them off and bore the he horses back to Eurystheus. Hip was pol'y ta at (9) tribe of women lived near the that Etixine Ares had given her a girdle, and EuSea. rystheus' daughter coveted it. When Heracles arrived at her court Amazon. Fig. and asked for the girdle, Hippolyta was so struck by his strength and beauty that she would have given it him, had not Hera, unwilling that he should get 69. off so easily, roused the other The Girdle of Hippolyta, time the queen of the Amazons, a warlike this Amazons to at-
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 22O tack him. Then Heracles, thinking that the queen had played him false, killed her. On his way home from this adventure, when he had come to Troy, he found the king La om'e don in For when Poseidon and Apollo great trouble. him the walls of his city, he had had built for failed to give them the reward he had promised. Poseidon had, therefore, sent a dreadful sea-monravage the coast, and nothing would free ster to from this terror but that He si'o ne, Laomedon's daughter, should be offered to the The maiden was waiting to be demonster. voured when Heracles came and agreed to kill the serpent in return for the gift of some wonderful horses that Laomedon had received from the city Zeus in payment for his stolen son, Gan'y mede. The incorrigible king cheated Heracles, too, and later paid for his dishonesty with his life, do) The His tenth labor called Heracles to the far west, where the sun sinks into the stream of Ocean. Here lived Ge'ry on, an extraordinary being with three bodies, six legs and six arms, and a pair of monstrous wings. He was very rich, and thousands of glorious red cattle fed on his land under the guard of an ever watchful dog and a Heracles sailed thither in a strong herdsman. golden bowl, which the sun had given him, using his lion's skin as a sail. As he passed through the straits that separate Europe from Africa, he landed and set up the Pillars of Hercules as a
  • Heracles monument (Hercules) of his feat. On 221 arriving at the coun- Geryon he was attacked first by the dog and then by the herdsman, but he killed them both, and finally, after a terrific struggle, crushed Geryon himself and drove off the cattle. Just try of Fig. 70. Heracles in what route he took on difficult to say, the bowl of the Sun. his homeward way it but he seems to have visited is all Europe and to have had many adventures and done many marvelous deeds. On the Aventine Hill, later a part of Rome, he met and killed the giant Cacus, who had stolen the lands of western
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 222 some of his cattle, dragging them off to his cave by the tails so that their tracks might mislead Heracles. But the other cattle lowed as they passed the cave, and the captives answered them, thus betraying the hiding-place. Approaching Greece from the north, at last he brought the who sacrificed them to Hera, Zeus had married Hera, she had presented him with some golden apples, which were cattle to an Tho Apples of the Hesperides. Eurystheus, When kept up in the north near the land of the Hyper- boreans and were guarded by a dragon. To learn where to find them Heracles must catch and just hold Nereus, the Old Man of the Sea, who, like Proteus, had the power of changing his form. But whether he became a raging lion or a flame of or flowing water, Heracles held him fast at length had his question answered. On fire and his way he had various adventures, for in Libya he met the giant Antaeus, a son of Earth, who was accustomed to challenge all comers to wrestle with As every time he fell to earth he rose with redoubled strength, he had always been the him. victor, and a temple near by was adorned with the skulls of his victims. Heracles conquered him by holding him up in his arms, away from his mother Earth, until he crushed in his ribs. While the hero was sleeping after this combat, the Pygmies swarmed about him and tried to bury him alive in the sand, but he awoke and amused himself by picking them up and bundling
  • Heracles them In did into his lion's skin to carry Egypt the king all 223 (Hercules) home with him. tried to sacrifice him, as he strangers, to Zeus, but Heracles burst his bonds and dashed out the brains of his captors. In the Caucasus Mountains he found and freed who bound there Zeus and given fire to having disobeyed men. At last he came to the gar(See p. 10. ) den where the apples grew and there found Atlas Prometheus, for ages had been for (This would make it seem that the garden was in the west, but mythological geography is sometimes hard to follow.) holding up the heavens. He persuaded Atlas to get the apples for him, taking the giant's burden while he was gone. Atlas returned with the apples but refused to take up his burden again, preferring to be the bearer of the apples to Eurystheus. Heracles, pretending to agree, asked him to take the heavens only for one his shoulder. of course, moment while he put The stupid giant was a cushion on taken in, and, once the transfer had been made, Heracles went on his way leaving Atlas to his old burden. 29 His twelfth and last labor took Heracles to o?> berus. the lower world. Here he was guided and assisted by Athena and Hermes, and with their help safely passed by the dangers of the way and 2a Cf. the story of Perseus turning Atlas to stone, p. 207; such inconsistencies are due to the independent development of the separate stories.
  • 224 came Greek and Roman Mythology to the presence of agreed to let him take King Pluto. The king the three-headed watch- dog, Cerberus, if he could get him without using This his great strength enabled him a weapon. to do, and he took the dog to Mycenae. Cer- berus was afterwards returned to the lower world. The service Although his twelve labors Heracles had no rest him. ; were now ended, Hera's hate still pursued While he was staying with a certain king, he killed his host's son, out of resentment for an imagined injury, and because of this violation of hospitality he suffered from a painful illness. When he went to Delphi to ask how he might escape this trouble, Apollo refused to answer, whereupon Heracles stole the tripod and was about to set up an oracle of his own. Apollo hastened to defend his sacred shrine, and the combatants were parted only by a thunderbolt from Zeus. They thereupon swore loyal friendwith one another, and Apollo gave the hero ship an answer to his question. He might expiate his crime by having himself sold as a slave at public auction and giving the price to the family of the slain man. Om'pha le, Queen of Libya, having bought him, he served her faithfully for the allotted term. Part of the time he was fighting his mistress' enemies and keeping her country from harm, but most of the time he sat at her feet in womanish clothes, employed in spinning and and other feminine tasks. weaving
  • Heracles At 225 (Hercules) the end of his term of service he turned his attention to avenging himself on the Laomedon. Assembling a force of The destructiom of Troy. faithless men and ships he attacked Troy and took it, putting to the sword the king and all his sons except Priam. Him he made king in his father's place. On his return to Greece he married De jan i'ra, ra and 5essus and conquering her former unwelthe river-god Ach e lo'us. Anchelous after righting come lover, took the form of a bull, and the horn which Heracles broke off was afterwards used as the horn of plenty or cornucopia. 30 After this victory again he was attacked by his madness and killed a boy at his father-in-law's court. in the struggle Self -exiled, with his wife, he left the country, and starting again on his wanderings, came to a river where the centaur Nessus acted as ferry- man. When Nessus, after carrying Dejanira over on his back, attempted to run away with her, Heracles drew one of his poisoned arrows and Before he died he gave Dejanira a own blood, telling her that if shot him. vial filled with his her husband's love ever seemed to clip fail she should a robe in the blood and his love would be restored. Not long . , , . after this the hero undertook to pun- The who had - , . , . once refused to give him his king daughter in. marriage. He took the city and carish a 30 Some say that the horn of plenty was the horn of the goat Amalthea; see p. 7. death of Heracles.
  • 226 Greek and Roman Mythology ried off the princess To le as his captive. Stopping on his way home to sacrifice to Zeus, he sent a messenger to get him a suitable garment to wear Fig. 71. Nessus running off with Dejanira. Then Dejanira, fearing that his love had turned from her to the captive lole, remembered the centaur's advice and sent him a at the sacrifice. robe that she had dipped in the blood. When
  • Heracles Heracles put it on, into his flesh like it fire. 227 (Hercules) clung to his body and ate In his agony he threw the messenger that had brought the garment into the sea, and then, preferring death to such torture, having ordered a great funeral-pyre to be raised on a mountain-top, he laid himself upon it and begged his friends to set fire to it. All re- fused to be responsible for the hero's death, until at length Phil oc te'tes, partly from pity and partly bow and Amid columns of because of Heracles' offer of his famous the torch. arrows, applied smoke, and thunder and lightning sent by Zeus to glorify the end of his son, the hero's spirit left the earth. Thereafter he was taken into Olympus and made a god, and Hera, to wife her gave him His earthly relenting, own daughter Hebe. wife Dejanira, in grief and remorse, killed herself. Heracles was worshiped both as a hero and as The worship of . . . , a god, and was called upon especially in the and in all athletic contests. Young men regarded him as their special friend and helper. In Athens a temple was built in honor of Her- palestra acles, the Warder off of Evil, in memory of his many good deeds to men, and in Rome, as Hercules, he was worshiped as the Unconquered and the Defender. He is represented as a gigantic man His of remarkable muscular development. over his shoulder and his club hangs lion's skin is in his hand. Heracles.
  • CHAPTER XIII STORIES OF CRETE, SPARTA, CORINTH, AND I. Europa.3i STORIES OF CRETE n RQ'PA, the daughter of the Phoenician king, with her friends and companions was one day Fig. 72. Europa on the Bull. gathering flowers in the meadows by the seashore merrily they were filling their baskets with ; 31 Following Moschus, Idyl II.
  • Stories of Crete daffodils and lilies, violets and 229 roses, contending Looking down from his high heaven on the pretty group, Zeus marked the princess Europa in the midst, preeminent who could gather the most. her companions, just as Aphrodite is preeminent among the Graces. To see her was to desire her for his own, so he laid aside his scepter and his thunderbolt and put on the form of a among white bull, a beautiful bull that had never felt the yoke nor drawn the plow. So he came into the flowery meadow, and the maidens did not fear him but gathered around him and began to stroke his snowy sides. At Europa's touch he lowed and beseechingly and kneeling down looked gently back at her with gentle, loving eyes as if to invite her to his broad white back. She spoke to " her playmates and said Come, dear com: panions, let us ride on this bull's back, for he looks kind and mild, not at all like other bulls, and so like a man's is his understanding that he power of speech." So she sat smiling upon his back, and the others would lacks only the down have followed her, but suddenly the bull, having gained what he wanted, stood up and in all haste made for the sea. Then Europa stretched out her hands companions, crying aloud for help. they had reached the shore, and to her But already still the bull rushed on, right over the waves with hoofs unThe Nereids rose from the waters and wet.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 230 about them, riding on the dolphins; Poseidon, calming the waves, guided them on frolicked their their watery path, and the Tritons, trumpeting on long shells, sounded the marriage-hymn. Europa, holding with one hand to the horn of the bull and with the other holding up her long robe that it might not be wet with the waves, spoke to the bull " : Whither are you bearing O It is clear that you are a me, godlike bull? god, for none but a god could do this thing. Alas! why did I ever leave my father's house to follow you and to journey alone on such a strange " " Take And the bull answered sea-voyage ! heart, : dear maiden, and fear not the salt sea- waves, for I am Zeus himself, and it is love of you that has driven me to journey over the sea in the form of a bull. Soon Crete shall receive you, and the island that nourished me as an infant shall be your wedding-place, and there you shall bear me famous sons that shall rule as Minos i, anii kings." In Crete, then, Europa bore to Zeus three sons, one, Minos, became king of the island, and by his just and enlightened rule brought civilization and prosperity to his country and extended of its whom power over neighboring lands. After his death, in consideration of his righteousness and wisdom, he and his brother Rhadamanthus were made judges of the dead in the lower world. ( See p. 189.) Minos II, the grandson of this Minos,
  • Fig- 73- Daedalus and Icarus.
  • Stories of Crete 233 seems to have been of very different character for when, in answer to prayer, Poseidon had sent him from the sea a splendid white bull for sacri; fice, he offered to the gods an inferior animal and among his own herds. In punish- put the bull ment, Poseidon inspired in his wife an unholy passion for the bull, so that she left her home and followed the beast all over the island. From union sprang the Minotaur, half bull and their half man. During the reign of Minos there had arrived on his shores an exile from Athens, Dae'da lus, who was the most skilful artist and engineer of his time. When a safe place in which to confine was needed, Daedalus built the Labywinding and complicated a structure the Minotaur rinth, that sc no man or beast once shut inside could ever Notwithstanding this and other services the artist fell under the king's displeasure find the exit. and was himself, with his son, imprisoned in the Labyrinth he had designed. Knowing no way of escape to be possible, he constructed for himself and his son Ic'a rus wings and fastened them on with wax. Unfortunately, however, though Daedalus had warned his son not to fly too near the sun, Icarus forgot the injunction, and before he could be recalled the wax had melted, and the boy fell into the sea that from him was called the Icarian Sea, the part of the ygean between the Cyclades and Asia Minor. Daedalus himself Daedalus,
  • 234 Greek and Roman Mythology made good his wings his escape to Italy in a II. Castor and Polydeuces. The Di STORIES OF SPARTA os cu'ri, Castor and his brother Pol y- deu'ces, the latter better r.arne, Fig. 74. and there dedicated temple of Apollo. Pollux, were the his Roman local heroes of Sparta. known by The Dioscuri (Ancient statues fore the king's palace in now set up be- Rome). Their mother Leda, whose mortal husband was the king Tyn Cly tem nes'tra, Agamem'non had by him two children, became the wife of King who of Mycenae, and Castor. But da're us, Zeus made love to Leda, taking upon himself
  • Stories of Sparta 235 when he visited her the form of a swan, and to him she bore two other children, Helen, whose divine beauty brought about the Trojan War, and Polydeuces. Castor was famous as a trainer of horses, while Polydeuces was the greatest of there boxers. all was Between the two brothers so great a love that son, Castor, was killed, when the mortal's Polydeuces, immortal by virtue of his divine father, obtained permission to divide his immortality with his brother. Therefore on alternate days after their death the two were among the dead in Hades, and among the gods in heaven, where they are still visible as the bright stars, Castor and Pollux, in the constellation Gemini, or the Twins. They were patrons of sailors, to whom they appear as balls of fire upon the masts, giving promise of clear weather after a storm. 32 Among the Romans they received worship, and after the battle of Lake Regillus, fought between the Romans and the exiled Tarquins, they appeared in the Forum as two glorious youths on white horses and an- Romans the victory of their In their honor a temple was built on nounced to the armies. the spot where they had appeared. 33 32 This known as 33 Some perhaps be identified with the phenomenon Elmo's Fire. say that it was Castor alone who appeared. may St.
  • 236 Greek and Roman Mythology III. Sisyphus. STORIES OF CORINTH Corinth, through its situation on the isthmus holding command of two seas, was from the becity, and its were known as clever business men able people This reputation began with to outwit all comers. ginning an important commercial the founder of the city, Sis'yphus, who began his career by bargaining with the river-god A so'pus for the never- failing spring Pi re'ne, on the citadel of Corinth, in return for which he was to give the river-god information about his In punishment for this daughter, stolen by Zeus. interference with his plans, Zeus sent Death to Death himself, outwitted by the shrewd Corinthian, was caught, and while he was kept in chains, no one on earth could die. This state of things could not be allowed, and Ares succeeded in freeing Death and even in givBefore he was haled ing Sisyphus over to him. take Sisyphus. off to the lower world, however, the king exacted promise from his wife that she would in secret a offer no funeral sacrifices. When Pluto com- plained bitterly of this neglect, Sisyphus, feigning righteous indignation, offered to see that his wife did the proper thing, if for the purpose he was allowed to return to the upper air. Permission was given, and once outside the gates of Hades the wily king refused to return, lived to a ripe old age and at last died a natural death. But
  • Stories of Corinth 237 no one may cheat the gods and escape punishment, however clever he may be. In Hades Sisyphus was condemned eternally to roll a weighty stone up a hill, which ever, as it reached the top, rolled down again. was of very In his youth he was forced into exile because he had unintentionally killed a man. Sisyphus' grandson Bel ler'o phon different mold. Hoping to be purified he went to Tiryns, and here King Proe'tus fell in love with him, the wife of and when he would not respond to her Fig. 75. love, Chimaera. him to her husband. Fearing dihe himself killed a guest, Prcetus vine anger sent him to the king of Lycia, and with him a falsely accused if secret message asking to have him king of Lycia at first slain. The treated Bellerophon with generous hospitality, but when he had read the message he sent him off on the dangerous ad-
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 238 venture of killing the Chi mae'ra. This beast had fore part of a lion, the hinder part of a the dragon, and in the middle the head of a goat, and breathed out fire from her nostrils. A seer consulted by Bellerophon told him that his success depended upon his catching and taming the / winged horse Peg a sus, and advised him to pass a night beside Athena's altar that he might secure the goddess' help. Pegasus was the offspring of Poseidon by Medusa, from whose neck he had sprung when Perseus cut off her head. Athena had given him to the Muses, and he had opened for them by a blow of his hoof the sacred spring of Hip po cre'ne on Mt. Hel'i con. While Bellerophon slept by her altar, Athena appeared to him and put into his hand a golden bridle, with which he easily caught Pegasus while he was Mounted on drinking at the spring of Pirene. the winged horse he flew down from above and killed the terrible Chirmera. The Lycian king him on other dangerous adventures and at an ambush to kill him. But when Bellerophon came out safe and victorious from all, the king, seeing that he was favored by the gods, gave him his daughter in marriage and half his sent last set kingdom as dowry. In time Bellerophon became so elated by his achievements that he challenged the immortal gods themselves, for he attempted to fly horse. Zeus's very dwelling on the winged Zeus hurled a thunderbolt, and Bellero- to
  • Fig. 76. Bellerophon and Pegasus.
  • Stories of ^Etolia 241 an exphon fell to earth maimed and blinded ample to the proud not to attempt flying too high. Pegasus came to the dwelling of Zeus and was given the honor of drawing the thunder-chariot. IV. THE CALYDONIAN BOAR HUNT During the time when the god-descended heroes lived in Greece, several joint expeditions were undertaken by them. One of these was the Calydonian boar hunt. Calydon was a town of yEtolia ruled over by (Eneus, who was the first man of that part of Greece to learn of Dionysus the culture of the vine. He was married to Al the'a, bore to him a son Mel e a'ger. When the was seven days old, the Fates told Althea boy that he would die when the log that was then who on burning Hearing it away this in When the hearth should be consumed. Althea quenched the brand and put a box. Meleager had grown to be a young man, one harvest time his father (Eneus, offering sacrifice of the first-fruits to all the other gods, passed over Artemis alone. In anger at this neglect the goddess sent into his country a great and ferocious boar, which laid waste all the country around. Meleager summoned the heroes from parts of Greece, promising to him the boar its hide as a gift of honor. all who It killed was a very distinguished company that assembled for the hunt: Castor and Polydeuces, from Lacedae-
  • 242 mon, Greek and Roman Mythology Theseus, from Athens, and his friend Pi rith'o us, Jason, later the leader of the Argophi a ra'us of Argos, and many other nauts, Am famous heroes. When Fig. 77. the huntress At a lan'ta, Meleager. daughter of the king of Arcadia, joined their number, many were indignant that they should be expected to share the danger and glory of the enterprise with any woman, however strong, but
  • Stories of ^Etolia 243 Meleager loved Atalanta and insisted upon her being received. (Eneus entertained the company for nine days, and on the tenth they started the hunt. Three of the number lost their lives before any one had even wounded the beast, and Atalanta was the first to strike him, shooting an arrow into his back. but it Then Amphiaraiis shot him in the eye, was Meleager who finally despatched him, piercing between his ribs. The hide, which be- him by longed right, he gave to Atalanta. This mightily enraged some of the hunters, for they thought it unworthy that a woman should to honor for which so many men had striven therefore the two uncles of Meleager lay in wait for the maiden and took away the hide, declaring that it belonged to them if go off with the prize of ; Meleager did not choose to keep it. Meleager and restored the hide to Atalanta. killed his uncles When news of her brothers' murder at the hands of her son came to Althea's ears, she seized the brand from its box and threw it on the fire. As it consumed the vital strength left Meleager's body, and as it fell in ashes the spark of his life went out. Althea too late repented of her act of vengeance and took her own life. The weeping the women about her were changed into birds.
  • CHAPTER XIV STORIES OF ATTICA cecrops. THE Athenians were proud in their belief that their early kings were not, as were those of other Greek states, foreigners who had come shores, but true sons of Attica, born of The who had been first to their its soil. witness king, Cecrops, to Athena's victory in her contest with Poseidon for the city, was born, half man, half serpent, Erectheus. from the earth. Another earthborn king was E rec'theus, 34 whose form was wholly that of a serpent. At his birth Athena took him under her protection, and gave him in a basket into the care of the three daughters of Cecrops, enjoining them, under pain of her displeasure, not to seek to know what the basket contained. Curiosity was too strong for them, and when they saw the serpent lying in the basket, they were driven mad and leaped to death off the rock of the Acropolis. Athena then brought Erectheus up in her own It was temple and made him king of Athens. he that set up the sacred wooden image of the 34 and The earthborn serpent was his grandson, Erectheus. 244 called by some Erecthonius,
  • Stories of Attica 245 goddess in her temple and instituted the PanAt his death he athenaic Festival in her honor. was buried in the temple precinct and was afterwards worshiped with Athena in the Erectheum. O ri thy'ia, one of the daughters of Erectheus, was wooed by Bo're onthyia and Boreas. the northeast wind, but as, One day he came upon rejected his advances. her as she was carrying sacrifices for Athena on the Acropolis and bore her off to his wild northern kingdom of Thrace. Boreas still conscious of his kinship to the Athenians, served the Greeks well at the time of the battle of Thermopylae, when the Persian fleet coast. The Delphic was threatening the whole oracle ordered the Athenians their son-in-law for help, whereupon they prayed to Boreas, who answered ing the Persian ships at Artemisium. by shatter- to call upon Another daughter of Erectheus was Procris, who was married Ceph'a young hunter named Aurora, goddess of the dawn, loved lus. Cephaius and inconsolable. to stole him away, leaving Procris In her loneliness she took to hunt- ing with Artemis, from that never grew missed mark. its a whom she received a dog and a javelin that never As Aurora could not make tired Cephaius forget his love for his wife, she finally sent him back, and he joyfully returned to his life as a hunter, receiving from his wife the won- derful dog and javelin. Unfortunately Procris, of a jealous disposition and suspecting her being cephaius and Procris.
  • 246 Greek and Roman Mythology husband of a love breeze, one to spy affair with Aura, the morning in the bushes day concealed herself on them. the Cephalus, hearing a rustling in thought it some wild beast, underbrush, hurled his unerring javelin, and killed his wife. Fig. 78. irocne and Philomela. Cephalus and the Dawn-Goddess. Procne and Phil o me'la were the daughters of another early king of Athens. The Thracian king Tereus had married Procne, but afterwards he fell in love with the sister, Philomela, and persuaded her to marry him by telling her that Procne was dead. To conceal this deed from his
  • Stories of Attica 247 wife he cut out Philomela's tongue and imprisoned her in a hut in the woods. But she wove her story into the web of a robe and contrived At an opportunity ofto send it to her sister. fered by the celebration of the festival of Diony- Procne visited the lonely hut and brought Philomela in disguise to her palace. The two sus, then wreaked on the faithless Tereus a sisters Procne killed her son and served him up to his father at a feast. When Tereus pursued the murderesses and was about to kill them, the gods transformed the three into birds, Tereus into a tufted hoo-poe, Procne into a swallow, and Philomela into the nightingale who still pours out her mournful horrible vengeance, for It'y lus notes, grieving over the slaying of the boy 35 Itylus. As Heracles was the great hero of the Peloponnesus, who freed all the country around from danger, so Theseus was the hero of Attica, who cleared the roads of giants and robbers and gave There liberty and unity to the city of Athens. was some said that was Poseidon, and alleged as a proof of this that once when King Minos, to try the hero's divine birth, threw a ring into the sea, a question about his birth; his father Theseus, diving in after it, returned with the ring and a golden crown given him by Amphi35 Some identify Procne with Philomela with the swallow. the nightingale and Theseus,
  • 248 Greek and Roman Mythology trite. It was more generally supposed, however, was ^Egeus, the king of Athens, that his father and his mother yEthra, daughter of the king of Before his son was born, ygeus left Trcezen. ^Ethra at Troezen, after placing his sword and sandals under a great rock with the instructions that the boy, so soon as he was strong enough to lift the stone and get them from under it, should be sent to Athens. Theseus frees the roads of *iants. Theseus grew up clever and courageous, and tall and strong as well, so that at sixteen he easily and joyfully set out for Athens. His mother and grandfather urged him to go by sea, for it was a short and comparatively safe lifted the stone voyage, but, wishing to emulate Heracles, he preferred the perilous journey by land. On his way he met with six great adventures. First he came upon the giant Per i pha'tes, a son of Hephaestus, who brained all travelers with his iron club. Theseus overcame him and took his club. Next he met Sinis, who compelled every passer-by to help him bend down a tall pine tree and then, fastening the unfortunate by the head to the top of the tree, let it go suddenly. This fate Theseus inflicted sow was on the giant himself. He killed a great that ravaged the country; some say this sow really a woman whose foul manners earned her this name. Sciron, a giant where the His fourtl ^venture was with kept watch on a narrow pass who cliff falls abruptly into the sea. This
  • Stories of Attica 249 giant forced all travelers to wash his feet, and when they knelt down to do so he gave them a kick that sent them an enormous where Theseus into the waters below, turtle swallowed them. gave the turtle a final feast on the giant himself. The next giant he met he overthrew in a wrestling he overcame Pro crus'tes, pressed upon strangers the hospitality of his iron bed; but if they were too long, he cut them Last of match. all who off, and out to they were too short, he stretched them if the bed. fit When he had reached Athens and had purified all this slaughter, he en- himself in the river of tered the city. His long hair and his foreign appearance exciting the laughter of some buildhe took a cart that contained huge building ers, blocks and tossed lightly over the roof of a At house. close it the palace, although he did not disidentity, his father's new wife, the his Me de'a (see p. 279), recognized him and plotted his death. She persuaded /Egeus to invite him to a feast and offer him a cup of sorceress poisoned wine. seus drew his As they sword feasted, however, to cut a piece of meat, Theand recognizing the weapon, dashed the poisoned cup to the floor and sprang In a rage of disappointed to embrace his son. his hate, father, Medea flew away, his heir. instantly dragon-drawn chariot and ^geus now proclaimed Theseus as called her Theseus meet* ]
  • 250 Theseus kills tbe Minotaur. Greek and Roman Mythology But the hero, thirsting for glory and advenJ went to Marathon, where he captured the bull that Heracles had brought from Crete, and then, when the time came around for seven young men and seven maidens to be sent as a tribute from Athens to King Minos of Crete (see p. 233), he offered himself as one of their numThe tribute had ber, hoping to win their return. come about in this way. King Minos' son had been killed by the Athenians, and Minos had betnre, first The Athenians might have stood sieged the city. out against him and his army, but the gods sent a famine and pestilence upon them, and the oracle declared that the divine displeasure would not be appeased until they should accept whatever He demanded that every terms Minos offered. year seven boys and seven girls should be sent When the to Crete to be given to the Minotaur. Theseus and the thirteen other vicship bearing tims started out, it was equipped with a black but Theseus promised his father that should he succeed in his adventure and kill the Minotaur, sail, on the return voyage he would change the black On their arrival in Crete sail for a white one. King Minos' daughter the hero at ball first of string to A ri ad'ne fell in love with sight and secretly gave him a enable him to thread the mazes of the Labyrinth, and a sword to kill the Minotaur. Having succeeded by this means in his difficult adventure, Theseus set sail for home, '
  • Stories of Attica 251 carrying with him on his ship his benefactress On the island of Naxos, however, he Ariadne. some say deserted his bride while she slept, because he loved some one else and wanted to to get rid of her, others, because he was warned the wife of Dionysus. leave her there to become Perhaps it was in requital of his faithlessness to Fig. 79. Theseus killing the Minotaur. Ariadne that the gods made him forget his promise to raise a white sail if he returned successful. For ^geus, having watched long from a high rock for the returning ship, thinking, when he saw the black sail, that his son was dead, threw himself from the rock and was killed. Theseus was recognized as king, and immeHe gave diately set about instituting reforms. e8eus as j"L Ath < 8-
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 252 his absolute royal up in one of it this commonwealth. After he started out again on a career of advena free self-governing Fig. 80. ture. power, and after uniting he made state all the divisions of Attica, Theseus and the rescued Athenians. Like Heracles he went to the Amazon?' country and from there carried off their queei: ti'o pe. To recover her the Amazons be- An sieged Athens, though Antiope herself had fallen
  • Stories of Attica 253 so in love with Theseus that she fought by his The Amazons were side against her own people. driven off, but the queen was killed. Pi rith'o us. king of the Lapiths, having heard The the the fame of Theseus and, wishing to make trial and Theseus of him, drove off some of his cattle. but when they had come near to one pursued him, another, each was so filled with admiration of the other's noble bearing and courage that by mutual consent they gave up Fig. 81. all thought of fight- Centaur and Lapith. Soon after ing and swore an oath of friendship. this Pirithous celebrated his wedding and invited The Centaurs, who were also inflamed with wine, attempted guests, becoming In the battle that followed to steal the bride. Theseus to attend. Theseus fought bravely by the side of his friend Pirithous and the Centaurs were driven off. battle of Lapiths centaurs,
  • 254 The theft of Helen and prsephone. The two fore, were now fired by the amhave a divine wife; Theseus, there- f riends bition each to carried off Helen, the beautiful daughter As she was not yet of mar- of Zeus and Leda. riageable age, he left her under the care of his mother, and before he returned to claim her, her two brothers, Castor and Polydeuces, rescued her and took her back to Sparta. Pirithoiis' attempt more daring, for he induced Theseus to him carry off Pluto's wife, Persephone. help Not even Theseus was strong enough for this adventure, and the two heroes were caught and was yet chained in the lower world. Theseus' adventures might have ended here had not the mighty Heracles, in his quest for Cerberus, found and freed him. On his people return to Athens he found that had turned against him and accepted his He therefore retired to the another as king. island of Scyros, and there met his death by beThe Theseum. ing thrown from a cliff. The Athenians said that at the battle of Mara- thon a glorious hero, whom they recognized as Theseus, appeared amongst them in full armor and led them on to victory, and after the war the oracle commanded be brought from burial at Athens. carried out this that Theseus' bones should Scyros and given honorable The Athenian leader Cimon command, and having brought home amid great rejoicings, the hero's remains interred them in the middle of the city and erected
  • Stories of Attica 255 The wonderfully preAthens called the Theseum is, a temple in his honor. served temple in unfortunately, probably misnamed, and the true shrine of Theseus has disappeared.
  • CHAPTER XV STORIES OF THEBES Cadmus' search for Europa. WHEN Europa had been carried off to Crete form of a beautiful white bull, her father A ge'nor had ordered his sons to go out in search of their sister and not to return by Zeus in the unless they found her. therefore, set Cadmus, one of the sons, out from Phoenicia and wandered years through the islands and coasts of the sea, until at last, despairing of success, for many he came to Delphi to consult the oracle. Apollo him that the search was quite vain and com- told manded him to follow a cow who would lead him to the spot where he was destined to found a new city. Hardly had Cadmus left the oracle when the cow appeared and going before him into Bceotia lay down near the place where later stood the citadel of Thebes. The founding of Tbebes. Wishing to dess Athena, make a Cadmus sacrifice to his sent his men patron god- to the spring of Ares, close at hand, to fetch water for the The spring was guarded by a terpurification. rible dragon, himself a son of Ares, and no one Puzof Cadmus' men returned to tell the tale. zled at the long delay, Cadmus went 256 himself to
  • Stories of Thebes 257 the spring. There lay the bloody and mangled bodies of his companions, and over them threat- ened the huge Fig. 82. tongues of the triple jaws Cadmus and dragon. and three-forked the Dragon. At the bidding of Athena Cadmus killed the beast with a stone and sowed in the ground its huge teeth, from which sprang up a crop of armed men of more than
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 258 human and strength. Still at Athena's bidding, Cadmus threw a stone into their midst, whereupon they turned their weapons upon one another and fought on fiercely until only five were left. These five made peace with one another and with Cadmus and became under him the founders of the five great Theban families. To size atone for the blood of Ares' sacred dragon Cadmus had to serve the god for eight years. At the end of this time Athena made him king of the new city he had founded, and Zeus gave him as wife Harmo'nia, the slain by his hand, daughter of Ares and Aphrodite. All the gods to honor the wedding, came down from Olympus and the Muses, led by Apollo, sang the marriage hymn. Cadmus gave to his bride a marvelous necklace; some say it was made for him by Hephaestus, and others that he received it from Europa, to whom it had been given by Zeus. Whatever was its origin, Harmonia's necklace always brought disaster to its owner indeed, not; withstanding the splendor of his marriage, an ill fate pursued Cadmus. Hoping to avoid his destiny, he left his city and settled in Illyria, but even there the resentment of Ares pursued him. At last, quite discouraged, he declared in bitterness that, since a serpent was so cherished and so faithfully avenged by the gods, he wished that he might be one. granted and Immediately his wish was Harmonia shared his fate. The
  • Stories of Thebes 259 tombs of the hero and his wife were set up in the land of their exile and were guarded by their Cadmus is geniuses in the forms of serpents. credited with having introduced the alphabet into Greece from Phoenicia. The evil fate One of of Cadmus pursued his descend- was Sem'e le, the mother of Bacchus, who, as was told in the account of that god (see p. 165), was burned to Anashes by the brightness of her lover Zeus. other was the mother of that unfortunate Actaeon who was torn to pieces by his own dogs. ( See p. A third became a votary of Bacchus and 85.) in her madness tore to pieces her own son Pentheus. The fourth inflicted and (See p. 168.) suffered terrible woes through Hera's anger at ants. his four daughters her for taking care of Semele's child Bacchus. The curse laid upon the family of Cadmus passed over his one son and that son's son, but fell with redoubled force in the next generation upon the family of La'i us. It was in defiance of the warning of the gods that Lams married his cousin Jo cas'ta, for an oracle had pronounced that he was destined to meet his death at the hands of a son born of that union. In order to avoid this danger he commanded that the baby born to his wife should at once be put to death. The duty was entrusted to a shepherd, who, however, being tender-hearted, could not bear to take the infant's life, but after piercing his feet and The des- cendants of cadmus. <Edipus.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 260 binding them with thongs, intended to leave him It happened that to his fate on Mt. Cithseron. a shepherd of the<king of Corinth, who was pasturing his flocks on the mountains, received the poor maimed infant and took him to his king and As they were childless, the royal couple queen. gladly adopted him and brought him up as their own The prophecy. son. The boy, called CEdipus or Swollen-Foot, grew up in the belief that he was the real son and rightful heir of the king of Corinth, but a cerinsulting hint that he regard to his birth troubled tain him He was once received with him enough to send to Apollo's oracle at Delphi to ask the truth. received no direct answer to his question, but told that he was destined to kill his father and marry his mother. Horrified by this prophhe turned his back on Corinth, resolved never to return while his supposed parents lived. ecy, Fulfilment of As he hurried along the steep mountain path leading away from Delphi, he met a chariot comThe charioteer ing from the direction of Thebes. somewhat arrogantly ordered him- out of the way, and CEdipus, accustomed to being treated as a prince and being, besides, deeply troubled over the tragic prophecy, violently resented the order and provoked a blow from the master of the chariot. sword The In a passion of rage CEdipus drew his and killed both master and charioteer. old man was King Laius. On his arrival
  • Stories of at Thebes Thebes QEdipus found the city in great tribu- lation over the destruction caused being with the body of a lion, the wings of a bird. woman, and 261 by a mysterious the head of a This creature, the Sphinx, had seated herself above the road and asked all passers-by the following riddle: Fig. 83. " What is it CEdipus and the Sphinx. has one voice, is fourtwo-footed, and three-footed?" that, though it and footed, Those who could not answer the riddle the Sphinx killed, and a great pile of whitening bones lay about her. But CEdipus was not daunted by the fate of those others who had gone before, and when the question was put to him he answered :
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 262 " man, since in his babyhood he goes on hands and knees, in his manhood he walks upright, and when old supports himself with a In chagrin at being answered the Sphinx cane." herself over the cliff, and thus the city was threw freed. The Thebans honored the stranger who The prophecy made It is had come to their relief in every way, and even made him their king and gave him as wife the widowed queen. Jocasta bore to him four children, two sons and two daughters, and for a long time he lived in peace and prosperity, loved and honored by all his grateful people. But at last the day of retribution came, and r a blight and pestilence fell upon the city, so that the fields yielded no grain, and men and beasts ' clear. . -i To i ambassadors sent to Delphi to learn the cause the answer was returned that not until the city was purged of the murderer of died. the King Lams would the curse be removed. CEdipus had never suspected that the old man he had killed on the road from Delphi was the Theban king, and the truth was the less likely to come to him since the sole attendant of the murdered king who had escaped had told a big story of a robber band that had attacked them on the road. soever this (Edipus, therefore, proclaimed that whothe men who had done knew anything of deed should declare it, and that the guilty ones should be put to death or driven into banblind seer who was brought to tesishment. A
  • Stories of Thebes 263 king at first refused to speak, and when, goaded by a charge of treachery, he de- tify before the clared, "Thou pollution him upon man who art the this land has brought CEdipus turned upon " ! in furious disbelief. Only when he learned the time and place of the murder and the age and appearance of the murdered man, was he convinced of his own guilt, and with this con- came a yet more For bitter discovery. the testimony of the Theban and Corinthrough thian shepherds who had been concerned in his viction exposure and his adoption as an infant he learned that he was the son of Lai'us whom he had killed and the husband of his own mother. The terrible truth had already broken upon Jocasta, and she had gone into the private chambers of the palace and hung herself. With the pin of her brooch her wretched husband put out both his eyes, that he might never look upon the holy sun again. Jocasta's brother Creon took the throne, and blind CEdipus, led by his heroic and faithful An went into exile. His end At Athens, under the noble king Theseus, he found refuge and protection, but with prophetic knowledge of what his fate was to be, he sought the sacred grove of the daughter tig'o ne, was mysterious. Furies at Co lo'nus, close to Athens, and there amid thunder and strange portents he disappeared from the sight of men. osdipus
  • 264 The seven against Thebes. The Greek and Roman Mythology curse that rested on the family was not by CEdipus' death. His two sons, E te'oand Pol y ni'ces, who had deserted their father in his old age and blindness and by him had lifted cles been cursed for this faithlessness, quarreled about the throne, and Eteocles drove his brother from kingdom. Polynices, therefore, went to Argos and persuaded the king A dras'tus, to champion his cause. An army was gathered, and the seven great chiefs were found to undertake the The seer expedition against seven-gated Thebes. Am phi a ra'us went unwillingly, for he knew that the war was contrary to the will of the gods, and that from it he should never return alive. But when he married it had been agreed that if any difference should arise between him and his Adrastus, his wife E ri'phy le should be the judge. Polynices, therefore, bribed her with Harmonia's necklace, and she treacherbrother-in-law ously sent her husband to the war. heroes Adrastus alone returned Of the seven alive. The and Polynices, meeting in sindied at one another's hands, thus gle combat, fulfilling the curse with which CEdipus had cursed them when they had deserted him in his day of trouble and exile. Eteocles was buried by Creon and the Thebans * with all due honor, but it was decreed that the brothers, Eteocles Antigone's sacrifice. body of Polynices, as that of a traitor, should be left for the dogs and vultures to devour. An-
  • Stories of Thebes 265 tigone, loyal to her brother as she had been to her father, at the risk of her life and in spite of the dissuasion of her weaker sister Is me'ne, gave body the last rites of burial, without which the shade must wander hopeless on the banks of the Acheron. and her In punishment she was buried alive, lover, Creon's son, killed himself upon her tomb. With Antigone's act of self-sacrifice and dreadful death the long tragedy of the family of Cadmus came to an end. next generation the city of Thebes The ^_ finally fell before the seven sons of the original Seven, and the son of Polynices was established on the throne. This war is known as the war of In the the Ep ig'o ni or descendants.
  • CHAPTER XVI THE ARGONAUTIC EXPEDITION The Golden Fleece. ALTHOUGH Greece, had left his first ond wife, Ath'a mas, two a king in northern children, Phrixtis and Helle, he wife and married again. like the traditional Fig. 84. This sec- step-mother wish- Phrixus and the Ram. ing to get rid of the children, persuaded Athamas to sacrifice Phrixus to Zeus, and the sacrifice was about to be accomplished when Hermes sent a ram with golden fleece which carried off the 30 Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica 266
  • The Argonautic Expedition two children on the strait lost As they passed over as the Dardanelles, Helle his back. now known her hold and how is fell off into the water. strait in ancient this 267 called the Hellespont. That times came to be Phrixus kept on to Col- chis, on the Euxine (now the Black) Sea, where he offered up the ram to Zeus and gave the golden fleece to IE e'tes, in the sacred the king, who hung it on a tree grove of Ares, under the guardian- ship of a sleepless dragon. The nephew of Athamus, Pe'li as, king of I ol'- cus, a violent and unjust man, seized the power and possessions that belonged to his half-brother yEson. Fearing for the life of his son Jason, ^Eson sent him as a baby to be brought up by the centaur Chiron, who, unlike most of the centaurs, was wonderfully wise and just and was famous both as a physician and as the tutor of many of the heroes. Jason had taken part in the Calydonian boar-hunt He had more than a boy. when he was hardly learned from Chiron kindness and courtesy as well as courage; once when he found a feeble old woman waiting for some one torrent, set to help her across a raging mountain he cheerfully took her on his back and her over. As the old woman happened to be Hera in disguise, he was rewarded for his Soon courtesy by securing a powerful friend. after this, rifice in when honor Pelias was holding a great sacof Poseidon, Jason determined to Jason,
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 268 attend. in the In crossing a river he lost one sandal on without it. Now Pelias mud and went had been warned by an oracle to beware of a Centaur. man who should come to him wearing one sandal; when, therefore, Jason appeared before him, he determined to put him out of his way. So when the young man quite simply and frankly
  • The Argonautic Expedition demanded of him the kingdom 269 that of right be- longed to him, Pelias answered cautiously that he would willingly give it up but it seemed only right that Jason should first prove his courage by bringing back from Colchis the famous golden Thus he thought he should make sure of fleece. his death. Without delay Jason sent messengers all over The Argonauts. Greece to gather comrades for this dangerous enWhen assembled they were fifty in all terprise. , , each one a famous hero, the son or grandson of a god. Chief of all was Heracles, who had just returned from his adventure with the Ery- Orpheus was there, the divine Castor and Polydeuces, the twin- manthian boar. musician; brothers of Helen; Meleager of Calydon; Peleus and Telamon, whose sons, Achilles and Ajax, were to be great heroes of the Trojan War; the two sons of Orithyia and Boreas, the north wind, came from Thrace on their dark, cloudy wings scaled with gold, their black hair streaming behind them as they flew. Theseus would surely have been he was among the company, but at that time A a prisoner in Hades. ship was built by a son of Phrixus, Argus, with the help of Athena herself, and was named from its builder, still Argo. In its prow Athena had set a beam from the sacred oak of Dodona, possessed of a voice and prophetic power like that of the trunk from which it was cut. All the city came
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 270 out to see the heroes depart. 37 From the wooded shore across the bay Chiron waved farewell to his pupil and held out for leus' son, the his father to see Pe- baby Achilles, into his charge. who had been given The young men dipped their long oars to the music of Orpheus' lyre, the fishes frolicked about the ship, and the gods looked down from high heaven The in admiration at the glorious band of heroes. Many were the adventures on this famous voySometimes the sea threatened to sink the age. sometimes the strangers among whom they ship; landed were hostile and they were compelled to fight the for their lives. women, who had At the island of recently Lemnos murdered their husbands and fathers, tried to keep the Argonauts with them, offering them a share of their Once they were pursued by a tribe of six-handed giants. Finally when they had landed island. on the shore of an island to rest, they lost the of their company, Heracles, and two strongest others with him. Heracles had gone into the woods to cut a new oar in place of one that he had broken, and his young friend and follower Hylas had gone to get water from the spring. 3T This assembling of hardy and adventurous men from quarters for a hazardous enterprise suggests the enlistment for a polar expedition. The same courage and resourcefulness are required, and the appeal of the dangerous all and unknown is the same.
  • The Argonautic Expedition The nymphs, thinking stranger would be a that this charming 271 young delightful playfellow and the dance, put out their long white partner arms and drew the boy down into their founin One of tain. the company heard his last despair- ing cry and started to the rescue, calling to Heracles as he ran. Supposing that robbers had stolen him the two scoured the country and were gone so long that the other heroes sailed away leaving them behind. When at last Jason and his companions had S passed through the Bosphorus they came to the ?he c Eocks home of Phineus. This Phineus, because by his prophecy he told men all the future, Zeus had cursed with blindness and had sent the Hargift of pies (see p. 150) to deities filed torment him. These dreadful of storm and death snatched whatever food was set away or de- before their victim. The coming of the Argonauts brought relief to the blind old man, for when the Harpies starving, swooped down upon the banquet set for the hero two sons of Boreas drew their swords with a Far over the sea great shout and pursued them. they flew, and they would in the end have caught and killed the Harpies, but Iris came between them and forbade it. In return for this good deed the Phineus told the voyagers of all that lay bethem and especially of the perilous Sym- fore So when they had and saw the waves breaking and again pleg'a des, or Clashing Rocks. set sail
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 272 foam tossed high from the these terrible rocks, they loosed a dove as the seer had bidden them, and when she had passed safely through with only the loss of her tail feathers, they dashed in as rebounded and rocks the forced the ship through, rowing with all their might, before the rocks could close a second time. Yet even so the ship might not have escaped, but Athena on and held back the rocks with her pushed it hand. From that mained rooted time those fast together, rocks have re- no longer affording that dangerous passage. Further adventures. The next day, just before dawn, they landed ,, on a small island, and there Apollo met them as he passed on his way to the Hyperboreans. About his head his hair fell in golden curls, in his hand was his silver bow, and under his feet the island The heroes were amazed when they quaked. . , , saw him, and feared to look into the shining So when he passed on they eyes of the god. made sacrifice to him and sang the psean and called that island sacred to Apollo of the Dawn. Then they sailed on by many strange lands and peoples, the coast of the Amazons and the island of Ares. Here there flew out a flock of birds who of rained feathers, down upon the rowers' heads a rain sharp as arrows; but the heroes raised over the ship a covering of their shields, set close together, and so passed by in safety. Further on they saw the Caucasus Mountains
  • The Argonautic Expedition 273 them, and a great vulture, with wide-spread wings, flew over the ship, and from the cliff above sounded cries of agony as Prorising before metheus suffered once more his age-long torture for Heracles had not yet come to free that much-enduring friend of man. (See pp. ; 10, 223.) Now Athena as the ship in neared Colchis, Hera and heaven held a council together to plan how they might aid Jason in his adventure. They called Aphrodite and persuaded her to send her son Eros, or Cupid, to yEe'tes' daughter Ale de'a to cause her to take Jason's part. The goddess of love found her little son playing dice with young cup-bearer, the boy Ganymede, and by the promise of a golden ball she won him to do what she asked. Meanwhile the heroes had landed and had gone up to the great palace of yEetes, adorned with the work of Hephrestus, Zeus's four fountains always flowing, one with oil, one with wine, one with milk, and one with water. There King yEetes entertained the travelers royally, while Medea sat by, her heart filled with love and pain as she looked at Jason, for Eros' Then Jason told sharp arrow had pierced deep. had come to get the golden fleece, and yEe'tes answered craftily, saying that he would freely give it when he had tried Jason and found that he was worthy to receive it. But the king that he first, as proof of his skill and courage, let him Jason and Medea.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 274 harness to a plow the bronze-hoofed bulls that breathed out fire from their nostrils and plow with them the field of Ares. When this .was done, let him plant the dragon's teeth that Athena had given. Then, if all this was accomplished between dawn and sunset, he should receive the golden fleece. Though he looked upon it as an task, Jason could do no better than impossible accept the king's conditions, but he returned to his ship and his comrades in utter discouragement. As for Medea, she was in an agony of doubt as to whether to drive this love from her heart and allow Jason to perish or to be disloyal to her father and help with her magic arts. Love got the upper hand, and she took powerful herbs and ointments and went to meet Jason at As the shrine of Hecate beyond the walls. Jason came to meet her the gods made him of nobler bearing and more glorious than before, and he talked to the maiden Medea with winning words. So she gave him a charm made of a flower that grew from the blood drawn from Prometheus by the vulture, and gathered and treated in magic ways. She told him, too, how to propitiate Hecate formed at midnight, he had smeared his by mysterious sacrifice perand how afterwards, when body and his weapons with magic ointment, he could safely sow the dragon's teeth. Jason promised her in return his undying love and gratitude and that he would the
  • The Argonautic Expedition carry her 275 home with him and make her his wife. When it was time for the trial, all the people assembled, and the Argonauts looked on with dread as the fire-breathing bulls rushed upon their Jason harnesses e bniis. But the ointment made him invulnerable to fire, and he grappled with them and forced them to their knees and put the yoke upon their necks. So he plowed the field of Ares and then he sowed the dragon's teeth. Thereupon a crop of armed men sprang up, as they had from the dragon's teeth sowed by Cadmus at the founding of Thebes. Jason remembered Medea's warning and threw into their midst a great stone, and immediately they fell upon one another, and others Jason himself slew with his sword until none were left. leader. But ^e'tes had no intention of fulfilling his agreement and giving up the golden fleece, and he plotted to burn the ship Argo while the heroes . . Once more Medea saved Jason, for she him where to find the tree on which the fleece was hung, and she gave him a sleeping slept. told potion to pour over the dragon's eyes, and herself lulled him by a magic song. So in that night they secured the fleece and secretly boardWhen the king knew of ing the ship set sail. and that they had taken not only the famous fleece but his undutiful daughter as well, he started out in hot pursuit. Then Medea did their flight Jason secures the golden fleec -
  • 276 Greek and Roman Mythology a horrible thing, for she slaughtered her own brother, whom she had taken with her, and cut up his limbs and waters, so that re from r co ichis. them behind her on the her father, in gathering them up cast for burial, might be delayed in his pursuit. About the course followed by the Argonauts voyage there is much uncertainty, but they seem to have met with many of the monsters and strange beings that Odysseus (or afterwards encountered. At last, howUlysses) ever, they landed on their native shores and were on their return Fig. 86. Medea preparing the magic brew. received with joy by ^Eson and with feigned sat- and anxiety had greatly enfeebled ^Eson, and his son longed to Medea undersee him young and strong again. isfaction by Pelias. Years Nine nights under the took to satisfy his wish. the earth in her dragonfull moon she scoured
  • The Argonautic Expedition drawn chariot in search of rare herbs 277 and other Then she things of use in the sorcerer's art. Hecate and the goddess of youth, and sacrificing to the gods of the under world built altars to she called upon them by name. The old man she purified three times, with fire, with water, and with sulphur. Then she concocted a brew of magic herbs, of frost got by moonlight, of the wings and flesh of bats, of the vitals of a wolf, the liver of a stag, and the beak and head of a long-lived crow. She stirred it all together with a stick of dry olive-wood; the stick grew green and put forth leaves, and where the liquid spat- on the earth fresh grass sprang up. Then the sorceress opened the veins of her patient, and as the blood flowed out, she poured into his mouth and veins her magic liquid. And his white hairs grew dark again, the color came into his sunken cheeks, and his feeble form grew When Pelias' daughters strong and straight. saw this marvel, they begged to have the same tered treatment given to their father as well. Medea pretended to consent, and having made a powerless brew of herbs and water, gave the signal for the credulous daughters to slaughter their father. Because of this murder of Pelias. Jason and The tragedy of Medea. Medea were obliged to leave lolcus and take refIn time Jason grew tired of Corinth. uge in his passionate and mysterious wife and anhis intention of marrying a princess of nounced
  • 278 Greek and Roman Mythology Medea, covering up her Corinth. ment with a show of submission, bitter resent- sent the bride wedding gift a beautiful robe, but when she put it on it consumed her flesh like fire, and her as a Fig. 87. Medea preparing to kill her Children. father in trying to help her perished with her. This was not enough to satisfy Medea's hatred. That the perfidious Jason might not have sons to care for his old age and to perpetuate his
  • The Argonautic Expedition race, killed 279 she conquered her maternal feelings and her two children. Then in her dragon- drawn married In Athens she chariot she flew away. Theseus' father ^geus and almost brought about the hero's death by persuading his father to offer him a poisoned cup. When ^geus' sudden recognition of his son thwarted this plot, the sorceress flew away and disappeared from story. (See p. 249.) Jason passed thereafter a forlorn and useless life. His only comfort was to go and sit in the shade of the old ship Argo, the outward symbol of his only great achievement. One day its rotting timbers fell on him and crushed him. Jason's end,
  • CHAPTER XVII THE TROJAN WAR THE The legend of Troy. story of the Trojan ' War was the sub- '. _ ject of a great cycle of legends, and the deeds of the heroes engaged in it inspired the imagination of the Greeks in all ages. Homer's Iliad but the greatest of many epics written about the siege of Troy, and the Odyssey is concerned with the adventures of one of the heroes of that is war on his return voyage. All the great writers phase of the struggle of tragedy turned to some or to the history of one or other of the families Alexander the Great set Achilles before him as his ideal hero and turned aside in engaged from it. march of conquest to visit his reputed The fame and influence of the story de- his tomb. scended upon Rome, and the poet Vergil took as the subject of his national epic the wander- Trojan ^Eneas from burning Troy until and became the ancestor of the Roman race. For more than two thousand years scholars have discussed the historical basis for the legend, and not fifty years ago a Gerings of he settled in Italy man business man, having acquired a sufficient fortune, determined to devote the rest of his life 280
  • The Trojan War 281 and a large part of his money to excavating belittle Turkish village on the legendary neath a site of Troy. There, buried beneath three other were unearthed the remains of a walled town of the time of which Homer tells. ruined cities, Whether history, War left its has legend, or myth, the Trojan the thought and mark deep on poetry of our world, and the actors in that drama are pictured on the walls of our libraries and public buildings along with Columbus and the Pilgrim Fathers, as part of our heritage from the past. The siege took place in the generation succeeding that of the Calydonian Boar Hunt, the Seven against Thebes, and the voyage of the Argonauts, and many of the warriors engaged before Troy were the sons of the ilies earlier heroes. Three fam- are of especial importance in this connec- tion. Agamem'non and Men the Greek hosts, who was e la'us, the leaders of were descended from Tan'ta the son of Zeus. lus, This Tantalus was remarkably favored by the gods, for he was invited to their banquets, partook of their nectar and ambrosia, and shared their secrets. For what crime he lost his exalted position and in what way he was punished is a matter of disSome say that he stole nectar and ampute. brosia and shared it with his friends some, that ; he divulged the secrets of Zeus; some, that he
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 282 became so presumptuous that to test the gods he served up to them at a feast the flesh of his own son Pelops. There are also differing accounts of the punishment he received: that he stood in Hades below a rock that seemed ever about to fall and crush him, or that, as was an told in chapter (see p. 190), in the presence of drink he was always unable to reach it earlier food and and ap- pease his torturing hunger and thirst. Though had been served up in this cannibal fashPelops by Hermes and came out of the ordeal whole and strong except for one shoulder, which Demeter, in the absentmindedness induced by her grief for her daughion, he had been restored to ter, had unfortunately eaten. stituted a shoulder of ivory. won his wife life For it she subIt was Pelops who Hippodamia by contending with her father in a chariot race (see p. 147), and some say that it was his violence to the charioteer Myrtilus that brought on his family the curse that pur- sued it through three generations. Because of murder of their brother, Pelops drove his sons A'treus and Thyes'tes, from his kingdom, and they came to Mycenae where they succeeded their to the power after Eurystheus' caught Thyestes his in death. Atreus an attempt to deprive him of power and, while appearing to forgive him, avenged himself by serving up his son to him at dinner. The sons of Atreus were Agamemnon and Menelaiis, the former, king of Mycenae and
  • The Trojan War 283 overlord of a large part of the Peloponnesus and surrounding islands, the latter, ruler of Sparta and husband of Zeus's beautiful daughter Helen. Achilles was descended from yE'a cus, who was lf noted for his uprightness and justice. He was the son of Zeus by yE gi'na, whom Zeus in the . , . . , , . form of an eagle had stolen from her father, a river-god, and had carried off to the island near Athens that still bears her name. Hera, in anger at the island for affording hospitality to a rival, sent upon it a plague that destroyed all the in- habitants except ^Eacus, who in his loneliness called upon his father to give him a people. Zeus answered his prayer by turning a tribe of ants into men, called from the Greek word Myr'mi dons. Because of his righteousness, yEacus after death was made a judge in the lower world. ^Eacus' son Peleus, with the Myrp. 189.) midons, migrated to a part of Thessaly called Phthia. As a young man he took part in the (See Calydonian boar hunt and the quest of the golden fleece. His wife was the Nereid Thetis, whom Zeus himself had been deterred from marrying only by the prophecy that she would bear a son greater than his father. riage was Achilles. The issue of this mar- Because of a prophecy that her son would die in war, Thetis had tried to make him invulnerable by dipping him as a baby in the The heel by which potent waters of the Styx. she held him had been unwet by the waters and The family .ffiacus. of
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 284 hence was the one vulnerable spot. 38 After this Thetis left her husband and child and returned to her father Nereus in the depths of the sea, and Achilles was given to the centaur Chiron He grew up strong and beautiful, and so swift of foot that he needed no dog nor spear in hunting but overtook his game and to be educated. caught The royai family of Troy. The it alive. earliest family was founded a mortal ancestor of the Trojan royal , Dar da nus, a son of Zeus, who city on the slopes of Mt. Ida, in the northwestern corner of Asia Minor. grandson Tros the Trojans took their From name. his One was the beautiful boy Ganymede, Zeus took to be his cup-bearer, and an- of Tros's sons whom other power was Ilus, who transferred the seat of his to Ilium or Troy, a new city built between Mt. Ida and the Hellespont. The walls of the city were built by Poseidon and Apollo for new Ilus's son, the faithless Laomedon. After the destruction of the city and the death of Laomedon at Heracles' hands (see p. 225), the rule fell to Laomedon's only living son, Priam, a just and god-fearing man, by whom the city was splendidly Priam became the father of fifty restored. daughters and fifty sons, of whom the noblest was Hector. Another of his sons was the ill-omened Paris, the curse of Troy. 38 Anatomists still "Achilles' tendon." call the tendon attached to the heel
  • The Trojan War 285 The golden apple that the goddess had thrown in among the gods assembled as guests at the wedding of Peleus and Thetis (see p. in) had not only brought discord between Zeus's wife and his Fig. 88. The persuasion of Helen. daughters, Athena and Aphrodite, but it was the cause of the war between Greeks and Tro- first jans, which, after lasting for ten years, ended of Troy and the death in the utter destruction The causes of the war.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 286 For the Trojan prince and shepherd Paris, whom Zeus had made judge in the matter, had given the prize of beauty to Aphrodite because she had promised him as wife the most beautiful woman in the world. Now the most beautiful woman in the world was Helen, the daughter of Leda and Zeus (see p. 235), who, of hundreds of heroes. after being sought in marriage by of Greece, had the princes been given by her step-father to all Menelaiis, king of Sparta. Fulfilling her promled Paris to the court of Menelaiis, ise, Aphrodite accordance with the gracious custom that required hospitable treatment of strangers as a who, in law of Zeus, received him kindly and entertained him Then Paris did a treacherous Menelaus was away from home, at his palace. thing ; for while he induced Helen to desert her husband, and putting her and much treasure on board his ship, he sailed away to Troy. Greek poets seem not much blame in the matter to Helen as we might expect, partly, no doubt, because she had yielded to Aphrodite's persuasions, but partly, it would seem, because such divine beauty as hers seemed to them to cover a multitude of sins. But Paris' action was unreservedly condemned. When the Greek chiefs had been contending for the hand of Helen, they had agreed that if violence should be done to her or to the man whom she married, they would all unite in aveng- to have attached so The caii to arms.
  • The Trojan War ing And it. so when 287 Menelaiis and his brother Agamemnon, king of Mycenae, called upon them to take arms against the Trojans, they hastened to fulfil their pledge. Agamemnon, as the most powerful prince of Greece, was chosen leader of the armies. His most trusted counselor was the aged Nestor, whose long reminiscences of the glories of his youth and the mighty deeds of the heroes of his generation met with unfailing from the courteous princes. Di o me'des, son of Tydeus, came from Argos; he was the respect bravest of Greeks, except only Achilles. Ajax, son of Telemon, led his forces from Salamis and " earned for himself the title of great bulwark of the Achaeans." The catalogue of ships, as Homer gives it, amounted to more than twelve hundred; these were all rowed with great oars and carried fifty to one hundred and twenty men All the heroes were anxious to secure the each. help of Odysseus, prince of Ithaca, whose reputation for courage and endurance was equaled by for cunning devices and persuaBut Odysseus was living happily with his wife Pe nel'o pe and his little son Te lem'a chus and wished to avoid going to the war. So when an embassy came to summon him, he feigned his reputation sive talk. madness, and harnessing an ass and a bull to his But the clever plow, sowed his field with salt. ambassadors plow, and laid the baby Telemachus before the when Odysseus turned it aside, they
  • 288 Greek and Roman Mythology proved his sanity and induced him to join the Once forced to throw in his forexpedition. tune with theirs, Odysseus was more than ready to help in securing the company of young Achilles. For Achilles' mother, the sea-goddess The- having prophetic knowledge that her son was not destined to return alive from the war, had tis, sent him, disguised as a girl, to serve among the attendants of the princess of Scyros. Odysseus came to the court in the disguise of a peddler, bringing among the feminine silks and trinkets While the princess and her maids eaon the ear-rings and veils, Achilles with sparkling eyes seized upon the sword and brandished it above his head. Then Odysseus threw a sword. gerly tried off his disguise and easily persuaded Achilles to He was the strongest and bravest join the army. of all the princes, in beauty, strength and noble With nature the ideal hero of the Greeks. les came his friend Pat ro'clus, the affection between the ship takes its two Achil- and so close was that their friend- place beside that between David and Jonathan. The sacrifice of Iphigenia at Auiis. The armies of the Greek leaders assembled at Auhs,. on the eastern coast of Central Greece. There Artemis, in punishment for the killing of a sacred hind, refused them favorable winds and would not allow them summoning his to sail, until Agamemnon, young daughter Iph i ge ni'a on the plea of giving her in marriage to Achilles,
  • The Trojan War offered her as a sacrifice. the knife was about temis snatched her 289 At the moment when upon her, Ar- to descend away to serve as priestess in her temple at Taurus, putting in her place a hind. Then favorable winds brought the fleet to Troy. fig. Sacrifice of Iphigenia. nothing more moving in all tragedy than Iphigenia's appeal to her father, as Euripides tells There it, is and nothing more noble than her submission when she knew final willing that without people could never be victorious. it her
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 290 The early years of the war. A second act of ing of the Greeks. self-sacrifice Pro tes i marked la'us, the land- knowing the prophecy that the man who first touched Trojan soil should meet his death, leaped from the ship, His devoted wife offering his life for the cause. La od a mi'a prayed to the gods that he might her for one day. The prayer was and when he died the second time she granted, threw herself upon his funeral pyre and so acreturn to companied him to Hades. The siege of the city The gods took an active part in the began. struggle, protecting and inspiring their sons and now favorites among the heroes and in even entering the battle in person. some On cases the Tro- jan side were Aphrodite (Venus), Ares (Mars), and Apollo; on the Greek side, Hera (June), Athena (Minerva), and Poseidon (Neptune). Zeus (Jupiter) held victory in the balance, yielding to the persuasion now of this god, now of that, for Greeks or Trojans, but keeping his eyes fixed on the fate that required the ultimate over- For nine years the siege continued with varying fortune, yet, on the whole, advantage lay with the Greeks, since they had throw of Troy. The quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles. driven the Trojans within their walled city and had ravaged the neighboring country. After one of these raids Agamemnon had received as his share of the booty a maiden named Chry se'is, whose father was a priest of Apollo. The priest, coming to ransom his daughter, was
  • The Trojan War 291 driven off with insults, and called upon the god for vengeance. And down from wroth at heart, bearing on his Olympus bow and covered quiver. And the ar- Phoebus Apollo heard him and came the peaks of shoulders his rows clanged upon his shoulders in his wrath, as the god moved; and he descended like to night. Then he sate him aloof from the ships, and let an arrow fly; and there was heard a great clanging of the silver bow. First did he assail the mules and fleet dogs, but afterward, aiming at the men his swift dart, he smote and the pyres of the dead burnt continually in multitude. ; (Iliad, On lo's I. 42 ff.) the tenth day of the plague brought by Apolarrows Achilles, inspired by Hera, called the Greeks to an assembly and urged the prophet Calchas to tell what had aroused the anger of When the prophet made known the Agamemnon was furiously angry against the god. truth, him and against Achilles for protecting him, and if Chryseis was taken from him he would take in return Achilles' slave maiden Bri se'is. So began the quarrel between Agamemnon and Achilles, which, as Homer says, " hurled down into Hades many strong souls of heroes." For Achilles, in wrath at the loss of Briseis and in indignation at the insolent invasion of his rights, retired to his tent and refused to lead his Myrmidons to battle. More- declared that over he complained of his ungrateful treatment
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 292 mother Thetis, to his in the depths of And calling her ocean to listen up from her home to his angry com- " rose from the gray sea like a mist," and caressed her son and promised to plaints. she Father Zeus and demand Agamemnon's So when Thetis came to Olympus punishment. go to and clasped head his knees, in assent, Zeus bowed his ambrosial promising that the Greeks should before the Trojans until Agamemnon should It is the story bitterly repent of his insolence. flee of this quarrel between the heroes and sults the Trojans the ships. which Homer tells in Though he delayed <id re- accomplishment, Zeus not forget his promise, and he laid his stern command upon ther its the Iliad. all interference in its the gods to refrain from furThen Hector the battle. in and drove the Greeks back and the battle swayed now this way, now that, and all the plain was strewn with dead and wounded. For a time Agamemnon took the lead and seemed invincible, but at the last he was disabled by a wound, and Menelaiis was wounded, and Odysseus, and many others of the chiefs. So Hector led his people against the wall that the Greeks had built about their camp, and Apollo, disobeying Zeus's command, put him" as a self at their head and cast down the wall Fire was scatters the sand beside the sea." boy thrown on one of the Greek ships and the whole fleet might have been destroyed and the Greeks rallied the Trojans to their ships,
  • The Trojan War 293 from return home if great Ajax had not held the Trojans at bay. stubbornly At this desperate crisis Patroclus, grieving for The cut off the sufferings of his friends, went to Achilles and begged that if he was unwilling himself to forget his resentment and return to the conflict, he would permit him, clad in his armor, to lead For he hoped that the Trojans seeing Achilles' well known arms would think that the hero himself had come Half against them and so would lose confidence. the to the Myrmidons unwillingly death of Patroclus. . Achilles rescue. gave his consent, at the same time earnestly warning Patroclus that when he had driven the Trojans back and saved the ships he should refrain from pursuing to the walls of the city. clus in Achilles' On armor the appearance of Patrothe tide of the battle was turned, and the Greeks drove back the Trojans. Then Patroclus, in the fury of the fight, forgot and pursued even to the city and would have scaled the wall at the head of his victorious Myrmidons if Apollo had not appeared on the ramparts and forced them back. his chief's orders Although the Trojans rallied, Patroclus held his ground beneath the walls of the city, until Apollo, coming behind him, struck him and cast off his helmet and broke his spear. So, unarmed by the god, Patroclus was overthrown and killed by Hector, prophesying as the breath left his body the approaching death of his victorious foe at
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 294 Menelaiis the hands of the vengeful Achilles. and Ajax, standing over the body of their fallen comrade, with grim determination beat back the But Achilles' attacks of the Trojans. fierce armor fell into Hector's hands, though the horses and chariot were saved and driven out of the Homer field. a says of those immortal horses As a pillar abideth firm that standeth on the tomb of man or woman dead, so abode they immovably with the beautiful And earth. chariot, abasing their heads unto (Iliad, A XVII. the hot tears flowed from their eyes to the ground as they mourned Achilles returns to ihe war. : in sorrow for their charioteer. 434.) messenger from the 1-111- battle came to Achilles i r as he sat beside the ships, waiting anxiously for the return of his friend. When he heard the " news a black cloud of grief enwrapped Achilles, and with both hands he took dark dust and poured it over his head and defiled his comely face, fell." and on his fragrant doublet black ashes Thetis heard her son's moans and rose from the sea and came and, sitting beside him, comfort him. She promised to go to Hephaestus and persuade him to make for the hero arms greater and more glorious than those he had lost, so that he might return to the batAfter Thetis tle and avenge his dead friend. had left him, Hera sent Iris, bidding him show himself to the Trojans, even unarmed as he tried to was.
  • The Trojan War Around 295 Athena cast her tasseled head the bright goddess set a regis, crown of a golden cloud, and kindled therefrom a blazhis strong shoulders and around his ing flame. So when Achilles shouted aloud, the Trojans were dismayed and drew back, and the Greeks drew the body of Patroclus from under the heap of slain that had fallen on him and carried him to Achilles' tent. Meanwhile Thetis, fulfilling her promise, found Hephaestus working at his forge and made her request. And the lame god made for worthy of a god. The wonderful designs, the Achilles marvelous armor, was wrought shield in earth and heavens, the sun, moon, and stars, were and there were two cities, one at peace, where people were being married and dancing and holding their law-courts, the other under siege, and the gods mingling in the in the middle of fight. fields it, On other circles of the shield he pictured plowed and harvested, and a vineyard, and herds of cattle attacked by lions, and flocks of sheep besides these, a dancing-place where boys ; and girls were dancing to music. All around the edge of the shield he wrought the river of Ocean. When Achilles had received the glorious armor from his mother, he was filled with a furious eagerness to join battle with the Trojans and avenge himself on Hector; but first he went to the assembly of the Greeks and became reconciled with Agamemnon. The other heroes were
  • 296 Greek and Roman Mythology glad of his return, but most of all, Agamemnon, who acknowledged the wrong he had done and So reparation in his power. Zeus's promise to Thetis had been fulfilled, and now, calling the gods to assembly, he bade them offered all the go and enter the conflict, helping whatever heroes they would. The deeds Achilles. of The most terrible battle of the war now began, and Achilles raged across the plain like a god, seemingly invincible. All that met him fell beAt fore him, among them two sons of Priam. last the river Xanthus, choked with the bodies of the sons of Troy, rose in his might against the hero and pursued him across the plain, threatening to overwhelm him in his great waves. Achilles might well have died there, with his vengeance unaccomplished, if Hera had not roused her son Hephaestus to meet and check the oncoming flood of the river with a flood of fire. Freed from the pursuit of the river-god, Achilles returned to the pursuit of his enemies and drove them before him to the city. From his on the walls Priam saw the danger of his people and ordered the gates to be thrown open to afford them a refuge. This might have been the signal for the destruction of Troy, for Achilles was so close on their heels that he had post the gates behind them, when one of the fugitives to stand and Apollo inspired meet him. Then, when Achilles would have almost entered
  • The Trojan War 297 god snatched him away, and assuming his form, drew Achilles in pursuit away from the open gates. But brave Hector still stood outside the gates of the city and would not hear the prayers of his father and mother that he should follow his comrades into safety; for he dreaded the reproach of his people that he had led them on to battle and had brought many to death and had killed the rash mortal, the feared himself to stand against Achilles. So when Achilles returned from his vain pursuit then of the god, Hector boldly stood to meet him, only for a moment, for when he saw him near, armor and brandishing his great a panic seized Hector and he turned and spear, fled. Three times around the walls of Troy Hecin his blazing tor fled and Achilles pursued. But when the fourth time they had reached the springs, then the Father hung his golden balances, and set therein two lots of dreary death, one of Achilles, one of horse-taming Hector, and held them by the midst and poised. Then Hector's fated day sank down, and fell to the house of Hades, and Phoebus Apollo left him. (Iliad, XXII. 208.) Then Athena, the enemy of Troy, came in the form of his brother and urged Hector to stand and wait for Achilles' onset, and he was deceived and obeyed. But when, having thrown his spear against Achilles and missed him, he turned to receive a second spear from his brother and saw The death of Hector.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 298 no one near, he knew that the gods had dehim and drew his sword for the last desThe end had been determined by chance. perate fate, and noble Hector fell before Achilles, as " Patroclus had fallen before him, and his soul flew forth of his limbs and was gone to the ceived house of Hades, wailing her fate, leaving her Then Achilles took a savage vigor and youth." vengeance for his friend's death, for he bound enemy to his chariot by the feet and him in the dust about the walls of Troy. dragged This last insult to the noblest of their sons Priam and Hecuba saw from the walls, and his people could scarcely prevent the old man from rushing his fallen out to his An own death. And Hector's noble wife drom'a che, as she waited lord's return, the at home for her moans and laments hearing rushed in terror to the walls, and seeing that terrible sight joined her despairing grief with theirs, ine redemption of Hector's body. from the battle and he held a splendid funeral for Patroclus, with a feast and a great sacrifice and a triumphal procession about his funeral pyre. And when the body had been he gathered the ashes and put them in burned, a golden urn and buried them and raised over them a mound. Then followed the funeral So with Achilles returned victorious all games his purpose accomplished, chariot-racing, boxing, wrestling, spear-
  • The Trojan War 299 throwing, and other contests, and Achilles offered splendid prizes, and all the heroes entered the lists. When Priam to bid this was over, Zeus sent Iris to him go to Achilles' tent to ransom the body of his son. As Priam went in his charHermes met him and guided him safely iot, through the sleeping guards and brought him to Achilles' tent. And Fig. 90. own Priam ransoming Hector's Body. man courteously, and thinking of father, far away in Greece, whom he ceived the old his who had been was Zeus's will, re- Achilles, varned by Thetis that this should never see again, spoke kindly to him and granted his request. He had the body washed and anointed and laid over it a rich robe and set it on the wagon. Then he had a feast spread and he and his enemy's father ate and drank together, and Priam gave a great ramson. So Priam brought Hector's body back to the city, and all Troy came
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 300 out to meet him with weeping and laments, and Achilles granted a truce of eleven days that the T he , of 6 11 * ;!? Achilles. I Trojans might perform their funeral rites. With the funeral of Hector the Iliad ends, but from other sources we learn of the later events Twice the hopes of the Trojans were raised by the coming of powerful allies. The first of these was Pen thes i le'a, queen of the Amazons, who came with her band of warrior women and brought momentary success to the of the war. After many great deeds, sinking cause of Troy. she fell in a fierce encounter with Achilles, though it was said that when her helmet fell off and dis- closed her noble beauty, the hero repented of his success. Memnon, son of the goddess of dawn, came from Ethiopia with a great following, and fell before Achilles. But the hero's great career was run, and he met his death, as the Fates decreed, by the arrow of Paris, guided by Apollo, to pierce him in the only vulnerable spot, his heel. When the Greeks had rescued his body, he too they burned it, and putting his ashes in a golden urn with the ashes of his friend Patroclus, raised over it a great mound. Near the shore of the Dardanelles at this day there is a hill that bears " Tomb of Achilles." His spirit the name of the joined the other great heroes in the Elysian Fields. TheiMtincidents of the war. After this a contest arose between Ajax and Odysseus as to which of them should receive the
  • The Trojan War arms of in Achilles, Odysseus' 301 and when the decision was given favor, Ajax, crazed with anger, made an onslaught on an innocent flock of sheep, and his followers. imagining them to be Odysseus When he came to his senses, he killed himself. the gods made it known to the Greeks that they could never take Troy until Phil oc te'tes, who was the possessor of Heracles' bow and pois- Then 227) should be brought from the island of Lesbos, where his comrades had most oned arrows (see p. him suffering from a horrible wound. difficulty Philoctetes was induced to cruelly left With some forego his resentment and come to the Greek camp. Being cured of his wound he met Paris and killed him with one of his poisoned Even then two things were still necesbefore the gods would give Troy over to sary her enemies. Achilles' son Ne op tol'e mus had to be summoned from Greece to take his father's place, and the Pal la'di um, or sacred image of Athena, which had fallen from heaven long ago, and on the possession of which the safety of the This extraordicity depended, must be taken. feat was performed by Odysseus and Dionary in battle arrows. medes, who, entering the city by night, abstracted the image from the shrine and carried it to the Greek camp. The final device by which Troy * fell into the . hands of its of Athena. was planned with the help hollow structure in the form huge besiegers A The wooden horse.
  • 302 Greek and Roman Mythology of a horse was set up near the walls, and in the belly armed men, the bravest of the Greeks, were placed in ambush. Fig. 91. Then the hosts Laocoon and sailed off, his Sons. pretending to be returning to Greece, while, in reality, they concealed themselves behind the island of Tenedos, ready to return at a given
  • The Trojan War signal. The Trojans poured out of 303 the city, re- joicing in the unexpected freedom and wondering The question as to what at the wooden horse. meant and what should be done with it was decided by the testimony of a clever Greek named it Sinon, who, having gained the confidence of the Trojans, explained the horse as a final tribute to Athena, which, if taken within the city by the people of Troy, would certainly protect them from harm. La oc'o on, the priest of Apollo, suspecting the wiles of the Greeks, urged that it be thrown into the sea and raised his weapon to wood Immediately two horrion the sea, and glided with appeared their slimy lengths over the water, caught Laocoon and his two sons and strangled them with their coils. Then all believed that the gods had sent strike the a blow. ble serpents upon the priest for his impious doubts, and resolved to draw the horse within the walls As it was too high to go under the gates, a piece of the wall was thrown down and the horse brought in amid great rejoicing. That night while all Troy slept, the Greek spy VJ Sinon unloosed the bolts and let out the heroes retribution At the signal given by from Tenedos, the gates fire, the fleet returned were opened from within, and the Greeks fell upon the sleeping city. The brave resistance offered by the Trojans, taken unawares in the blackness of night, was useless. The prophetic concealed in the horse. The destinetion of Troy.
  • 304 Greek and Roman Mythology Priam, Cas san'dra, was dragged from the sanctuary of Athena and carried into slavery; the same fate overtook Hector's wife daughter of Fig. 92. Priam slain on the Altar. Andromache, after she had seen her infant son dashed from the wall that his father had so long defended. in his own Priam was palace, and cut all down before the altar the city sank in ashes.
  • CHAPTER XVIII THE WANDERINGS OF ODYSSEUS AFTER of Troy the chiefs with their The return the heroes. followers sailed for home. But in those days even the comparatively short voyage from Asia Minor the fall was of with danger; moreover, some of the heroes in the course of that long war had incurred the enmity of one or anto Greece filled other of the gods, who, therefore, cut off altoCertain of gether or delayed their return home. the Trojans after long wanderings founded new on strange shores; many of both nations by drowning or by the violence of savage men and monsters; one returned only " to be foully murdered. The much enduring cities met their death " Odysseus (more familiarly known by his Latin name, Ulysses) added ten years of wanderings and of marvelous adventures to the ten years of the war, and returned after Penelope Homer tells his When , and , he had . ships, an home to his faithful wife absence of twenty years. story in the Odyssey. set sail from Troy with , Odysseus made a r his men i fairly prosperous voyage as far as the southern point of Greece and was within a few days' sail of Ithaca, his 305 Odysseus cornea to the Lotus-eaters,
  • 306 Greek and Roman Mythology home, when a great wind arose and drove him from his course. After nine days the ships came to land in the Lotus-eaters' country, and the men were kindly entertained and given to eat of the This plant had the strange power of taklotus. from him who ate of it all remembrance of ing the past and all ambition for the future and making him desire only to live on in a dreamy and Those of Odysseus' men, effortless present. who had tasted the lotus could be therefore, forced to continue on their voyage only by being in the ships until the effect of the food had bound The cyciops. worn off. The next land reached by the voyagers was very different, a rough and rocky island inhabited by a tribe of savage giants, called Cy clo'pes, whose peculiarity great eye, set in it was that each had but one the middle of his forehead. companions on another beached his own ship on the island, Odysseus shore of the Cyclopes, and as none of the terrible inhabitants was about at the time, he and his Leaving the rest of his men disembarked and trustfully wandered about the island until they chanced upon a great cave where a plentiful supply of milk and cheese tempted their appetites. While they were eating, the Cyclops Pol y phe'mus returned, driving and coming into the cave closed its entrance with a huge rock. Though his natural craftiness and caution led Odysseus his sheep before him,
  • The Wanderings of Odysseus 307 name and give, when asked, name Noman, with apparent confidence he to conceal his true the requested of his monstrous host hospitality and the gifts that Greek courtesy usually gave a guest as his due. But Zeus and his law of hospitality were not recognized by this savage giant, and answer was to seize two of his guests and devour them raw. Then he lay down to his only In the morning, after breakfasting on two more of the men, he drove his sheep out of the cave, and rolling the stone against the opening, left Odysseus and those of his company who remained uneaten to sit and wait for their fiendish host to return for his next meal. But was not the man to sit and expect his Odysseus fate at the hands of a stupid and barbarous CyHe planned escape and vengeance. At clops. sleep. the fall of evening, when Polyphemus returned with his flocks, the wily hero talked pleasantly with him and offered him some particularly fine and strong wine that he happened to have with him. In high good humor Polyphemus washed down his dinner of two Greeks with this drink a pleasant change to one accustomed only to and stretched himself out to sleep. sheep's milk Then Odysseus and his men seized a great long pole which, during the day, they had sharpened to a point and hardened in the fire, and using all their strength, drove it deep into the Cyclops' one eye. Polyphemus sprang up, bellowing with
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 308 and madly pain, called on his brother Cyclopes But when, hurrying to the mouth of for help. the cave, they asked him who was troubling him, " he could only answer Noman is slaying me by guile, nor at all by force." So they went : away, telling him to pray to his father Poseidon, since, if no man was killing him, it must be by the will of the gods, whom no one can resist. It was now morning and time out, so rolled the away to let the sheep Cyclops, groaning with pain, the stone from the door and sat down still stretching out his hands to feel if any man passed out. Odysseus took the sheep and fas- by it, tened them three together; he ordered one of his to stretch himself flat on the middle one of men each group, and so all but he passed out safely. Then he himself clung firmly to the under side of the great thick-fleeced ram, and the blind Cyclops, though he felt over the ram's back and wondered that he should be behind his flock, failed to detect the hero. So the men escaped to their Although they had been saved by their leader's wits, they were a second time endangered by his rashness, for when they were once boat. afloat Odysseus could not resist calling back and the Cyclops, dashing down to the shore, hurled immense rocks after the departing ship. If his aim had not been poor because of his blindness, the ship would surely have been sunk. Failing in this, Polyphemus tauntingly to his enemy,
  • The Wanderings of Odysseus 309 upon Poseidon for vengeance, and from that time on the sea-god turned against the heroes and relentlessly kept them wandering over called aloud the waters. Some time came after this adventure the heroes to the floating island of /'o lus, the king of Here Odysseus was kindly received and entertained, and on his departure was presented by ^olus with a huge bag in which were the winds. imprisoned all the winds except the favorable west wind. So after nine days' fair sailing they had come so near to Ithaca that they could see men moving on the rocks, and Odysseus, for the first time feeling free from his anxieties, lay down Then the men conspired to in the boat to rest. actually rob him, and supposing that the bag contained In an precious treasure they eagerly opened it. the contrary winds rushed out together and drove the ships far off their course straight back to the island of yolus. But yEolus, thinkinstant all ing that one so unfortunate as Odysseus must for his sins be under the disfavor of the gods, him angrily away, refusing to give him any more help. Next they came to the land of a people named Laes try go'ni ans, who fell upon the strangers and destroyed eleven of the ships with their companies. Only the twelfth, with Odysseus on sent In great grief over board, got off in safety. the loss of their companions, the remnant of
  • 310 Greek and Roman Mythology Odysseus' company sailed on until they came to the island of the sorceress Circe. Having learned discretion from his previous misfortunes, seus did not risk all his men Odys- at once, but sent under a trustworthy leader, to explore the country while the other half remained by the half, shore. The scouting party, as they went through the woods, were alarmed by meeting great num- bers of lions and wolves, but as these beasts instead of attacking them came and fawned upon them appealingly, they took heart and continued on their way until they came to a palace. The peacefulness of the place and the reassuring sound of a woman singing emboldened the adventurers to enter. Circe turned from her weavto greet the strangers and hastened to set being fore them food and drink. The thirsty men did not see the magic drops their hostess mingled with their wine. At a touch of her wand the lordly Greeks dropped down and trotted, grunting reBut one man, their proachfully, to the sties. leader, had not gone into the house with them. their prolonged absence he became uneasy and returned in haste to the ship to tell what he feared. At So Odysseus set out alone to rescue his men. As he went, Hermes met him and warned him of the danger that lay before him and gave him an herb to protect him against Circe's lowers, and after spells. When, him as she had his folgiving him the potion, raised therefore, Circe received
  • The Wanderings of Odysseus wand and ordered him her 311 to the sties, the hero grappled with her and threatened to kill her unless she at once restored his men to their proper forms. Recognizing in this successful resistance magic the hand of a god, and charmed by guest's cleverness and strength, the sorceress yielded to all his demands and sending for the rest of the company from the ship entertained them all royally for a whole year. But to her new her at the end of that time, when they all began to long for the return home, Circe told Odysseus of a terrible ordeal that lay before him before he could reach Ithaca. He, a living man, must to the realm of the dead to consult the seer go Ti re'si as. With dread at his heart i- Odysseus followed out i i the sorceress directions and sailed on to the very edge of the world, where the stream of Ocean by the land of the Cim mer'i ans, a land always shrouded in mist and darkness, for the sun never rises upon it. From there he proceeded along the shore of the Ocean until he rolls came to Hades. By the rivers of the lower world, fiery Co where was the place where the Phleg'e thon, and to the grove of Persephone, entrance cy'tus, the river of wailing, flow into gloomy Ach'e ron, he dug a trench, as Circe had directed Then him, and poured a libation to the dead. he sacrificed black sheep and let their blood run into the trench. And the shades of the dead The visit to Hades.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 312 crowded around with ghostly cries, eager to drink of the blood, boys and maidens, and warriors that had fallen in battle. But Odysseus kept them off with his sword that the shade of the seer Tiresias might first drink and tell him what he wished to know. So Tiresias came and drank, and prophesied to the hero his safe home-coming and how he should find violent men wasting his substance and should kill them all and so live to an old age in peace and plenty among a happy peoBut then he told him, too, of Poseidon's ple. anger at the mutilation of his son Polyphemus, and that yet for many years he would keep Odysseus away from Ithaca, and he warned him especially that destruction would overtake them all they should injure the cattle of the sun when When the they came to the island of Trinacria. if seer had when Odysseus' mother came, and she had drunk of the blood she knew her finished, own death, caused by and of his old father, and of his wife Pe nel'o pe, and his little son Telem'a chus. But when he tried to embrace her, Then like a shadow or a dream she faded away. there came about him many of the women famous in story Leda, the mother of Helen and of Castor and Polydeuces; Alcmena, Heracles' mother Ariadne, whom Theseus had deserted on Naxos, and many others. He saw and talked with the heroes who had fought with him at son and told him of her grief at his long absence, ;
  • The Wanderings Troy of Odysseus Agamemnon, who told him of 313 his treach- erous murder, and Achilles, preeminent here as in the world above. There were the heroes of ancient times, even the shade of great Heracles the shade only, for he himself was now a god Olympus. There he saw Minos sitting as judge, and those who had sinned against the gods in suffering eternal punishment, Tantalus, Sisyphus, and others. The Returning safely from that land that so few living men have ever visited, the company stopped Fig. 93. Odysseus and the Sirens. once more at Circe's island. There they were en- tertained for a day while Circe told Odysseus of the dangers that next confronted him and how he sirens,
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 314 might win safely through them. From there they sailed on until they saw on the shore at a meadow distance the men by of the Sirens, who bewitch But Odysseus stuffed his ears with wax and had himself companions' bound hand and foot to the mast, as Circe had their songs. told him. And when Sirens called to the ship came near, to leap from the deck him the and come to them, for they had knowledge of past and future and could give him happiness. So he tried to break away and go to them, and he made signs to the others to loose him, but they pulled steadily on and so escaped that danger. Soon two cliffs side of the course appeared, rising one on either between Italy and Sicily; in the one crouched Scylla, her twelve feet dangling down from the cave, and her six heads turning in On the every direction in search of ships. was a lower cliff with a fig tree at other side the top, and below it Char yb'dis, who three times a day sucked in the water and cast it out again. the ship passed through, keeping, as Circe had told them, well away from Charybdis, Scylla stretched her long necks forward and seized a As man in each of her terrible jaws. As they were drawn up, squirming like fishes caught on a hook, cried out in anguish to Odysseus, and all they that were left of that passed on. company shuddered as they
  • The Wanderings Towards of Odysseus 315 Odysseus saw before them J the island of the Sun, Trinacria, and he ordered nightfall e f men row remembering the warnings But they were exhausted with hard rowing and the strain of the terrible meeting with Scylla and insisted upon landing his to on, of Tiresias and Circe. for the night. The next morning unfavorable winds were blowing, and continued for a whole all the food and wine was exhausted. month, until Then while Odysseus was sleeping, his companions preferring any other form of death to starvation, killed some of the sacred cattle that grazed on that island and made a feast. When Odysseus awoke and saw it, he knew that destruction had come upon them, for the empty hides crept mysteriously, and the flesh on the spits bellowed. At' favorable winds blew, and they put out to sea. But the sun-god had complained to Zeus last of the loss of his cattle, threatening that if his wrong were not avenged he would leave the world in darkness and go to shine among the dead. So Zeus sent a storm to overtake the ship, and all the men were swept into the sea and drowned, and only Odysseus clung to the boat. He was carried straight back to Charybdis, who, as she threw out the water, shattered and then swallowed down the ship; Odysseus escaped only by graspwhen the water cast him ing hold of the fig tree There he hung suspended until Charybdis heaved up the wreckage of the ship again. Then up. The cattle of the Sun.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 316 he dropped upon one of its timbers and rowed with his hands until he was out of reach of the whirlpool, calypso's island. After this hairbreadth escape the hero, now quite without companions, was washed ashore on the island of Ca 1 yp'so, the daughter of Atlas. There he lived for eight years in the company of nymph, eating and drinking of the and living the most peaceful and luxurious of lives on that beautiful island. Yet he did not forget his home and his wife, but sat day after day by the sea eating out his heart with homethe charming best For, as he himself said: sickness. Surely own there is naught sweeter than a man's country and his parents, even though he dwell far off in a rich house, in a strange land, far from them that begat him. (Odyssey, IX. 34 ff.) Athena that her favorite was kept too long away from home, Zeus sent Hermes to command Calypso to let him Yielding unwillingly, she gave him the tools go. and material to construct a raft and a sail, and when it was ready, she stocked it with food and wine and gave him clothes and rich gifts and For eighteen days he had so sent him away. sailed prosperously along on his raft before Poseidon caught sight of him, and still brooding At last, at the complaint of over the injury to Polyphemus, sent a furious storm against him. The sail was carried away
  • The Wanderings and the raft To waves. wide waters itself of Odysseus 317 was swept and torn by the the solitary adventurer out on those it seemed that his own gods had him and was that death upon him. But a sea-goddess saw and pitied him, and rising in the foam beside him held out to him her filmy Borne scarf and spoke wisely and reassuringly. the new courage she inspired and by the up by deserted close mysterious power of the scarf, Odysseus struck bravely out when the raft finally parted, and swimming continuously nights, came at last in for two days and two sight of land. But the waves were breaking high on the rocky coast, and the exhausted swimmer was beaten against the rocks and again sucked back by the undertow until it seemed he must go under. At one point a back current offered possible landing; there he managed to come to land and drew his bruised and soaked limbs up on the shore. bushes on the bank he lay down and Among fell the into the sleep of exhaustion. The shore on which Odysseus had landed was that of the Phae a'ci ans, a people at peace with favor with the gods. good and prosperous the world and in great On the night of the hero's all perilous landing the king's daughter Nau had been bidden by Athena to to the shore to for her in a dream sic'a a go down wash her coming wedding clothes in preparation As her father had day. not yet even decided upon any one of her suitors
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 318 as her husband, the princess felt shy about suggesting wedding preparations, but not wishing to displease the goddess, she modestly asked for the ox-cart that she and her maidens might carry down her sea. The brothers' clothes to cart wash them was brought around, in the the queen packed a basket with bread and honey and wine, and the young girls drove off for the shore. When the clothes had all been washed and spread out in the sun to bleach, they sat Fig. 94. down on the Odysseus appearing before Nausicaa. grass to eat the food the queen had provided, and then, tucking up their skirts, they joined in a game ball. It happened that the spot they had chosen for their noisy fun was close to the place where Odysseus had all this time been lying of asleep. What was of the girls the astonishment and terror when suddenly a strange and wild- man appeared in their midst! Only Nausicaa stood her ground with dignity, and when the hero approached and begged for help looking and hospitable treatment, she showed him every
  • The Wanderings of Odysseus 319 She gave him oil to anoint his lame kindness. and battered limbs and some of her brothers' newly washed clothes to put on, and bade him follow her to the city, where her father would entertain him. Being a prudent girl and fearing gossip if she appeared in company with a hand- some stranger had ( for the oil thought it and the fresh clothes Odysseus' appearance), she best not to take him with her in the restored fine ox-cart. As Odysseus, so long an exile from civilized human life, approached the king's palace, he wondered at the great wharves thronged with ships and at the beautiful city with its fine streets and houses and its busy and prosperous people, and more than ever a longing came over him for own well-ordered land. The considerate his and gentle treatment he received when he presented himself as a stranger before the king and queen proved that the reputation of the Phaeacians was For they provided him with warm baths and entertained him royally with a feast and music, dancing and athletic sports, nor not undeserved. did they so forget the courtesy of hosts as ever to show curiosity about who the stranger was or on what business he was bent. When, how- had come, Odysseus told story since the day that Troy fell, ever, the proper time them all his and he ended with earnest entreaties that his hosts would provide him with a ship and oarsmen to JJ
  • 320 Greek and Roman Mythology So they gave set him across the sea to Ithaca. him all that he asked and added splendid gifts, more valuable than all the booty he had gathered Troy and then lost in his wanderings. While slept, for he was still overcome with weariness, he was set ashore on the island of Ithaca. Then those generous Phseacians received a poor at he reward for their hospitality, for as the ship re- turned, Poseidon rooted turned lies " it to stone, to a it little fast in the sea and rocky island that still there off the island of Corfu and by its name, Island of Ulysses," witnesses to the truth The of the story. Penelope's The twenty long years of the hero's absence had brought anxiety and distress to his people and to his wife and son. For after the news of the fall of Troy had reached Ithaca, and the other Greek princes who were still alive had returned to Greece, and still no word came of Odysseus, it came to be commonly believed that he was dead, and a great number of suitors from Ithaca and elsewhere began to demand Penelope in marTelemachus w as still too young successto defend his mother from their insolent fully insistence or his house from their greedy violence, and year after year saw them living riotously and extravagantly on their absent host's r riage. The faithful Penelope, still hoping for her noble husband's return, put against hope them all off from day to day with a device that hospitality.
  • The Wanderings of Odysseus 321 was worthy of her crafty husband. Promising that she would make a decision so soon as she had completed a shroud she was weaving for her old father against his death, she spent her days in the chambers among her maidens, weaving her great web, and at night when no one was by to see, she unraveled all that she had done the day For three years the suitors had been dehad learned of the trick and were now pressing more insistently than ever before. ceived, but at last they for a decision. Meanwhile, as Telemachus grew to be a young man, more and more he chafed at the wasting of his inheritance and the arrogant behavior of the suitors, yet he was unable them mother from either to turn out of his house or to protect his before persistency. Shortly their Odysseus' landing at^^fftaca, however, the goddess Athena, extending to his son the favor she had always shown to Odysseus, roused him to brave the anger of the suitors and go in search of his father. With court came and afterwards the goddess as guide he of Nestor first to to the that of Both heroes received the son of their comrade with cordial kindness, but the aged Nestor could tell him nothing of his father. Menelaiis, however, had heard from Proteus, the prophetic old man of the sea, that Odysseus was held captive on an island by the nymph Calypso. Menelaiis. old Strengthened in his resistance to the suitors by his father -
  • 322 Greek and Roman Mythology the knowledge that his father was still living, Telemachus started on his return voyage. But the suitors, made anxious by the increased cour- man had disand venturing across planned to catch him on his return and age and determination the young played in equipping a ship the seas, take his Odysseus in swineherd's hut. the life. When island, Odysseus awoke on the shore of his own Athena appeared to him and warned him of the dangers that still awaited him. To secure him further she changed his appearance to that It was in this disof an old and ragged beggar. that he presented himself at the hut of the guise faithful old swineherd Fig. 95. food and Eu mae'us and asked for Odysseus makes himself known to Telemachus. shelter. True to the hospitable custom of his absent master, the swineherd received the old stranger with kindness, and while he set before him the best he could provide, entertained him with an account of the sorry state of affairs on the island, speaking always of his lord Odys-
  • The Wanderings of Odysseus 323 As they landed and happily estalked, Telemachus, just seus with loyal and affectionate regret. caped from the ambush set for him, appeared His at the hut. father's heart rejoiced to see the and confident, and to receive at his hands the fine courtesy and respect for age that distinguished noble Greeks. But he restrained his feelings, and not until Eumaeus was called away, leaving father and son alone toSo gether, did he reveal himself to Telemachus. the two planned together the destruction of the boy grown so strong troublesome suitors, and before the swineherd returned Odysseus had resumed his disguise. as an honored hero returning from the war did Odysseus reenter his home after his twenty Not years of absence, but as an old and wretched beggar asking for charity. Yet even so two faithful friends knew him. His old hunting-dog, ly- ing neglected in the dirt outside the door, knew his master as he passed by means of that strange dog's sense that humans cannot understand, and with one last ging of his pricking of the ears and feeble wagdied happy. The second friend tail, who knew him was not his wife, who, though she had him brought to her to ask him for any news of her husband he might have learned on his travels, gave him only that attention she gave It was his old nurse Eu ryto every stranger. cle'a who, as at Penelope's command she washed the old stranger's feet, saw a scar he had had Odysseus suitors,
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 324 was a boy and at once knew him. In the great hall where the arrogant suitors sat all day and feasted none knew that despised old man, since he with one accord joined in scornful and ungenerous treatment of him. For how could and all Zeus's law of hospitality bind men who so dis- honored an absent hero's house and so persecuted the unprotected? It was only by the spirited interference of Telemachus, supported by the less shameless of the princes, that Odysseus was saved from violence. Penelope's mind with the great At last Athena put the to bow it into suitors appear among her lord had left behind him, and announce that she would keep them waiting no longer, but that to him who was man enough to bend that bow and shoot through the holes in nine ax-heads set up before them she would give All tried, boastfully and hopeherself as wife. and all failed even to bend the bow. Then fully, the old beggar rose allowed to make the and demanded that he be Amid the jeers and trial. disgusted protests of the princes he received the The tough wood Penelope's hand. bow from bent, the arrow whizzing from the string pierced through the nine axes. Then his disguise fell from him, and standing revealed the hero turned his arrows now this way, now that, upon those wretched suitors. By order of Telemachus all the weapons had been removed from the hall the night before, and the faithful swineherd and an
  • The Wanderings of Odysseus 325 equally faithful keeper of cattle had been posted So the men were slaughtered like at the exits. and Odysseus and his son would have met with no resistance had not a disloyal slave smuggled in some swords and shields for those who had not yet fallen. Even against these odds sheep, Fig. 96. Odysseus avenging himself upon the Suitors. father and son, aided by their protectress were victorious, and not one of the suitAthena, the ors or their followers lived to leave that hall of At the end of this bloody act Odysseus made himself known to his wife; the house was death. its murderous stains, and a period of and prosperity followed the hardships of peace cleansed of those twenty years.
  • CHAPTER XIX THE TRAGEDY OF AGAMEMNON ciytemnestra and JEgisthus. WHEN Agamemnon went to lead the armies of Greece against Troy in vengeance for the wrong his brother Menelaiis, he left both the done to care of his children and the rule of his wide kingdom to his wife Cly tern nes'tra. Though no pro- wanderings doubled for him, as for Ulysses, the time of his absence, the avenging fates had prepared for his home-coming a tragtracted edy so black as to be the fitting culmination to the course of crime and horror that marked the JE gis'thus, Agamemnon's history of his race. cousin, who was at once the guilty lover and the power of Ciytemnestra, was a son of that Thyestes who, ignorant of what he did, had been forced by his brother Atreus to eat of associate in own son, served to him at a feast. The hatred engendered by this had been handed down from father the flesh of his (See p. 282.) horrible crime to son, and -^gisthus only waited an opportunity to avenge his father's wrong on Atreus' son Aga- memnon. Ciytemnestra, too, in addition to her had other causes to secret passion for ^gisthus, wish her husband's death. 326 Ever since that day
  • The Tragedy of Agamemnon 327 when, under pretense of giving his daughter in marriage to Achilles, Agamemnon had summoned his wife to bring Iphigenia to Aulis and had then offered the maiden in sacrifice to Artemis, Cly- temnestra had nourished fierce resentment to- wards her and lord with ^Egisthus secretly planned his ruin. watchman, who from his high tower had watched and waited for nine long years for At last the the beacon light that was to tell the fall of Troy and the return of his conquering lord, announced that the fiery signal had been passed along and Agamemnon was made at hand. Preparations were for his honorable reception, and the zens joyfully gathered to greet him. accompanied by those of his followers citi- He came who still and bringing with him as a slave, Priam's daughter Cassandra, to whom Apollo, because he loved her, had given the gift of prophsurvived, and because she rejected his love, had added the curse that her prophecies should never be As the king in his chariot drew up bebelieved. ecy, fore the palace, in the great festal robes doors opened, and came out to greet Clytemnestra her lord and with feigned honor and affection led him within. The palace doors closed behind them. Then Cassandra, who had refused to leave the chariot, raised her prophetic voice in lamentation edy. and unintelligible warning of coming tragAll the bloody and unnatural crimes of The murder of Agamem>n.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 328 that house rose before her, and she saw them about to be crowned by another yet more terrible. But none could understand her warnings; only when a great cry of agony rose from within those closed doors and was repeated again and Insolent again did her meaning become plain. in her vengeance, Clytemnestra threw wide the doors and displayed the body of her husband bleeding from the wounds she had inflicted as he stepped into the bath prepared to make him ready for the feast of his home-coming. Cas- sandra too met death at the hand of jealous Clytemnestra. orestes avenges his father. The terrible law of retribution . in those days . required of a son to avenge his father, and Clytemnestra and /Egisthus, knowing this, would have slaughtered Agamemnon's had not his older sister son O res'tes sent him out little E lec'tra of the country for safe-keeping. That Electra herself might never be in a position of influence to arouse a revolt against the murderers, she was compelled to become the wife of a humble serv- She could only pray that the distant brother would return when the time came to fulfil his duty of vengeance. And when the time came and Orestes with his faithful friend Py'la des arrived, the brother and sister, meeting before their father's tomb were in full agreement about the duty before them. Egisthus and Clytemnestra were celebrating a religious feast when Ores- ant.
  • The Tragedy of Agamemnon 329 came upon them, and taking them unawares, them both. This revolting murder of a mother by her son, ies killed though done accordance with the law of vengedefilement and the anger of the ance, brought The Eu men'i des, or Furies, the divine gods. in avengers of crime, pursued Orestes and drove him mad. He wandered from land to land, al- ways accompanied by until at the god's his faithful friend Pylades, command he came to the land of the Taurians to obtain the sacred image of the goddess Artemis. It was to this land that Iphigenia had been carried by Artemis when she was saved by her at Aulis, and here she had lived ever since, serving as Artemis' priestess in her In accordance with the barbarous custemple. tom of this their shores dess, and country all strangers were offered it was who landed on in sacrifice to the god- to Iphigenia that the duty of When Orestes and Pylades sacrifice fell. were about to be offered up, however, they became known to the priestess, and through her extraordinary power and influence they were enabled to secure the sacred image of Artemis and this escape unharmed, carrying Iphigenia with them. Even then, before Orestes could be purified of his crime, he was compelled to appear before the A re o'pa gus, tice. the great Athenian court of jus- Here the Eumenides acted as his accusers, and though he pleaded in defense Apollo's ap- Orestes- madness and purification,
  • 330 Greek and Roman Mythology on the question. court was equally divided Athena cast the deciding vote for acquittal, the Eumenides proval of his act, the left him, and the curse on the family of Pelops had run its course.
  • CHAPTER XX THE LEGENDARY ORIGIN OF ROME THE Romans, tracing the history of their raq back beyond the times when events were recordec in history into the realm of tradition and myth, honored yE ne'as, the son of An chi'ses, by the goddess Venus, as the founder of their race. Throughout the Trojan War yEneas had proved himself one of the bravest and ablest leaders of the Trojan forces, standing next, perhaps, to Hector in general esteem. On the occasion of combat with Diomedes mother had intervened to save his his single his goddesshe had life; joined in the contest over Patroclus' body and had even stood to meet the invincible Achilles. So much we learn from Homer, but it is the Latin who narrates the full story of ^Eneas' poet Vergil deeds and wanderings, making him the central fig- ure in his great Roman national epic, the JEneid. On the night when, neglecting the wise counsels of Laocoon, the Trojans had drawn the wooden horse within their walls, the weary citi- immediate anxiety by the apparent departure of the Greeks, had given themselves up to much needed rest and sleep. ^Eneas' zens, relieved of 33i taSuag Troy,
  • 332 rest Greek and Roman Mythology was disturbed by the vision of his dead cousin Hector appearing before him, wounds he had received Fig. 97. all bloody from the and at Achilles' hands, Mneas Wounded. bidding him arouse himself and see the destruction that had at last come upon Troy. Spring- ing up, the hero rushed to the roof of his house and from that point could see that the city was
  • The Legendary Origin already in the hands of its Rome of foes. 333 Reckless of personal danger and caring little for his own life if he might yet bring some support to his falling city, he led a band of Trojans in one last desperDriven from one point to another ate struggle. he came at last to Priam's palace and saw the old king lying slain before his household altar, his son lying near him and his women huddled last But the fates decreed that together in despair. /Eneas should not perish in burning Troy, but should live to found a new and greater city on the Venus appeared to her son, and drawing aside the veil that dims mortal sight," showed him the gods directing the destruction banks of Tiber. " of the city. at once to his Then yneas yielded and hurried home to save his own family. Bid- ding his father Anchises take up the images of the Penates or family gods, he took the old man upon his back, seized his little son I u'lus, u'sa by the hand, and bidding follow close behind, he As ca'ni us, or his wife Cre- made his way through the flames and confusion to a place of Not until he had passed safety outside the walls. the city gate did he discover that his wife was In his distracted and hopeless following. search for her he met only her shade which came not to tell him that the gods detained her on those it was their will that he should shores and that go on his way without her. Other Trojans who had escaped in the course of a few days joined
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 334 group in their place of hiding between the mountains and the sea, and here they built and fitted out twelve ships on which the next spring the little they set wanderings. sail. Then began a period of wandering almost 3 as of adventure as the nine years of Ulysses' First the company landed in Thrace, seafaring. full where ^Eneas hoped to found a new city, but the strange portent of a bush which, when uprooted, dripped blood and spoke in the voice of Priam's murdered son Pol y dor'us 39 drove them to seek a more propitious land. They sailed to Delos to consult Apollo, and understanding a reference of the oracle to an ancestral home as mean- ing Crete, whence, tradition held, their fore- had gone to Troy, they made their way thither. While they were building the new city, a terrible pestilence fell upon them, blighting the Then the Pegrain and killing men and beasts. nates warned /Eneas in a dream that the ancestral fathers land Apollo prophesied was Hesperia, or Italy, whence, as legend told, Dardanus, the ancestor In pain of the Trojans, had originally come. and grief, but still hopeful, the diminished band started 39 on their western voyage; but a terrible During the war Priam had sent Polydorus, only a boy at the time, to seek protection but when the news of the with the king of Thrace, Troy came to him, the king murdered his charge and seized the treasure that Priam had sent with him. rail of
  • The Legendary Origin of Rome 335 storm drove the ships out of their course to the island of the Strophades, haunted by those dreadful Harpies which the Argonauts had met. While the exhausted sailors were feasting, these horrible bird-women swooped down and seized the Driven off by the men, they behind them, for their leader yet despair prophesied a long and destructive voyage, and that finally the day should come when hunger food off the tables. left would force the wanderers to eat their own tables. Leaving the Strophades the Trojans sailed northward along the coast of Epirus, passing Odysrocky island of Ithaca and the coast of the Phseacians, and landing finally in a harbor further seus' up the a new Here they were overjoyed to find modeled on Troy and ruled over by coast. city Priam's prophetic son Hel'enus. Hector's wife Andromache, who at the fall of Troy had been given to Achilles' son Neoptolemus, was now liv- At the moment ing with Helenus as his wife. of the Trojans' landing she was occupied in offering a sacrifice at the empty tomb of her noble first husband. She and Helenus received their wandering countrymen with enthusiastic hospitality, and when ^Eneas felt that they must continue on their divinely guided way, they loaded him with gifts, and after Helenus had warned him of the dangers that lay before him, they unwillingly let him go. Sailing westward they sighted Italy, but knowing that the towns of this
  • 336 Greek and Roman Mythology part of south Italy were Greek they gave the coast a wide berth. As they neared Sicily they saw the cave of dreadful Scylla and the waters thrown high from the whirlpool of Charybdis, but, more fortunate than Ulysses, had no need Not knowing the risk they ran, to pass between. the sailors beached their ships on the south coast of Sicily near the cave of the Cyclops Polyphemus and came on shore to spend the night. But ^Etna belching forth flames and thundering in full erup- away and kept the men in terrified suspense. At dawn a man, hairy, savage, and emaciated, came to them pitifully begging to be taken from this terrible island. He was a a companion of Ulysses, who had been Greek, left behind when those whom Ulysses' craft had saved from being devoured had made their hasty tion drove sleep escape, but in the face of the savagery of the in- human Cyclops race-enmity was forgotten and the wretched Greek found refuge on the Trojan ships. They did not get away from the island seeing Polyphemus and his brothers, however, for Polyphemus, coming down to the without water to bathe his bloody eye-socket, heard the sound of their oars and bellowed aloud. The other Cyclopes heard him, and hurrying to the shore, stood there towering up like great trees and threatening the ship with destruction. On the Sicily a grief of which had not been forewarned awaited him; further shore of
  • The Legendary Origin of Rome 339 who had nobly borne with him the hardships of these years of wandering, died and had to be given a grave in this forFrom Sicily it was but a short voyeign soil. his old father Anchises, age to the destined home in Italy, but when the ships had been launched and were well out at Juno, still cherishing resentment against the hated Trojan race, persuaded ^Eolus, king of sea, the winds, to let out conflicting blasts against the ships. Driven directly south, they finally sought an inlet on the coast of Africa where shelter in new Carthage was building. setting out with his faithful comrade the city of yEneas, A cha'tes to explore the neighborhood, was met by his mother Venus disguised as a huntress and by was directed to the city. Though on the coast of Africa, Carthage was her founded by a Phoenician king's daughter, Dido, who with a large following had a Phoenician city, from her native land after the murder of her husband by her wicked brother. She was well acquainted with the story of Troy, and the name of ^Eneas was familiar to her, so she welcomed the unfortunate strangers cordially and generously, and even urged them to share her new city and happy prospects. Venus had a hand in this extreme good-will shown her son, secretly departed for she sent her powerful boy Cupid to take the form of little Ascanius and inspire in the wid- owed queen love for the noble stranger. Indeed tained by
  • 340 Greek and Roman Mythology ^Eneas, who, not unresponsive to the queen's advances, had united with her in a secret marriage, might have been tempted to remain in Carthage, had not Jupiter sent Mercury to warn him against such an alliance and to remind him of his great destiny as founder of that Roman race that was to hold the world under its rule. So, obedient to the gods' will, the righteous tineas put behind him his personal feelings and also, from the human standpoint, all thought of gratitude and honor towards his generous hostess and wife, and fixing his eyes only on the command of the fates, hastened to launch his ships and Then the unfortunate Dido, thus besail away. trayed by the goddess into a passionate and unwise love, and by the god-fearing yEneas deserted while her passion still burned at its hottest, had a great pyre erected in the court of her palace, and mounting to the top, killed herself with the sword her faithless lover had left behind him, on her lips curses against her betrayer. As the Trojans sailed away towards their unknown future home, the sea behind The burning of the ships. them was lighted by the red flames of that tragic pyre. But the ships came safely to Sicily, where kind J * A ces'tes, the king of Trojan descent who ruled over that part of the island, received them hos- pitably. Here they stayed to offer sacrifices and honor of hold the postponed funeral games Anchises. While the men were thus employed, in
  • The Legendary Origin of Rome 341 unrelenting Juno sent her messenger Iris down to tempt the Trojan women to burn the ships and thus thwart the fates and secure for themselves an end of their wanderings and the ment they longed for in Sicily. Some settle- ships had been previously lost in the storm, now others were destroyed by fire, and too few were left to all the company to the land decreed by Therefore the older and weaker men and transport fate. the women, already were regretting their rash act, behind with Acestes, and with his diminished following /Eneas started on once more. left For the voyage Venus secured from Neptune favorable seas; yet one man was demanded final as a sacrifice for his favor Pal i nu'rus, the overcome with sleep, fell backward and was lost A point of land on the west coast of Italy, where his body came ashore, still retains his name. The friendly seer Helenus had told ^neas that before he could reach his future home and found a city he must visit the Sibyl of Cumse and skilful pilot, into the sea through the help of the prophetess descend to the lower world and obtain his father's advice on Leaving his men on the shore a few miles from where Naples stands, ^neas This cave with sought the cave of the Sibyl. his future course. its hundred dark mouths, was near Avernus, a lake mysteriously formed from the waters of the lower world and not far from the cave that The siby,
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 342 sat the Sibyl and the god Apollo inAfter the spired and took possession of her. sacrifice had been offered and ^neas had prayed opened into Hades. Within uttered her prophecies it when for help, the Sibyl poured forth her prophetic warnings and promises The Trojans shall come : to the kingdom of Lavinium (Italy); dismiss this anxious care from your heart; but they will wish that they had not come. Wars, hor- and the Tiber flowing with blood, I see. Yet yield not to misfortune, but go boldly forward. rid wars, . . . Undaunted, ^Eneas only asked that the Sibyl should open to him the way to the lower world that he might go to see his father, penetrating, as those other sons of the gods, Hercules, The- and Orpheus, had done, the fearful places of the deado The Sibyl answered: seus, Easy is the descent to Avernus; day and night the lie open, but to retrace your gates of black Dis (Pluto) steps, toil, and escape once more to the upper that is the difficult task. air, that is (JEneid, VI, 126 the ff.) Yet it might be done if the hero could first and pluck the golden branch that Proserpina claimed as her due offering. In the thick wood where the strange tree grew that one golden bough could hardly have been found had not Venus sent two doves to lead the way for her find son.
  • The Legendary Origin of Rome 343 After JEneas had offered the proper sacrifice of The r lower black sheep to the infernal deities, the Sibyl led him through a black cavern upon the gloomy road that led to the kingdom of Pluto. Here before the gates sat Grief and avenging Cares, pale Disease and sad Old Age, Fear and evil Famine, and shameful Want, and Death's twin brother Sleep, and death-dealing War on the threshold. Here were the iron chambers of the Furies, and here was mad Discord, her snaky locks bound with fillets. bloody In the middle of the open space was a huge elm beneath whose leaves clung deceiving Dreams, and about were many other monstrous forms, Centaurs, Scyllas, flaming Chimaera, Gorgons, and Harpies. Yet these were only un- bodied shades against which, the Sibyl warned Bethe hero, his sword could have no effect. Acheron, where the foul ferryman Charon waited with his frail skiff. About the bank crowded the shades of the dead low this place seethed black whose funeral many rites had been as the leaves that autumn at the first fall left in undone, " as woods in But the them away the touch of frost." ferryman refused them all and sent to wander vainly about the shore until a hundred years should pass; then they win a passage to the sunless shore beyond. Here Palinurus greeted ^neas and begged him, when he returned to the upper air, to seek his body on the world.
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 344 shore and give him proper burial. Charon at first refused to accept a living man in his little boat, but the word of the Sibyl and the sight of the golden bough overcame his unwillingness, and he turned out his ghostly passengers to make room for the hero, and so set him across the A honey-cake thrown by the Sibyl pacithree-headed Cerberus. Then his guide led stream. fied ^neas through the places of the dead. First they passed those who had died in infancy and those who had suffered death on false accusa- were those who had taken their own and the Fields of Mourning inhabited by lives, unhappy lovers, and among these the hero recognized unfortunate Dido, fresh from the funeral pyre she herself had built. He would have stopped to talk with her and excuse to the shade tions; next his desertion of the living woman, but she sifrom him and glided away, to rejoin her first husband. Proceeding they came to where thronged the great warriors. The lently turned Greeks fled before the Trojan hero, but his friends and countrymen stayed to speak with him and ask of the world they had left. Then they came to the fiery river Phlegethon, encircling the adamantine walls of Tartarus, guarded by the Furies. From here arose groans and the sound of blows and the clank of iron chains. In the pit below writhed the Titans and the rebellious giants and those who had sinned against the gods or had
  • The Legendary Origin Rome 345 of been guilty of unnatural crimes. Into this deep hell yEneas could not look, but the Sibyl told him of it as they passed by. In contrast to the Tartarus the Elysian Fields fiery spread before them, lighted by their own sun and stars, and bathed in a generous air and rosy tortures light. of Here the great children of the heroes, gods, contended in games, or joined in the song Here were the great founders and choral dance. of the Trojan race, Ilus, Dardanus, and others. Afar off in a green secluded valley of this realm ^neas met Anchises, reviewing the long of souls who, having stayed the allotted time in the lower world and having drunk forgetful- at last line ness from the stream of Lethe, were ready to return in other bodies to the upper air as the descendants of ^Eneas, the glorious Roman race, Romulus who was to found Rome; all the seven Roman kings, and the great governors and generals who should make of Rome a world empire, all up to Augustus, in whose time Vergil wrote his great poem. When Anchises had shown his son all the future glories of their race, and warned him of the hardships that yet lay before him, he brought him to the Gates Dreams. Through the gate of horn pass dreams that are to be fulfilled through that of ; of ivory, those sent to deceive From hence ^neas proceeded above. to mortals. the world
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 346 The landing in Italy. Sailing up the west coast of Italy, the TroJ ' jans finally beached their ships near where the Tiber, yellow with the sand it washes down, empties into the sea. When they had landed and prepared a hasty meal, their hunger led them to devour not only the food intended for them but the flat cakes of bread on which the food had been laid out. Seeing this, young Ascanius "See, we are eating our tables!" cried: /Eneas, that recognizing thus harmlessly Harpy was land granted them by the of So the prophecy and that the fulfilled fate had at last been reached, gave thanks and worshiped the diviniThe king of this part of the ties of the place. country was La ti'nus, whose daughter La vin'i a was sought as wife by the king of a neighborThough the parents ing tribe, Turnus by name. of the girl would have been glad to have this prince as a son-in-law, the gods had warned them against the marriage, since a hero from over the sea was to have her as wife and by her raise up a race that should rule the world. When, therefore, /Eneas sent messengers to Latinus, the king recognized his destined son-in-law in the stranger, and readily formed an alliance and offered him his daughter in marriage. But Juno, implacable towards /Eneas, sent one of the Furies to rouse Turnus and Latinus' queen against still Moreover she made trouble between the newcomers and some Latin herdsmen. the Trojans.
  • The Legendary Origin Rome 347 of and finally threw open the gates of Janus' temple and roused all the country in war. 40 By night Father Tiber, the river-god, rose from his stream, and speaking to the sleeping yEneas, bade him proceed up the river to where the good king Evan'der had dience YEneas his With palace. made his way willing obethe stream until up noon he came to Evanders settlement, its humble roofs clustered among the seven hills that later bore the massive buildings of imperial Rome. Fitly entertained by Evander on the spot later at made glorious by his descendants, /Eneas formed a compact of mutual help with the king, and on his new ally's advice proceeded thence northward to Etruria to draw into his alliance an Etruscan king who was already a bitter en- to be emy of Turnus. turned at Thus last to his reinforced, camp a fierce battle in progress. superior numbers of the yEneas re- by the Tiber to find Notwithstanding the enemy and the brave deeds of Turnus and his victorious, and Turnus allies, the Trojans were died at yEneas' hand. At this point Vergil's story closes, but we know that Lavinia became /Eneas' wife and that in her honor he named the town that he founded Lavinium. yEneas' son Ascanius, or lulus, founded Alba 40 Janus was the Roman god of beginnings. In time of war the gates of his temple were opened in time of peace, ; closed. and Remu
  • Greek and Roman Mythology 348 Longa on the slope of the Alban Mount, and here his descendants continued to rule after his death. The last Nu'mi'tor, of the line to hold the 'throne was whose younger brother A mu'li us wickedly supplanted him, and to preserve his power, put to death Numitor's only son, own and consecrated his daughter Rhea Silvia to the service of the goddess Vesta as a Vestal Virgin. But the virgin was loved by the war-god Mars and by him became the mother of twin sons. When Amulius, persisting in his wicked designs, ordered the babies to be drowned in the river, the trough that held them was carried down the stream into the Tiber, and by the guidance of the gods was washed high up on the bank and left by the retreating waters under a fig tree on the Palatine Hill. A she-wolf, wandering that way, was attracted by the babies' cries, and adopting them as her own whelps, nourished them with her milk. It is said that a wood-pecker, a bird sacred to Mars, also brought the babies food in her beak. After some time a kindly shepherd came upon the little savages and took them home As they grew, to his hut on the Palatine Hill. the twins, called by their foster-parents Romulus and Remus, became the acknowledged leaders of all the many young shepherds about and fought against wild beasts and robbers. After a quarrel with some herdsmen of Numitor Remus was taken before his grandfather and was recognized by him
  • The Legendary Origin as his daughter's child. of Rome 349 Amulius met at the young men's hands the death he deserved, and Numitor was restored to his kingdom. But Romulus and Remus, having a particular affecwhere they had lived as boys, put themselves at the head of a band of young men and set out to found a new city on the banks of the Tiber. A dispute arising between the two tion for the hills Fig. 99. The wolf with Romulus and Remus. as to whether the Palatine or the Aventine Hill was the more favorable site, they agreed to leave by the gods. To Remus, for the divine sanction on the Aventine, looking the matter to be decided appeared six vultures, but when he would have claimed the decision in his favor, Romulus on the Palatine reported the flight of twelve vultures. Disappointed in his hopes and wishing to show his contempt for his successful brother's plans,
  • 350 Greek and Roman Mythology Remus mockingly leaped over the wall Romulus in a rage killed him on Romulus was building. The new settlement was soon enlarged the spot. by the people from the country around, who were gladly afforded refuge there from enemies and a hospitable reception. Only wives were lack- To when he had vainly tried more peaceful methods, Romulus Under adopted a somewhat treacherous device. ing. supply this deficiency, pretense of celebrating sacred games, he invited his neighbors, the Latins and Sabines, to visit with their wives and daughters, and when the visitors were off their guard, the young Romans seized the Sabine women and drove the men his city away with violence. After some time the Sa- bines returned in force to recover their women, and a bloody battle was fought in what was afterwards the Roman Forum. In the midst of the fight the Sabine women, whose affections had won by their violent young captors, but who were anxious for the safety of their relatives, rushed between the combatants and effected The Sabines were now given a reconciliation. a settlement on the Capitoline and Quirinal Hills, and the two races united in one state with a combeen still mon meeting-place in the Forum, the valley be- tween their respective settlements. Through the wise and strong rule of Romulus the new city grew rapidly, and successful wars were carried on against hostile neighbors. One day when the
  • The Legendary Origin of Rome 351 king was reviewing his army in the Campus Martius, or Field of Mars, outside the city walls, an eclipse of the sun, accompanied by a terrific storm, darkened the heavens and threw the assemblage into a panic. As the men dispersed, Mars descended in a fiery chariot and carried his son Romulus off to heaven. ple worshiped the deified name of Qui ri'nus, and side After this his peo- Romulus under by the side with the tem- of their other gods, religiously preserved the little straw hut he had occupied as a shep- ples herd. The stories of in the kingship, full Romulus's six successors of interest and adventure, belong rather to the legendary history of than to mythology. Rome
  • APPENDICES APPENDIX A Notes on the Pronunciation of Greek and Latin Proper Names. I. Accent. The last syllable (ultima) is never accented. (2) The next to the last syllable (penult) is accented when it contains a long vowel or a diphthong or when its vowel is followed by two or more consonants or by x or z, e.g., A the'na, He phaes'tus, Min er'va. (1) (3) If the penult is not long, the accent falls on the from the end (antepenult), e.g., Ju'pi ter, third syllable Ni'o be. Consonants. II. (1) Ch (2) C III. pronounced before e, like k. i, y, a, ce; elsewhere it is hard. Vowels. (1) (2) and is is soft The vowel e is long in the terminations c and es. The vowel e is long before the terminations a us. (3) The diphthongs a and ce are pronounced like e.
  • Appendices 356 APPENDIX B A Brief List of Poems and Dramas Based on the Myths. Chapter The World I. of the Myths. Hyperion; ^Eschylus, Prometheus Bound in Everyman's Library) Mrs. E. B. Browning, Prometheus Bound; Shelley, Prometheus Unbound; Byron, Prometheus; Robert Bridges, Prometheus; J. R. Lowell, Prometheus; H. W. Longfellow, Prometheus and Epimetheus; D. G. Rossetti, Pandora; H. W. Longfellow's Masque of Pandora; Account of the Four Ages and the Flood in Ovid's Metamorphoses I. 89-415 (translation in Bohn's Keats, (translation ; Libraries'). Chapter The Gods II. of Olympus: Zeus. Dean Swift, Baucis and Philemon, imitated from the Eighth Book of Ovid, Metamorphoses (a burlesque), the in Scott-Saintsbury Ovid, Metamorphoses I. edition 583 ff., II. of Swift's 410 ff., Works; VIII. 620 ff. (translation in Bohn's Libraries}. Chapter III. Hera, Athena, Hephaestus. Thomas Moore, The Fall of Hebe; J. Hebe; John Ruskin, The Queen of the Air Milton, Paradise Lost VI. i ff. Keats, Oracle, (lectures) ; 740 ff. Ovid, Metamorphoses (translation in Bohn's Libraries'). Chapter IV. Homer's R. Lowell, I. Apollo and Artemis. Hymn to Apollo; Hymn to the Sun; Delphic Hymn to Marpessa; W. ; S. Shelley, Hymn of Apollo, A. C. Swinburne, The Last Apollo; Stephen Phillips, Landor, Niobe; Chaucer, Prolog of
  • Appendices 357 the Legend of Good Women; W. Morris, The Love of Alcestis; R. Browning, Apollo and the Fates, Balaust ion's Adventure; Euripides, Alcestis (translation in Everyman's Library) ; Ovid, Metamorphoses I. 452 ff., 748 ff.; Shelley, Homer's to the Moon, Arethnsa; A. H. Clough, Action; Hymn John Lyly, Endymion; Keats, Endymion; J. R. Lowell, X. 162 VI. ff., 146 ff., I. Endymion; H. W. Longfellow, Endymion, Occupation of Orion; Ovid, Metamorphoses V. 577 ff., III. 138 ff. Hermes and Chapter V. Shelley, Homer's Hestia. Hymn to Mercury. Ares and Aphrodite. Chapter VI. Chaucer, The Compleynt of Mars, Legend of Thisbe (in The Legend of Good Women); Shakespeare, Venus' and Adonis, Midsummer Night's Dream; Hymn to Venus; Keats, Sonnet On Leander; Byron, Poem written after of swimming from Sestos to Abydos; Thomas Moore, Hero and Leander; Tom Hood, Hero and Leander; Tennyson, Hero to Leander; Sir Edwin Arnold, Hero and Leander; Leigh Hunt, Hero and Leander; D. G. Shelley, a Homer's Picture Rossetti, Sonnets, Hero's Lamp (in Venus Verticordia, Venus Vicirix, The House of Life) W. S. Landor, ; Hippomenes and Atalanta; W. Morris, Pygmalion and the Image, Atalanta's Race (in The Earthly Paradise} Andrew Lang, The New Pygmalion: Theocritus, Idyl : XV.; and Bion, Idyl in The Loeb phoses X. 560 ff., Chapter VII. Mrs. Keats, E. Ode B. to (translations in Classical Library) Bohn's Libraries I. IV. 55 ; Ovid, Metamor- ff. The Lesser Deities of Olympus. Browning, Paraphrases on Apuleius; Psyche; A. C. Swinburne, Eros; W.
  • 358 Appendices Morris, Cupid and Psyche (in The Earthly Paradise) Spenser, The Tears of the Muses. The Gods Chapter VIII. D. G. Rossetti, Chapter IX. A of the Sea. Sea-Spell; The Gods Homer's ; J. R. Lowell, The Sirens. of the Earth. Hymn to the Earth, Song of Pan; Pan, Echo, and t'~e Satyr; Tennyson, Demeter and Persephone; A. C. Swinburne, Hymn to Proserpine, At Eleusis, Pan and Thalasslus; Shelley, Proserpine, Hymn of D. G. Rossetti, Proserpine; Mrs. E. B. Browning, Bacchus and Ariadne (paraphrase on Nonnus), The Dead Pan; R. W. Emerson, Bacchus; W. S. Landor, Cupid and Pan; R. Browning, Pan and Luna; Ovid, Metamorphoses V. 341 ff. Chapter X. The World of the Dead. Dante, The Divine Comedy; Milton, Paradise Lost; Mirror for Magistrates; L. C. Swinburne, The Garden of Proserpine, Eurydice; A. Lang, The ForSackville, Induction to the Morris, tunate The Epic of Hades; A. Islands; W. Morris, The Earthly Paradise; Shelley, Orpheus; Wordsworth, The Power of Music; R. Browning, Eurydice to Orpheus, Ixion; J. R. Lowell, Eurydice. Chapter XI. Stories of Argos. The Legend of Hypermnestra (in The Legend of Good Women") W. Morris, The Doom of D. G. King Acrisius (in The Earthly Paradise) Rossetti, Aspecta Medusa; Ovid, Metamorphoses IV. Chaucer, ; ; 6ioff.
  • Appendices Chapter XII. 359 Heracles. W. Morris, The Golden Apples (in The Earthly Paradise) Theocritus, Idyl X. (translation in Bohn's Libraries and in The Locb Classical Library). ; Chapter XIII. Stories of Crete, Sparta, Corinth, and Shelley, Homer's Hymn to Castor and Pollux; Macaulay, The Battle of Lake Regillus; H. W. Longfellow, Pegasus in Pound; W. Morris, Bcllerophon in G. Argos and Lycia (in The Earthly Paradise) Meredith, Bcllerophon; A. C. Swinburne, Atalanta in Calydon; Moschus, Idyl II (translations in Bohn's Libraries and in The Loeb Classical Library) Ovid, ; ; VIII. 183 Metamorphoses II. Chapter XIV. Stories of Attica. 833 ff., ff., VIII. 260 ff. Chaucer, The Legend of Philomela, and The Legend of Ariadne (in The Legend of Good Women), The Knight's Tale (in The Canterbury Tales) A. C. Swinburne, Erectheus, Itylus; Thomas Moore, Cephalus and Procris; M. Arnold, Philomela. ; Chapter A. C. XV. Stories of Thebes. Swinburne, Tiresias; Tennyson, Tiresias; the Tyrant; Sophocles, CEdipus Tyrannus, CEdipus Coloneus, Antigone (translations in Shelley, Szvellfoot Everyman's Library). Chapter XVI. The Argonautic Expedition. Chaucer, The Legend of Hypsipyle and Medea (in The Legend of Good Women) W. Morris, The Life and Death of Jason; Apollonius Rhodius, Argonautica ;
  • Appendices 360 (translation critus, Idl in The Loeb in Classical Library') Theo- ; XIII. (translation in Bohn's Libraries and The Loeb Classical (translation in Chapter XVII. Library) ; Euripides, Medea Everyman's Library). The Trojan War. Chaucer, Troilus and Criseyde; Shakespeare, Troiand Cressida; Keats, Sonnet on Chapman's Homer; Tennyson, (Enone, Dream of Fair Women; W. S. hts Landor, The Death of Paris and (Enone, Menelaiis and Helen, Iphigenia and Agamemnon, Shades of Iphigenic and Agamemnon; A. Lang, Helen of Troy, The Shade of Helen, Translation of Theocritus, Idyl XVIII.; Mrs. E. B. Browning, Hector and Andromache (a para- phrase of (in Homer) ; W. Morris, The Earthly Paradise) ; M. Arnold, Palladium; D. Schiller, Cassandra Goethe, Iphigenia in The Death G. Rossetti, (translation Tauris of Paris Wordsworth, Laodamia; by Cassandra; Lord Lytton) (translation in ; Bohn's Sophocles, Aja-x, Philoctetes; Euripides, Iphigenia at Aulis, Iphigenia Among the Taurians, Libraries) ; Hecuba, Trojan Women, Andromache. Chapter XVIII. The Wanderings of Odysseus. Tennyson, Ulysses, The Lotns-Eaters; W. S. Landor, The Last of Ulysses, Penelope; Stephen Phillips, Ulysses; M. Arnold, The Strayed Reveller; D. G. Rossetti, The Wine of Circe; J. R. Lowell, The Sirens; Shelley, The Cyclops (translation from Euripides) ; Milton, Comns (inspired by the story of Circe) Argus; Theocritus, Idyl Classical Library). sey, The XI (translation in ; Pope, The Loeb A. Lang, Hesperothen, The Odys* Sirens, In Ithaca.
  • Appendices Chapter XIX. yEschylus, 361 The Tragedy of Agamemnon. Agamemnon Electra; Iphigenia in Tauris Sophocles, Choephori, Euripides, (translation Enmenides; Electro, Orestes; Everyman's Li- in brary). Chapter XX. The Legendary Origin of Rome. Chaucer, The Legend of Dido (in The Legend Good Women} Christopher Marlowe, The Tragedy ; of of Dido. FOR GENERAL READING: The Iliad (transThe Odyssey The Homeric The Loeb Classical Li- by Lang, Leaf and Myers) (translation by Butcher and Lang) lation Hymns ; ; (translation in translations of the tragedies of JEschylus, brary} Sophocles and Euripides in Everyman's Library; Ovid, Metamorphoses (translations in Bohn's Libraries and in The Loeb Classical Library}. ; FOR YOUNGER STUDENTS : A. C. Church, from Homer; Stories from the Greek Tragedians; Stories from Virgil. These are excellent Stories reading and retain remarkably well the spirit of the Charles Kingsley, The Heroes. originals.
  • INDEX Al Al Ages'tes, 340 A cha'tes, Ach e 339 343 chil'les, 186, 280. 283, 288f A cris'i us, 200, 209 Actae'on, 85 f. 187, 311, A Ad me'tus, . 7/f. gis'thus, 326f king Heracles. of the Ale mae'on, one of the Epigoni, son of Amphiaraus and Eriphyle, who, following his father's injunchis mother, tion, killed and who was, therefore, Ado'nis, H3f. A dras'tus, 264 /E'acus, 189, 283 /Ee'tes, 267, 273 /E'geus, 248, 279 /Egi'na, 283 /E'gis, 44 /E name of gin'o us, Phaeacians. 225 lo'us, A'cheron, cj'des, pursued by the Furies. Ale me'na, 210 A lec'to, one of the Furies Aloe'us, father of Otus and Ephialtes. Al Al . yEgyp'tus, 199 /Ene'as, 280, 331!. yE'olus, 142, 309, 339 yEs cu la'pi us. See Asclep- phe'us, 84, 218 thae'a, 241 Am al the'a, Am'a zons, Am bro'sia, 7 219, 252, 300 IQ Am'mon, an Egyptian Zeus deity he had a famous shrine in an oasis of the Libyan identified ius yE'son, 267, 276 yE'ther, 5 with : desert. yE'thra, 248 theus. Am phi a ra'us, 242, 264 Am phi'on, 26f. Am phi tri'te, 144, 148, Am phit'ry on, 210 A mul'i us, 348 A ge'nor, Anchi'ses, 331, 339, 345 Agamem'non, A ga've, 281, daughter of mus and mother 287f., Cad- of Pen- 256 Ages, the Four, 12 A glai'a, one of the Graces. A'jax, 287, 294, 300 Alba Longa. 347 Alqes'tis, 7;f. An drom'a che, 298, An drom'eda, 207 An tae'us, 222 247 304, 335 Antig'one, 363. 364 Anti'a, 363 Proetus' wife, who
  • Index 364 Bellero- accused falsely An tin'o us, one of Penel- ope's suitors. An ti'o pe, 26f ., 252 Aphrodi'te, Apol'lo, 106, logf., 286 144, 181, 92, ssf., 224, 272, 291, 296 Apple of Discord, A rach'ne, 108, 285 46f. ty'a nax, Hector's infant 83f., At'ropus, 141 Auge'as, 217 Au'lis, 288 157 Ar'go, 269 Argonautic expedition, 269f. Ar'gus (hundred-eyed), 25 of the (builder Ar'gus Argo), 269 Ar'gus (Odysseus' dog), 323 Ariad'ne, 171, 250 Ar is tse'us, son of Apollo and father of Actaeon. It was when he was pursuing Eurydice that she stepped upon the serpent from whose sting she In punishment, his died. bees were destroyed by the nymphs. On the advice of Proteus he offered animals in sacrifice to the shades of Orpheus and Eurydice, whereupon bees swarmed in the carcasses. taught Ath'a mas, 266 Athe'na, 9, 4of., in, 203, 238, 297 At'las, 206, 223 A'treus, 282 A tri'des, sons of Atreus, laus 329 256 109, A'res, 36, iosf., Arethu'sa, At a lan'ta in Caledon, 242 At a lan'ta's race, H5f. Agamemnon and Mene- Ar'cas, 22 A re o'pa gus, He As son. phon. men to keep bees. Ar'temis, 69, 8of-, 241, 288 Asca'nius, 333, 347 Ascle'pius, 55, 74 A so'pus, 236 As sar'a cus, king of Troy, son of Tros. Au'ra, 246 Au ro'ra, 71, 245 Au to'me don, charioteer of Achilles Aver'nus, Bac'cha 187, 341 na'li a, 171 Bacchan'tes, 167, 173, 192 Bac'chus, see Dionysus Bau'qis, 28f. Bear, the Great, 24 Bel ler'o phon, 237 Bel lo'na, 109 Be re cyn'thi a, Cybele, from Mt. Berecynthus in Phrygia Ber'oe, 165 Bona Dea, divinity worshiped in secret by women in Rome Bo'reas, 142, 245, 271 Bos'pho rus, 26 Bri a're us, a hundred-handed giant who aided Zeus [against the rebellious gods Bri se'is, 291 Bronze Age, 13
  • Index Ca'cus, 221 Cad'mus, 256 Ca du'ge us, 97 Cal'chas, 291 Turnus assisted Co 188, 311 qy'tus, Col'chis, 273 Co lo'nus, 263 Con'sus, Roman god a of agriculture. Co ro'nis, by Apollo, mother of Asclepius. Cor y ban'tes, 154 Cre'on, 263 Cretan bull, 218 against ^Eneas Cas san'dra, 304, 327 Cas si o pe'a, 207 Cas 'tor, 234, 241, 254, 269 C,e'crops, 46, 244 Ce Clym'e ne, 70 Cly tern nes'tra, 234, 326f Cly'ti e, a water-nymph who loved Apollo and was changed into a sun-flower. . Cal li'o pe, 139, 192 Cal lis'to, 22f. Cal y do'ni an boar, 241 f. Ca lyp'so, 316 Ca mil'la, a princess of Italy who 365 one of the Harpies king of Eleusis and father of Triptolemus C.en'taurs, 253 Creu'sa, 333 Cro'nus, 6f., 12 Cu'mse, 187 Cupid, 123. See also Eros. Ceph'alus, 245 Cu C.e'pheus, 207 Cy'ane, 157 lae'no, C.e'le us, Cybele, Cer'ber us, 188, 223, 254 C,e'res, See 165. 6, also Demeter. C,eryne'an doe, 217 power to Venus enhance beauty See Halcyone C.e'yx. Cha'os, 5 Char'ites, 139 Cha'ron, 187, 343 314, 315, C. i Cyth er era, 7, 189, 306, e'a, name of Aphroderived from Cythan island near the Peloponnese. 290 co'ni ans, men with whom Odysseus fought early his wanderings. C,im me'ri ans, 311 Cir'ge, 310 Cli'o, 5, Qyc'nus, son of Poseidon, Apollo, or Ares, who was turned into a swan. C.yn'thi a, name of Artemis derived from Mt. Cynthus in Delos, where she was born- dite, Chi'ron, 267, 284 se'is, 117, 153 C,yclo'pes, Cypris, 114 Charyb'dis, 151, 336 Chi mae'ra, 238 Chry 7 336 C,estus, the girdle of with re'tes, 139 Clo'tho, 141 in Dae'dalus, 233 Dan'a Dan'a Dan'a e, 200 ids, 190, 199 us, 199 Daph'ne, 62f. Daph'nis, a son of who was made Hermes blind by
  • Index 366 a jealous naiad. He was the ideal shepherd and musician. Dar'danus, 284, 334 Day, 5 De iph'o bus, son of Priam who married Helen at Paris' death. De jan 225 i'ra, De'los, 60 Del'phi, 62, 56, 3, 98, 215, 224, 262 E ny'o, of goddess war, companion of Ares. dawn E'os, the goddess. of builder the wooden horse. Eph i al'tes, one of the giants who piled Pelion on Ossa in order to reach the gods. Epe'us, Ep Ep Ep i dau'rus, 74 ig'o ni, 265 Dic'tys, 202, 208 i me'theus, 12 Er'a to, 140 Er'e bus, 5 E rech'theus, 244 Er ich tho'ni us, 244 E rin'ys, the Furies Di'do, 339, 344 E ri'phy le, Deme'ter, Deu ca'li 6, 21, on, Di an'a, temis. <i go. iS4f. . See also Ar- Diome'des, 287, 301 Di o me'des, horses of, 219 Di o'ne, 109 Di on y'si a, 171 Di on y'sus, i6sf. Di os cu'ri, 234 Di'rae, a name of the Furies. Dir'ge, 26f. Dis, name of Pluto or Do do'na, 34, Dreams, gates Hades E'ros, 5, 264 in 106, 112, I22f., 273 Er y man'thi an boar, 216 E te'o cles, 264 E thi o'pi ans, 4 Eu swineherd mae'us, Odysseus. Eu men'i des, 189, of 329 Euphros'yne, one of the Graces. 269 of, E'ris, Eu Eu 345 Dry'ads, 184 ro'pa, 228f. ry'a le , one of the gor- gons E'cho, 185 Ei lei thy'ia, who the aided goddess women in ry cle'a, ryd'i ce, 323 192 ryl'o chus, a companion of Odysseus Eu ryn'o me, mother of the child-birth. Elec'tra, 328 E lec'tra, one of E lec'try on, 210 Eu Eu Eu the Pleiads Graces Eu Eu Eleu'sis, 158 Eleusin'ian Mysteries, 15*8 rys'theus, 213 ter'pe, 140 E vad'ne, wife of Capaneus, when her husband Ely'sian Fields, 190, 345 En gel'a dus, one of the who, hundred-handed En d/mi on, 87! Thebes, threw herself on giants. was killed in the siege of his funeral pyre.
  • Index He'be, 19, 36, 227 Hec'ate, 89, 274, 277 Hec'tor, 284, 292, 297, 332 Hec'u ba, 298 Helen, 112, 235, 254, 286 Evan'der, 347 Fates, 140 Fau'nus, 180 Flood, 13 Furies, See also Bu- 344. 367 rn enides Hel'enus, 335 Hel'icon, 139, 238 He'lios, 55 Hel'le, 266 Gaea, 5, 7, 8, 153 Hel'len, Galate'a (the Nereid), 149 Galate'a (wife of Pygmalion), 118 Gan'y mede, 36, 220, Garden of the Hes 284 per'i des, 206 Gem'i ni, 235 Genius, the guardian spirit of each man, sometimes symbolized as a snake. Ge'ry on, 220 Giants, 5, 8 Glau'cus, a prophetic sea deity son of Deucalion and mythical ancestor of all the Hellenes or Greeks. Hellespont, 119, 267 Hem'er a, Day. See p. 5. Hephaes'tus, 36, 49f-, 106, 295 He'ra, 6, 20, 361., in, 210 Her'acles, n, 78f., 144, 2iof., 269 Her'cu les. See Heracles Her'mes, 25, 91 f., 187, 204 Her mi'o ne, daughter of Menelaus and Helen He'ro, 118 Golden Age, 12 Golden fleece, 266 Golden bough, 90 Gorgons, 203 He si'o ne, Graces, 139 Hes'tia, Grae'se, Ha'des, 220 evening star, father of the Hesperides Hes per'i des, 206, 222 Hes'per 204 6, 8, 154, :87f., 204, Hse'mon, son of Creon of Thebes. See p. 265. Hal gy'o ne, of daughter ^Eolus who, when her husband perished in a shipwreck, drowned her- self. The changed into Ham a dry'ads, two birds. 184 Har mo'ni a, 258, 264 Harpies, 150, 271, 335 were 144, us, the 6, 981. Hip po cre'ne, 238 Hip po da mi'a, 147 Hip pol'y ta, 219 Hip pol'y tus, son of Theseus by Antiope Hip pom'e nes, nsf. Horn of plenty, 225 16, 59 Hy a cin'thus, 64f seven Hy'a des, Hours, . nymphs placed by Zeus in heaven as a constellation because of their care of the infant Dionysus. Hy'dra. See Lerncean
  • Index 368 daughter of Asand goddess of Hyge'a, clepius health Ja'nus, 347 Ja'son, 242, 267f. Jo Hy'las, 270 Hy'men, god of marriage, son of Apollo and a Muse cas'ta, 259 Jove. See Jupiter See Ju'no, 40, 339. also Hera Ju'pi ter, 34. See also Zeus Hy per bo're ans, 4 Hy pe'ri on, a Titan, Ko're, Hy perm nes'tra, Lab'da cus, father of Laius father of Helios and Selene 199 of Thebes Hyp'nos, the god of sleep Iac'cus( a name of Diony- sus I ap'e tus, a Titan, father of Prometheus, Epimetheus, and Atlas Mt., Il'i um I'lus, (Troy), 284f. 284 of tryon and Alcmena Iph i ge ni'a, 288, 329 I'ris, 39, 271, 294 Iron Age, 13 Islands of the Blest, 190 home Odysseus It'ylus, 247 I'tys, same as Itylus I u'lus. See Ascanius Ix i'on, 190 225, Lap'iths, 253 La'res, 101 Lycia who sent Bellerophon after the Chimaera I o la'us, 216 I'o le, 226 I o'ni an Sea, 26 Iph'i cles, son of Amphi- Is me'ne, 265 island Ith'a ca, 220, 284 In'a chus, 24, 199 I'o, 24f., 199 I o'ba tes, king seus Laes try go'ni ans, 309 La oc'o on, 303 La od a mi'a, 290 Laom'edon, 144, in 66 I 'das, Lab'y rinth, 233, 250 Lach'e sis, 141 La er'tes, father of Odys- Lai'us, 259 Ic'a rus, 233 Ida, name of Persephone Lati'nus, 346 Lat'mos, Mt., 87 La to'na. See Le to La vin'i a, 346 Le an'der, 118 Le'da, 234 Ler nae an hydra, 216 Le'the, 345 Le'to, 60, 67f. Leu coth'ea, Ino, wife of Athamas, became a sea nymph under this name. Li'ber, Italian divinity, later identified with Bacchus of Li'ber a, Italian later identified divinity, with Pros- erpina Li'chas, acles attendant of Her- who brought him the poisoned garment.
  • Index Li'nus, a song of lamentation personified as a son of Apollo Lotus-eaters, 305 Luna, the moon-goddess Ly ae'us, a name of Bacchus Ly cur'gus, king of Thrace who was killed for persecuting Bacchus Ly'cus, 26 Lyn'ceus, 199 Ma cha'on, 369 name Mi ner'va, Athena Mu sa'ge tes, Apollo as lead- Muses 238 22, 59, 139, Myr'mi dons, Mai'a, 91 also Mi'nos, 189, 219, 230, 250 Min'o taur, 233, 250 Mne mos'y ne, 22, 139 Muses, the physician in the Iliad Mae'nads, 173 Mag'na Ma'ter. See Cybele See 48. er of the son of Asclepius, the to given is suitor of Atalanta 283, 293 Myr'ti lus, 147, 282 Mysteries, 158, 190 Nai'ads, 152', 184 Nar cis'sus, 185 Nau sic' a a, 317 Ma'nes, souls of the dead, Nectar, worshiped in Rome Mar'a thon, battle of, 254 Marathonian bull, 250 Neme'an Ne'me sis, Marpes'sa, 66 Mars, 109. See also Ares Mar'syas, 181 Ma'ter Ma tu'ta, Italian goddess identified with Leucothea or Aurora. Ne op tol'e mus, Mede'a, Ne'reus, 144, 148, 222 Nes'sus, 225 Nes'tor, 287, 321 Night, 5 249, 273f. Me du'sa, 203, 238 Mel e a'ger, 241, 269 Mel pom'e 139 ne, Mem'non, 300 Men e la'us, 281, 286, 294, 321 Men'tor, friend and adviser of Odysseus Mer'cu ry, 97f . See Metis, pe, " lion, 216 141 Ne'mi, Lake, 90 301, 325 Neph'e le, mother of Phrixus and Helle See also Nep'tune, 148. Poseidon Ne're ids, 148 Ni'ke. See Victory Ni'o be, 66f. Nu'mi tor, 348 Nymphs, Nyx. 151, i84f., 204 See Night also Hermes Mer'o 19 Ocean, 4 wife of Sisyphus insight," Zeus's wife whom he swallowed before Athena's birth. Mi'das, 170, 181 Mi lan'i on. sometimes this O ce'a nus, 143 O dys'seus, 150, 01 0f. 301, 30. CEd'ipus, 259! CE'neus, 241 CEn o ma'us, 147 287, 300,
  • Index CE nymph, wife of no'ne, a Paris Olympic games, 32f., 218 Olympic Council, 19, 122 Olympus, Mt-, 7, i6f. Om'pha le, 224 Oracle at Delphi. See Del- phi. Or'cus, the god of death and the place of the dead. Or i Thebes. Pa siph'a e, wife of Minos and mother of the Minotaur Pe in tro'clus, 288, 293 giants tried to pile Pelion on Ossa in their attempt to overthrow the gods. O'tus, one of the giants " li'des, Pe'li on, lae'mon, son of Athamas into a sea deity. Pal a me'des, one nel'o pe, 287, 320, 324 ne'us, a river-god, father of the heroes who was driven to death by the enmity of Odysseus. Pa'les, Roman god of flocks Pal i nu'rus, 341, 343 Pal la'di um, 301 Pal'las. See Athena Pan, i73f. i 300 le'a, Per i pha'tes, 248 Per seph'o ne, 21, i54f., 189, Per'seus, 2Oof. Phae a'ci ans, 317 Phae'dra, daughter of Minos and wife of Theseus Pha'e thon, 7of. Phi le'mon, 28f. Phil oc te'tes, 227, 301 Phil o me'la, 246 Phi'neus, 208, 271 di'on, father of Procne and Philomela Pando'ra, nf. Pan'dro sus, a daughter of Cecrops the Fates in, 284, Daphne thes 254 Greek Par'is, See Ossa Mt. Pen'theus, 168 and Ino, who was turned Par', 276 son of Peleus," Pena'tes, 101, 334 Pe Pe of Pte an, 62 301 269, 283 Pe'lops, 147, 282 Pen Pan in, Achilles Thessaly. The Pa of Pe'li as, 267, 245 Mt, son Meleager and Atalanta, one of the Seven against Pe'leus, Or'pheus, 192, 269 Os'sa, 56, 59, Peg'a sus, 238 88f. thy'ia, 14, 139 Par'the non, 44 Par then o pae'us, Pa See Hades O're ads, 184 O res'tes, 328 O ri'on, Par nas'sus, Mt., Phleg'ethon, 188, 311, 344 Phoe'be, name of Artemis Phre'bus. See Apollo a Heracles Pho'lus, centaur whom accidentally killed. 286, 300, Phor'cys, a sea deity, father of Gorgons and Graeat
  • Index 371 priestess of Apollo Phrix'us, 266 Pi er'i a, 139 Pi re'ne, 236 Pi rith'o us, 242, 253 Pyth'i Ple'ia des, 89 See Hades Plu'to. Quiri'nus, 35*1 Regil'lus, battle Delphi Py'thon, 62 god of wealth Plu'tus, Pol'lux. See Polydeuces Pol'ybus, king of Corinth who adopted CEdipus Polydec'tes, 202, 208 Polydeu'ces, 234, 241, 254, 269 Pol y do'rus, 334 Po lym'ni a, 140 Pol y ni'ces, 264 Polyphe'mus, 149, 306, 336 of Pol yx'e na, daughter Priam, sacrificed on Achil- tomb les' Po sei'don, 6, 45, 8, I43f., 233 Pri'am, 225, 284, 298f., 304 Pri a'pus, god of fruitfulness 237 Pro me'theus, gi 223, 273 Pro ser'pi na. See Perseph., one Pro tes i la'us, Lake, Re'mus, 347 Rhad a man'thus, Rhe'a, 6f., 189, 230 153 Rhe'a Sil'vi a, 348 River-gods, 151 Rom'u Rut'u 347 the people of Tur- lus, 104, 345, li, nus Sabines, 350 Sal mo'neus, a son of ^Eolus who was punished in the lower world for trying to equal Zeus. Sa'mos, 36 Sarpe'don, an ally of the Trojans Sat'urn, crus'tes, 249 Proe'tus, of 235 12 Sat ur na'li a, feast of Saturn, occurring about the time of our Christmas. Proc'ne, 246 Pro'cris, 245 Pro a, at 290 Sat'yrs, 173, I79f. Sea man'der, one of the rivers by Troy Sci'ron, 248 Pro'teus, 149, 321 Sgyl'la, 151, Psy'che, I23f. Se le'ne, 80 Sem'e le, 165, 259 " leader of Psy'cho pom'pus, souls," title of Hermes Pyg ma'li on, 118 Pyg'mies, 4, 222 Py'lades, 328 Pyr'a mus, ugf. Pyr'rha, 14 Pyr'rhus. See Neoptolemus 314 165, 341 Sile'nus, 166, 173, i8if. Silva'nus, a Roman divinity Sib'yl, 80, of woods and Silver Age, 13 Si'nis, 248 Si'non, 303 fields.
  • Index 372 Si'rens, Ti'tans, 313 150, Sir'i us, 89 Sis'y phus, 190, 236 Sphinx, 261 Stroph'a des, 335 Stym pha'H an birds, 217 Styx, 188, 283 Sun, cattle of the, 315 Sychae'us, husband of Dido Sym pleg'a des, Trip tol'e mus, 161 Tritogeni'a, a name Athena Ta'lus, a bronze giant Tan'ta lus, 190, 281 Tyn 139 one of the Titans (i) First king of one of the (2) heroes in the Tro- Greek jan War. Tha li'a, one of the Graces Tha li'a, 139 The'mis, goddess of order and justice; by Zeus she was the mother of the Hours and Fates. Ther si'tes, a deformed and impudent Greek at the The'seus, 242, 247f. in, 292 282 Thyr'sus, 168 Ti'ber, 347 Thy es'tes, Furies U lys'ses. See Odysseus Underworld. See Hades U ra'ni a, 140 U'ranus, 5, 8 Ve'nus, 115, 124. See also Aphrodite Ves'ta, zoo. See also Hcstia Vestal Virgins, 100 Victor}', 20, 45 Vul'can, 52. See also He- Winds. 148, 283, This'be, 1191. Ti re'si as, 311 Ti si'pho ne, one da'reus, 234 Ty'phon, 8 phccstus siege of Troy. The'tis, 144 Tros, 284 Tur'nus, 346 sich'o re, Troy, of unknown. Troi'lus, son of Priam Trojan War, 28of. Te'reus, 246 Teu'cer origin ; Tri'tons, Tar'ta rus, 7, 190, 344 Tau'ri ans, 329 Tel'a mon, 269 Te lem'a chus, 287, 320 Te'thys, petual youth. Ti'ty us, a giant who was cast into Tartarus for offering violence to a goddess. 271 Syr'inx, 178 Terp 5, 7 Titho'nus, brother of Priam, beloved by the Dawn, through whom he gained perpetual life but not per- See Wooden horse, 301 X an'thus, of the 296 Zeph'yr, 125, 142 Ze'thus, 26f. Zeus, 7f., igf., 200, 210, 229
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