Greece and Rome at war - Peter Connolly
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Greece and Rome at war - Peter Connolly

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Greece and Rome at war

Greece and Rome at war
Autor: Peter Connolly
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320 páginas
2006
Historia Ilustrada

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Greece and Rome at war - Peter Connolly Greece and Rome at war - Peter Connolly Document Transcript

  • PETER CONNOLLY G R EEC E E , AN ID RO #:~ . .. AlT A. • •
  • Con t en t s Greece a n d Macedonia Chapter 1 T he City States 800-360 BC 10 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 The States at War II The Phalanx 37 The Phalanx in the Field 44 Armour and Weapons 51 Chapter 2 M acedon 360- 140 BC 64 Part 1 T he M acedonian Wars 64 Part 2 The New Macedonian Army 68 Part 3 The L ater Macedonian Army 75 Italy a n d T he Wester n Med iter ranean Chapter 1 T he Rise of Rome 800-275 BC 86 Part 1 T he Struggle for Italy 87 Part 2 The Italian Military Systems 91 Chapter 2 Rome 275-140 B C 129 Part 1 T he Roman Army 160 BC 129 Part 2 T he Great Wars 143 The Ro man E m p ire Chapter 1 T h e Empire 140 BC-AD 200 210 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Conq uest of the World 210 Army Organisation (D r Brian D obson) 213 Equipment 228 T h e Army in the Field 239 Chapter 2 The Later Empire AD 200-450 249 Pa rt 1 T he M obile Army (D r Roger T omlin) 249 Part 2 Equipment 259 Appendix 1 War at Sea 262 Appendix 2 Fortifications and Siege W arfare 274 Appendix 3 Roman Military Costume 304 Bibliography 314 Index 316
  • GREECE AN D MACEDO:--IA The City States 800-360 DC ) . .,.'. .. ) - ~ • , • } , rc ...,,, • -/ .' •
  • T H E C ITY STAT ES 800-360 Be T HE STATES AT WA R Int roductio D Soon aftfi 1200 Be the great Bronu_ Age crvilisauon which had f1ourishC'd in Greece for several ceerunes ...-ent into a rapid decline and tinally collapsed. Barbarou s uibn poured southwards obliterating the last re mnants of th e xt ycenaean culture, and a dark age descended on G reece. T his book is a surve y of t he militar y system. th at emerged from this dark age. An au empt is made to t race t h~ developm~ nt of militar y organisation, tact ics and ar mament in Greece and Italy from t he 8t h cent ur y Be, when ci"ili.ation once more began to eme rge in Gree« , unt il the onsct of the second dark age when t he Roman em pire in the West collapsed. Both Greece and Rome had to face the supreme tnl. With G reece it WI$ .....hCII the Penian. in.-a.de<t at the begtnning of the 5th e>:ntury , ...·hile Rome faced a similar cruci al situation whe n the gratest of the ancienl generals, Hannibal, invaded I taly 260 yea" later. Both t hese wan are examined in considereble detail to show how the t wo military syste ms rose to t he situaILon. .toll of Rome's or ganisation and equipmen t was borrowed from the nation. with whom she came into confl ict: the Etruscans, Samnites, Celts, Canna ginians and, of course, the Gree ks , T he contr ibutic ns c f each of the . e sta tes will be examined in tu rn . Alread r by t he late M ycenaea n period in the 13th and t 2th cent uries Be central European influences were bei ng fel t in t he Aegean world. T his continued in the succeeding centuries and. b>· the time that Homer 's epic poems of t he .i.ycenaean era, the l/iad and the Odyruy, w ere commiued 10 " Titing, pra.;ticall>· nothi ng of the ancient weaponry survived. For t his reason , unless there is adeat derivation from theearlier period, the Bronze Age ...i ll be ignored. O ur knowledge of the 8t h and l1 h centuries is very sparse b ut, by t he 6th, we have a conti nuous written history. T he hislory of the 6t h and 5t h cen· rune s is dom inated first by t he rise of Persia and later by the bl uer war betwee n Sparta and At hens. T he period is very well docume nted by IWO great wnrers-c- Hero dot us, who ",·as alive at the time of the Pen ian invasion of Gt'eece, and T bucydides, the greatest of the ancie nt historians, who "'as actually inv olved in ue .... r betwee n Spana and Athens, T o t hese one mu st add Xenophon, who " Tore alVUIld t he beginning of mc 4th century Be. Xenophon's writ ings arc not in the same class as Herod OllIS or Thucydid es but he was a soldier and served for man)· }'e an with the Spanan•. He is t hus an incom parable sou rce of infor m at ion about t he Spart an military system. The~ e literary sources ar e supple_ mented b y a mass of archaeological evidence. An er a battle it was custom ary for the victor to dedicate some armou r in a sanct uary such as Olympia. In time t hese shrines became .0 clutte re d wit h armou r that it became neceasar}' to t hro...' out the older pieces. At O lym pia some were dumped in t he 5treams and dis used " "ells. whib t other pio;es ~re used to reinforce t he banks of the stadium. In rece nt years some of this armour has been recovered during exca'·at KlIIS. The S tates a t War When t he M ycenaean states fell soon after t 200 IIC, hotdes of savage tribesmen, G reek speaking but from the mountaimlU' north · ....e.tern region , moved down into sout hern G reece. T he most formid abl e of t hese invaders were the Dori ans. M any of t he origina l inhabitants fled fro m G r eece and settle d along the west coast of Asia M inor (Turkey ) in Ihe area t hat became kno",'n as Ionia. T he invasions and subsequenl m igrations came 10 an end about 1000 BC. This ....as followed by a period of settlement. Finally, order began to ret.um . The little states ,.'hich emerge<t consisted of SC'Veral ,·illages wit h their land under t he control of a heredita ry watlord . These gradually consolidated until, by t he 8th century. a political stru cture which ...as to characterise G reece began tc emerge. T his was th e polis or city sta te where the government of an area sett led on a single town . G radu ally pow erfu l cities began to absor b the ir neighbours ; t he foremost of these were Spart a and Athens, In Athens, t he king was su bsequently oust ed and supplanted by t he nobility. I n time t hey. tOO, weIC th rown out and cont rol ta ken over by a demagogic dic tator, or tyrant. Final ly the tyrant was ove rt hrown and democracy established. This last Slep "" IS only aochieYC'd on the eve of the Persian wa rs. Athens gained control of the whole of AUica dur ing this period, and, b)' 500 Be. she was becoming the cuituraj cent re of the Hellenic world and the mOSI pcwertul Slate in central Greece. Spana, on th e orher hand , had a very differe nt development. T he Spartans were descended from the Do t ian in vaders who had conq uered Laconia. T hey had enslaved part of the native population and subjected th e rest. T he enslaved popu lation were called helots, T hey were tied to th e land aod com· pelted to work t he state-ow ned farms which pro,'ided Ihe Spartans with their livelihood. The subject peoples, ca.lled ~, were allo "'"ed a measure of independence but were compelled to provide soldi ers to fight on the Spartan s.ide. The Spanans were com manded in baule by 1;O·c herediw)' kings. By the end of t he 7th century Sparta had overcome " l essenia to the west I nd gained control c f t he whok: of the southern Pelcponnesu •. Over the next 100 years, either by coercion or persuasion, she managed to unite t he states of the Peloponnes us into a league known to t he ancients a. 't he Lacedaemonla ns and the ir all i e~ ', but called today simply the Peloponnesian League. In t he middl e of the 6th cent ury , th e tyra nt Pe isi~t rat us seized power at Athen. , which he, and larer his son trenrly for Hippias, governed im errru half a cent ury until deposed by the Spanan kin g Cleomenn ",-hen he invaded Attica in 511 Be. 10 t he ,,'ake of the tyran ts ci,ojl strife broke out as democrat and oligarch st ruggk:d for power. When t he oligarch Is>.goras "'as thrown out, he appealed to his personal friend Cleomenes for assista nce. Clcomenes, wit h a small bod y of rel ainers , agai n invaded Attica, and so great was t he aura of Span a tha I he took the city wit hout a blo w and gar risoned t he Acro rcn•. When the Athenians discovere d t he paltry size of Cleomenes' party, t hey besieged the Acropolis and Clecmenes, in the face of starvation, .... a. forced to sur render, Fear ing repri s.ls, t he Athenians felt ob liged to release the king and his retainers. Enr aged at his humiliat ion Cleome nn re lurned to Spana and mobilised t he entir e Peloponnesian League against Athens. Accompanied b y t he rr
  • G R EE C E A:-JD MACE DON IA other king Dema ratus, he led his arm~ to"'ards the borders of A ttica. In the non h T hel:>l:s and C hakis, Alhens ' ~'OlTlmcrcial ri"al, se ized the o p portunity to stri ke at Ihcir enem y and alw mobilised . hUI I:>I:fo"" the assault CQUld be launched d isse nsion broke out in t he Peloponnestan ranks , !o.1any of the allied Slates refuse<! to fig hl C leomenes' peTsonal wa rs fot him . Dcmaratlli> took their &ide and the army broke u p_ T he Athenians could ha rdly have bl:lie,'ed tneir good fo n une and had the presence of mind 10 ClI.pitalise o n th" situalio n. T hey marched notl h and in lhe same day defeated bot h t he Tbebans and t he C halc,di ans, redu cing the lat ter to the st alUs nf a colony . Th~ bl:s continued the ,,'ar and " 'as latn jo ine d by' anot her of Athens' cumm ~rcia l ri" al s. t he island of Acgma. [t was d uring this war that Athem emerged as a mili ta ry power . Her st ruggl" wit h Aegina forced her to bui ld a na",- which , in a few short ye ars , was to be come t he strungesr in Greece . T he ri se o f I' ",. ia Mean",hile, evems in Asia ",ere begin ning to have an elf~1 on Greece . AI the end of the 7th century lie the g reat em pi re of Ass yria ha d fallen and , by t he midd le of t he suc e«<! lIlg Cent tIr)·, a new giant had arisen " 'hieh was 10 absorb all the previo us empires. This ,,-as Persi:>.. I n ~-I6 the Lyd ian empire fell and t he G reat King Darius overran Asia M inor (furtey ). One by' One l he Gr=k cities along the eea" fell to t he Persi ans. Some. in deSf"' nll ion , t ook 10 the sea . lne P"""""ans, like l he kg"ndal} Aene a> . crossed the Aegean and t he Adriatic and fi na lly' settled al rhe colony of Alalia in ' Corsica . How,,'er Ihey were moved on by the F.lru.ca ns in ~35 and ult imalely joined the colon y' of !o. iassilia (.br~ sc illes) on the southern coast of France In ~ tO, whe n all the islands along t he co.ast of A.ia . hoor were in Persian hands. Dariu s in'aded E urope . Pushing u p t he west coast of the Blac k Sea, he cro>;,cd t he Danu be and imade d Scythia, Next T hraee was o verru n and .-tacedo niu forced to submit. Only 'I'hessaly now , «x,d hel ween t he Greek states and Persia. In 500 the Greek slate, in Asia , I m" r, led by Mil" IU' , revolte d and looked for help from t he wes t . Athens and Eretr ia on the wes t CQ;lSt uf Huboe a se nt expe ditionary fo rces to Ionia which res ulted in t he saet inll end bur ning of Sardis, capi tal of t he Persian san ap~·. T he Persians rUl h l essl~' put down the "" '011 .•li lerlli> was overt hrown and its pnpu lark>ll ooId into d a,'ery, By -194 the revcn " -as over and the Pers,ans prepat'N for a pumnve o f"'dition against GINa . An embassy was se nt (0 G reece demanding eart h and water, the traditional symbols of suhm ission. All hough practically all t he Greek states refused , " .::gina. which ha d t rad ing links wnh t he eaSl , su bm itted . Aegi na lies in the Saronic gulf " nly te n kilometres olf the An ic coaSi and cont rols access to At he n. ' harbouMi. W ith t he Isla n d under Persia n contro l Al hens woul d be: strangled . Aegina was a mem hcr of the Pcloponne sian League and Athens appealed to he r old enemy C le" me nes , The Spartan king to"k up t he Atheni an cause hur nnce aKain he Ca rne int o co nfl ict with his co llealo:ue Dema rat us. The enmit y which had smouldered between the I WO ' ince the abortive at tempr to invad e All iea some t 7 years he f"re now bursl into flame , Cjeomenes laid charges of illegit imacy against his colleague and Dema ratus " 'as depmcd. T he fonner king fled GR'eCe and toot ..,fuge wil h the l' eMilans . Cleomenes, freed of his partner, forcibly ..,turned A'gina 10 its former loy'allies and pa tched u p an alliaOCe ,,-ith Athens agai m l the t hreatened lOva,ion . T he PeMiians om"iously in_ lended only a lim iled puniti"e o peration agalOst At hens and l':.-etria which had aid ed t he loman eevon. I n 490 the P ersia'" launched a seaborne anack . E etria was sacked and the r llcct moved dow n 10 t he ba~' of .' laratoon ..,ady for 1he sIri ke agains t Athens. The Al henians scm a ru nner 10 Sparta and marched QU I 10 meet the inva ders. W hat ha ppened at Uarathon isconfused and t he tru th will pro ba b ly ne'"er be known . The S partans delayed their march be cause they were ecl ebn ting a resli val and ar rived 100 late fo r t he batt leo T o t he ir ast onishment they di scovered lhal the At he nians bad decisive ly defeated Ihe Persia ns and dr iven t hem Out of Attica. The defeat at Maratho n serve d onl y 10 in itat e t he Persia ns. All knew fha t t he matl el WIS unsettled, but it was te n years hefore a """ontJ arternpr " as matJe" [n t he meamime Athens was a ble to build u p he r lleel u nt il it ",as eq uai lOr he combmed fleels of all tbe ot her Greek stales. X"hen it became obvious t ha t the Persi.an in" sion was imm ine nt. a C)f1g"'ss was as5Cm bled at the i.thmus of U>rlnlh 10 try 10 'el tl e fhe imCTnal d ifrere ncn of the G reet Slates SO t ha t they oould present a united front. In l~ sprmg of 480 BC lhe Persian t ing Xe n:es, accompanied b)" D~ mar ­ alUt, the deposed king of Spar1a. crossed the He llespont. H it vase army advanced on (irec<.--e " il h t he fleet fo llowing along t he coast. The ann y fo rced its Ih",ug h T hrace and down into . Iacedo ni. , bui ldi ng u p the road a. u advan"f:d, Herodotu s says t hat th~ Th racia ns we re >0 o ve rawed that even in hi. o wn day they wo uld not dig or 80W the area th roug h which the army pa ssed , "'.j' The P cr sian a rmy T he ancient Greeks believed t hu! Xerxes' arm)' n umbered t hree m illion plus camp followers_ Herodotus gives t he total as fIve and a quarter million , bUI he is clearly a linle scept ical about how such an ar my could be fed, AI the end of the t92OS, General Si r Frederick .l aurice made a detailed stud )' of Xerxes' route fro m the Helksronl, examining in pa nicu lar the pro bk m of water su pply, and concluded that t he P enian arm y could not ha '"e numbered more lha n 2r O,ooo me n plus n ,ooo animal•. " ~ms probablethallhe rain fan allhi t lime ,,-as conside ra bl)' hig her l ha n today' ( <cc p . 157), t hn efore these figu res could be mcreased shghtly. Even so, t he fiKU re could hardly have been over 1 ~0,ooo. O f this number about three-qua rlen would ha'"e been com batants" The !'ersi an ar my was a polyglot affair d rawn from all qu aners of a ,'ast em pire . L ike the Romans, t he Pers ians de _ manded Iroops from Iheir su biect races. The VBS! majo rit y of t he Persian army were lig ht- armed skir mishers, eit her archers f" ,m ce ntral Asia or javeli neers fro m the easter n M edi ter ran ea n, T he I' e" ian. and M edea who formed the nucleus " f t he arm y' w"re I""se ca ps, mult k olou red. long-sleeved tunics (be neat h which was a scale shir t) and hreeches. T hey carried wicker shield. , proha !> l)" L "Overcd with hide, wh ich were
  • T H E C IT Y ST ATES &>0-360 lie TH E S T ATIS AT W AR som e w hat SIm ila r in a ppeara nce (0 the U." eOliafl . hid d., this was a ce ntralhand grip tv pc on It, wh ich was stitched a metal 00"•. Their weapons co nsrsred of a 'ho rt sp~3 r . bou t zm in le n gt h, a lu ng composite lin'" with hronz e- lippe d ITcd arruws and . dai/;ger w h ich hu n g on the rig ht . ide, The elite of t he !' eThlan anny werC rhc klll g '6 pe rsonal Ix>dygu a rd, the 10,000 Im mort als, '" called he~au,e thei r st rengt h w a, alw ays kept up to t hi, numhe r. T h" 'I cq uipm< differed frum 'nl orher I'er. ian, o nly in t he ri ~h ne" of it, a~~"utre menlS. The l'er. ian cavalry wa, armed in t he same fa ' hio n as the infant ry ex~ ..pt that s"me wore met al helm" " . l lemdm u, cla,ms thaI the Per, ian cavalry n umbe red &>,000, bul 8,<XXl rna)' be a mo re reason able es t imate . H erodo tus gIves t he size "f the Persia n flee t as t.,207 triremes, includ ing 300 I' hoe nician "es,d" 200 Egypt ian and 290 loma n Greek It ,eems pro ba bl.. t hat the his toria n i. he re rec",<l ing the pap<: r ' !lengt h of the Pe rs ian . le.1iterranean fleet and nm Ihe operational n umber , as it is dea r from the later engagement ' that the " ersian . d id nm have a ma"ive n umerical superiorit y The prillcipal ves",1 "f t he day was t he' tr ireme. Thi. was a galley propdled by about t 70 00" al three di fferent le"ek At t he fro nt of t h~ ship, at water level, wa' a hrnnze- pJated bea k whic h Was used to ho le and . ink enem y ship,. T hi, t n'" of ship, varyi ng o nly sup....ficially , wa, used by all t he M edit erraneun tleets of t he time, Aut hese galleys carried a com plemmt of ma rines WOO"" lob It was to t ry til hoard and capture t he enemy shi ps . G reek ships carried ten bo plite, and li,ur archers, wheIT a' t he Io nian ships each carrie d 30 10 ,*0 ma rines. T he. e m arines we re armed mainl y wit h spea rs, javelins and poleaxes . crosse d the Hellespont. Tllese force. ~-uul d ha"e Ileld tile na rrow passes 10 l he south and w~.., t uf . Iuunt Olympu, inde fin irely. Hut , for "o rne reaS<lIl-pcrha ps because the troop, d id like fig hting so far trom home-t his fo r .... ard po.it io n was aoando n~"tl , I k rod" t u, .o ~gest. t ha I the army wit hd rew be cause t he Persian fifth ~~,] um n was alread y opcrarmg in the area and rhe "outhern G reeks felt they could nor trust t heir no nhern allie•. H erodutus also mentions the fear that Ihe Pers ian fleet m ight outfl ank them and land t roops fu nhe r dow n t he coast. In the unrest ricred area alo ng t h" ~oaSl the G reek fleet could not g uaranI"" to S1Up the Persians ct.)ing Ihis an d il was prol>ahly the main rea..m for the w,thdraw·aL T Il~..,sa l y was a ba ndo ned. Thi. had ",rinus rep<:reussiuns among th e alh" , . . any of the non he rn I" wn, be lieved t ha t Sp una only inte nded 10 make her real stand at t he is!h mu s of ("-"rinth, and in fa" 1 many uf t ile l' e1o pn nn" . ian, open l~' advocated thIS line. As a res ult m any of t he northern ro wn s decided to suomit. In "uk r 10 halt t his defect ion it Wa' tinally' d..cided to m "ke a 't and al Thermop d "e, a place wr.o. " name has become a bywo rd for heroism. ,I<" ,,' A The d efe n ce o f G r eece F a<:ed with inva.ion, Athens and S parta ~"a<'l sP'O!'rmon{arche< Tn,. proboblv _ , . an -lmmo<'oI' , """ 011fle 10.(l(X} ha d buried rh.... d ilfncn"es, Athens had e",. p"'",,,,1 bod~Iu.,d. of 'Il<> Per••an k,.... eve n go ne .0 far a. to pla"c h.... ent ire F,om s...... 511' "" nw", Be N""" In the Lo uvre military strength, ship. a. well as me n, Pa,,, und er S pan an command . It w'a. decide d Ul st<>p tile Persia n ar m y at t he Abova 1 2 3 Two a"owneadsar<l ••I,,,,,,""01 fl"'" T em pe Gorge, a nar row' defil e at the MOl.t hon B""s~ Mu","um h••"lrr;>m suuth end of , o unt O lympus , A furce ,... '1." stand ' hillock.t Th" nT>opyl"" Nal",,,,,1 of ro.coo hopfire s was despa tc hed and A!cn_ lOij,cal M u,,"um , Ar"""" S P."" .. in p"'it ion he fo re Ihe Persians Ilad eve n sh..-d boss from Sarno. ,, "'''ow ._ . Ea'tem ""I""'t po...,!;Jly PI'OM"".n, !oor>d a, Probobly I,,,,,, ,r.e boll.. 01 M.ralllon The <!ed ,caMn fNds ·To Z"". the Atllen,,,no rlIKliu,. thol.., 'iJO'l. tro<n t he Mede.' Ol~"'p .. Archaoolog ,c.t Mu,,",,m, Olympia '3
  • GR EECE A:-.: n .'I.1AC f: DO :--J I A At T hermopylae the mou ntains come in cl",e to the sea, leaving only tWO possible ro ute! south -one along t he CNS! and the (Mher a vcry di fficult route over the mountains . T oda y t here is a ma rshy plain berween t he hills and the sea, brou ght about by the silting of the ri,·cr Sperchrius ; in t he ~th ~n1Ur)· tIC t here was only a nalTow passage between the hills and the sea. Th ese hills, the Callidromus ra nge, streich in an easl-wnl direcnon down t he ecase and al t hrtt points ther co me very dose: to the sea . T he lint of t bese (t he west gate) is at the very beginning of the pass. Herodotus descr ibes t his as so narro"· lhat t here was only roo m for a single cartway. Here the hills are not very high and could easily be crossed. Beyond t he wnl gat e the pass wide ns. Here was situated the and ent vilb ge of Anthela T wo and a half kilometres beyond the west gate lay the village of The rmopylae, named after the hot springs which still rise there today. T he calcium car bonate in these ther mal spr ings gives t he land· scapc t he appear ance of cru sty grey rock. A great cl iff, know n as Zastano , to wers nearly r.ocorn above Thermopylae_ '4 Th is cliff is the ke~· to t he pass . A shon distance be}·ond the cliff a spur jUls out towards the sea (t his is t he m iddle pass). Along t his spur t he people of Phocis had const ructed a ..-all st re tc hing OU t into l he manM 10 stop the Malians in,.,.d_ ing Iheir CO!.Inlry. An }one ",~shing to bn'lss this poi nl ....oeld neve to neg0nate the Zan ano cliff_About t hree kilometres fan her along the pass is a t hIrd narm'" poi nt (Ihe east gate) wit h t he ancient ,-mage of .. lpe ni built on a spur jut ting out into the mars hes . Here t he hills are low and easy to CIo. s. As me nt ione d before, th ere ....as anot her stee p and d ifficult route into cent ral Greece at the CS t end of Ihe range. T his rout e follo s the valle}" of the Asopu s, which passes t hrough a precip itous gorge. T oday the railway and road bot h follow th is route , th e for mer passing t hrough a tunnel on th e we, t . ide of t he gorge, whilst th e lalter climb. up th e hillside "n t he east of the ravine and then runs over t he hills above t he gorg e. T his route was guar ded by t he ancient citadel of Trac hi. built on top or t he stee p cliff. overlooking the ..-est side of the gor ge. "So commander " 'ou ld auempr to force a passage at Ihis point in thefaeeoCdetermined and wellorganised opposition_ .- shun d istance off the coast lies t he long island of Euboea, which st retehe, for 1 7 ~ km in a south-eas te rly di rection, leaving onl)· a narro.... channel bet....een {he isla nd and the mainland . Here, unlike t he original position a{ T empe , i{ "as posMblr for Ihe Grttk tlerI: 10 p~_ '·ent the Pen ian na'-y bypass ing the G rttk army on the mainland . This, lhen, ....al t he area .,,-here the Grttks elected to halt t he Persian ad.-ancr _ An edvance guard ....a s imme di alely sent out to man the pass until tbe rest of t he army could be bro ught up. Cleomenes had met a violent end .e'"en years earlier and had bee n succeeded by his you nger brot her Leonid as. It .... as Ihis new Spart an king who marched nort h .... it h hi. h..,dyguard of 300, th e h'ppm , to hold t he pa•• a_l ow A model 01 Il"Ie p. .. 31 Trn.,rnopyl... o. ,t prob 30'" 3l>p"a'lld c 500 Be. Tho Po,...,.,. "",comped i~ I'" pla n on " '" 1011 T"'" 010<:"", w. ~ o :A) I nd Il"Ie ~; nock _ . _ 1"" _~ S Pl'''a~ . m_ lh, ,, I t $I.M : 6) ..
  • TH E CITY ST AT ES 800- 360 Be THE STATES AT WAR With the Spartans were 2,800 other Peloponnesians. The war memoria l seen by H erodotus at Thermopylae records 4,000 Peloponnesians -900 more t han he lim ; t his may include the hetou who accompanied every S partan army . As they advanced nort hward t hey were joined by 100 T hespians and 400 T hebans. T his army was finally swelled by 1,000 Phocians and t he compl ete armyofthe Locria ns. Each grou p served under its own Slraugos, or gener al. T he G t eek hoplite used a spear abour 2_5m long , giving him the advantage in reach ov er his Per sian opponent. He was heavily armed with a round shiel d so-coon in diameter , a cuirass, helmet and greaves (leg gu ards). He also carrie d a sword which he would only use if his spear broke, He fought in phalanx, or format ion, about eight ranks deep. This phalanx was probably organised in unit s of 100 (lac/wi) whi ch were subdivided into four sm aller un its, each of three files of eight plus a rear-rank officer. The officer comm and ing each file fought in the front ran k. This system may have varie d slightly from state to Slate, and the S pan ans seem 10 have confused t he issue by applyi ng the name of lochos to t he five major d ivisions of t heir army (see p. 41) The soldiers who joined Leonidas at T hermopylae wer e told that the;: were on ly t he advance guard for the rest of t he army. When they reached the pass they established a supp ly base in the village of Alpen; at the east gate and took u p their position at the m id dle gate T hey then set about repair ing the wall which t he Phocians had built. T his wall was exca vated ju st before Ihe Second World Wat; remains were discovered on ly on the top of t he ridge. Th e wall started with a tower and t hen zigzagged do wn t he hill , It m ust have com inued across t he level ground and probably fini shed with another tower in the ma rshe s, There is a narrow gateway next to t he tower on t he r idge, and H erodot us claim s there wer e severa l more. T he 1,000 Phocians wer e placed on top of t he mountain to counter any Persian attempt to tu m t he Spa rtan position by forcing t heir wa;: up t he Asop us valley. The combi ned G r eek fleet, consist ing of 21t tri remes, took up position at Atte misium at t he no rth end of Euboea. Of t hese 127 were from Athens. This was not t he tota l m USter -ctarer, a further 80 shi ps were sent to Artemisium , of which 53 were Athe nian. T hey had been held back i n case the Persian fleet trie d to sail round Euboea , Thi~ num ber was swelled by volunt eers fro m Greek cities in Italy and desert ions from Greek i~ land~ held by t he Persians to br ing the tota l u p t o 368 , of which almost half were Athenian. The Gre ek fleet, like the army, wa~ under t he overall comma nd of a Sp art an, Eurybiad as, whilst each of the squadrons from t he variou~ cities was under the com mand of its own adm iral. The At henian fleet was co mm and ed by t he wily T'hemistocles, who had played suc h an important part ill building up t he Athenian nav y. The Gteek fleet, as it could t ravel fast er , may have taken up its position at Below The p ••" oj Th e r m o ~ y l . e seen from {he 'Ia.t 'le nd' hillo c'. The cl,fls of Za'ta no, towering ne,rly 1.000m o" er Tlw mopylae, rise on the left. The aoe;ool coastli ne wou ld ~ a y e be-e n just {o thO r;ghl ol lhe mod ern (oad "
  • GREECE A:-: D MAC ED O~Lo • J ' AO' ' ,V1" MTl"' S ' O ~ "'Jill'"" .....1I...~ GUlF ' ,~"" L <; _ BO EOTIA '_ •• • A i " ,,'M • - '",'''''~' • • ." - • • . rR,,, • • • ~ ., / .I
  • T ilE C I T Y S TATES 800- 360 80:; T HE S TATES AT WA H lmemisium shun h' before t he land force reached Thermopylae . The site of the lemple of Anemi. , from " 'hich Artemnrum go!: in name, has 00'" been established with rea 'C<1llbk certainty. hs posil io n is IlUu1'ed by the ehapel of .~ Gcorgios o n the hiD. beI",een A.mini and Kur bat " . T he Greek a,nchon.ge can i1w:rdo~ be identifie d as me broad, o pe n beach II PC"'ki Bay, ",'hi<.:h is io.kall > suited foc the pllrJlOSe. · I);'esl of Pe"ki lhe beadlo str etch oul in an almost un broke n line along t he non h coast of E uboca , and t he Greek shi!>S "u,J1d have had am ple space to beach in a single line . Lookoul posn we re ""lab-lished o n Ille lIill•. O ne of these mu.t certainly ha"e been placed abo" e Cape ....rtemision , len kilometres cast of Pe"1<i Bay. Anoi ller wa, posted on Ihe island of Skiathos , which he s four kilometre' off [he headland ,)1' Mag ne.ia, A. t he I'e r_ si.n flcet sa iled south it wo uld have to pa" betwee n Skiarhos and the m ainl and in order til enter the Eu boean channel. X'hen the Pe..ian. were sighted, t he lookout s on Skialho. would signal with ~a~ ...n. and the observancn post above Cape An emi.ion woutd relay the message to t he flcet at Pe,'ki. Three .hi!>S were also 1X"led al Skialhos to keep "" atch in case conditions were uesuirable for sigmlli ng, Two Iighl galley., o ne stalioned at P~'ki and the O1hct at 1'hcrmopylae, were used to maintai n commumcanoas between t he land and 1ft forces. Ha,;ng cstablished the'r position. t he t.ired<. ""tl ed down 10 a"'ait t he ani","! of the Persians. XerJl e. adva n ces into Greece Xerxes, ~an ",,'hile. was at Therm.. (modern Saloniki) with both t he fled and the army . When he advanoc:d imo The.saly the twOarm. of hi. force would be ..,paIlted ..nd would o nly be able 10 rejoi n at the E u boean channel. At Therm a t he tinal plan. for the mv asion of the pemnsula would ha"e been wor ked out. A. t he army moved mm e slo", ly, it <ct OUI I I days before t he fleet. T he tW Ofo rces probably agre ed to meet ~" Map 01 ""ntral G'ftCO ' how, ng ,hot ' hoo" e 01 ""Of. The "",n fo ul n a re Cfqm Ancien' pia"" names a"" displ aYed on lla'oo COIl"'" T"'s d ,<!,tlCloon .. ma de 'hr~ho<J' ,~- '''''wn '" in the .1&lian gulf o n the loort eent h da y, after Ihe arm y had secured ancoorago there fu r t he fleel. Xerxes al read~' knew lhal the pesses into Thessal)" we~ no! occupied and he entered lhe plain ....-n hour o pposit ion. A, he ad ''aOCCd sout h his S<.'OUts informed him IMl lhe Span ans ...-ere holding the pa ss al Thcrmop)"lac . Herodotus reOON' l he " " ,If )' lhallhe Great K ing .ent OUI a horseman to reco nnoi t re lhe Gred< posillon. T hil SCOul adv'anoc:d to a posit ion from ",'hich he could sec l he ....'all across Ihe m idd le gale but ....'15 una ble to see into the Greek camp. It .... as the Spanan da)' for dUly. The La<.-edaemonians ha d piled l heir arm. outside: the wall and we re eithe r stripped olf eXelciSlOg o r combing their long hair. When Xerxes heard this he called D em aut u< to a. k him wha t it meant. T he exiled king exp lained t ha t it was the Spa rt an custo m to comll thei r ha ir be fore pun inll their lives at risk, T his .tor)' is probably a pocr yphal, bUl it illust rates the a 'w in which Ihe Spar tan s were held by t herr fello w Greeks. Xerxes reac hed Ihe plain of Lami a 14 days after Ieavmg Thcnna. He had cove red the 2llo km al lhe rate of 2Okm. day . The a rmy camped in fr om of Tl1Ichis and ,, '.i ted for the fleet to join them. Tbe Persian na" l had sem out len fast galln 'S to ~noilre the COUI. These ed vanced as far as Skiathos u nnoIiced and puun«d on t he llu-ee Greek galk)'S posted the-re 10 keep .... alch , t'hen lhe lookouts o n t he island signalled to rhe IIttt at Pevki, Herodotus claims rhat t he G reeks panicked and ..... ithd re w down the cha nnel 10 Cha.lcis, lea'lOg the Spanan /lank uncovered. Before re jC<; ing this o ur of hand, it mUst be remembered IMI lir e signalling at this time coul d only conve y a single message (see p . 275) and the Grttks m a)" have thought the d readed Persians were upon them , T he main Pe rsian fleet sailed Ircm T herma on the r.... elfl h day afte r the arm y had left. It rca ched rhe area of Keram idhi ju", nort h of Ca p" l'on and st" p ped for t he nig ht. l lere the be ac hes are ver y sp arse an d only the first arrivals could be pu lled cle ar of the .....ate r, Ihe res t ha' ing to r ide al ancho r eijl:hl de ep. It was a clear. calm night but at dawn a storm got up and many of the ships were d u lled on the rock)' T he sto r m lasted for three da)'S, but o n the fo urt h tlK: fleet ....... ..ble I" SCI OUI ap,in , round l he promonh>ry of . 1:ag nes ia and bea<: h at Aphe l"". On t he second da r of Ihe S10nn the watchen on the he igh.. of Euboca had informed the Greek flttl of t he shipwreck of rhe Persian lleel . Encouraged by this ne.n t he Greek shi ps returned 10 l hei r original Slation al Anemisium, Thi. ra-~Sl1gC' has been called into question b)' hiSlorians, and wit h some just ificalion. It is possibl~ tha t the look_ "Uti o n Skial hos, if they were still there aflcr the capture of the t hree ships, m,ght have seen a .....reck o r t ....'o. How_ evcr , even o n the c1earesl of days il would have been impossible to sec a wrecked galley frum a di S1an~e of aboUI ten kilomet re. , let alone in a storm . T he)' ~"u l d Iherefo re ha"e had no idea of the extent of t ile dam age. T his pan of rhe story rs pro ba bly an attempt ttl ace..sunt for I he G r eek fleet be ing back at Arte mi.ium whe n t he Persians reached Aphetae. 'I'he retreat 10 Chak is is probably a complete fiction. Herodotus has also prullably naggerated Ihe effeCl of the st"nn , Ihe P ersian fleet ",IS probabl>' ne " er as hig as he claimed. He kne..... l ru. t l he fleet at A phetse did not grea tl y outnumber the Greeks, so he has u ied 10 reduce il to a more real istic size by wreding a large pan of it in the storm. He cal mly ....TCI."k. anulher zoo galle>'s only a rouple of da~', later . COISt. The ba ilie for Thermo p ylae It was well int" August when Xerxc-s reacbed the plain of Lamia, He hope d lhat when his ann)' .....as assemhled . its sheer size would cause the Greeks in the pass to Iosc hean and dcs,," their polIS . The Great K ing waited for fou r da ys, probabl y anucipanng the arrival of the lIeel . W he n Ihe)' did not show up, and rhe G r«l:s remained obSlinatel)' loo!!ed in t he pass, he ral her flamboyantly orde red for....ard his Medes and Cjssians (who wele , im ilarly ar med . but the lat ter wo re turbans) , wil h o rde .. to 'brinll: t hem hack alive', The M cdes launched a ,eric, of cha rges whic h failed to make any im_ pr~sion on Ihe G reek s. W hen Xerxes law lhal t ile Greeks were holding firm. he .ounded the recall and scm forward hi, pe rsonal bod yguard, t he Imm ort als, led hy their com ma nder H ydarne• . Ten "
  • GREECE ....!';I) .iACEDO~IA thou sa nd " ra"k troops " f the g reate$t ar m y that the ,,'mid had ever seen mUl'hed out w do the ir kin !!'. hiddinl!' ' ) '0 tho'" wlm wat"hed from the Pcrs ian l-amp a, they moved fo r"o ard, il m us t Ita"e seemed imp"", iblc that they could fail. ...., tM I mmonals ad"aill-cd. the Sparta rrs p",,,,,d th rough 1M "-all 10 m«1 t hem , For all Ihe aura that sUJ'To u nJcd t he Immort al••.tbeycould achieve not Itin.o: agamSlthe heavily armed Spa rl aos, III t he wntincd ' pace of t he !Xl"' t heir numbe r. were of no ad'amage and. hoeeause thei r spears were .llOrler t itan tho<.c of tltc Greeks. Ihey " 'CTe unablc to enllage t hem at dose quarters. Herod olU~ he re rec ords t he f....oun le Spanan Irick of preten<ling to run aWa}'and IMn lUm mg and catching t he pUT'lumg cnemy unawa r"", but it seem, most unltkclv that this manoeuvre could have lx-en carried out in t he'c ,"nd ition' and in ,uc h a cram pe d space. Also, as the {,reeks ,, 'crc lighting a dd en.i,·c acuon. it was ",..,mial t hai rite}' kepi: l he it format ion ; any breaktng of rank. ....ould ha "e presemcd the Pen;an. with thei r dun"e. On Ih... follOWing day Ih... I' e...ian. at ta" ked , Each Gr""k l'<.lm ingem fought t hem in tum Alt hough a few Grech had been killc<l , at the en..! oft he day the I'e"ian, were no nearer their object ive, The [>er. i a n fleet arrivlC'll The Pe...ian flttt arrived at Aphctac 16 Ja~'s afrer t he army had left Therma, T he . ite ,,' her~ rhe !leel beached is uncertain: Herod otus saysl hal it wa,ab<xl[ 80 Slad~$ ( I ~ km;' from Artemi,ium and had a good supply of water , About ~o stllde' must he interpreted as between 70 and 90 ' tad," ( t 3-17km ). T hi, lim its the .ite 10 Oliw n or Plalama flay . W'. K . Prrrchen, who ha s .pent man y years I..mping over Greek haulefiel d" con", nei ngl}' argun in fa"(lIl r of the PIatania ' ite hoecarn;e of its large r water supply , !'latania Ba~' eun,i.rs of a ""rin of 'ma ll heach~-s se parated b~' rocky I'romontnrie'. The large, t of the'c beaches i' nnlv ahoU! 450 m lo ng. T hi, beach, whic h is just we.t of Plalani.., has a , pri ng. I' lat a"ia it self has a small Uream , Siroc~ it ,,'a, cs.~m ial fo r the P ersiaes to beach tMir galle)'. if lhe y ...-ere OOtlO lose any more 10t he weather, they wou1<l ha ,-e needed a considera ble ra space In ac""m m",date the ",h"l~ !leer. xone " f the be aches at ['Iat ania i, deep cn" ullh for mnre than nne line uf ,hi p. , If the Ik el we re onlj' 450 strong. al1"w_ ing a m1llimum of j m pe r . hi p the line wo uld st retch fo r mull: tha n rhree kilo- met res. Platania Bay it self could onl~' hol d aoout Ko galleys. and lite boay totbe ...-es t about 6 ~ , Thrs mean_ t haI the res t of l he !l""t mu. t have been beached . probably squmlron hy "-lu" dn1l1, along the t iny tx'achcs tn the w" , t "I' P latania st retching down as far as Oliw n Hay six kilomerre. west of Plalania , These bc ac hes arc very narrow and il would nnlj' have been pl"sible ro pull rhe stem of l he .hlp ck ;lr of lite water , The be aches . lope <luit e ste.:ply at lhe ...- ater ·, ed~. which wo uld mean that the prows of l he gall eys 'Hlu ld ha"e bee n eomplCl ely allu," t, Thi, wa, prohahly "o rmal pract ice whcn hattie wa< im mi nent, allo wing the ship, ro he launched easily and quicl<h' , T he supplv ships were probabl~' moored JUS t o lfshore. T he Greeb o n t he wuth side of t he cha nnel ha d one g rea t ad" antage over t hei r ad,·~rs.aries o n the nort h. 1'01 most of the day the ha ze makes ir imp""sible to see acros s the c ha nnel f",m t he north. " 'herea, one gets a perfect view frnm the s",uh side . So the ( ir ecks cou ld observe the Pe" ian m,)'ement , w[{hnut being se en t hem!'c1,·cs. and t he y USl"d t his to great elfcct. The p""ian' feared that , if Ihey attal'ked , the (;reeks would withdraw inl<1 the narrOW S "f t he Eub<>can ch annel "' file l ok m to the ea" lI ere, "'here the narrow!' arc o nlv t hree kilom erres " 'ide, t he}' could either stand and tig hl o r '<lip a...--a.}-. T he Greeks had chosen t hei r pl><illon well. fo r this escape rout" ...... alway.ope nto l he m , T he Persian. m uld har<l ly sail dow n the channel before the)' haJ destroy ed t he Greek fo rce. a. the ( ,reeb could then anac'l< the rea r half of the fleet when t h,' front half was alread~' in the channel. T he Pe.. tans t herefore decided to rry to rum Ihe G reek positton by' "C nd mg a force around Eu boca to occupy l he"hanncl, On Ihe afternoon of their arrival they dl-spatehc.:l 200 ~hi J"$ to cru,'lC o lf the island of Skiat hos . appa r~ndy guardinl! lhe , ha rmel for t he stragglers whl>were st ill co m ing in. (T he figure or 200 shou ld he treated with eaut inn.) The,e Ihen sailed round hehind t he i.land an d . keeping sufficient ly far o ut to se a to rem ain out of sighl of the watch",,'t above Cape Ancmi. ion. 'lei off down Ihe cast e03M of Euboea. T he Greek Ioo!<ou r posl on Sk,arhos had "'0 . ""ow 1.101> ng ' '''' ' oill"v" posw"n, ollhe ""'" for"",, du"nQ 'he ba!lle tor thermODvl.. VO A L ;das 6 X eo,, erxe" C Gree , fleet 0 Pe",an t"' l The Spa' ta n "."" aJ n"""""'PIIH has beCome • b......"., fo< _(>Ism
  • THE CITY STATES 800-360 Be THE STATES A T WAR ob'iously been a bandoned as the G reeks only learned whar hud ha ppe ned fro m a deserter Th is post had ['robably bcen withdraw n after the t hree warch ships at rhe i, land had bee n captured. T be de serte r who informed the Greeks was a man calle d Seyll ias. rhe greatest diver of his day. II e had escaped by swimmingl he Euboca nch anncl. T he Greeks imme diardy ,em a fast sh ip dow" t hro ug h t he Euripus to in[ot m the 53 Athenian ship s which had been hdd back in anticipation of the Persi an move. F ifteen Per>lan ships had be en delayed at their anchorage farther up the ,0051 and did nol set out {() j", n rhe mai n fleet at ipherae unt il lon g afrer t he other ships had left. T hese late comers did not reach thc channel betw een Skiathos and the mainland unril late 111 the afte rnoon , W lhe ir view we,t wa, blind ed by t he hetl glare of t he sett ing sun . T hey failed to ,ee tht ir com pani on s in the shadows at Platania Bay bU I did ,ee the G reek 'e"eb shining in lhe evemn g sun 10 t he south- west. .' li <taking t he m for t he v Persian navy , the y held their ,'ourse and sailed stt aig ht in to t he arms of t he Greeb, T hi, i, ll1leres t ing as it lim its the exten t of the Pcr,ian anchorage to rhe e",1. If Ihere had Ix'en any , hip, e"t of Pla tan ia they were bou nd to h e seen, wherea< t he anchora ge at I'lat ania wa< shielded by a promontory at t he eas t en d, Unfo nun" td y, Hcrodotu,' para llel diar ies for t he fleel an d army hreak down al lhi, point and he appears to lo <e two days. -t he tleet arrived at Aphctac on the six teenth day after the army set out fwm T her ma . The Cvents ofth is and the succeedi ng t hree day, 'eem 10 have heen condenscd into two days. A. H.. Bum in his book Pa,<i" ""d Ihe (heeks h,,, made' a detailed ex"mination " f th~se event, and suggeste d a recom truetion which has generally heen follo wed he re The next day (the seventeenth) the Pen; ians, who wCle waiting for t hclI detal hmenl lO round Eu hoea , made no attempt to attack t he Greek fleet. I .ale in the afternoon t he (;reeks lau nched t heir ships and rowed ou t into t he channel, planning o n a limite d engagement to te,t the enemy's meltIe and ge t ,orne experience of Iheir tac tics 'X'hen t he Pc"ians Sa'" t he Greek fleet approa ching, they put to sea. The Greeks had probahly been rowing in a diamond form ation. The enem y ships, purting o ut from rhcit '·"rious anc horages, tried lom<' Iheir superior num ber s and greater manoeuvrability lO surround t hem. A< Ihe enemy ,hips approac hed, t he G reek ships, acting on a signal from Eurvbiadas' f1ag,h ip , turne d t heir prows outwards, at the ,ame t ime drawing t beir sterns together to form a cird e. T he n, on a seco nd signal, t hey cha rged the light er Persian ships head on. The Persians, who ha d expect ed an easy viclOry, had walked st raight into t he trap. Having mo vcd right indo,e on t he Greek ships, th~y were now una ble to manoeuvre and use t bei r supe rior seamanshi p; they were forced to lig ht o n t he G reek lerms. X'hen, shonly afterwa rds, darkness began 10 descend t he ban le was btoken off, T he G reeks mwed back 10 Anem isium elat ed wit h t heir su ects, - they had capture d 30 Below The ,lte ot the Per> on a"c ~U!ag" "' PI..""" Bay at Ihe Southern lip of t he Magne,i an p ,o m o ~ t "'y . About 30 qal reys we re Moc hed here. The ,emai~de r w ere , tru ~Q o u1 a 'o~g smalle r bys to the west as far as O llzu ~ 8,y '9
  • GR EECE AND M AC EDON IA enem y vessels and damaged or sunk several mo r e, Herodo{u~ does not state the Greek losses hu t se veral of their ,hips must have be en sunk . T hat night a violent s<m'we'ler sprang up accom pa nied by to rrent ial rain . T he wind blew t he wrecka>:e from t he battle into the Pers ian ancho rages and it hecarne entangled in the ,hip" whic h were only half beache d , Alt ho ugh t he fleet at Aphetae suffere d con'iderahly , t he ir troub les wer e as nothin>: compared with the plight of th eir companio n, tr ying to round t he southern end of Euhoea . They ....·ere caught by Ihe fu ll fo rce of the storm and das hed on 10 the rock y Coa~t at the SOUl h end of the island. Herodotus , tates that t he follow ing morning the 53 At henian sh ips which had be en left to watch the southern end ofEu hoea saile d into Anemisium hring_ ing the news of the total destruction of t he PelSian detachment . T h is is impossible and clearly a day has Ix..,n loS!. I n all likel ihood no t hing happened on t his day' as both sides re paired their sto rm damage. It w(mld be t he following morning, t he ni net eenth, that the Alhenian sh ips arrived bringing tbe new~ of t he shipw reck . L ate that afternoon t he reinforced Grttk lIeet o nce more rowed OUI into the channeL Thi, time , probably because of t he haze, t hey managed to cross the channel unobserved and swooped upon t he C ilician galley's which were st ill at thei r moori ngs, destro yed some of the ,hip" and then with drew into t he dusk It i, poss ible that t he Cilician squadro n was moore d in Olizon Rayand that the Greek Beet was able to sail unohserved past Cape Griba , roun d the we' tern head lan d and into t he hav to attack the Cilician squad ron before it co uld be manned , T his is feasible as they would have been approaching out of the setting ,un. The en d of T hc rm op r la c M ea nwhi le, at Thcrmopyla c the second day's figh ting had com e to an end. D ay afler day Leon idas had sellt messengers ,oulh ple ading fo r reinforceme nt s but it was no w clear t ha t none were coming. The Spa rtans were o n their o wn and their code of honour express ly forbadj; t hem to de, ert t heir posts. Xerxes and his advi'e rs had pro ba bly bee n aware si nc soon after their arrival t hat the re e was a route ove r the mountai n whIch could be used to o utflank the Spartans in Ihe pass. T he Call id rom us mountain is laced wit h paths va ryin g from st eep and narrow goat tracks to fairly wide paths. T he tro u ble wa , that the mountain was de m el y fores ted and it wou ld he impossible to find o ne's way across without a guide. T oday, whe n a g reat d cal of deforestation has taken place, it is st ill easy to lose one's way u p thcre, even in daylight . At last the Persians found a local pe~sant nam ed Ephialtes who informed them that t here was indeed a ro ut e know n as t he Anopa ea path, and that fo r a price he wou ld lead them across. ThaI night, as soon a, it was dark , H yda rnes led the Im mort als o ut of camp and, wit h Ephialtes showing t he way, hegan t he ascent oftbe mountain. Be low T h~ v,ew a clOSS the Euooe an ch a on", hom lhe Athe n '8n DoM ion at Pevk; B8y. The Pe";80 ancho'age to the fight of cent,e DO the oppoS ite 'ide of the , ,,ait i' as deafly v i s i bl~ as it to Ihe Gree k, w "
  • TH E CIT Y STATES 800-360 lie T HE STATES AT WAR All night long t he Pers ians toi led up the winding pat h until, at last, as t he sky began to grey m the east , the grou nd levelled off and t hey entered a smal! plain . T hey were plodd ing along beneath oak trees. Last year's leave, lay thick "n the ground and ru stled he ne ath the ir feet. Ahead of thcm there was a movemem and vokes hroke the sile nce , then they saw Greek hopl ite s ha,t ily donning t hcir armour . lI ydarnes asked who these men were, ad ding in consternation, ' Are they S partans? ' T hese were in fact t he t ,000 P bocia'" whom l.c'Onida , had detailed t o cover t he m"untain path , H av mg est ablished their identity, Hydame, arrayed his men for batt le and showered the Ph""ians with arrows. T he Phocians, f"rgett ing their m is_ sion, be came convinced th at they were the Immo na ls' prime larget, wilhdrew to Ihe top of the hill and t here prepared !() ' ell their lives dearly. W il h t he mute d ear the Persians ig nored Ihe l' hocians on the hill and pushe d on over the moumam. The ro Ul e taken by t he ImmonaJs ha' provoked a great deal of debate . In rec ent yea r, P ritchett has made a ve ry de ta iled ' lUd y of t he , it e and has suggest ed a route wh ich se ems to satisfy most of the criteria. He rodotus claim' thal H yda rnes look with him t he men he comm anded, i ,e. Ihe 10 ,000 I mmo r tals. There seems no reason to dou ht t his. If the route were a narrow goat t rack wh ere the men co uld o nly m arc h in single fi le, t hen the co lumn would ha ve str etched ou t for ten kilo metres or m ore. T his i, unacceptable , and Pritchett conclud es thai one m ust be looking fo r a broad path wh ere the so ld ier' could march three o r fo ur ah reaSL There is one po int in Herodotus ' topography which is easy to identify : ' It begi", at the river Asopus wh ich flows th rough the tavine.' T he site of t he Asopus gorge can hard ly he in q ues tion . l ie continu es t hat the Persians crossed the Asopm before start ing the asce nt. Thi, m ndu sively pla~es t hem On t he eas t side of the go rge. T here is a very easy rout e u p the hill,ide axmt o ne kilo metre east of t he Asopu s gorge , T his is both the short est and the easiest route u p t he mountain sid e fro m t he Lamian plai n , l t lead, by wa y " f t he Chalkomata spring to the village of Elcut he rochori, where the re are t he rema in' of an ancient fo rt covering t he begin ning of t he route. Thi~ proves th at t he path was in use in anc ient ll mes. Herodotus de scribe' Ihe Pen ' an, as m arching all night with the m"untain , of the Ocracans on Ihe r ight and those of t he Traehinian, on thcir left. O n me face of it t his i, im possible 10 reco nn le with any oft he suggested ro Uies over t he mou ntains, pa rticularly if t he Pe"ians crossed the Asopus before they started the a,cent , fm Trae his and ,'-Iount Oeta are hoth wes t of t he Asopu, gorge. However, since T her mopy lae itself was in t he terr ito ry of Tr actus and J Iount Octa mus l surcly be included amongst t he mo untains of the Oetaeans, one mu st conclu de t hat the mountains of Trac his include d t he northern pa rt ofthe Call id romus range . T his is admitted ly d um ,y hut there ""em , to be no ot her explanat ion, especially as Herodo tus say s t he P ers ians march ed 'all nig ht ' hetwee n these mount ain s. [f this is t he r ightcxplana lion , l hen the march woul d be in a southerl y d irecti on along the west , ide of !1ount Callidromu" Herodotus also de' cr ihe' t he ro ute as pa" ing along the ha ckxme of t he m{)un~ lain . Thi, is an accurat e de script io n of t he ro ute from E lcuthcrochori across the Ncvrcpohs pla in to t he pass between t he Liathitsa and C allid rom us pcab. Thi , ro ute follows the plateau iu' t hel" w the ridge of the moun tain on the south side .The Ph"cians,a ccord ingto H erodm us, were statio ned in a posit ion from which t hey could defend t he route over the m (mnta ins and the route 10 thei r own count r y. Thi, can he no ot hn place than the Ken opolis plain , w hich lies about Iwo kilometres from t he su mm it of the pass , Here the re is a sm all lake which today drie' out in the summer h ul may not have in ancient t ime' There i, also a spring wh ich would give an ample su ppl y of dr inking wate r for the 1 ,000 hopliles. The pat h from P hoeis joinslhe Anopaea route at t his point; if t he P hocians had taken up their positio'" any neare r t he pa" , they would have Le ft The plain of Nevropolis juS! 0 ~e ' ouln of ,he l i.t hitsa· C" II ,dromus pat• . Its P'Us i' ion .tthe iunction of the "'ute to the pass oM the route 10 Ph"" i, ma 'e 11 1he most l,ke1v " Ie for th e Phocian po. it>on
  • {~ RE ECE AND M AC EI) O NI A
  • Till , CI TY STXI ES S OO - , ~Q ~<: 'rm: SLTES AT w .. W; been ~U' "rt I,,,,,, II,.. ruul" ro P h,>.; ". I'un henn",." ~n~' r"ul,' o,cr lh., L ia,hlt>;l-C"lhd , n", u, r a" w"uld h~"e I" g" Ihl> "~, . Ik'i h Jlu ,n ~ndl'rildl"lr arc agreed lh~1 Ih,' 1'1.. ",i"n< up Ih,.." '00 ur .I".. ' ",,,"n " 'n "n . ' Jlm I j~ t hi l >~ '" the ",,"h "I rill' r"lh. ~nJ Ihi, """IJ "en,"nl" lil 11.-"..I" IU' · d.......·rif'l ",,,. T h" I'.,'-" Ian, ", lJ hm'" r...""h" d Ill. lop of ,lie r>a" ..1:'< 1 I hr,·...·<jlLln " r' " I an hour Lu,·, -alo.,u' h~lf 1''''' ,j in h"'" ,h., """nlng L," 'niJ.h ' CW1".,J ,h., """, lha' ,h., Imm on al, '....re ,·r..., ,";( the m"" m alll> li...a [r"m ,k-erl"l', wh.. , am, ,,, ,l uli ng 'ht nig hl. anJ Ih,'n I" ,,,, I,,,,,,,'m , l' "k'-.l On rh" hci~ h l ' "h" ,a n J "wn ' 0 lllf"UT' hr m )U" a ll,1' da wn T h, ,'''Ill malllkr, imlll,dr ~I "h' hdd J ,oun, ,1 .1>" , W~ f' f,, ' ,, " hdr~wing ,,'hik Ih,'~ ' till haJ a ,'han ,'" . 1..,,, niJ a, . ,,'I1,'n h" , a,, thar t heir h,'an, ''1'" tI,'1 in iI, ,em lhem on t heir way , ..h " SI''''I<l''' h, (,,,,,,k "h n" TI>o,." 0 " . , ,om"an" 0(*" ~ :1.:> .,"C L '"" ,,,,,, .c"""C J"".nc .. ,,..,,1 ,. . ,~ o ve< ._. '. '",.. , n", ,.., 1~'~ "1 re~'~ '" ol" ""••.." ", "~ g ~ '" , .1 ", ,- Below T". .. :e ~ ~" .·,a .~ ~ " . ,,,,,ld never d ~""'f1 h" I"". 'I'll. , 00 Th,',!" ,,"' an d .100 Thd 'a," ,,,main,',j "nh him 1I"'1.,J.> lU' 'u!:~~."" I h ~1 1.. .., "l ida' 1'",.",.1 II", The Nn, 1<' .la' '''Ih him ..".I ,,,hI< I h~[ Ill"" J~":n,,,1 h.,.·(•• Ihen",,) NolTk. .-, I be·' " Ie lhc lT 1 , 1 m~...1 " "I':,·,h" r . " l .c. 'mJ~~ " '''r1",,,,J 1"I,aw ~""I. ' I la,'~ ~ ~,,. ...I ,",,,·a"f,,>(. 40.1-: ,n' ,hall d tn" in H ~d,..,, · . lt "'"ulJ ul;~ ,ll" ! mm", u l, -cvc ral h...,r, ' " g..'{ ."-,wn f""n III" " ... i~h" ~ n J l h ~ :-r ~nan ' ir.l"nJ.d ." m~h Ih.. l'~ r.i~n> pAy J ... " r!,' h.:l< >r~ · Ihe' Ji~,t 1 1~ "Jnl: ~rn,'" Ih" " f lh. rl",un · lam [he I',·,_i.,n, ~1~ rl C,t l h" d ~ '~-':I1l. 1....." .1,,1,," .~" lh"l Ih,' .. n"ra~a I'~r h , 'a111" d. .w n 111'" 1h" P"'~ ~ I . 1pcni T h,' ,ill; "I rh i, 1 '11 h." h~~n "'l "hli> h~d Wilh ,,>It'" .I ,g , " ~ "I' ~~ ,m in1' Oil,' , id ~~ )ll ltin~ <111 ilh' lh~ m." ,h", alI,'''t three b l"lll.-t r,·, c·,,' 1 " I' l h ,' Phocian ",,111 at Ihe' ' i t c' of I he' c·,,, l ~a l e Th l'l" i, ,m <:~" d: ,,''' 'll l n ,-l l'_ !,,,i n ~ <, "'ll hc ho"k ,, [ 'ni / ,a ' )J l1 Ll ,It,d ,"1 J o ... n thro ug h Il ral:,,· , pili" II j, "I" ," t rakm I"nl allu ~", 'h· "Ill y h~,k II", I '~ ,~ia n , lh re~ In h"ur' h' n'1,"lI~k "ax,', lId ,t h~" k hi, aHack lInl ,l mid_ m,,, rOl n~, ' h,'n hi, 1n " '1" " mn"J 'h. I'a" the :-'1'~ rl.lI" n" longer In ,,J I" d"k",llh,' ,, ~11 1> ,, 1 ~,h·.m".J ak, ng th" I...." h' ib ",.1,"'1 p"inl ~nd h...., ,i r"" u I' in n",,,, ~ll'hab.n x " ilh lh,' ligh l" " ~m,,'d lid,." ,,,, "rin~ Ih,: " "'~ ,. 11",,- r, '''I' I ,,,,, lh,'~ " '1 ~hl "'nh ""'kl",, trc'''z~'_ Th .. I',·, ,, ~ n,_ ,,- c .lrC h'IJ . h~J 1" 1>,' ,lrn 'en "n WlIh """r)!,'" an.i d a,,-,hc,,-J "Wr the r de' ,,.' Ih"ir J~ad h' !l.el ~ : Ih" ( ;"...·k,. :-.'~'n m,"1 "flh. (ir",-.: ' I'_a" were hr"h.., ~ n,l l "e h.'phl'" J",, rh,';r ,,,,,,J, 3n ,1 n." " '-.I in d,,,~r. h..... king~' rhe ,,-~ "f f;o,.-.." lx·f,."" ,hem H.·,,· I.,"'" 01,1 tdl ~n,j Ihe battle r~~J ,..-,., h> 3' ""I""~' ( ,r" ek and P""ian 'lru~t.-,I I" " " "" " '" " , 'he t-.lo.iy . " " ur l im,... the l'er ' lan, "'''I'lu,,-'.1 il anJ 1~'uI II,",'" Ihc ( 'h·,.. k, Jr ~l!ged 11 h ""k "I(" i". :-." (he .1 '''~". I":r" ' l,,d unllll.",J,;,'m, ",,, u!!t ht Ih" ne'" that (he I mm,'n" l, h~J ""adl'.1 'he lo.'I,,'m ,,1' ,he f'alh . Till: ('re,·k. "I,.....·" r~n'" a",1 ""l"".lred h'...a, J . Ih, all. ' I'he~' f'a,,,·" Ih",u ;,, " Ihe 1("'''' anJ II hd l' C I" " 'mall hill"." k n""l( at-.'lI l r cm ali-,.-.- th, mar- Ill' ~"'UIl J ",h," ,' t hcv ("'''1<",1 a k and I'l'el'"c.'J ". ,I..., J'h. 1', r, i:tn, " ,· '!tlned rim lIl( h the; ',Lll 'md Ir icd m d"rnl>" 1 u p 111" hill, id" blI III ,'; " ','r,' ,ll' i""n ba ck , .- 1 tir" til c ( ;n:,,'" d..r,·",kd the; m, d ",', ',,11 their ""'rJ,. but "' h"n t h,'" br" k,' th,', ,ll l~,·k. " thctr """i bn " wi 'h Ih" Ir li,t, ~n d 1.elh T h"" i< ',,!,lu on unril lh~ ",..... """rwh d ",,'d by lh" ha il ,,1 mI>· . ik>, 11 ",,,Id,,,· all " 01' ,nil. Ikr,,,t" lu, n...-""l- a ",ll" "f '"'' 'I'.m an, " 'h" at I h~ lim" ,,1 rh,' 1a'1 >l a",. ","" h'lll~ III u' ilh "l'lnhalmi".1l :II',: ni. Th,' fir-I. nam,' J EU"1"', "Il k ar:llllg Ih~1 Itt..· I-'"r,ian' haJ ,T,,,,,,,·.l ror ,i" • 'J
  • G REECE AND ,.iACEDON IA t he mountaill~, called for his armour and , though he could not !>Ce, ordered his IIdoilO Ind him into t he thic: of the batde. The 5<'<:ond, Aristooemus, lost his courage alld $Iipped a",,,y w;l h the othe r ~pilti allies. 'hen he returned to Spana he "'''$ di sgrao. ed and "'''' onl)' ' able to red«m himself by his extrao rdinary courage alt he bame of Ptaraea the followillg year , .-s for Ephialtes. , a pri... e "'as put 011 his head, fi e fled imo T hc>.saly, feari lti t ha t the Sp;on ans "" ou ld hum him down, Yea'" later he retu rne d 10 his home at Anticyra, ",'here he was killed by a mall who had a private grud ge against him hm who neven hel ess claimed the re"" ard. At abou t the S<lme ti me as the last of the Spartans died in the pass, t he Per. "an /led, stung hy the attack of the previo us evclli nl:, put to sea and eru"ed the cha nnel in force . The G ree b, who were determ ined to maintain dose con· tact with their camp , lined u p fo r battle in the shallo"'. iust " fJ t he beach. T he Persian shiP'S fo rmed a half circle and tried to eng ul f the smaller Greek fleet. Once again the Gn-ch charged head on , crashing into rhe bows of t he lighter Pe",ian '·essel•. In Ihe engagement t he Greclts we re roug hly hand led and lost several shiP'S. but the)' also inflicted "",,'en casuahin on Ihel< """mies, X'hen tbe P ersians found that they were achiC"'ing little t ~· wit hdrew. AlIllou gh ne ithe r .ide c--ould cla im a ,'ictory . the Greeks ha d been severely maulrd . About 90 Athenian shi ps had suffered damage . Saon afte r the hattie the jo-oared gal- Icy whk h ha d been act ing as a liaison shi p bet wee n the Iorce in the pass and the fleet carne in bringin g t he tragic ne w'S from Thermop)'Iac. "hc n the sailors heard of the death of Leomdas lhei r heans sank. The)' :new lbat there "" as no point in stay'ing, ll>c)' hauled in lhei r anchors and S-C1 off down rhe cha nncl lowa rds t he F,uriru~. T he y sailrd in thei r appointw order , with tile Corinthians making u p the vang ua rd and the Alhenians bringing up t he rea! T he ha ttered G ree: flee t limped solIhw"rd , pa ssing t h roug h the Euri pus, down past the slle of the great At henian victory al , tarat hon, around Cape Su oiu m and u p to At hens. The Petsi..ns had no t seen the G reek tleel slip ..way-s-once again IOC haze had cove red Ihe Ath.. nian movements , The y " did m't learn of the tleet's de parture L1 l1 t il early t he followi ng morning. T he f a n of A thens The d ISaster at Thermopylae, and e<pc<;iall y the failure to rehe ve the tTOOPS in the pa~ s, had a se r ious effect on t he morale of Sparta ", alii•.,., Tm: ancient accoums imply that t he re were se riol" defeclio ns amongst the nort h-weste rn Pcl"ponne~ian s , 'X"cs tern Arcadia had su pplied a q uarter of the Peloponn....i"n lmops in Leo n idas arm y, but the fol. Io",-jng yeat when t he call fo r troops wem coul 10 the whole of the Pelopon,,"Ian l .<:lIg ue, not a single unit "'''~ senl. O n l he Ihird da y- after taking [he pa $'S the I'e";an army se[ out again . The baKSa~ lrain. especially' the hell")' wallons. must have gone b )" the coast ,'- lt PSO(OOTA LI road, h ut now t hat all oppos ition had been crushed, pa rt of t he army pushed th ro ug h the mou m ains and in'aded I'hocis, The,' SlIcked ""er)" ,'illagt', loot· inl! and hurning Ihe temples as. the)' went. T he inhahi[an[s flw "'~ and soul h 10 the moumains OUI of reach of the pillaging ooldicr., ~ l ha t wrre Clughl "'-cre .hown no merC)', Phocis ",'as 10 be ma de an el<.3m pk fo r [he rest of GI'C«C to see and "'-cig h ceeruuv before the~' de..-ided to continue rhe unequal conresr. T he demo nstrat ion was nOi wasted T he towns of Boeotia offered eart h and wate r. the token"f submission. and Ihey W ere spared but Ihey were compelled, in ac"COrdancc with t he norma l Persian custom. to sc nd co nt inllcnts to tillht o n the Persian side , Herodotus ' clai m t ha i the T he h ~n, surrendered at T hermo_ p,. lae may be true. as only the tuwns of The sp i"e "nd P lataea were listed for de struction : t he Th espians for t he patt they played at T hermo pyb e , and the P lat aean. for figh ting on t he Al henian ~ide at ,1arath on and fo r se rvi ng wit h the At henian fleet a t Anemisium These Platacan sa ilors ha d disemha ri<.w at C halas when the flcct was pass inll lhroug h Ihe Euripus and made t hei r way- home so t haI the)' could help in t he evacuation of the [O""n. Hnth l he I'latacans and the Thespians were e-vllCWIIN to t he P elo pormcsln . .- ....".. _ " I l _ POl""" ~ ~ ..... '" _,,,,, 10 A""-,,, The G"", ' '",",_ boNcfIed '" ,.... ~l P¥I ~ _ .,.."... on tIw ..., (''IIhl) sOOt of "'" oJ...", and tile Pe<.,. n _ , w... bNct>e<l .. Pho ~'um &v
  • THE C I TY S T ATE S 800- 360 ec TH E STATES AT W AR The Persian arm y pre"ed o n south eastward, and en tered Attica. A then s was a scene of feverish aetl vit y a, the population tried to evaCuate the city . Most of the women am! children ,vcre ferried across the Sar<mic Gulf to T roeze tl on the nort h-cast cornet of the Pelopo nnesu s. Somc wetc ,em to the island ofAeg inaand the remainder, wit h all t he able -bodied men , were re movcd to the i, land of Salamis in the hay of Eleusis on ly JUS! over a kilometre from the Athcnia n coast. T he n ac ua twn was earne d o ut in such a pa nic th~t many of the o ld and helple,. were left to their fate. A few ' zealo t s' >Iayed behind and barricaded themselves in the temples. Earlie r, when the Atheniam had sent to the oracle at Delphi to ask f" r it. advice, they had received a rep ly which contained the sentence: 'Zeus of t he broad heav ens grants to the Triton bo rn a wooden wall alone to rem "tn un,aeked, that shall help thee and th}' "hildren' , Th i, int er preted by Themi,tocles to mean that t he y ,hnuld lake to t heir wooden ,hips , .-l ost Athen iam a~cepted thi, interpreta tion, but a d issent mg minority bui lt a pali,ade arou nd t he lOp of the Acro p"lis and t here awaited the Persiam . ,leanwhile t he Spartans had at la, t mobilised t hei r ar my and a"embled at Corinth under the command of the survi"i ng king Clcornb rorus They broke up th~ coast roa d along t he isthmus and threw up a rampart aero" Its narrowest pan ncar where t he Corimh ,hip cana l now runs . T he Pe" ian army cont inued ir. t hrust southward" laying waStC the ~"untry­ sioe ",hilst t he lIeet sailed down the coast burning t he ,ea,ide villages , T hey occupied Athens and capture d t hc A~ropoJis , bUl only afte r a dogged resisrance by its defenders , Th~y then lo oted and bu rned t he temple, and all thc other buildi ngs on the anciem "i tadel. On the isbnd of Salamis the : lhenian. m us t ha.-e b~"£ n a ble to sec the col um n of smoke that marked the end of th"l r city. The l'e" ian lIeet moved up the Anic coast and h~aehe d at the o ld o pen harbour of Phalcrum. The ( i reek fleet "la, bca(hed o n the east side of Sal am i, . There was a furo re on t he " land as the adm irals of t he 'ari(m , tle ets arg ucd a bo ut what t o d c) Th e , quadrons from the Pelo ponnesus ,m, wante d to q ui t t he ir posit ion at Sa lamis and jo in up wit h t he army at Corint h, wherea s t he .'1.t henians quite u nder,tandably refused 10 abandon the ir fam ltie' on t he island . The mlStod e" in "pite of "ppos ition from the Corinthi ans, m'lnaged to con.- ince Euryb iadas, th e Spa rtan admiral, t hat if he left Sabmis the flee t wo uld d isintegra te a, ea ~h sq uadron looked lO the defence of its own territory. The b "ttl., o f S a l<O mi s As Pritchett remarked whe n he puhlished his second art icle on the ba tlle of Sa lam is in Iyl'i 5, there have probab ly been more art icles published on this battle than any other lfl worl d historyHcrodotus devotcd th e eq uiva lem of a ho"k to it and Aeschylus wrote a play about it . It is also dealt with by Pluta rch l n 1",0 of his lives and Diodor us S l(ulu" who "1", gIves an a(eOurn of thc hall ie. Am ongst the modern w m mentalOr" l' G L H am mond give, the most complete survey in wh ich he inclu de s some vCt y important o t" crvation, . He is 'lui tc righ t in im isti ng that Aes chylus shou ld be used as , air hough the eviden,'e comes from his play , the Pers;an.<. and he has us ed considera ble 'poe tic lice nce' in hi, presentat ion of t h~ m"teriaL he foug ht in t he hattie and t herefore must be treated as an eyewitness. X'hile X ct xes h~ d becn pUlting down t hc rc ,is t anc~ al Athens the two ficets lay al an,'hor, each wait ing for t he other to make the fi rst move . T he ma in I'e rsian fleet was be ached m the bay 01 Ph"lerum iust south of At he ns, while deta "hme ms were anchore d at Ihe ent rance to the Salamis strai t. He rodotu, later mentions de tachments at Ccos and Cyno'ura. Ceos is impmsi ble [0 identify bUi it may he "ne "fthe two small islands off Lipsokou tali. Cv nosura (t he dog 's lail), howeve r, is easy t o identify a~ the long, narrow prom ontory projecti ng eastwa rds fro m Salam is island. T his places t he (~ree k ancbm age farther u p t he channel, probably d ivided into t hree parts : o ne in the ba y of Ambelaki in fro nt of the an~iem town of Salam i. ; ano ther in t he hay of P alo ukia; and a t hird in t he ooyof Arapis . H erodotus gives the n umber of shi ps in the G reek lIeet as 380. O f t h" number 89 came from the Pelo po nnesus (t his in· d ude s 40 fro m Corinth ) and )80 from Athens. Among t he minor contingen ts the larges t numbers were f((lm Aegma (30), Chaki s (20) "nd .1egara ( 20 ), The subsequent ha ltle for mat ion im pl ies thal the Athenians occupied [he bay of I'aloukia, the l' elojXl nnesi"ns t he northern bay of Arapi" and the o t hers the ,0Ulhern bay of Amhelaki, for t hi, i, how t hey formed u p in ba ttle line , Aeschylu, in his play The Pc"",,,, give. lhe G reek numbers a, 3 t O, but he has probably red uced the number for effect, just as he has , urely g rossly exaggerate d the Pers ian numbers . ' 1-1 0 greal was t he number of the Gr~,<;k ships tha t dared with theIr ra m, to engage the l' ersian h",t /' T he ans wer - 310 Greek Jga in' t 1,~07 Persian 'r he PerSIan figure is obviously not meant to h~ taken serio usly a, this is lhe number of ships given by He rodm us for t he beginning of the campa ign and . even if t he origmal figure were to be accepted, it makes no allowance fo r the hundreds of ships lost in t hc storm, along t he cast coast . To suggesr that the Ileet was bro ug ht u p to exactly t he same strength by reinforce ments is qui te ahsurd. T h,' st rength of the Persian fleet ma y be gues,ed by examining the Persian st rategy, Agai n and ag~i n H erodotus , tresse s t he su periori ty of t he Persian , h ips and se amen, so it i, dear t hat Xetxes d id not need to o utnum ber the Greeh to expect to win. W hy the n d id Xerxe, not hl<K"bd e th e Greek ttccr in t he Sa lam is chan nel wit h half his Ileet and t hen lau nch J two- pro nged atta"k on t he Peloponnesu~, by land along t he isth mus and by sea wllh the remainder of t he fleet ' T he attrac tion of t his cou rse of a~t io n "enormous. C ut off by land and sea , the gre at numb er of Alheni~ ns On Salam is would soon have exhausted thei r mea gre su pplies . In a ,-cry short time they would ha ve been sta rved into submission , Xer xes was unahle to adop l t hese tactics for one simp le reJson - he had neit her enough ships nor so ldier' to accomplish the t ask j t is likely th at t he Pe rsian lIeet now numbe red no more t han 500 .- esse ls. Once again rhe Per, ians appear 10 have waited several days to see if t he G reek Ilcct would abandon its pos it ion . Xer xe, must have k no wn tha t, as usua l, the Gr eeks we re at log ge rhe ad~ , The story t hat it was Themi 'lOdes who '5
  • G RE EC E ,:-;:0 . 1..KEDO~I A broul(hl on the battk]:ly ", nd ing a m.:S"sengcr to Xerxes 10 tell him lhat the (;r~ ,<:k lIeet intended to escape is r rul>ahly um rue. AllIumn was draw in!l on an d Xcrxes almost ce rrainly hOld nn ly planncd iln a onc_",ason cam paign. O n..(: the lleel was destroyed nothing ' oould .top him in"ading the Pelopon ne.us . So Ix decided to lakC lhe m itiative and bring on the battle. Ha-ing decided to force a confromaI,,,n ""it hin IIx srrans o n rhe follo"~ng morn ing. t he Persians set about p~rar­ ing the propo",d banlc area. T he main lIeet put out from Ph aterum and began to mll"e up towards the channel. S,,.'n after d usk the Persian, moved a' many soldiers as t he ~- .. auld across to l he island of PS~·l1 alea . which la~' heIween SalamIS ..nd the mainland Thi. island lay in thc pIllh of the projected ~llle arC;l and man~' oltbe '....edt. from the battle wouad toe .. ashed u p there, Heu the soldiers could sla~ the (i rC'Cks and offcr succour to their shipw recked friends. Thc idenutica non ofttus island is hotly disputed. Il ammond claim, that it m u", he the island of Ag;o. Geurgim o p p",ite [' cram" in t he m idd le "I' t he 'Irait. whil S! PriICheU eome nds thaI II entraoce of the strair. occu pying the must he thc island of l .ipsokout ali atthe area from Salami. to M unychi a. entra nce 10 t he ,,·hanncl. Hammo nd N ewsl hat the P er, ian lIeet ha d mm'eo wou ld arrear 10 PUI must tru, t in up IIlto the ent rance to the stra;1 was t he a......'unt s of ancient authors such as received in t he Greek cam p d uri ng t he ·. Srrabo ,, -ho had probably neve r vrsitcd night. It was said 10 have been hrought the ar.,. , Draw inll: ~",' nclus ions Irom in hy AriSlidcs. the Athenian exile. a lheir descri ptions wou ld appea r to l>e ",110 managed to get throull:h rhe Penian ''''r)' hazardous . [flhe Peniansoa;upied lines frum Aegma so Ihal he could fill:ht Ag ius Georgios. wh ich lies directb- in for h.. ~'I)' in it. hourof peri l. The look fronl of t he Greek an~horagconl,· -thoul o ut s o n Salami• . ho..... ver . must Iu.,'e got some idea of ..'hal was ha ppening . from the .hore , the G reeks w"uld The <Jreeh oow Itnew rhal they had to "" nallll~' ha .-e ",cn thcm at finl lig ht. T hc re " -could ha"e been little rha t the fighl F. verything was 10 Iheir ad,·amall:e. In the narrow ,traits the P hoenicia ns Per.ian. could ha ve d, me to preven t their inMant d,. lodltemcnr, M o reover . v,co uld he unab le to usc thei r ,uperi" r t he i.land of Li r "" k"utali control. the , eam an, hip , J ust l>eforc first lil(ht t he Grecks entrance to the st ran, and it wo uld have been vital fo r t he Pen ian. to secure it dragged their galley. do"'n to Ihe waler . bef"re 11l<' ", ng into rhe channel itse lf. II boarded. ran o ut their oars and waited mu", he added that lhe wreclt. did drift for the ,ig na l. The trumpets sounded and the lIutes S1ruck up the ir rune , southward. after the baltk. Alter occupving l he i.land t he Per - Then. 10 lhe rh)'thmlC chanl of lhe,r sian. d C'< pa lched Ihe F.1!~.. tian•. ..-"" maJe up thc wes ler n wing of the f1eel , t o blockade the weSlcrn end "flhe Sal amis 1t>e Site of tt>e dec,.,Ye bon>e O! Sa emo. Th<I 'ong or"".,~ro<, (Cy""..,'a) IS on I"" C(lfU. ch anneL T hen al midnight the rest of an d lho:> . ,to 01 ,he one,ent town of Salam; , o-n t he Heet. including the detachments at 1h. " ght P" rt 0' tho) ,sl" nd of L,p,okou'al , c.n C ynosura and C eo•• moved ;ntu Ihc be coea,'y M<l" nO the lef, <,., "001II ....
  • T HE C IT Y STA TES lloo·3f1O Be Tim STATI,S AT WAN. lur wnlt, they pulle.:! II t hei r oaf' and the galley5 beg" to move out IntO rhe J.n ~lunnel. Xerxes had taken up hi5 posi tio n o n .' luunl Aeltaleos overfookmg lhe st rait. Here a throne had hcen et ccted for him so Ihal he could watch the hanle. T he Persian <;eam en strained at their ""rs and p ulled towards I he Greek lin~'!< , As t he I w·o tlcets do"".:!, t he G reeks m the a nt re backed waler SO t ha t rheir till<" bo...'ed . Seeing the G ree ks bad ing the J'ersian sai lors ....ere con,'inu:.:!l ha l they were going 10 htc.al: in flig ht an.:! , raising their war Cf)' , the!' charged into the ....lient_ and still l he cent re backed water . ,·..:cord ing to Plulareh t he~' " 'et'C waiting for someth inll rhar t he~' kne.... must happen. Suddenl)' t he l'eNian fic<.:t lurched as the ....'ell carne u p the d umne!. The wave ca ught th e Pers ian shif's from be hin". S"m~ of them wcr<' knod'cd out of linc, veering hmsd,ide on to the G ree b . The (,ree k sailn,. raised a g rea t shout _'On you sons of Greece! l-rce your native land , free your children, your wi ,'es, t he fan..,; of ~'our falhers' God s. and tho;- tombs of ynur ancesl ors. ~ow~"OU balt ic for ~"OUr all' , • T hen tM~'o;-ha'K"d; their hron;ze. plall"d ram, darting thn>Ugh the foam crashed th rough the hanl:, of oan; and ripped into t he bow. of lhe I'e..ian shi~. It is rather ,hftkult to undersland Herodotus' description of t he ha tt ie fo r ma lion : 'Th~ l'lme nicia m (fo r t hey had t he western wi nK. towar ds Ekusis) were arraye d "pp<"'i t ~ 10 t he AIheni ans, and to the Lacedaem"nians the lo nians, on Ihe eastern .... rng, neaTesI the P irK us'. 11 ,,"OUld nnl)' Ill" poss,hle to use l he terms cast anJ "' es t ....inlt if he rs descnb iog t he pcsinon of Ihe tttt be fore it ente ",d the channel, and from (hel"'," <.'O nl in uing 10 use this dc..,ripllun for tbe Ion ian and Phoenic ian flee ts , -II i. interesti ng (hat he does nol use t hese l ~rm5 for the Greek lleel.) If Ihi. were Ihe c,",,,,,, Ihen Ihe des cript ion of the ....es l ....ing as heing towards lileusrs i, a lillie strange. However , it wo uld he impm, ihk to usC t he term, ea, t and west .... hen the IIcet is d rawn u p in a no n h to .out h lin~ and aJ,'ancing Jireotly westward s. It seems ce rt ain Ihal the ships from A~g ma were Malio ned in lhe ha ~' uf Amhdaki as Ih,s " The only po," t from ....hich they could ha,-., buochl"d II flank allack o n l he ·il hd ra...'ng Penians, II was also l he }' ho came 10 Ih c IUp port of an Athenian . hip that was in tro u ble . It folio..... that rhe Al henian, must ha,'e held pnsil io n nelll to t hc Aeginelans. i.e . Ihe ce nt re and right. and t herefore t he Pel0l'" nrl< ian, held t he left wing , ', It sc em , to he agreed that t hero;- has been a general rise in t he se a level in the ar<'a around At hens. P ritchett '1lk>!e, man~' {'l[ample,; uf place<; t haI " 'ere aN"'e t he ....lIler e el in classical rim..,; and are now belo iL Sewul ,"""iem quarries ha ve been discovered SUhmerged henell(h I....., (0 t h ree met res of ",·aler. The sa me featun: ....~ ot>se,,-ed ""Mn the . h,p .hed, al ua .... ~re ell~"""aleJ_ A ela... tc 1 shrine al Ihe "illage of Agio, C -,"'ma, a' also fo und helo"" Ihe water lel'el. The re is a ,mall reef 350m " n Ihe All ie coas t " pp<>site l'erama , in ..-[u" ical Below the bonle of ceo" e of Sa,-,. ''''or t iu<,og t"" P..-- t_ ,,,ott>,,, on<l Iu" """"'" _ The G,,,,,,• • WI1I>O''''''' tt1e ""0 001 of "" _...,,_ r"" '",., "'a IS P!>oen,c " . .<11..... ,1> wn
  • GRE ECE AN D MACEDO N I A ti mes Ihis m un bave M.: O ao island. Ik n , ""o this i~Land and I ~ mainland t bere wou ld beve been a sballo'" chan",,] ".~", the water was not d«p enoug h for gal"'ys [0 navigate. Thi. small island would made an excd lem point 0 0 ro which t he G ree ks could lock t heir left wing without fear of missile all ac k from the P enian infant ry o n the mainland o r of hc ioll out fl anked. T heir inferio rity in n umhers made it all the more im portant fo r t he G reeh t o avoid bein g ou tflanked , For this rea, On t he Corint hian Iteet of 40 ships was despalChed to prevent the Eg vpuans enteri ng t he W C$t end of the channel. T h ere can be no t ru th in Herodot us' S1ateme nt_almos t cert ainly laken from a biased Athe nian source -c- rhar t he Corint hians fled befOl e l he battle . This also undermi"". Ille argume nn of t """" ",'ho ...-ould ~ t ile bailie ana fart her u p tile channe l in front o f the island of Agios Grorgjos ,,-jth no 1od::ing point for t he n g hl ...-jog. This wou ld hi,·e allowed Ihe P ersian ship'" to break t hrough t ile r ight ",-jng at will. T ile G reek fleet wo uld have been d rawn u p in front of t hei r anchorages wilh t he ha,·., Peloponnes ian I1«t of 49 ships occupyiog the Iefl ..i ng and Inling o n t he i.let. It is also inc:onsi5'l em to att emp t 10 reconci le Ae",hylus' figure of 3 10 for lhe GTttI: fleet wit h H erodOlus' 380 by suggesling l hat the missing 10 ships fOTmed Ihe Cori nt hian squadron which left before t he ban le. This w<)Ild ha ve left o nly 19 Pe1o ponnes ian ships to form t he left wing. The Athenian fl eet of 1 80 ships cove red t he c<: mre wit h us right wi ng rest ing on the tip of th<: K am at<:ro promontor y, whi lst the ot her t i l ship. , ind ud ing t he 30 ships from Aegina , occu pied l he ba y of A mbe taki. The d istance from the i. let 10 t he l ip of t he Kama rero promontory is about l ,os o m , Alk:»>'ing a m inimum of 20m per gal le}the ships would have to be d rawn up in fow 10 th·e lines , Accord ing 10 Aeschy lus., :I S lhe Persians en tered the strails Ihe)- firsl heard t he Greek flee1 singing their ba ttle h)'m n and only later saw t hem . This has been used to suppan t he ,'ie..- that the Greek fleet was d ra....n u p in the cha nnel to t he nort h of Kamalero, shielded from t he Persian view by M o unt Aegakos. How- c """"",., "" "-'''-', EaS ..;...1 1 1 II ever, al thoug h Burn and Ham mond both malte Ihis poi nt , neil he r actua lly shoo..· the G rcek tl«1 in this posil ion. Roth socw it piVOied o n t he Kamatero promontory in full y)ev,' of the Persian 11«1. If Aes<:hyhn is to be interpreted this '...y, l hen t he ba tt le wou ld ha w to he fought be l ...een Arapis and Cape Eilato uri. A mo re lik ely expl anation is that t here m igh t ha ve " een a slig ht ha~e or it was st ill dark. Alt er na t ively, t he Persians may ha ve hear d t he Greek singing before t hcy actually entere d t he 51taits , H erodotu. later ment io ns a wes! wind which hie.... t he wreckage dow n the coast. T his coul d have carried t he sound of the G rcek singing the t hree to tou r kilometres 10 t he Persian fleet. T he battle was o n. Caug ht in Ihe narrow chan",,' t here was no room 10 manoeuvre. II _. ship against ship. T he Grceks managed 10 retain thei r formation but, for the Persians, t his was impossi ble . ~ ma.. of the Persian ships Wet"e jostl ed in the cn me of t he cha n""l, caught in l he dC"an at ing pm~ en movement as t he ...'ings cha rged . The Persians tried despe ratel ~' to t um about while at the same li me l rying to avo id ramm ing each o t her. Th<: G reeh were able to pick off the enemy sh ips on t he oUiside of the m asS at will. T he Persian sailors fou g ht bra,-e!y before t he gaze of t heir king. T he iavehneers swept t he decks of the G reek galleys as they In ed to ram t hem . Just off the promontory of Ka ma tero an Ionian ship from Semorhrace cba rged ou t from t he mass of Persians and ripped into t he hull of an Athe nian gal ley, but he f.,..e it could free itse lf from the wreck2ge a trireme from Aegrna rounded the promontory and caught I ~ Io nian shi p amid ships, " 'hile t he Ionian shi p " 'a s sinking, het complement of iaveIi neers . wept l he Greek mati~ o ff l he dc.;k, boarded and ca pt ured the u ireme. much to the delig ht of Xerxes. D es pite these isolated successes, the ~" The Pe",a n l loot ente ,ed th e , tro,t w ith tho Pho en,c,a n, sail ing in column to tM 01 L,o so kout a li (ne.,.,st ,he P" "'usl ond Ihe lon,ons '0 the ""'Sl of the .. let The Vwoold he >'e dolHOVod in,o h nol ,n ,he Sto .. , T"" r.!O(>Onn,....ns t oo-mod up """,,",to lhe PhOO'loe,.ns and the Alhe....... ~t" the Ion,..... w haSl the ,..t (e 110 Shop$) 'ay in w ar< ,n bay 01 Atnf>eoIo u. h om _ thov anacQd the 'WNlong Pe<s .. n S'IoOO .a" t'" "
  • T HE C ITY STATES 800-360 BC T H E S TATES A T WA R Persian fleet , crammed hel plessl)' in t he chan~l, ",as in a despet au~ posil>on. ~ bIInercd fleer tried to d isoengage. A s Ihe~' "'ilhdrew from the narro"'~, t he ships from Aegina la~' ...'aiti ng foc lhem in t he hay of AmbeLaki and , IS they p~, ca ugh t lhem m a d e.... taHng Oank a u"",k , T he Alhenians too, fullo",· ing up Ih e retreat , pla yed havoc amongst the fleeing sn ips. The victuriuus Gree k sailor-s showe d no me rc y to their shipwrecked enem ies , Grahh ing oa n; nr any other weap"n I har cam e to hand, t he y dubl>cd to dealh o r dro wned t he enem ~' uilo" a. t hey slruggled helplessly in the water. .leaowhi1e, Ansndes , t he Alhenian exile, galhered logelher man~' of the hop hles "'ho were o n the shore .... tching tile sca hattie, and " 'itb these maruged 10 captu re lhe Isla nd o f Psyllalea and .Lo.ugbu~ lhe Pers1aIl gamson l here , r tbus W iling o ff the last resort foc the wreck ed Persian shi ps , Those ...nd.s tha i d id flOC drift asllon: on t he island Iioaled do",n l he e <>asl and came a.bore on the pru munlury of ColilS a bout four kilome tr es $OIIl b of Phalerum . Alth<>Ug h the P ersia n fleet was f.. from being dc,troye d a nd . till p ro ba bl)' outnu mhere d t he Greeks, Xe rxes now realised lhal his hopes of a q uick campaign were go ne. He ha nck d ove r c" m · mand of lhe bulk "f his anny _po. ",sihly 150,000 me n-to Mardoniu. and rclurned to Asia, Mardc nius withdrew into Thes.aly and t here went int o wimer quarters. For a fe", month s at lca" iOulMm Greece had a breallung , ~, Xerxes feared l hal the defeat al Salantis m ighl encourage t he lcmans 10 revoh, so he ~Ihdrewlhe fleet 10 Cyme and lhe foll"",~ng spri ng stationed il al s.m... The S p..rl. ns lJlobilisc In t he following spring Ar1 S1 id es and Xanrhipp us, another e xile w ho had returned 10 de feml his coum ry, ",c re elected generals at At he ns, M ardoniu s no w tr ied by d iplomac y to separa te At hens from her allia n,'e witb the Pcloponncs ians , offering her "cr y ha ndsome terms, Bu t Athens was full of bine rness over wha t had happened a nd, alt ho ugh unde r normal errcum"anccs she. like all t he other G TC'e1< stales , would TIOI shy a....a y from betTII )'ing a cause m the preferen<:<: o f setf fj,.., im erest, she now rejected t he P ersian rhousand Spanans, nearly W'OproposalSOUI of hand. Ho we ver , .hedid thirds o f the lotal Spanan 1<:1', plus usc lhem 10 tl")', WIlhout success. to focce 3S,ooo Itdou , imm.,.jiale l~· set o u t non hSparta into p romising more aid, ...'ard s. On lhe «'a!' the)' .....,re joi ned b y 17,000 hoplites from the non h-castem Summer had a rri" ed when .Ia rd onius mO'ed soul h agam. 1l:"aiting Peloponnes us. until lhe ~ ...'crc ripening, be ad: ardomu. im me<.ha tcly e" acuated "anced o nce more on Athens and once Athens, destroying what remained of again occupied it unopposed. And onc e t he city be fo re he left , E1eusis was also again Spa n a falled 10 co me 10 Ihe aid of put 10 the fla me , Hc now wit hdrew to her ally. AI Sala m is Al hens had ri sked Boeotia where t he cou m ry was much all a nd in su dning sa ved S pana , She mo re ope n a nd suit able fo r his cavalry. had alsn refused 10 betr ay the ( i ree k As .h rdoni us started northward he cause b ut t his had lillie effect on the hea rd that all ad vance gua rd of 1,(Xl() S panans. The o nly Ihing that held the Spart ans had already reached :cgara, Greeks loget bc r was a fo re ig n c ne m)' , o n ly 4Skm flom Alhens. Mardonius not a ny Iovc for each other. Tbe G reek lurned a n J., sendrng his cavall")' ahead , resistance 10 Persia fro m M ara t ho n o n- made a ligblning strike againSI . k gala, ..aids is a ClItalogue of had planning , but wben he fai led t o lake the town and groo;s inefficiency and se lfishness punc- heard that the G reek aim)' was gatherNalcd ...ith OlXaSional acts of brilli<tncc ing at t he ist h m us, he called o ff his a nd heroiOTTl, I t is incredible t hat l he~' troops and r et ired 11110 Boeotia. He could possihly have WOD_ Tbc Persia ns , pa ssed 10 lhe caSI of . l 00 nl P arnes.. o n the other hand, dl5pLayed exceuem <;tosscd lhe Asopus river (lhis is nor the st ra legy,a grea l deal of e ner-g}' and con- sa me as the nver a t T berrnopylae) and sid e rable b ra"CI")' hUl suffe red from ascended its nonh bank palt T anagra to appalling back luc k, I n t he final camSoolu. in the IcrrilOry o f T hel>es . H ere paign t hey com pletely outmanoeuvred he es la blished a fon ified camp whicb H erodolUS d escribe. as about 10 stades t he Greeks, and then ma d e one missqua re (a boul 1,8oom"), which IS JUSt calculation whi c h "cos ll he m the war, W it h the re,,.,,cupalio n o f Athen. Ih" over fi "" times rhe sil,e of lhe Roman citize ns aga in crossed ove r to Salamis, ca m p described hy l'olybius wh ich hel d " lardonius once more tried to co me 1U l O,OOO infant ry a nd 2 , SOO ca valr y. This te rm s wit h lh" , e o n Ihe island . The suggests t hat .I,-Iatd"ni u.' a rm y m ighl Arhe nia ns sent an e mbassy 10 Spana 10 nOI be mucb more Iha n IlO,(Xl() men beg them to come to Iheir aid hUl, a. at ind ud ing cavalry. xtarerhon a nd Thcrrncpy lae. they were Herodotus says that Ihe Persi an keeping a religiou. f",t i" al a nd refused lroops were ranged along Ih e rive r from 10 move. In t he mea ntime Ih e)' we re F.Il1hr"" to paSI H ysiae as fa r as the fc."e ri shly bcig hle ning the "'all a"TOSS lands of Plataea_ It is unfonu nate that the isthm us, m aking u d ear to al i lhal o nly lhe site of Plalaea can be idenlified t his ..'as where lhe)' intended 10 fighl . with certainty ; t he sites of Scolus, Day af ter day tbey tcm pori""d, eac h day H~--siac and Erytltrae are uncertain, p utting o ff l heir d.«ision until the """I ; (h'er sc"cral ~"ears Prrt cbett has done this went o n fo r te n da~'s_ It ...as no! a tremendous a mount o f gtound",orl:; on until the Ath enians threatened to accepr the bat tlefield o f Phu aca , He has walked . l ardoni us' term s, which would place SCOTes of miles across the fields a nd hillt he At henia n 03 " )' under Pe rsian 000- side. t hai make up the hanlcficld sea rehtrol, t hus la~'ing the Pelopon nesus wid e for tra" ...,s of ancie n t habila tio n. T he o pen to alfack a nd rendering the ist hmus me thod he has u >!Cd is called s he rdi ng~ defe nces obsolete, tha t Sparta act ed, scat chmg the grou nd , preferably im · Once the d ec isio n was mad e Spart a mediate ly after pillughin/-: , fo r fragact ed witb gr eal e nerg y. The enure ments of a ncie nt t iles and pots . X'hc re Greek f,m; es were placed under the lhese are found in la rge numhcrs o ve t a com mand o f I'a usa nias, son of kinll; wide a rea, o ne can po:;lulale an ancient Cleombrotus (as Leoni das' son P lcisl- to..-n or villa ge" Til<: resulls nf his find arc h us was still a minor) a nd Eurya nu , ing> ha" e bee n publisbcd in t ..'o atticles . the son of D oreius whom C leomb rot us The first appeared in tlte A......,c"" Journal of A " M eoioxy in 19 57. The had oo-upted "" h is ooI lea~, '9
  • GREECE Ar-; n . 1/ C E D O :-'; IA '""'-'OM, in uhkh he modified ""me of his "'t'''s. apl'Car,'d In a "ork entitled 'Sl udi,,,; In :ocicnt <ired; Topographv' published ellthl years later_ [Jsing this method of sherdlnlt he has identified three vires, l<> the "<:sl of Plala,';I. Two of these are on t he northern slopes of , Ioo n! Pa~I"''' which. with . Iount Cu h3<"ron. hmll' lhe southern ~ide of lhe baukfidd. aM a third rs on tlte river .... sopu~, L'" ng t he anciesn .oun-~, lhe tu'o ,il'" on the $lof'C'> of .Ioum Pasl ... can be idcnntied wilh H,,,;,ae (ah.) . Ls l<m ea.1 of modern Er vthraij and and cm ErYlhrae (" I:><' ul one kilomeue wCSI of m.>Jern Daphne ). The lh'rd .ite o n t he A" ,pu, was found while t'xp re"I,' I"o" ing for S''<,lus, w h ,~h I'au, ,,nias desn ibc s a, ahout 40 sloJdeJ (ei.:lll kil" m" lre. ) down .I ream frum the 1'1ala,:a to T hehe, roa d , AI a p'Hm " X'l<:ll y 4 0 .<!oJde ,' downstream from Ihc crossin.:, l'rildlCl l f"u nd ample remains "r a do"skal settlement . S l1bscq ucr nly, Bur n Il;'s ,uggn t"d Ih"1 il shc' uld he lo,';lled on l h,' ",uth side " f Ihe n ve, but a''''''pl' rn t he main Pri l_ ehcll's i..k nlitk al ,o n of Ihe th ree tow ns, The remain s l hal Pritchett fou nd were in the area marhd on the ge neral sl alf map;; from ,he la'l " ar a, Pahom iloi . The 1 :1: of ....'",..q uare {ired maps makes .... Ihe s1Ud~' of ItlJ"<'ll:r"phy in Ihat COUntrv J"'rtkularlr dilli" ult So the I'"",ian army" as ranged along llle- n<"nh hank of Ihe river ....""pu, from oppc."ile Er~'lh rae 10 almo..1 ">rposile Plataea for a disl"rt,:" oj" "bout r zkm . The sile of the Pers ia n e;,l.mp "';,I.S probably on lhe hIgh I(round above S<.-olu", this "~,,,Id """"er the main road fro m Al h~ ns 10Then.:. anJ :l<."'Ule the Asoru. bridge. The A"'>ru~ ilself In t his area i. a faIrl y insignifieam Slream which Can be e,...,.""".1 ea.lly. .lC"dn wh,k Ihe [' c1"1",n...." ian army haJ moved alon g Ihe i,lhmu, to Eleu, i• . where Ihcy were j"",ed by t he Athenia n, who cros sed oVer from Salami., Fr<>m here t hey headed n"rt h and foll<>wcd Ihe I' e" ian army imo Ilo~olia Onc"C past ,U num I'"rnc" they lurned west along Ihe '''u t h side of t he A",I"'" I Inodo lU' lell, u, Ih~t th,' n reck armv rea ched Erylhrae wh ere thq' learned ~f rhe Pe rsian I""it ion •. Ae<:or<l ingly t hey look up Ihei r I'''"illon, ~lun g Ihe fO hills of Ihe Ol moum ain. l'ritcbe rr. in his on ginal arncje o n Phll a~". made a d,,'lailed st ud y 01 Ihe mUles .wer t he m,>untain< im" lUll ~U''''"CSM"C rca... ""'ith h,s '<Ivai'}' ' lhe ";;IlIey of lhe ""'-'rus, lie concluded he ,,<mid " Te" k havoc on rhe Gr,-e k.. Ihal rbcre ""'n: only 1"'0 roul,"; : ollC 1'01- supply roUle, W hen .Ia,doniu< ,,""' Ihallhe (;n:el: k'''ed wUlthly Ih" roUl" of Ih" mo.krn Alhens_T henc, road ,,·hich. fo, con- arm)' planned 10 h<:>Id the hilth 1!:1'<",nd ,'en,er><,."C. i, IcrmeJ the liyr hloeaSlrn aM d Id ",'I imend ro come oo" ;n mill ...-.1. aM l he ..>lher• "'h,eh was lra.xd by the ptain. he de.patehed ,la,miu, wlI h Ham mond . a-o..""d a ,lightly higher hi. e"s·al'}'. Th" horsemen cros'ICd lhe I"l'" al:><>IIl 1..0 kilomelres fanher "'nt. m'er anJ charged ur II.: hillside in Th i, ""uld hll.'e been the route 10 '<.Iuad ' c ns. cbcwenng the hoplitcs. wn h . kgara anJ "iII be so "d. I n his I"ICT arrows. The ( ,reek army. which "",,<,,d,ng 10 amek he reie.. "d t he firsl roUle . daim1 ing Ihal only lhe .legara roUle "'as I lerod.l{ u' consisted of )8,;00 hel!"liln rl""liea" le , [ mU<l conclude From lhis anJ at'l<... l 70.000 lighl-atm"d IW...p•• Ih;,l. l he meant for a baggage lrd'" ot was ~1n:I<:hed om III banle order al"nl( whc"CJc d .·ehid~ •• a. lhe "" i'len...., (>f an the f."'1 of the hills wil h the, r ....aek> to . .... thc nia n fori al (i ,-phloca' iro at Ihe Ihe ditl•. Allowi ng f(>r a deplh of eight , south end "f Ihe pa., pro"es ..onclu- l he h"l'litc. alo ne would have Sl retched , ,"'dj' tha t it wa, in usc in Ihe 4l h cen- fo r about 1iv~ kilometrc,,;, The lightIUT j' ac. n,oth I'a,,~" were oceupieJ by armed Imop' wou ld plOhahl y have heen Ihe At hcm'lIl I(eneral Cha hria, in 379 , slrat~Il ,ea lly plal-ed " n t he wing, and l ie him«'Il' u':""l'ied Ihe ( iy phto",m rn alonl( Ihe va, iou, spurs t h"t jU lted out pa" hut Ihe Spa rta ns F rced the ir wa y m to th ~ pla in, T he o b", uu, ,i le tor the o o... cr Ihc route th rough !'lal'l"a, i ,e. ri gh t wing, m ad" up of the S panan,. Ham m" nJ' ~ , lcgara wad, would hc t WO kilometre, we.1of m"d ern If Pritc hett i. eorren in his idem i_ Da phne Wilh Iheir 35.000 lIeI"" e"verti ~a t i"n of ancienl Ervi hrac . ju,t wesl (>f inl: Ihe 'upply mule 10 Ihe eas!- The Ihphne. Ihen t he G reeks wo uld have resl or the h,'phle. would have be en ' learned' of the I'~ ",ian posili"ns tirsl "Irel"h,'d out pa.. an,'len! E rylh rae a, hand. k ll' from here one g.. 1S a pd""r. far "sl he l'lIlll ridgc lhat jutsoul inw Ihe > armc vie..... of Ihe whole Persia n line, In 1'1"", Iwo and a half k ilomet re~ wesl of flk:l Ihi, view can be seen from any Daphne. "'ilh a . tr(>ng connngem of po int "Ionl( lhe 1:>;o$C of the hills aU tile lig hl-armoo u o<' p;; en lhe I,lng ridge wa" 10 Plal.....a r akm fan hcr "-esI. The gis'in~ a birly "rong co"cr 10 t he left impl k al ion <It H el ooOlus' remar k i, l ha l wmg, Although Ihe Iighl- anned Ir<-...ps il "'as from El)"l hrae lhal the Gre.,.... o n Ihe 'pu ,s "'(>!Ild ha"e I:>ccn a....1e '" lir" sa,,' lhe Penian f"O'6ilion•• ,,'hich give faid)' g<lod cover 10 the "'->rhles. p'e.... uJ''S an" I"",ibihty Ihal Ihey l here was one s'C'!)-- "-C';ll: spor iu" West entered the s'alley ....y either lhe ,lcgaTa ". aeoem E~"lh r"" wocn: t he gl<>IInd or G)· phl .....a" ro pas",s aho....1 eig.... l to is ."",n, Hen: lhe j-coo he>p litC'> f",m ren k,lomel rC'! farther ".."t. E,'en if .Iegar;,l. "'er" I"km g a terrible healing Ik rodulUs' .talement i!; dJSreg,u <kd. from , t.... i"ius' ca..-alry. T he . l egar1a ns t here Ca n be no .Iralel.lie ju "'Ii... ,lIion for "Cnt a he rald 10 the general, begging for . II.: (~ree l: 3rm~' ID<w ing eight 10ten I<ilo- help , In response 300 Athen ian ""rhte. metres "asl warJs alo ng {he 1'001 of rhe wll h a "onling~m of archers votunreered rnountam, Iea.'ing their supply Imcs h' take up a I""iu o n in from of lhe widc 0l'Cn 1<> a tlank a!tack. espec'iallv a, . kgarians and ....reak Ihe force of It>., Ihey t hen proceeded 10 move westwa rd . ea"al r~' ch arges. Allain anJ again lhe 3l1:ain, ()ne must therefo re conclu de t hai s<.l uad rnns or P er, ian cavalry eha '1led in they marehcd u p the ...alley fwm [he up",n Ihe 300 Atheman, . showe rinll "aM, them wilh m i"i le', .la,i'liu, himwl f. ,l ard,'niu. ha d skilfullv ehmen t hc clothed in a 1'11fplc t unic , led t hc cha'I(C< ,il e un whic'h he wi, hed 10 figbt. II e ha d rid ,nil h" richly caparisoned Ncsacan ralk n ha,'k on hi s ow n , u pply lines an d h""e wnh its I(olden bit. In the t hi ~k "l al Ihe ' arne umc plac'ed a range or mounrhc hallie his ho..e ...a, caug ht III Ihe t " in, he t " '''''n Ihe (lrc"h and their "de hy a ' l ray arm ... , The animal reared source " I' sUP I'Ii~, which ,,'ould have 10 m ram. IhrowlIIg the Persian general. c...me from the Pd "'I"",n"·, u,, as .... uiea Ad"'e he <:ould gel 10 hi, teet Ihe had be en '~'M"malically ra" aged d uring .... Ihema"" we re upon hi m. '('l;"hile ."me ,,,11..
  • T ItE CIT Y ST AT E S 800- }60 I~ T H E STAT E S AT WA R grabbed hi, ho,,~, "rh~" th ru' l al h im wll h their SP<'U" o nly to d isc,w er t hat heneat h his purp le t un ic he wa , wearing a cuim" o f glid ed s~a l es . Fi nd in g lhat they co uld not ge t to h IS bod y, one o f t he Athenia ns sta h hed hi m t h m og h lhe ~ ye ami ", despatched him. I I was ,omc lime hd o re t he Persian ~a'a lry reali,ed whal h"d happcn ~d . lX'he n they saw l h~ Alhe n ia m crowded ",und the co rpse in l h~i r u,ual sty l ~ , however, fOi everyb ody wanted to get a I"o k, th~y md~ ba~ k in rna" a nd tr ied to re over rhe body. Th~ Athm ians c yelled to the , k g ar ia n, to come d ow n and help the m . r viole nt ,truggle raged "v~ r Ihe hody and the At heni ans ""ere almost d rive n from Ihclr pre y b ut , w h ~tl cont in gent ' fro m t he re, t o f th~ a rm y bcg"n to arri ve an d t ile I'er, ian loss e, mountcd , the latter drew ba~k an d halrnl alx' ut 400m away. T h<:n, s~n ng t hat there wa, nOl hing t h~y co uld d o , the y rctu m ed to Iheir camp to r~ p<Jrt to .-hr " onius . T he loss o f their po p u la r ~ u 'al r y com mand er cau, cd m uc h d istless in the Persian camp_ Howeve r, am on g't the Greek<, t here w~ ,g re~ t r~ j oic'i ng . T hc body was placed o n a ca r! and d ra wn alon g t hc ran k. " , thai all mig h t see iL .1an y o f the hop lites h ro ke ra nks to co me li>rwurd an d ga ze in a we o n t he bod y T he G reek ge n~rah decided to ta ke ad,-antage o f Ih e d i, turbance in the Pe rsian ca mp a nd move the ir p", it ion The y marched d o wn to Plat aca in the p h m a hout r z krn far ther we st , Herod ow , ,aY' that the grou n d was tiller t he re in all wa y' , hut c' hiell y hecause the re w ~, a n ahu ndan t supply of wa te r fro m a fountain called G a rga p h ia. W he re (h~ y were il was impo" ih le to gel sufh cient wat er as t her~ we re u n ly t in y st re <lm s a nd the Pers ia n arche rs [' revented the m wate ring at t he Asopus f-k ro d Olm d ocs not ment ion one very im p·orlan! facto r . ,upp lies we re hav ing to be h roughl u p eithe r h y t he road arou nd t he cast sid e o f . -f ount Farnes o r h y a very ha !.a rdous rout e bet ween M ou nt P am~, and , 10u nt Pas t ra . Ir th~ y m",-~d aero" 10 P lalaea they wo uld be a ble to receiv e &u p p li~ . direct fro m the Pclopon ncsus over t he !>·k ga ra pas! T he Sl le of th~ new wa te r so u rce, t he Ga rga p h ia fu u nta in , i, unctrt ain b ut it is ge ne rally helieve d to have bee n one of t he ' p rlngs JUSI ,oUlh o j the Ag io , ]oa n ni, h ill about t h ree kilom et re' no n h-nort h-east o f mod~m Er ylh rm. Pritc hc tt co nv incin gly ide nt ilie, it wil h t he Re t,i spn ng , wh ich he says i, t hc m o t <lhundant In the area. Ag i" . loa ns n" h ill lS one o f several ,m"ll hilloc ks at the n o rt h e nd o f a fla t r id ge o f highe r grou nd a ho ut three k ilo metres wide jutting ou t to wa rds the Asopus het ween !I-I"Utll C it hae ro n a n d .OUll1 I'u' tra ; th i, is know n a, t he A",pus ridge. The Greeks g"t he red up t heir equip m enr a n d mar ched down pas t Hys iae to t he la nd s of P lat aea wh c re rhcy e n~a m pcd 'na tion hy nat io n n~ ar t he Ga rgap h ia fo u nt ain and t he prec inci of the hero An dron at cs a mon g the lo w hiltan d in a level co u ntry' . Un fortu nately one ca n o nly gue ss at the positi o n of t he preci nct of the hero An<.ln><:rme~ . Thucydid es ment ions it heing o n t h~ ng ht (ea, l) sid e <>f the ro ad Bel<>w The v,ew IrQm Ihe IllS: Groo< pos ,t,on ""or modem Dop h"". It wos !ro m he re that lho Gre e k, gOl t he" frr>t Vi ew oIl he Pers,an pOs't ;ons ,n ,he d,'ta nce. Fro m he ' e there ', a oa no,. mic Y;ew 01 !he Pers ,an line 3'
  • G R Ee C E A :-< D M AC E D O l" IA from Plataea to Thebes. This means tha t u, 100, was in the area of the Agi<"I loan ms hill _ possi bl~' on il . D ifferenl religions have a habit ofbui ldi nlt shrines o n the loaTIX spot. and many. Gr«k Or'lhodox cha pe l overlies a P'Olr-"n shri ne. ' Amo nlt 1 · hills and in level counnf 0... wou ld wtll d""LTibe a line slrelChinlt for some six kilometres Over the "" 'cral hilloo::ks o n Ihe Asopus ridge and aCI1)!;S the plam in front of Plara ea, wit h iu left wing Irn;ked o n the Pyrgos hill, T he Spart ans, ho ldi ng Ihe rig ht win ~ o n t he Asopus ridge, covered t he water su pply. N one would dare challenge the S parlan rig ht 10 t he positio n of honour o n t he r ighl wing. h UI Ihe claim 10 Ihe second moet hllIlou t ahle po$it ion on Ihe lefl " , ng waS ooll~' d isputed in t ru e Greek fashion hetu:en the Athenians ;md l he TegCllns (",'ho always """" ed o n l he left in the Spanan ann~'), It could hardl~' be d<M.tbted lhal Athens " 'QIIld win but it soo... an im CT"" ting sidelight on lhe " ancient Gr~b ...·00, C'M! in t he Iace of a most form ida ble enemy where Ihelr very existence was al Slake , were prepared to squabble about honou r . In t he finallinc· up Ihe tight wing was held by the 5,000 Sparta ns and Ihe 5.000 ot hcr L ced aemonian s under I' ausanias, a who Wa s com mander -in-chie f. T he 1,500 Te~eans were d rawn u p o n t he ir left, Thc lefl wing, o n l he Pyrgos hills , was held by At henians commanded by 3' Aristide5 ,,'ith Ihei r fail hfu l allies l he Plataeans. ,,'00 supplied 600 ooplites, 11.""'1 10 t he m. Bc:t,,'~n the IWO "inp the 1 C'in from t he other stales "'-ere d rawn up. wilh the Peloponnesians o n the right next to the Spartans and t he others next to t he AI henians. The Iargnt of these units w'" from Corinth, wh Ich su p plied 5,000 men , The sma11nt conImgents were from Lepreon in T ri. phylia and Pale in Cephallenia, which senl zoo men each. Mycenae ami T ir ;:ns , '" famo us in t he Hronze A~ e, could m uster o n ly 400 betwee n the m. T he 35,000 hd"t. «erl'ed o n the ri ght wing wil h t he Spa nans; the remaining 34,500 light_arm ed troops proba bly sen'ed o n t he o the r ...·ing, Their role was to keep t he Persian ca'alr~' aWI Y from t he flanks IS this was t he weakesl point of a hoph t" I Tmy. ~'hen the 1 " " iaRS had finished ' mourning t he dealh of .!.asislius, T y he too mm 'ed up the ri ,'U unlil t he~' were opposile tbe new Greek posrtjon. H ere ,atdoniu$ de ployed his troops alo ng the non h ban k, li e poned his crack Pe,,;an u OOI'" o pposile Ihe Lacedaemomans. lI is weaker Persians were piaL red o pposite the Tegeans next in line , The Spartan, pro ba bly fo ught fOUl dee p and the Tegca ns and oth er 1.acedaemonians po, sihly d id t he same. A dee p formation was unnece ssary against ligh t-a rmed Imops , and t he longer t he line ...'as the less likely the}' were 10 be: o'Jlflanked. A1ro..ing I lin le Ins tha n a met re per man. t he«e 13 ,000 hopIiles probahly st retched OIIt fo r ahoul three kilometres. ~exi 10 lhe P enillll$ Mardoni~ p1aa:d his M edes . Si no: mese ,,'ere oppo$ile t he <;onr i ~Jl.ls from Corint h, Poridaea , O rchomenus and Sicyo n, consisting of 1l,900 oopliln who, being less confiden t than t he Sparlans, we l e prohabl;-- drawn u p eight dee p, t he .Medes would hal'e strel ched for a littl e over a kilometr e. J.ikewise the Hactria ns covered the me n from Epidaurus, Troezen . Lepreum, Mycenae, Ti r}"ns and P hli us, who were 3400 strong wit h a fron t of abeut aco rn. Next to the Bactrians M ardo.lIlius placed lhe Ind ,ans fa<. ng t he connngerus from ; Hennio ne , Eretn:. , SI)Tll and Chalcist ,3OO hoplites wilh I front of IboUI 1 501J1.· SeX! to the Indians he d rew up l he laS! of his Asiln umll, the ScY hians. l These raced the 2 ,000 hopIiln from Ambracia . Leucas. Inaclorium. Pale and Aegina, co veri ng a littfe over 200m . Opposite the 11,600 Megariaos, P lat..... ns and Athemans on his right " ,ng. ...·ith a front of about 1,250m, he placed 8 . tow Mo""l or ,roe upper Asopu ' va lley 100" 09 south The Greek, probab ly en'ered the pla,n rrom 1M east (Iell) and .a w tn. Pe",an pos"""" as 'My app r<>ltd,.d Eryth.ae He,e ,he F'.,.ians tau"C hIld tDtI" f,tSt a""' ~ ""them f,,.,
  • TH E CIT Y STATES ~ OO-360 lie T III' STATES AT W AR his northern G reck allies, the Borol ians, Locrians , .!ahan., TI1a.oalians and Macedonian s, plu. r,ooo )' hocians from lhoo.e P hocian to wns that had defa:ted. Herodotus add. to t ltis list the minor contingents from Phrygia, Th race, . y.ia , Pxon,a, Elhiopla and Egypl . So, o::x-=luding ca"alT)' and Iighl -armed troops, the whole line covered ebour six kilo mclI'C"S. The OI-alry were drall'tl up separalely, ahn051 cen ainly on lhe ...-in~ opposilC It..: G~ckligh t·armed !rOO", . AflCr dra ...-ing u p lheir ar mies , bolh sides st arted offeri ng !a<. ifi... (:S hoping T " for a favo ura blc rupon.e from the Gods. T he fi nal b att le for eight days the two armies sal eyeing each olher ac ros. Ihe valley whilst the divinen< lr ied 1 produce favuurable 0 omens for an aHack. This delay was of grealer benefit 1 the Greeks than the 0 Persian s as su pplies and reinforcements werc now pouring imo Ihe G reek camps by wa y of the .'l.k gara pass. T his pass, wh k h Ihe Boo....,l ians called T reis Cepha· lac, 'the three he ads" can be idem ified with It..: p,a, s ofl hc M egara route ...'hich runs bel .....een Ihrce peat. arrhe easr side of M o um Cil haeron, Loukisthi, F ikhlhi and Karoums.ab, and from ...-hieh il must derive its na me. On the eight h da y .!ardonius de,patched pan of his OI,-alry "'00 rode round the r ighl wing of the G reek army and occupied rhe entrance to the pa ss. capluring SOO baggage animals plus ~eral wagons ,,~ th !heir dri"ers and culUng t he G.-..ek .u pply line. Why the Grecb had not plao:d a "Irong ho lding force in the mouth of the pass defies underslandmg, but this son of negligence is typ ical o f the Greek dty stales . Fo r three day. more neilher army ffim'ed. alrhough by no.... Ihe Pe..ian ca.-alry ...·Cre constantl~' hara" ing Ihe Gree k lines . .... t firs! hght on Ihe elcvem h day aftc r t hcy had laken u p their new P()Si lion , for S me unfalhoffiahle re asOn o the Alhenian. and Spanano de cid ed 10 exchange po.ilions, ' I'he rea. o n given by Herodotus, t haI the Spartans were !<Cared of t he Persian. on their wing, is so obviously an Alhenian brag that it Iu. to be ignored . T he lrue reasOn is po.. ibly iU' 1 t he o p po.i IC: Ihe ri ghl ...'ing o n t he hills 111 front of modern Er)'l hu i ""3.0 much the stronger positio n and tt..: .... thenia n. on the left we re finding il much more d iffi= 11 10 wit hstand lhe COOOlam anacb of Ihe Persian ca,·all)·. So Inc Spana n~ 1113-" ha ,'c offered to takc over lha{ posi tion_ Mar donius rnponded by fJlO-ing his ... ack Persian n oopo on to Ihis ,,~ng a. T well, makin g t he ...Iuatw n o n Inc Jefl wi ng a.round Pyrgos hill Ihar much W«'Se. So the S pa..n ans mo ved back again 10 d ra..- Inc P en ians wi th them . AJlOIl he r possible feuon, hut Ihis is lughly unli kely u the S panan. were no( prone 10 br illiant lac1ical m(WeS, i. lhal me Spartans intended to la unch a surp rise attac k o n Persia 's G r eek allies hopmg 1 knock lhem oUl before the 0 main ha ril e. It is mo re than likely Ih al the ...·holecpirode is untrue and any way, hy the end of t hc day, everybody was hac'k to ' <luare one. Murdc nius now launc'hed a fu ll-scale ea,-alry allaek across t he river . T he !'ersian horsemen roue down the Greek lines .how eri ng t hem with arrows whilst some of t heir com pamors fo r...-e d t heir way u p o n to t he Asopu. ridge and fo uled the G argaphia fo uma.i n which , a. ll.ual , the S pa..nans had failed {O guard. The Greeks wen: now in serious t rouble: they we re unable 10 ,,·alel at t he na rrow Aso pus r iver fo r fear of lhe Persian archers on t he o ppooitc bank and lhey were also CUi off from their supply lines - lhey had been completely outgeneralled by .l ardonius, At a war cou nci l lhe Greek generals de.:-ided l ha l t he o nl}- Ihing that lhe~' could do " a' to wJlhd raw 10 rhe foot of lhe ltills " hOe-r'C' t he~' could reopen and cover l he ir supp ly IOUIC. H ere also., al a plao: called 't he Island' , there was a plenliful su pply of waler . Thc problem of t he po.ilion of ' rhe Island' seems insol u ble. Herodotus ~Y' that il was len SIIJd~. from the .... sop us and Ihe G argaphi an fo um ain and in from of the lown of Plalaea . Ii was an island fo rmed by a scream called the Ocroe which d ivides in two and then re join. 3 ,lade. funher o n 10 for m an island , H ere lhey would have plent y of "ialcr and would nOl he harmed by the l'ersian horsemen. Such a . ile doe. nOI exist today nor anyt hing like it in lhe whol e hanl e aTea, T he o nly other ab undam . pring in Ihe arca i. t he Vergu!ia ni . pri ng whi ch ri. es iu", "'est of rhe chul<'h of Ag ia Anna l W kilometres we. t of O modern Erythrai. In from of t his t here i. a ridge of .Ii ghtl~· ltigher gro und t ha i snelcnc. our pa SI Plalaea on in CilSiern side_ T his i. flanked o n eilbe r .idc by tributaries of {he Acrois, "..hich ma~' in ancem limes have been m uch fu ller . ( T he . um mertime .....arer supply av ailable w day ...-<MIld be q uile imufficienr 10 satisfy tnc needs of a l oo,ooo.strong arm~' .) lr was tkcided to pull bad as soon as it was dark . T he re is Ccidence tha t lhere "" e~ th ree roads running nonhwa nh from t he foot of .!OUnl C ilhaeron 10...·ard~ T he bes . O ne, ...-hich desce nded from t he G y ptnccastrc pass, coincided roughly wil h the modem Athen. T hebes h ig hway ex cepl thaI it would have run more direCl ly no rl h from the pa.., whereas t he modern road 1.igugs down lhe hilt- ide and passes t hroug h El ylhrai, Th e second road crossed lhe ' lhree hcad. ' pa ss and Ihen fo rked , wit h o ne branch go ing 10 Plalaea and the ot her branch heading north "'ard. aero.. lhe A..,pu. ri dge. West of Ag ios Ioa nnis hillock il ....a. joined hy the Ihird road l'o m ing from I'l alaea. It rhen crossed l he ri v r and headed fo r T he bes, T he pb n e " 'as o bviously for the At he nians o n t he left wi ng 10 ,,-ilhdtaw on Plataea, for t he cem re to usc lhe ' Ihn:e heads' road , and for the S panan. on Ihe right ...-ing 10 ...-il hd ra'" along I he GyphlOcastro roa d . C haractmSlkallh t he plan ...... bungled . When darkness fdl m e <:ertl~, "hich being in the plain had been SO badl}' mauled b~' lhe Persian ca" alry du ring the da)', ...-nhdrew in great haste and eit her inrenrionall}' o r by accidem look lhe wrong fori<. and finished up at P lataea . They piled up l he ir arm. b)' t he T emple of Hera OUiside rhe waHs of the to...-n and cam pe d there. Pausa nia. , hea ring Whal ha d ha ppened , gave o rde.. fo r the n ght wing 10 wit hd raw , I lo....cver o ne lochagoJ na med Amornpha retus, who had nor been ~"On ­ suited when it was decided 10 withdraw , no w, in Uue Spartan fashion, refused 10 desert hi. p""1 in t he racc of Ihe enemy . The ter m lodwilO.< here mu,1 mean a re gimenta l com1l1ande r and nOi a com _ mandcrof a l oo -slronglochos (.ee p ,4 1). I' au, ani"" and Eur yanax , his colleagu e, were in a quandary ; they could hardly remain when t he rest of Ihe army wcre withd ra"'ing but, o n rhe ot her hand, t hey were loathe to .aba ndo n .... mom- II
  • GREECE AN D M AC. EDO:-:I A c , Co" t The w,TI>Qo_." 01 "," G<ee.. fro'" ' .... AOOPUI ""goo The L.I",,<laemon..,n, _ '- <><:oJ!>"" 1.... o.gh< on ,he A$<>pu$ .0<10" ..Ms' ,.... A,,.n ."J <><:oJpoe(l ,,. left .nd 1..... """,,, Gree.. lhe I>'~ p'anned lOt -."" " ... 1. ..."....,. to tt>e ltI<Y_ Ov the toad to p, . Ov ,.... toad to Hvso.. _ t.... t"oe ~on, _ G_u ,n me cen:fe 0'>' """ ."".. to t"oe t_ _ PMS. The """". _ _ 1"'Sl.".g '" "'" da. ~ren t'- the wrong loo-~ I "..,..~ , " ' _. "",,-.,....... carne 1r'ot • ...tr>en nea ""a:ed a n'llht lOt t.... So¥1_ to ""O"'t n Sl' ". 01 "'" fact ""',,...,. _e l v _ I .wav. .-...: '0 !ry ro' lhe _ _ ,.... Sr>¥t__ nr;l 'he 01'* G,,,,, ~, el P,. ..... __ 33& , Pl A 'A f A Below The t>Bn l.t elO ot PI_,... >@en from ' '''' norlh " de 0' lr>f A",pus look,ng ,0u'h ·nS! M od~, n PI_' Na con t>/! SMn a, the foot ot Mo uN C,th .. ,on on "," ,igo.' Anci. ot Plat.e o " OU ld ha.. bn n just in fro'" 01 " Modern E"" hraa " ,n ,he centro ..,'h , he Gy p ~ ,oca" ,a paS! t>en,nO'nd ,ne m,oo he, d' N". I,n l. ' 0 ,~ e "On, D. ph"" con IU" toe >@en a~ ,he '.!r·n. nO ~de T~,. w" I"" Ii,,, G'ee k The '><%It,~ I,on, of ",.tNa., , he Pyrgos nr I """t,,,,, H
  • T H E C ITY STATES 800- 360 BC THE STATES AT V,R pharcrus and his regim en. So t he Spartan army remained where it was while the generals tried to persua de Amom pharetus to move Mean whi le, on the left wing, the At he nians who had begun to fall back heard tha t t here was trouble on t he n ghl wing and sen t a mounted he rald to 1'30,I,ania, to ask hi m what they should do. A, the hera ld rode up the d ispu te was ,t ill ragmg, WIth Pau,a nia, an d Euryanax pleading wit h Amompharet u, and, when t his failed, 1 ng thei r tem pers 08i and shout ing at him . Amom pharet u" on t he other hand , was insis ting that he , hou ld have been ~otlSulted befor e t he decision was rea~hed. Herodotus says thaI Amompharetus commanded the !qd J('.' of Pitana, but doe, nO! ex plai n what it was. Th ucydide" on t he OIhcr han d, whilst still not explaining wha t it wa, ,uppo,~d to be, insists that there was not and n""'er had been such a unit. All t hat we can conclud e is that Amcm pharerus commande d a ,p~cial regi ment an d t hat he wonld hav... bee n present at Ihe nu t mal Sparta n war eoun~il jU'1 a, the prim", pil", wa, later m the Roman arm v.Probably he had bee n excluded as th e council would have bee n re'tricte d to the , I ralegoi of t he various G reek coming-em" olherwise it would hav e got ent irely oul of hand wilh the commander s of ever y regiment and battalio n want ing to be presen t. Whe" v<>ling t ook plac<' in the counci l pe bbles were caq into t wo pile, - for Ot against an action , ~ow Amompharetu s picked up a large stone with both hand, an d cast it down at Pau..Ilia_ feet, crying, 'T het e' s my pebble and I VOle for nu t fleeing fro m the foreigners' Pau,ania~ shouted back call ing him a lunatic an d out of his mind wn en t he Athenian herald asked him for his instructions , l'ausanias a,ked them to huld on an d follow whatever the S partan, did, 'i;-'hen dawn broke the argument was slill raging. Pau,an ia, now did what he should have done all alung an d began to withdraw, lea" ing Am"m pha ret us where he was. The column formed up wnh the Spartans at t he front and t he Tegeans at t he rear . T hey wit hd rew along the G,'phtoeastro road, marching between the hillocks an d keeping to the broken ground, T he Athenians , on th e othe r ha nd, withdrew aeruSS the plain towards Plataea. A, expected Amom phare tus, who had neve r helieved that Ihe rest of t he army wou ld desert him, now t hat he found him self alone, ordered his reg iment !u take up their equipment and followed. When the I,x,kout s in t he Per, ian cam p pointed out to :vardoniu~ what wa, happen ing he cou ld hard ly ha ve bdieved his eyes. The Greek positions were dese rted. Pa rt of the Greek army was visible , lou ng ing around in front of Plala~ a; Ihe Athe nians had d isappeared as Ihey were , creened I'tom him by t he Aso pus r idge , and t he Spartans were 8lru ng out along the A",pu, ridge with Amom pharetu, and his reg ime nt "raggling beh ind as if in full ftighr. X'hen the Spart an, saw that Amom pharelUs .wa, foJluwing them two kilometres be hind , t hey called a halt to wait for hi m . I-Ierodot us say~ that t hey halte d by a str eam called t he .lolois at a place knuw n as Argiopium where t here is a .h ri ne to the E leu~ian Demete r. Th is shri ne has to be at t he fum uf the .hills just we" of an cient Ilysia" . In t he field, ,ust below the Pa ndanass a ridge, on which Hy,iae probably stood , Pri tchett found cuI block> of .lOne whieh had been t ur ned u p by a t ractor- d rawn plough. He suggests co nv inci ng ly th at t hi, wa, t he site of the shrine of De mete r. , ar donius was qUIck 1U take a<1wn tag e of th... situal i"n. He ordered Out hI' cavalry and followed up with t he whole of hI' infa nt ry lead ing his Persi ans aga insl the Spanan col umn, knowing that if he cou ld knod out Ihe Sparta ns t he wa r wou ld be u,-er. The re,1 uf the army he despatched aga inst t he Gr eeks near ria uca . Amompharetu' refused to run and co ntinued to march in an orderly fash ion. No sooner had he joine d the mall1 column {han the Persi an cavalry were upon Ihem . l'ausania, hastily de ployed his hopliles along t he fO of the Ul mou ntain . Spartan di"'ipli ne and training weuld have ena bled them to form up in phalanx eve n unde r the hail of aero....s from the Pers ian cava lry, The Spartan, were pi nned down where they were and il wa, now imposs ible for t he m to move, Pa usanias sent he ralds to the Athe nians begg ing Ihem to come t o hi, a"iSl ance and, If po, ,, ble, to close t he gap in Ihe line which had been left when t he cemr e reneate d to Plataea. It remained for th e Athenians to make the ne~es>a ry manoe uvres. In re' po n'e the Al he nian, began 10 move east wards along t he foot of the hills toward , the Spartan posit ion .-leanw hile the Pers ian infantr y had moved out of cam p and erosse d the ri'-- el . T he Per~ ian ca mp wa, abum SIX kilumctre, from the Spartan posil inn and it m u,1 have taken t hem at least an hou r and a ha lf to ~om e up , especially as the great mass of t hem would have had to adva nce across the open fields . G rad ually the Pers ian infant ry hegan to mm'e in, , ett ing up t heir shields like a fence a short dis tanee from the Spartan line , From here t hey kep t up a constant barrage of missiles . T he Lacedae mon ian, an d Tcgcans crouched down behind their shields to shelte r from t he arrows and wailed for the order to charge " ausan ia" meanwh ile, had climbed up t he hi ll, ide and beg an fr an til-- ally ofle ring sacri fi ce" not dar ing to give the order 10 charge before the omens were fa,'uurab le. . 1.eanwhile, on Ihe left wing, the Ath eni an ma rc h had bee n baIted as the re, t of t he Pers ian army dosed in un t hem . On t he hillside Pausania, Ii fled up his eyes towards the te mple of Hera six kilometres away to the "..est ben eath the walls of 1'lataea, heseeehmg the godde,s to grant him t he omens he neede d but suI! without avail. Relow him the hc plites gradually hega n to fall om of line as the Pe"ian arrows found thei r mar k, and all the lime more and more Pel'ian, were com ing up. i n t he end t he 1,500 T egeans, whose d iscipl ine wa' never as good a, t he S partan" could stand it no longer. Screa ming the ir war cry they rose up an d charged. O n the h illside Pa u,ania, kIll'''' t hat he had lu ac t quickly. He ran down , took u p his po, il;un in the fro nt ran k on the r ight wing an d gave the orde r 10 advance. :--l o doubt in order to av md the charge uf sacrilege, he declared that t he omen, were favourable , and Herodom~ does not d ispute th is. T he Spa nans rose as a ma n and , raismg t heir spears, ebalge d t he mass uf the Pers ians. Seei ng them co mi ng t he Per , ians discar ded their bo....s an d {(x,k up their spea rs. At first t hey foug ht o'"er 35
  • GREECE AND MACEDO KI A the renee of Persten shields bu t soon lhe Spartans had In.mpled this down and they were tn amongst rhe Pers'allS t hrusli ng their long spear. huo the lightl y limed foreigne rs. The Pe rsians fought br avel y, gnpphn g wu h thei r opponents. grabbing at their long spears and br eal: i ng l he m ofr. They ,,'e re . however, no real match for the heavily ann ed Spanans Gradually they fell and the Spartans Cl ambered over their bo dies to get at the rest. Mar do nlu s himse lf. rid ing a whi te horse. was i n t he thie l: of the bail ie urging on his men. He was surrou nded by t,OI>O pic ked men, the flower of the Persi an a rmy_ The.e m en fo ught valia ntly chargin g the Laccda emoni an. and many a Spa rta n reU before them But the nee of lhe battle was inexorab le. Gradually the Spartan hoplitt'S Clt their ...·a)· th ro ugh the 1,000. Fina ll y .{ardonius himself ns struc k from his horse . So long .. he ..as a li ve the Persian••tood Iheir ground. but when the ntIL"S spread through the n. nks lhal Mardonius ...·as dead and the majority of his bodyguard wi th him. the army began to falter and gtve gro und. Soon their line broke and they turned in Dight. rushing head long fo r their camp wit h Its wooden wall ' ac r"~s the river, :'h en they saw the Persians fl eeing lhe other A, lan s also look to thei r hee ls, Only the Ilocotians. perh aps because of th eir age-old e nmity with At hens . co nunued the fight They she....ed great bravery and all 300 of lheir Sacred Band fell ' n the ballic. but at 1 3S1 they too bro l:e an d ned across the r iver to Thebe-.. The Persian rerrear ....as covered by the cavalry ",,-ho l:ept b<'rween them and the adva nci ng Grec h . T h is is 1I re mar l:able rnb ure 10 thelr lr3i nlnjt. discipli ne and d evotio n. as In mOSI ane'ent hallies lhe ho r-;emen " 'ere the firsl to flee . Even so. many of lhe fleeing Persi ans were CUI do wn by the lig ht ar med J lo" who "'ou ld no w have .. ru sh ed OUI a hea d of th e adv and ng phalan x, The Spartans, heing the n ea re~ l. W~te the lirst to reac h the Persian camp but they found il imposs ible 1 appro ach the 0 palisade, Later the Athenia ns am ved and tbe "ruggle grew holter. For a long lime tbe Persians fought them off but Il nally th e wa ll ",,'as breached. The Tegeans ...ere me first into Ihe sloc kade and lhey we re lhe o nn who plun dered ..a rdo nius· tent. once ine Greeks ",,'ere tnro th e camp the Persians pUI up no great re-siSl:rnce and ,,-ere slaughlered by the "en geful Greclu. The numb<'r of the Persian dea d. lusl as the number of their army. is obViously grossly exaggerated, Herodotus says that onl y 3.000 of those who ned In the camp survived. He also talks of ao.ooo who mana ged 1 gel away 0 fro m rhe bailie fi eld und er Artaba zus. Th e Gre ek In..e s wer e sm all T he Lacedaemoma ns lost 91. the Tcgeans t1 and the Athenians 5 ~ . The,e fil:Ure s are pro bably True as II Is in fl ight that most casualties are sustained Such was the result of the battle of Plataea. The Spartan, bad avenged me de ath of Leonidas and ,bo"'e d memsetves. individually. as perhaps the gre3teS! soldiers In history. Persia nevee 3gain alle mpted to invade Greece and ....as herself ove rcome by the Greel:s of Alexander lhe Gr....l 150 ~-cars later .... fler lhe reUeat of the Persians. the .... I h e nja n~ had masslVeI)' strenglhened t h e defences of rhe f r clly and constructed long ....l lIs slretch lng from me d ly t o the har bo ur It Pi raeus. Provided lhal Ih"'" long WlIlb remained Intl ct and food could he broughl in by sea, it " 'as im possibl e for Sparta to overco me he r oppo nent From the beginnin g, ho...e ve r, Athe ns su ffere d fr om bad luc k. W hen th e Spartans laid siege '" the cit)'. rnod wa, hrou gh t In fro m Egypt . T h ese sam e ships. however, also bro ught the plague In the cro wded co nditions of lhe siege Arhens ""'as deva state d by the di sease The Irony ...as that, t>e<:IUse Athens was orcrating a blo<:J:ade apinsl Srana. the Spart ans lhemselves never contracted the disease , For three long years the plague raged and carr ied off about a qua ller of tb e po pulation. BOlh si des were exhausred and in 42 I IlC a peace trealy .... as signed whi ch le n .'lhens hard ly ..orse off tha n when .he had am en s ag ai n ' 1 S p a r ta Arte r the defea l of the Persi ans bot h Athens and Sparla W ere free 10 pu rsue their empire bu U dlng which lhe Persians had so rudely Interrup ted Al though both sla teS followed an anti-Persian policy and op enly sU r!ed any ant i-Persian PP" activities in the eastern Mediterr"nean, it was only a mat ter of um e before once more Ihey were at each nther's throats, For half a ce ntur)' a n inte rmi n ent peace erjsre d bet.....en the 1'100 Slates. In or der to fight lhe PerSia ns at se a the At ben i3ns formed a lea gue of the man ume .lates; Ihis ",,'IS l<rto","T1 a, Ihe Confederacy of Delos . By ex e rc ising more and more control O,-cr her fellO'll rncmbcn in tbis IClIguc. Athen. m3naged 10 convert a parlnership tntc an empire ~i lh the money appropriated from he r allies she built a greal neel and the ell)' that "'" s the wonder of ure world. In 43t IIC the long-expected w r wtth a Sparta bro ke out. AI fi rsl it seemed lhat ne ith e r , jd e could possibly W , for in Athe ns cont rolled the sea and Sparta the land. Sparla co uld I"y , iege to Athen s but cou ld not SlOp supplies com ing in from the sea, On the other hand, Athen s cou ld launc h se ab or ne at tac ks on southern Greec e but cou ld not de feat the SpaTlan army, II beca me" ",,'ar of sie ges ""'Hh p racticall y no fu ll-scale bartles. started. In 4re. sen lusting for empire, Alhens embark ed on the most d isastrou s blunde r in Gree l: history - she deci ded to invade Sicily. Thi s nnrruna rcd in the ' lege of Syracuse, It should ha ve been easily acc omplished but . owing 10 the In co mp e te nce and Ind ec rsto n o f th e ge ne r al. Ntc ras . it tu rn ed Into an un m iti gate d dis a st er T he emi re exp ed itio nary force was Captu red. th e generals were executed and the rest of the army sold into slivery, l<orsc shll. du rin g t he expedition . Sparta had reopened the war in Greece to tal:e the pressure off Syracuse. ~ow. in spite of her slaggering loss of an enure army and li5 .hips. ....thens ...-as com pelled to take o n he r old e nemy She held OUI for another nine years. In lhe end the rest of her neel .... ca ptUred. Arhens irsclf ,,"lIS besieged and. in the face of starvation. surrende red BU I Spa na was exha usted and her domination was broughl to an en d at Leuctra in 37 t by two Th eha" ge ne rals Epamtno nc as and Pelo pid as. T heir , evolution ary theo ry of hop lilc tacti cs e n" bl ed Th e bes to Invade so ut hern Gree ce and de feat Sparta decisively at Mantinea In 362 These Ideas were raken up by Philip of Macedon. who as a yout h had gone to Thebes as a hostage . On his accesston he began to build a mighTY army.
  • T HE C IT Y S TAT ES 800- 360 B C T HE PH A L A N X The Phalanx 8th c~mury IlC Ih~r~ was a ~ulion in th ~ Gree k mode o f ,,'arfar ~. Th~ 'Iree for all' fighting o f the heresc age was abandoned and a far m ore disciplined .y$lem introduced. This ,,·a. the pllal a nx -a n orde rl)' ba ttle li ne se. enJ ranb lk..p willi rh.. men in me second and 5uc-ceed ing ranb co,·.. ring tile men in the trent ran k. so tha i tile pllalana was divld..d into files of men. one be hind anot he r. The phalan x ""a, composed of many short files and nor of a few long ra nks, Eacll file ...-as a unit and when a man in rhO' front rank f.. lI. his place was taken by the man in rh~ rank behind -rile next man in his fil e. The ph alan a co uld be drawn up In open "'der with two pac~, pe r man or doubl ed up 10 fo rm clos e order , The ne w fcrmatlcn wa, stre ngth ened by th e intr oduct iOn o f the A rgiv~ sh ield probably ear ly in the 7th cen tury. This wa s a round bu ckler which d id away Wilb rne age -old c~ nrral handgrip and "I"' fastened to th e left forearm; it wa, hel d acr oss the c hest cov er in g th e warner fro m ch in to "'ncO's. In close order . whic h ""as us ua l in bal1le. rhO' shield wu .... ide enou gh to off~ r peorecn to the unguarded side of the on man OIl lhe len. The de~lopmenl of !he pllabl/u "'"lIS a gradual process and In lIS early 'IellTS must hl'<' gone Ihro u&h man)' cha ng~$. The ne'" ...emee ....as ca lled a hopille or armoured man. On the Chigi vase from ue middle of the 71h crnmr)' he is slu)'lo'n slill carrying t....o Homeric Ih row a ble spean, but m e vase she..-s thai the lDdloonal armou r of helme~ cuit:l$$ and ~a;·ff. all made of bronze. had al~ad)' been adopted, Gra dually the weaponry and armour ~re I mpro~d. By the time of the Persian invasion th.. bronz~ cuirass had been replaced by a jmen one ...'tuch gave bene r p rot~c ll o n and was a lot cheap'r to pro.Juce. The !hTO'lIblt spears were replaced by a long thrusting spear and a short sword, WllI these weapons lhe hopliles could k~~p a lighl formation Dunng th ~ F..rl y d .. ve lo p me nt 11 it I m poS$jbl~ 10 trace the ear ly d ev~lopment of the phalan x. We know only lhat the s)'$tem ""as fully developed by the time of Ihe 71h centu ry Spanan ~I 1)T1lCut wllo describes a warrior' s d ut)' as standing shoulder 10 shoulder wilh hls co mrades and avo id i ng in dividual ICIS of tleroi,m " 'h ich v.-ou ld d isr upt the fo rmat io n. Ttle Sp<t rtan. criticised Arislod..mus at the battle of I'lal....a btcallSC' his outslanding bravery jeQpa rdise d ltle lives of tlis comrad.., . Vil1ually nothing is known of the early organisa tio n of t tl~ phalanx. The fint deta il ed d esc ri pl io n is &Iv~n by Xenopho n in his Con snru uon of the Lacedaemonta ns wllere be describes the Sparl an ar my at th~ h ~ ginnin& of 1110' 4t h centu ry ec . His use of the wo rd pent< koSly. (fifty) fo r 3 un it in t he Spa rlan army In his own da y, in spire of tile Iact that at me time in q uestion Ihis unn was considera bly larg~r. sugg~$IS Ibat the Spartan phalanx. and probably rbose of th.. oth~r Greek states 100. had evomd !rom a $)"St~m based on fik:s or ei g hl men and th at al ecrn e ea rli er pe rIod. poss ibly arou nd 800 IIC. the p hala nx WIS made u p of 100- sl ro ng I«ltci, cadl &xhoo being composed or two p.t~ fek".ty.n ..-hich ""ere in turn diided into twO , ~" ... ", i" i . Each ell"","''- " p robably consisted of l 3 1I0pl ite,. a ve teran feaf-ta nk offlcef (""'''I"''S o r u ,gid .." ",) and a commanding o mcer In battle th e ell""'''';'' would usually be drawn up in three flies eacll of eig ht m~ n. with the rear-tan '" officer !Iand ing clear af the back to make sure that the rear ranks d id their job. The ' ~O "!"I" ,d•. like all the officers of the phalanx. fought al lhe trom of the rit:!t l· hand l1le of his unit, W h ~ n dra wn up eight d eep . 111 0' wh ole loch". wo uld consist or 12 fl ies. It waS co mma nde d by (e,."...o,,,,,.). R,g hl The '.rcl1.,;c IOCM.' , lhe hypolhehcal orill'r'I3.l oM of !'" Prla~n, lrom wtliCli alllhe O1M.s 0Y0i_ . I! wa. ""'00 ~ o! too. eooroo!i~" MC!1 O!""-":;; was composed 01 Iii.... ~Ies ot _ <111men ono • . - .-..- loura(lO$l: o ."",agos. 37
  • GR EEC E A XD M ,CED ON IA a locJwg<iJ wh o foug ht lit the from of the ri ll:hl - ha nd file. T he left half of the fIX"'" " it!> commanded by a pt1tU/to"ln, si mi larl~' fighting al Ihe front of tbe righl·ltioond fik of his unit. So " e ha ,'e a loo-strong 1«Jws with its offiCU fightmg in lhe from rank and ils ~ar _rank oftk'ers standing proud allhe hack. Th is ,,,,,,Iated position of t he rea r- ran k ortcers is illustrated hI' XenOJ'ho n at Ihe Ii,,tion al baule of T hym brara. wh ere the light-a rmed troops arc placed he hind Ihe phala nx and the 'rear ran ker s' d ra"; n u p hcl ll nd Ihe m to kee p lhe m in o rder. T he new for m ation wu adllJ'ted by all t he cit y states and , alt h" ug h de talls va ried from Slate 10 n ate, t he basic o rganisat io n alwa)" rem ained rhe same. T he Alhenian a.-m y AI Alhens, which " 'as the largC"'1 of the city states, all Athenian cit ize ns be t ween l he agC'" of 17 and S9 "ere liable fOf mdtlat }, .en.;o: . Dur ing lhe Slh Cl:n IUT)' AlhenS was abk to field ahout 30.000 hopliu:s of who m nearly ha lf "'e~camp.aign sol dier.;. The remai nder, I ~e under t 9 and t he '·eter"ns. pe r formed garr iso n duties, These nopl iles were d rawn from t he ",'calthier classes as ea"h man had to supply his own eq uipment which o nly lhe well-off coul d alfo rd . Ho wever, a sol d ier wh",,, father had been killed in battle was armed oil pu blic expe nse. As far as can be see n, the At henians retained the basic 'archaic IlXhos' and gene rally fought eigfn dee p. The army am.isted of ten dh'isi"n. (I" Xe..), t:" t"h ; commanded by a ,ari<l,d,. One division "'as d rawn from each of l he le n Alhe nian governed bl' nve ma gistrales ~rphors) who ,,'ere c1ec.ud annually. Th<e kings muslorigmall}' have had poIilical power but. by l he 51h cenlul1' 1lC, the rphors "'ere the rrue J'O"-er In lbe Slate and were ans..-erable only 10 thei r sUCce!>SOfS. Ea<:h king had a bodyguard of 300 00(">hlC'" wno, in splle of Ihei r name, mppns. we~ infanl ry, nol cavalry_ Ongmally both kings went on cam pai gn but . shon ly be fo re Ihe l'er, ian wars . it was restricted to nne. lf our knnwlcd ge of t he At henian m ilita ry system i ~ sparse, the absolute rev erse is true <If Sparta , The Athenian wl d ler and wriler Xenophon spent man y years with the Span ans and served on campaign wit h t hem . H e had S p a rt a - a m ll ilar ~' s la le T he re was one slate that m ust he separ- a great admiration for t he Spartan miliated from the OIMl'5"" it d"" iared from laT)' system and his wrilings bristle wit h rhc patterns along which t he od",n delails of t heir rntlllal1' pr.tCIices_ F rom e,'Oh-ed, T h is was Spa rra -c- t he ITIO't his wri li ngs one can build up a ve11' full fea red Slale in Gree..-e. It ..-as a<.-O:pI'ed piClure of lhe Spanan army at lhe end lhat one Sp.anan ..·as wonh .e,·etal men of the 5th century Be. Sparta was .. ''''T)' of an!' other slale, and flOne of the 0100 consen.-at;ve Slale and t he vasl ma iortt )' st ates. unless fo rced . would dareopro'" of his descriplK>n must hold good fo r lhe I:>e-ginni ng of the o:ntUr}' 100, Spa na on lhe battlefield, E"erylhing at SpaTIa was regu lated The Spanans lhemseh-e. weere kn o wn as S parl illte•. They formed the core of by l he Slate. All Spartans ..·cre sold iel'5. the army. T he Spartan arm y was reo All ot her profe..io ns were forbidden 10 inforced by levies from the suhiect Ihem . Sparta n land was di vided up into perioed . By t he be ginning "f lhe st h st ate -o wned farm, operated by helm , . cen tur y helots were al,o 8ervinl< wilh 1he Each Spart an wa, B,sillned one of Ihese arm y as lig ht -armed skir mishe rs. T he farms fro m whic'h he d rew his ' U" e nco mhi ned arm y of t he Sparuatcs and ance, whic h leh him l'n 't' 10 de vore his p.-rioeci is rel'crred to as Lacedaerno nian. " ho le life 10 milita ry prowess, The T he SpaTlans had a "ra nge l;'< ln.tit u. Spanan syouern was self_perpe tuati ng; tion. A lt houg h t he y were Ulm manded il was because they were ,,'arriors thai in bal tle hr' t..X) hereditary kings who lhey overcame and enola,'ed the helou. could he, and oflen "-ere, rerno'; ed if who greatly outnumbered them. and in the people did not like them, they were o rder to rnai mam Ihis "atus quo e';CIJo' lri bes. Each 01 rnese la:..... ... ,." subd ivide d Into IlXhm, but we koo... of no imermediete division betw«n 1M I".n. and 1M 1""IsoJ, At Athens, as in all t he oemocranc st ain. t he general (' ''''/egos) was elected. At Al he n. len were chosen annuallyone fo r each tribe. In pract ice. usually "nIl' t hree '..er nwu h t he army, in ...'hich case eit her o ne ...as made commanderin·ch ief or e"",h ~'Ommanded in rora non o n se para te day. , The officers ,""em to have served in t he front rank and eve n lhe gene ral, aft er giving his orders, l"" k u p hi . I""it io n, usually at the rig hl end ofthe pha lanx
  • THE CITY STAT ES 800- 360 Be T HE P HAL-~ X Spart~n had to devote hIS lik to w ldiering 50 that he cou ld keep the h~fqlJ do...n. The t r a in i n g of a S p art a n 00 )' The ~tat e regulated e'eI) 'lhmg In Ii£<,. Expectant modw:no had to ~orm srrenuces ex.,,-ci~ to ens ure their children V,-en: "rong: imperfect babies wer e pUI dow n. At the age of sen,n boys were taken from the ir mothers , Iheir hair was cut short and they wer e fo rmed into classes where t he}' all lived , ate and ,le pt toget her , So that all were gove rned h}, t he same d iscipline, T he Spana ns d id 1'1 01 entrust the edu,:ali"n 01 their children tn hired teachers ; t hey nominaled a matu re and experienced citizen to perform t his ta,k, Academi c ed uc3110 n was min im al. EmphaSIS was always o n d iscipline and exercise. Children fo r Ihe IIQ5t pan went barefoot and naked , T heir food was sim pk and SCanl lo encour~e t he m 10 sleal . .'lloough t hey "''en: punished when caught , the punishmem was fO£ being caug ht, not for stealing. so l lu.t later a wld i.,,- mighl be able to end ure fam ine and be a good forager , " 1t he age of 12 the discipline become much harsher, It W<lS rC.-ognis<:d Ihat loll'S nf t his age could be ve ry un ruly, so they loa ded them with hard work and conSlant exerci ses, The hardy TOUl in" " f earl y child h uod was "'' ' ''l in ued: unde rdnthes we re fo r bidden , an d one tumc had to serve for bot h ",'i nter anJ summel, Fig hting ... as encouraged among bolh adults and ehild ren , but never in anger, .- fig ht had 10 hr"",k up ",'hen o rdered bv another citi ze n, T hi, IS illust rated by the young boy who was t hrashed by his farber, not because he had been fighll ng bUI bccau!oC he complained that Uk'l(her ~' had hit him , Bra"ery ...·a. considered the ultima te virtue and cowudic<: lhe greates t vic e. After a balt ic the dead were carried home on their shi eld. , On the o lher hand....'he n runni ng a....ay from a battlefield , the first Ih ing a hoplile discarded was his cum hc rsome shield, so a Spa rIan mother 101..1 he r son to t et urn from baul e either c'a rryi ng hi. shield o r o n it , A hoy reache d man hood in hi. t wenti et h )'ear, when he became lia ble for mi1i",r ~' service . T h,· fittest youl hs wer e laken imothc army , T hose who were reje cted were graded a. inferio rs ; these may ha ve formed a pool of re plac e menu , SInce the Spartan arrny ",'as o rganised bl age groups, t he young men continued to I;'-e and exera . e logelher ; even when married a Spartan man li,'ed and ale in t he barracks ",'it hout his "' Ife, This separation of men from their ....ives encouraged ho mosexua lity_ 's la<en 110m I The Spart an a rm )Xeno pho n , in hI, ConSlillui" .. oj tift LaaJ"~"''''''<1''', gi" e. a ,-cry full sccount of the " rgani.ation of the S part an army in hi. ow n time around rhe beginning of the ..tit cen tur y tIC, It is unf" rt u _ na le that an ac count given by T h ucydides when he i. de.cn bing t he fint bat tle of .lam ine. is so me what difk rent. T h ucy d ides Ireety admits that he had great d ifficu lly in oblaining in formatio n aooll! the Spartan arm )' and may ha,'e tried to reconstruct t heir or gani, ation fro m a mixture of conte mpora ry and earlie r infor mation, x enop hon '. acco unt i. ti r.t hand and mu, t hc ptel"ned, All men between the ages of 20 and 60 were liable for militar y ,erv ice, Spart an hoplites were ar meJ in Ihe , arne fas hiun •• the other G reet. , h ut were ea.ily recr>gnisable by l he ir uni form searlel doo ks, T hi. red duak became the symhoi of Spanan militarism , .~~ r ... 1><;1,,,. ef ""'" '" 90'''11 nte battle ilOO CeM'" a ~ vaH t"""d It Chog. ," En"". The hg",e .t,,;.... I 'ocenwUC'l'Otl cI I "00' " hom Ib:>ul 600 BC be"'" en me """""Iogoca, '""~ 7l/'l'~ 39
  • G RE EC E Al':D MACIinONI."t. In Xcnophun's ..l a )' t he strenll: th uf the S panan locllOS was t 44, being ~'Um · posed of fOUT 36-strong trt<t"wriai , AU tha t seems to have happened is t hat the strength oft he e"""",Ua had n.,en l1Ii:<ed by 50 per ~'C n t '0 t hat the t><tSlC dept h of the phalanx co uld be in.:reas.ed trom eigh t to t wd ,'c, AI t his time there a generaltendency rowards dee per formarion" prot:..bl)' sti m ulated b~' the n " , of Thebe, which had adopted a m u.:h de eper p halanx. One can sa)' wit h reasonable cerl ainry that , up unt il rbe late 51h cent ury , Sparta tOO reu ined Itt.: 'arch aic I""h",' ...- ilh it' st andard dept h of eight . The S partan anny 'us organised so that eveI')' unit , 00 mail er ho w s mall , had in own com m ander. and ~sib l y rear.rank com mander too. T he ~ar · rank offico:n (.... r<>;:"" ) may ll<)( ha ve been supernumeraries In t he Spanan arm y and the ",'hole rear URI< of the phalanx may have consisted of t hem . ~h ttW_ ;a ",'as subd ,,'i.x.J into three files. and then aga in into six half liles. Each tile and ha lt file had Us bes t man as leader and its second-best ma n as rear ranker. T bc c' ,....,,<1' were co upled into 'li bies' ( r ulw.'.~$). esch wit h u s own co mm ande r ("""u """' n"). T,,'o fifties were Sl milatl y iOlned to fonn ;I. lodws- t he . mallesl ta~' ical unu of t he phalanx_The Iod",. waS command ed by a ItXh",g.... The w ho le SparTan armv was com pos ed of six division• . Each d i,' j,ion ( mor a) was ~'Om ma nded by a !,<,I-..nh and ccntamed fou r /<>elwl. I n phalanx all the orncers and file leaders " 'ould he in [he Ironr rank The "ar;ous olfi<.'Crs e"" rn<tlar<hs, pe"le""" ter. and 1(><:/r<1/:0I - would fight at t he head of the right hand file of the unit l hal they com manded . Alla ch ed to eac h m"" wa, a un it of e .:avalty- abo called a m<Jra. T h;, was probahl y aO"ul 60 . t ron ~, Th ese cavalry units only ca me ;ntO ""ing dur ing the Pclcponn esien war toward, the end "f the 51h ce nt ury . T he fi rsl mor" ennt ained a unit called t he /rippel, T hi, cnn';' ted of the 300 ' '<I' , , , P ,,,,1Y' "",,,, P",,,~ . ().,,v · U, u, U, ,U U, ,tt m ,U '" ,,, ,,, "t Ut ,,, ", ,,, ", ,U ", ,U ' ,H,t t ft f" • u, U, m ,,, ", ,,, ,,, ,,, ", U, t" ttt rtt ", ,U t" 'H 'H tH ", ~~, ~~, ,ft The " ' Ila""U t"'O of troe S(I.-UIO.."., at tt>o to.", 01 ~ e o """" o (. ...... 4'0 ot"IVtV) 1 r ... ' maIlfl ' UNI o f ,'" Spa"'" a'"",. Ihe """"""'", cotr(l<lM(l of "10'" f,.... 01 """,,,,. at , ,, h allf'"" +aet> 01,•• moo. "W.. ""'0 comfnllO(led b~ ao enomor.-.:h r el>()m(Jt,., we'e <:ouple<l '0 Io<m - ' ,. ...., , ...ch com~ by a pemet<tmer 2 A. Iochos. I.... b.. ,c uM of I.... 0.101 00' 1 wos ComPOIeO of two Itou r pen,,,",,.r.,.,. .nomol''') and w•• oommo nO<ld l>v a lochagt>J 3 A mOo'" COtT1P05'<t ot t<tur IOChOi (57 6 m.m ) a M oomrna""ed b, . pt}19m8lch Tho .oti" Spa"a n ",rn ~ wo. rn.~. up 01 " . mot• • aM wa s cornrno~ o.O b~ 'r>e " og l • p loch8 </O. E• .""",m . ",h ~ "" n l ~ l:O< ' IP' 111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111111
  • T HE CITY S TA TE S H 360 Be oo'rm: PHAL A N X hcpluc s who were t he cream of t he army, They were selected from t he men who were in Ihe prime of life . Ea~ h yea r Ihree men were ~ho,en by the epho",; Ihey we re ~alled hipp"gret"'. T heir jo b was 10 ,eket 100 men each 10 make u p lhe hippei,. T hese ml'n ser ved on lhe right wing of lhe army and made up the kings bod yguard. It is f'O"ih le t haI only those who had son s we re elig ible for lhis unit, tor the Spart ans looked down on any man who had nO! done his dUl y and produced Ihe neX I generation of hoplites, T his wo uld a~eount fM Herodotus' rem "r k at the battlcofThc rmopy lae about the S partan troops who had ""'S. Sp" r t a i n H er od o t u s' d "y It se ms lil< ely that the S pa rl an army e wem lhrough IWO reo rga nisalio n", OHe at lhe time of Xe no phon at t he begi nning of t he 4lh cemur y,and one per h"p, 50 years ear lier . Pract ically nothing i, known oft he army be for e t hi, ea rl ier reorgan" at, on , Howeve r, fro m od d remarh about loch,,; and the " bsence of the word "lOra from H erodolUs' account , cou pled with t he con'tam tradilio n in the an cient so urces t hat the re were five fochm III t he Spa rt an ar my, it does not see m unreasonable to suggest that at the be ginning of t he 5t h cem ury the Sparran army m ay h. ve be organen ised in five supe r loeha<. II is quite possible t hat the suhdi visio n' of t he' e , uper h :hal were also ca lled foc/wi - t he w"n1 "m ply means a body of men and in Ill) way im plies a fixed num ber. A parallel may be quoted in the incliscriminate usc of th e wo rd taxis , whic h In Xe nup ho n' s t ime could mea n an y unit of more lhan one f,xh",. These su per loch o' were probably territoria l lev ies on t he five districts or "illage> that made up Spart a. Itl prehisloric ti me ' each village may have been ex pected to supply one loehos. Grad ually, as lhe villages ex panded , so lhese units grew bu t cont in ue d to be called JlJChoi. Each of t hese units was commanded by a I",hagos wh o wa, o bvi"us ly much more senior than hi, nam.' ,uggcsts. At Plataca ill 479 , e a~h of t he live lod w f{OI wou ld have com ma nded abou t ' ,<X>O men. T hi, cxplams why t he I",;h~xo.,· ,momph arel us felt that h." could challenge lhe aut ho rit y of t he mmmander-in-ehld Pausanias because under no rma l ~'ircum stances he would have b een pr ese nt ur Ihe cou nd l of war. N o dou bl lhese su pe r 10<:1",i were su bdivided III a sim ilar manner 10 lhe later an ny. !'t om t he 71h century o nward s the Sp artan popula tion was eo nstanll y in decline . Iktween th e 7l h and the be grruung of t he 5th cent ury t he army slrc nglh droppc'd from 9 ,<X>O to a.ceo. A hundre d years later it had shrunk to around 4,0Cl0, of whom onl y abom t ,0Cl0 were S pa rtia tes , so l hat manum ined helots and pawed were having to be drafted into the army 10 I<ee p it u p to st reng th, T his dev aswl ing de cl ine III t he po pulatio n of t he Sparta n state musl have be en t he reason fo r t he successive reor ganis atio ns. Rec r uits in Xe n o p h o n 's time Xenop hon insists that there was no need 10 lram a man in lhe usc of hi, weap ns, o as from childhood one k "rn, to lhrow up one's left arm in defen ce. and t hat striking with a ~ pear is al,o nator"L Th is " pro b"bl l' tr ue. T he strength of the phalanx was never based o n md ividu al prowe' s bUi on o pe rat ing wgether in a d iscip lined fash ion. Xenop hon obv iously believed t hat practic e in t he use of spe ar and ,hield wa, all t hat was neces,a ry and certa inly moc k b"ll leS 1001< place. II mU ~1 also be true t hat every S parl an boy from the ea rl iest age must have plave d at so ld iers and lc" rned his m ilitary craft t his way. Ncvcrt hctess, hcplites mu,t have hce n tramed m lhe b",i~ movements an d il has be en ,uggested lhat cer lam positio ns co mmonl y a ppear ing in an re pre>cnt the,e basic movements. T hese are sho .....n on p. 42 , I . When at case the hoplite stands with his ' pe ar bUll on the ground and his shield rest ing against his t high. H oplites sorne umes retained lhi, posit ion in lhe face of the enem y as a sign of co n~ lem pt. 2. When ealleel to atte ntion lhc spe ar is raised to Ihe right , boul der and lhe shIeld lifted to cove r the torso 3. F rom hne lhe hoplit.· c" n come 10 Ihe 'o n gu ard ' posi tion by br inging the spea r forward unt il his rillh t arm is stra lghl an d the spear i, parallel 10 t he g round at waIS t level. This was lhe posit ion for t he un de rhand thrusl -it AI>o, e An "'Qu ,• .tely mooelled IOle 6th ·centu ry bro~,e . t. luotle ,how ,ng • Sp.rlan .rmed lor b81tle . nd swathe d in h i' mil.lary el"" • . Tne tran,, ",,;e c'e,t may be. , 'g n ot ran . Wadsworth Al hen.eum H8'ltord Con nect 'cut ,.
  • G REEC E A'SD MACEDOKIA was In t his S!an~e that th.. hopl ite adva nced to batik. The u nderhand Ihrust co uld not be executed under nm mal cond itions in close array a, one would have to open up t he wall " f shields 10 IhruS! at ....,.i,t level. Alsothcre would be a risk of striking t he ma n n..xt in file with the pointed butt of the spear. ~. The norm,,1 striking pos il l<ln has to be with t he: src-"r raised above the right shoulder stli king do"'n wards at a slight angl.. through thc: dan-shaped gap be tween t he top of one's o""n shield and t hat of one's neighbouronthc: right. 'l"hc: angle of t he st ..,k., sh,-,ul d ensu re t hat it pa" c. o,·cr the he ad of the next in file. To take u p l h i ~ altitude from 2 would he impos sible as it would leave t he sl"'ar butt roointing for ward . T o do it from J is equally impossi ble "," h a long spear. It would be necessary to raise the spear a bo-.'e t IM. right shoulder and then reverse the grip. These moeemems in phalanx wo uld ~Ulre considerable trai ning. .... professional sol d ie r could always tell a !>adl)· t rained arm y by' t hc untidy way they pcrfotmed thi s dri lL Training started by leaching t he new re~ cruus 10 march in single file fo llowing t he leader. A Spanan youngst er stan ing his blsic lrai ning wo uld ha'·e alread y been inured 10 the Spanan tradition and "" oold only tt:a'·e needed 10 be knocked mrc ohare· ....ll orders were grven by wurd and then executed on a t rum pet sound . Xcnopho n gin .,; a colou rful de"c·riptio n of a l~xi<1rch Irying to train ne w re",ruits , obv io",l... not Spartans, to ma rch in single file. l Ie lined t hem "p behind t he loch<1KOSand l hen ga,·., them t h .. o rd n 10 ad,·a.... ", al which .....ithout " ....al1lng fo r 11M. tru mpet.lhe man be hind 11M. foclr.Jg,x $teppcd for ward and overloolt him. "'ith commendable palience. l he lol"i<1.~h ex plained to Ihe ra.... recruit Ihat 1M. meanl all of thc:m and nOI just him. He ordered t he yout h ba< :k into line and gave rhe o rder a!/:ain, This time they all overt ook Ihe {oc/r~r>s. Having trained t he recruits to march in line the y were t hen taught 00.... 10 de · ploy into ra nh of va rious lengl h. The ~O""'lra of. sal·, 36 men i' dra wn up in !inllk file. Thc~· are numbered o lf ; l he first man (momol olr ch) comma nded the ....hole tile, Ihe Ihin eenth comma nded n um bers 14 10 Z4, and the I......nt)··tiflh man com mande d numbers 26 1o J6. On Ihe o rder to form up Ihr cc abrel " . num be rs 1 10 ' z wou ld " and fast and n um hen IJ and 25 wou ld br ing u p their squads on the left - hand side to fo rm a <:olumn three abrea'l and IZ deep. On a second o rder t he rear ha lf of eac h squad "'",uld move u p ak>ng-sidc its front hal f 10 fo rm a block six "" ide and s, x deep. T he: files <:oUld be d,."....n up e;lher in o pc n order ....ith t....o Pl'CCl be l ....een files o r c100e order wnb o ne pace between. Since t here arc no mar kers. this drill i5 only practical if the leader of each ,quad .... heels his unil to the left and paces OUI t he d iSl anc"" he ilI need to be trom the fi rst file and then he d s to the ri g hl and Je-.lds his men forwa rd umil he is leel ....i l h l he rnotft(Jlarch. Bn ngmg up Ihe rear half of c-och file is al..., lhe ~.lsiest ....ay to form dose order from open order. W hen dealing wilh a ....hole lochM of fou r rnotftOlWl 11M. drill becomes considerably mo re com ple x. T he dial/:ram shows four eI1<mWliai already d raw n u p in ~"'I u m n three ahrea" form in!/: up inw a hlod 12 hy 12 . If this was done in open o rde r t hen the rear half of ea~·h tile coul d be bro ught u p 10 form a closeorder phalanx of six ranh each of 2~. T o reform in column rIM. phalanx did an ahou t ru m and t he: rear ranker ..- A 1lOQI'" ( e 400 Be l """'" -"PO'" n-. ,,""lO n _ mo_ts .... h>'l>O'tlrhcai .",1 t>oo~ on POM' '''9o loo1y s!>o"M1 At eue, on Gr"", ........ rest,ng aga,nst n,s 'h ig~ o ano ,oea' boH on I~ groono, Some" """ :n" p<>$ "'on seM,d . , a o'g n 01 conwmo, w~n lac'r>g 2 Allent on . w,1l' h' o SOQ' ·ol"""G' ""'0 ohoeld 1 .- l The _ It>... w ; t~ ~ i •• hoeld 'he_ .-roo tI1n••llr>g pg$tloOn, '1_0 'n pCIOO''''''' ltIal h. _"""'"" ,nlO bottle • T.. _.-m t"l<'-"""'9 _' loon
  • T H E CI T Y STATES 800· 360 ec THE PHA LA:,;X (uurtJ,rIJs) of the laOl sq lUd, ..hich wo uld no... be al Ihe nght end, led off and th e could have bee n disbanded except for ill officers, file leaders and ouraglJi and other units fol lowed in their correct lhe t So be-sl recruils drafted in to make up lhe numbers. The rest of tho: recruits order. Xenophon teUs Us how , in order 10 would join lho: ca'·all')'. The remai nder pTa<..'1itt t his, a '"nard! u....t to march of tM d isba nded momOlUJ could be used his recruit s to lho: II1C'SS in phalanx and 10 bri ~ t he ot her ~;m up to IIxn ha"e t ho:m lead off in single file slre ngt h. The f)C' t1I<>-s,i<1 wou ld serve ,,'ilh lhe ngh l-hand /ocJwgIJ' leading . on l he Iefl side of th e mora in t he least l;'ben lho:y had fi nisho:d lheir mea1lho:y honourable poo.ilion. H aying become had 10 come OUI in reverse order "'-tlh pal1 of the main anny lhe new recruits the left-hand ow'<JgOs leading and form could no w ta ke part in large-'<OIlc prac up again m phalan x facing lho: rear. Th is t ice ma noeuvres . They learned to use Ihei r d rillm conj unction ... -it h the ocher "as the formation for retreat. Once the new recruits had com pleted rheee Jod lOi of lhei r """". Once agam, on a much larger ",--ale, thei r bIlsie tra ining they were ready to take their places in Ihe ranks. Since the Ihe,' would learn 10 deploy fro m colum n Spartan ar m y was called up by year of march into phalanx. M arching ill cla""", u.::h year'. re<:ru ilS mu.l have colu m n of t hrees the first I",hos would formed a separate unit. It is ur ahmkable come to a halt and each succeedi ng that they were called up by age and t hen lo.:ho. would wheel to t he left. A. t he organised inm units , W' hen t he mobilis- I",h"gos , who woul d be at the head of ation order Was given, complete unit s t he r ighl fi le, crossed the line of th e left musl have aSlCmbled ready for aCl i"n. fi le, he wou ld Sl art counting OUt th e At the time of Xenoph cn the arm ,' pace. l hal would bring him 10 Ihe ~'Or· stren gth was about a.oco. Since t he rel"l pvsition 10 wheel 10 the righl a8ain soldiers ..,r'·ed for 40 )'ean t he tutn.:>'e r and d raw up level wu h the fi rst IIXMs. was about too a year , Allowi ng for The deployment of Ihe indi'idual l«1wt losses either in bail ie or fro m natu ral would he as lhey had learned in basic ceuses. one mal' assume t hat about 50 training. T o fonn up in ope n order t1. veterans reached retirement each year ranks deep t he rear lodlOJ would have to and that about 200 replacements were ccunr off70 paces to the lefl. The w hole need ed . I n order 10 make room for t he ...."." ",'nuld ha,'e a front of 48 m en ne'" recruill one ~;IJ in taCh """<1 Cln'e.i nl a d ISt ance of 94 pa<.-es . They . ,, , •• muot also learn to dep loy ftom col umn of march to face either left or right. The exercise "" as basically Ihe .....me u cept t hat each /oclws, includ ing t he first, wO'I.lld simpl y ha"e 10 ...'heel to rhe left or right, come to a hall and then deplo~' into phalanx. ~,' also had 10 Ieam 10 perform OUIflanking n" ",emeDls . These req uired lu rning the wings fo........d 10 engulf the flanks of the enemy. These ltIO'ements are oflen memion<:d in ancie nt batl le. b U present a 1 of problems as it would I m be im poo.si ble for a phalanx 10 ",heel. FOl1 unatel ~' Xenophon describes t he maooeuv re in hi s fictional bailie of T bymbrara. H ere t he manoe uvre is carried out on bot h ",jngs, t hough il was usually only perfor med on one. The army is dra wn up in phalanx , O n th e trum pet blast the two wings tu rn outwards into column and beg in to marc h away from t he main part of the arm y, At a given di stance they wheel round a marker and begin 10 ad'ance to ward' the front in col um n. ,t'h en all the colum n has wheeled on both wings the whole arm,' begins to advance ""ith the IwO wings like horns projecting in fronl . 'IX'he n the flank ing columns dra ... Ie'e! with th e enemy line they tu m i nwards and charge. S uch a manoeuvre could be '"Cry dangerous if lheenemy an licipaled the movement . , 1 A Sll....., _ ~ of 36 """" ,n ""11 • t... tonn"ll up ~"t _ ab'....t and ,,,- """2 A!Od>f;1S if"", omomol''';) ara_ up ""oo Ibreast mo"'''11 lo.......a'do 10 10"" • plata", ......"''''' w i<H! m&" •••••••••••• ............j •••••• •••••• • ••• •• • •• • •• • •• • •••••••• •• •• •• • •• • • • •••••••••••• •••••••••••• . .. •••• •••••• •• · · . . . • ••••••••••• • ••••••••••• • •• ••••• •••• • ••••••••••• •••••••••••• •• •••••••• •• • ••••••• •• •• • ••••••••• •• , 1 ••• • • • • • • • • • ...--------------------------------..1 OJ
  • GRE ECE Ar-:n .1ACEDOSIA Mobilisation When the army mob ilised t he rp!rors announced the year cla"es thaI were 10 be ~a l1~ d up, engineers and craftsmen as well as soldier•. Everyl hing wa' regulated; if t he}' were going on a cam paign rhar ....3$ expeclw 10 1 more t han I S 3$t dars, each soldier had to t ake ...-il h him i uppl ies for 20 day• . II was forbidden to buy an ything from outside l radas be fore this time won up. Ea ch S pan an was accompa nied by a !r"W/ ...-ho Qlrried his bal(gage. A hoplite'. rations "'-o uld in cl ude food for hi. !reler. T h e basi~ dIet was barley groa ls , of which he wou ld need aixJul II I,l:allons to la, t t he t...-o of t hem 20 day s. This was supplemenled by cheat:, onions and sailed meal. ',X·hen staning OUI on campaign hopiii" wer e allwA'ed to u ke a . mall amounl of wine "'"ilh l hem. Thi. ",-a.lo accustom lhe stomach grad uall}' 10 t be changeO"CT from wine 10 ...'ater so l hat t hey ...·oul d not become: ill. Ration s were carr ied in a hav enack whi ch pl"O'erbiall y stank of onions. Spart an fond was frugal_ and not just on campa ign; il was t he surne i n the mesSt:. at Sparu, Every body ale t he same food. Therewere Il<I special rations for officers, no!: even t he king. ""hen an ally on<.-e prepared a feast for the SparIan army. t he king ordered all i be dai nlies 10 be gi~"en to t he 1uW1J. ',X·hen Xeno phon "'-3$ . er"lng on CyTus the Youn ger's abcruve campaign in Asia, the (iro:ek mercenari" were unable to afford to pay t he inflal ed prices bein g charge d f"r I,l:rain and had to live on a mea l dict which , alt houll h enjoyed in small quant il ies, co uld be no vubstitute for the ir norm al grain IOl ake. T his t hro...-s an imerest mg i ideli ghl on the Rom an genera l Corbulo woo ....a. compelled 10 do t be sa me Ihing. and .... hich ha.< led ""me commentators to 'Iate erroneou51y t hai Roman .oldiers did nee normally cal meal. Rarley was cart ied alr ead y ground so t hat hand m ills wl>uld not he neede d on t he march. These were acqu ired when rhe army reached a place where t hey cou ld for age 1>' buy food. The ""ldier also had 10 carry his bedding, .... hich ...·as kept to a mmimu m and somen mes ' trapped 10 hi••hield, and plem~' of ck>l hing. The soldias did DOl CI."1' lent. hUI improvised. buildi ng , , T he Phalanx in the Field a 1III1 I1111 11 111111 1111111 11111111111 1 1] 1 I III L-------'.: III • I 1]1 t I 1]1 III II I II III III III III .- Oel>iovorq • """. 1r(lO'l'l <::oI<I""'n 01 11>_ ~.n . I2 ~ [.,;tI /ochos _ III III III ,n,e 1 ".. 0 !e ll """ P<lC'l' 011 " ... '«luofe<l CoSt.""" e..tore w_,..... 10 ' he "g~, lod lid .. "",.... level w,l11 III I.", Jochos The IncmOl''''' de plov In the lime ",an ne r" , hOwo 00 tire p,evio u. P<lQ<! 1~ 1 ervocece or huts whcre~·er they camped . T he tpltors also re gulaled the number of .... sgons and rack animal. thai ...-ere needed for lbe bagpge t rai n, .... hich had i" own com mandlOg offictt . Each wagon carried a ,ho"el and a matlock. and eac h baggage animal an u e and a sickle . The tool! were for the U !¢ otr he pioneers who were made up of reie<.·g frum the lillht infantry . Thei r ioh ""as to dear t he way for t h~ wagons. Amon gst t he equipm enl ta ken with l he arm y were medic al su ppl ies, spare harness st ra p for the men ', equipment, til" for . harpening ... eapons., '~ha"C'. for lnm ming . pea r .haf" and spa re wood for making running repairs 10 {he ",'agon s plu. the neo:S5a '1' CIIrf'Cnler's 1001,. T be orficers were he ld respo n,U ti for l hei r men's equipme nt . Amonpl l he craftsmen "" 00 accompanied (he e:<pedilion were smil hs , carpenrers and leather ....o rkas 0( m iliIUy age. ,~ hhough non-eomhatanlS, l he}' were a regular part of the army. On the ma r ch Before me Spartan army set out t he kin!! offered s"'critic'e at home , If l he omens were fa~""urah1e a fire bearer t<;>ok t he tire from t he all ar and carried it ahead of l he ar m,· um illhey reached lhe bo rder, ot Lacoma. Here lhe king .a.:rificed again and . if t be omens were "ill fa" ourab le, look lhe fire from Ihis allar and led the annyon . This fire ....-as never
  • T HE C IT Y STAT ES 800-360 Be T HE PHALA;iX (]';' THE HELD quenched . All t he sa~ri f,~i" l victims (hat were likely (0 be needed on t h£ nrn paig n were l ak£n with t he 3rmy. O n (he march the Sparta n 3rm y wa, led by (he cavalry and thc , ciriw c wh o fann ed out in a screen ah~ad of t ne col umn . T he ' C"iIU were ha rdy mounC t3incers fro m the nor thcrn frontier of 1.3ceda~mon, T hey wer~ lig ht armed and us~d for scou ting anJ outpost d uties. Of cour"~ Xcnoph on i" h~r~ d£,cr ibing the praCli £~ of his own day ; at t he time of t h~ PnS13n war s the ,out h~tn G reeks did not ha ve ca'alry and t hi. d ut y wou ld ha ve be~n per fo rm ed "olely hy t he >eiriuu . Behind t h,' Be low A va ,e pa ,n1 ing s ho w, ng a do nkey w i1l1 a wood_ lramOd pa c , From Atnen" c .475 Be M"s.um of F,ne Arls, Bos to n l e ft Bronl e lig"" n" of a pacl ~ o n k ev T~e P<ln,e rs ""' ''' proba bly made 0 1 wie ' . ' O"gln unknow n B"Mh Muse"m Be low Two hop l, t"" amJ a n a rch er pre p."n g lo go on com po gn. O ne hop llte ,s pu ttin g hi" Arg l>" , hleld ontO it' leat her COWL The , eene comes ir om " 5th -ce ntu ry "'. ," fo und at the G ree k colo ny of Paeslum > sout he rn Ita ly Paestum 0 Museum Above A S~ar,",) ho pllt. (c . 500 Bel w e. ring a Co" ntn ian hoimet, w h>ch ho pu lls ~ow n W UNO' h is face oofore goi ng ,no ba tt le. I,nen c""a,; and "nee ~over;ng greaves Ho is .r~ with a lo ng ,pear and a ,word w hi~h wou lO on ly no rma lly be u , od if ,,,e spea, i. ~ ro ken In 'M rig idly reg ulate<! Spar"," m<l,ta ry slate ,II men ootwee~ lh e "90s af 20 and 60 were >oldio'S Allhough lhe l' w e re a rmeg in the same way a, ot he r Glooh Spanan M pl,te, WO re a ~ iS1 i ~ct >"" ,carlel cloa k w hic h be<;a mo 1he very svmoot of Soa r1an m iliw"m
  • GREECE AND MACEDONIA Be lo w An .''''1' ma' ch<ng ,n defen. i• • squ ore fo,,,, .t,on . The fre"t . nd r.or of tM ,q uare marc h In phal8m a nd thIJ , ,~ e. in colu mn The ,nd lv,d ual /och o; march e ig h' abr ea st T h~ baggage and no n · comb ala n" a re place" in tM cen tre Below Whe n ad "anc ,ng t hroug h a d oh l. ,he lochoi redu ce the ir w ,dt h '0 fo ur. two Qr e""n . ingle file ac cord ing to t he oa"owness 01 th<1 ,oad '0 that tnev c a n ,eta in tne ir forma1l<>n ,• • • .. , • cavalry screen came the baggag e tram followed by t he infa ntry, who hu rried on any stragglers from the baggage tram . The army only ma rched a short dis tance the firs t day so that if anything had been forgotten it cou ld be retrieved . '-brching ordcrs were given by ho rn and not t rum pet. T hese orders were ba, icalJy str ike camp, move oft" and rest. Howe'·er , t he order to get up in the morning was give n on the trumpet. If the army had to pas, t hrough a defile the illfant ry d ivided into tw o co lumns and marched on either side of the bagg age train to protect it fro m attack , As far a, possible each mora accompanied il3 own baggage ' 0 t hat t he soldiers wo uld work willingly to clear t he way an d wou ld have eve ryth ing with t he m when the tim e came to halt . If the co lumn wa, atta"ked when pa"i ng t hrough the de file, each locho s would wheel to face t he threat If t he ground was broken they could cont inue to ~ dva nce in t hat form ation with gaps between the lach", or , in open country, t hey could deploy into phalan x. W'he n C yr us the You nger's expedition into Asia came to a ,udden end, Xenophon and t he 10,000 G reek mercena rie' serv ing wit h him had to make a tactical retreat . T his withd raw al, t ,300 km up the T igris and over t he moun tains of Ar menia to t he Black Sea, is " lie of the great military adventu res, II was described by Xeno phon in detail in his A>labasis, •• ;.~ .;~~ .. . ',. ..... •• ~ " . .' . • I n orde r to protect themselves on all sides thc y formed up in an ope n 'quare. This format ion is oftell mentioned in t he anc ient sources . Nlcias used it durinjl his fatefu l ret rea t from Syracuse, but only X enophon has taken the t rouble to describe it. The arm y is divide d into four parts : two div isions marching in colum n form the flanks and the other two parts marching in phala nx form t he front and rear of t he squa re, All t he light armed, t he baggage and non-combatants are in the centre , Each iodw, is d rawn up so that it can march either ill file whe re the road is narrow or severa l abreast in open count ry. T his shows the praclical use of drill. This exerci,e allowed whole lochoi to fall bac k when necessary so that t he 'Quare cou ld contract or c"pand . Above An "'m y odva nc.ng th roug h a dofj l~ vnde r no, mal cond,tion,. The ba ggage 1<a in IS In tne Centre and ' he p haran, in column On oithe' "do. At the bottom the column IS dep loying ,ntO pha lan, In ' oa d."e" to meel a flank 'ltt a ck
  • T H E C I T Y ST ATES 8oo~360 nc " 'H E PHALA:" X I N TH E FIELD On erh.'OUnlermg lhe enem y, the army "'-ould puch camp_ The G .......1<s "ere 1lC'~ as c"mows as tho: Romano of the ,'alue of a fortified cam p. Xenop oon g attslha tlhe Spartan cam p ",'as round. B~' this o ne musl assume that the unilS oft he army fo rme d a circular pe ri me ier and tha t t he baggage [rJl in anJ noncombaunts we re In t he midd le. It i. quite cle ar Ihal il ",as not foruficd c"en with a d itch . Oflen t he camp was adapt ed to the lopograph y and t herer" re Xenophon's statement sho uld not be taken too literally. l>ur inl: the da)' cavalry uut pos, s were se t u p on ,-,-un · , manding hills, At mghl Ihese o utpost s ,,'ere taken o,'er by t he uiri l"" . ~o dou bt befo re Ihe int rod uction of ca.-alry l he~' performed t his duty in the davum e 100, Thc reason t ha t ca" alr)' are used is becaU,"" 1M,' Can bring informalM more m quid t.ly. Ol he r ""0111' posts were also "'I up at nighl command ing rhe a pproaches to lhe camp, The o nly detailed aeL nt l ha l ""c 'OU "",'Cof a n arm~' on the mar"h is Xcnophon'. rel reat of the 10.000. In Ihis account , in which the ar my is ba sicall y ' Spart an, in spil e of Ihe consr am t hreat of an ene my altack, no artern pt waS made to fort ify a cam p, T he)' relied o n somes to kee p the enemy al hay . h was 01'1 1 when a lo ng-ter m occu pat ion was 1.' 'ntended Ihal a di tch and palisad e were c<>n' lru'-1 ed . ' II i. amusing 10 note Ihat Ihe S parlans feared a sla"e re"o lt so much Ihal il " 'as conside re d more imporl ant 10 guald t he armS Ihan t he I"'rimeter of the cam p. T he cam p had nO sanila!1' arrangemenls and il ,,'as ms isted o nl}' l ha l ~ldiers relieve Ihemselves at a suffK:iem distance SO "" not 10 o!fend l he ir comrades , Ea.:h mora enca mped ~ a unil with sl ri<..'1 boundanes. Befo re breal:fas l aod su ppe r eac h day there ",as a compulso t y e"er~ise session, Soldtees were forbidden to take their exercise be )'ond lhe bo undaries of Iheir ",,,t.. . T he I:.i n~ ' s tent was prohahly se l up in the cent re of the camp or "n so me commanding eminence. Around it were grouped h,s slaII officers and those who were n.,.;essary fo r him 10 pe rfor m his military dut ies. T hey were known as 'those aboul t he lent ' . They md uded the poImw' chs, d iviners, d octo rs , an d three Span iales "'ho:;.c job il was 10 wail u pon Ihe I:: in~ , T he king's bodyguard , lhe 3OO ltip~is, m us l also have bttn bi l. Ieled fairly elose (Q him, T he.c were also 1.-0 pJl llni who could be sent to Delphi 10 cons ult t he o racle Inc:t<: , lhe lIute players who were required " 'hen the king sa.::ri ticed, and rhe herald s whose iob was 10 com''')' the gene l"llls' o rde rs d own the cha in of comm and when co ntact could 1'101 be pe nonal , fo r example aft er haltle had bee n joincJ . They were also used to convey rnessa ges h<:tween warring st ale, . As battles were oflen fo ught like duels , heralds wo uld somet imes he ,e nt 10 arra oge the ti me and pla~'C fur a batt le, Each morning the king offered sac rifice in Ihe presence of t he poleml1 rdu , Ihe l""hugOt , Ihe ~nu*omt:rS, t he com mandcrs of foreig n cont ingents and t he officers of rhe baggage Irain, AfteI this he ga,'e his o rders for t he da y, ~'hen ban te " cas immment lhe hophtes pol" bed their shields, prep.arcd tnc:ir ,,',,"arons and combed lheir long ha ir , which HerooJotu. sa)'S the SpanallS always did whe n Ihey we re going to pu t the ir lices at risk. The battl e T he follo wing mo rning t he king and all the Spartiatcs pla"'ed garlands "n their he ads and the kin!!: sacr ifi ,, ed a nannygoal in sight "f lhe encmy whilst all lhc f1autl " s played . T he di" mcrs, withou t "'hom no G reek general wo uld go 10 wa r , "~Ildd read t he om ens and ad"i se the kiog whet he r he sho uld aHad , o r not. X o pio U>- general would d ream of fighting iflhe omens were u nfavourable. AI Plal;>ea the S panan general Pausanias refu-cd 10 tight c"en [hough l he PersiaO$ were attacking hi s men, anJ Xenophon free ly admits tha i he would not even move his men "" bile t he o me ns ""ere unfaco ura ble, e,'en though lhey were faci ng srarvanon. Of counoe oflen lhe omen. were fals ified 10 suit the wishes of t he genc ral. If he then at tacked and ,, 'on, t he diviners wo uld ha ve 10 say the umens were favou rable , if he IOSI, t hen of c" urse his impiety had ~a lled down t he ve ngea nce of the gods. If the "mens ",~re de clared U be favoura ble, the S pa IlLates would lake breakfast wu h the garlaods sl ill o n t heir heads and Ihen lake u p I heir plaL in 'es t he pha lanx , sti ll garl anded, ""hat"" er " rders Ihere we' e fo r t he bailie wo uld ha"c bee n decided in Ihe war ooun~il by t he king and l he pol~­ MareN . At t he time of t he Persian wars t his counci l probably included the fj" e ItXJwgoo, which is himed al b~· lhe action of the ItXhugos Amompha rel us who refuse d 10 o bey the o rder to retreat al the ha tlle of Plataca . li is argument with Pausanias impli es that he ,,'as nol COnsulted and Ihat he sh" uld have been, T he kin!!: would give rhc final orders 10 t he pale"'''''hl and t hey would pass Ihem o n 10 the ir !odwX"i, T he IlXh" f("j woul d in turn pa" them o n 10 , heir pc71leko"ur" and through Ihem to t he e'''''''oll1'<hs, and Ihey ",ould pass t hem on to the men in their liles. Each soldier would receive t he mes...ge and pass it o n to prople who m he k ne"" personally . li'hen the orders ha d been given l he office rs would lake up t hei r posit io ns in t he from rank of t he phalanx , each at the head of the right hand tile of his ""'1'1 unit , and ,,-ail for lhe o rder 10 advance , ",hich wo uld be gi' 'en on t he trum pet, T he king passed the watchw o rd down l he ranks, each sold'er repealing il . When it reac hed Ihe enJ of the line, It was pa sse d back alo ng th e ranks to !he king, The king t hen ra ised t he customaty paean, a 'U r( of 'La nd "f Hope and G lo ry' aimed al ra i,i nil the sp iri ts of Ihe hophtes ; it .... a~ known as Caslor 's so ng, The trumpets !'<,undc d , the flutes struck u p the tu ne, t he h<'plites leve lled theit spears and t he army bega n 10 advan~e, keecping step 10 the flutes and joining t heir ,·<.>ices 10 Ihe king's as he sung Il'" pa ean. As they approached the enemy IM,- Slopped sing ing and lhe officers calledOUl lO the fronl and second ranks, shou ti ng 'Come on friends, br ave men' , encouraging Ihem 10follow Iherr leaders in to banI.,. "Iltose in the rear ranb re. ponded to rheir officers, encouraging Ihem to lead o n boldl y. As t hey closed ,,'il h Ihe enemy the trumpet sounded again and the hoplileS raised t heir spears 10 t he all ack posirio n all'we Ihell l ighl shoulders . T he pha lanx ,,'oul d oo w usu ally hrea k into a run and a!!:ain t he comm.mder woul d call down Ihe ranks : ' '('ho ....ill fo llo w' Who is a brave man' W ho will he Ihe first to st rike do.... n his man ?' T he sol d iers hearing Ihis repe aled il like lhe walchwo rd as t hey d osed " 'uh t he enem y : 'W ho "'ill fo lio",' ? ~'ho is a bra" e man ;"
  • GR E ECE AN D MACEDO NIA Then the t wo phalanxes me t w ilh a gT<:at cra~ h a<; shid d hit shield. T he rea r ran h c rm...Jed fOlWard , eac h pressing agai.....1 rbe man in front and su il<ing at t he e nan,' over his shoulder, r~ing, wu h his ",'cighl , 10 push the whole ellC'my phalanx ulf halal'llX. And ailihe while t he rear ranl<en urged lhem on . U 'he n a man fell his pi""", was ta h n b~' the neXI in file, and so the" st ruggled on u mil lhc enemy broke. T hIs descrlpllon is <In '''n from accou nts o f hallks, ...,me Teal and some imaginar y. It is of ooursem'er-simplified -this describes a ~I . piece hank . As uflen a. no t the ci rcu mstances o f t he hauk were unpledlct able, as at P lataea wh e re t he Sparla n. weTe attacked be for e t hey had re....eived fa vourable o men•. T hai t he se~">n d a nd subse q uent ra n h , a nd nol iU. l l he front ran k, joined in the fi!/:hlinll is c...'nl irrn" d by the rem ar k of Cyr us al Xe llophon ' s i magina r~' baltic of Th yrnbrara a bout Ihe phala n x heing 10 0 dee p for t he me n 10 reach t h e e nemy with Ih ei r wea pon s, As lo ng u the p halanx retamed ir. orde r casualties wo uld be fe w. b ut if it b roke and lhe hoplites turned and Ik d . Ihrowing a way t hei r shields. the n t he slaughler S1an<:<.l , Usually the Spanans did nol pu rsue a dduted encm~·. W hen the king decided t hat " icrory had been w-un , he gave the oecer a nd Ih e trumpelen sounded the withdra wal. T hey would l hen collect their dead . The los· ing sid e would bave to send a herald to negotia le a truce in order 10 recc.... a their dead ; t his became the fonnal admission of d deal . After l he victor y a lrophy' made up of caplu red arms a nd armou r d isplayed in the fmm of a man o n a tree trunk mig hl be set up . After many ,~"ones a pcrrnanc nt victor y mon u ment was set up . Cert ain choice piece. of aTmoill were inscn bed and dedicated in the shrines al Olym pia o r D clp hi . By Alexander', ti me, captured sh ield, beca me Ih.· ccs lo rnary dedi cation. M.ere e n ll r i e~ Greece wa' a poor country and from the car he.1 times hopliles offer ed their '''1,,·i~..,s for pa y, The earl iest accounts of G ree k soldiers .er'ing as mercenaries comes "rom E!/:y pt in t he 7th-6l h centuries. They are ro u nd also se rv mg as bodygua rds to the earl y' G reel< tyTanl' dunn!/: the same )Xriod. With the n"" o f I' e n l. ma ny' Grech fo und sc r' ic<: .,.-'il h Pe rsian go'.e roon, first as bodyguards and Ialer as shock troops . The e m ploy me nt o f hired soldien with m Gre«e only really bo.gan d u n ng fhe:: war bl:tw~n Spana and Athens. D urin!/: Ihis confl ict boIh sides e m plo y<"d mercenaries. Af the end of Ihis long wa r , many' wldien ",110 had l<nmm no orher life but wldiering offered their see-sees for hire. Xe tK>poon "'-'as o ne o f t he tO,OOO suc h men ,,'110 accompanied Cyrus t he Younger ;n his all em p t to USUTp the Per sian throne. T he hiri ng o r merce na ry t roops both inside a nd o u tside of Greece hcea me common d u ring this pCTiod , XI he n Alexander in w d ed Pe,,;;a he was opposed at all Ih ret· o r his great balt les b y G ree k mercena ry infa m ry, Auxili a r y rroop s The phalanx , which was orig inall y seen as the ult im a te a nd only weapo n, gradu ally hega n 10 le veal its weaknesses , It was in finitely su)Xriv! t o wha r had gone before it, a nd fo r rhi. reason it was adop led by all the Greek s tates. Ho,,'· eve r , il c ould not be used ove r rough ground o r for hill figh ling and was use les s aglln'l ea" alry OT light_armed skirmisbers using gueri lla tacti cs. Al he ns hegan employing Scyth ian and C Ie1an archers in rhe 6r h cCt!lury, but it ,,'a. o nl)' t he imp'KI o f lhe Penian "'-'ars that f~d tile Greel< Slares to ~"(l(l.ider scr;'lU!<ly the use oflig h t-a rmed !loops. Their res ponse was half-beaned and . I IIhough H erodo lUs claims l har there ,,'ere lS.ooo Iight-..-med Mk>tj a nd ahout the same number of ot her lightarm<:<.l troops includ ing a rchers a t Pia· taea . lhey had little o r 110 dfe~1 o n the P ersia n ca,-alry who seemed 10 be ahl e to Op<"rale at will, c h;rrging Ihe pha lan x and CU ll ing the G ree l< sup ply lines. It see m. incred ihle lhat in no battle o f the Persia n war is there memion of e,'e n a single Gre...k horse man. Th e Greeks ca n hu dl y have been unaware of' the effect t hat the Pe rs ia n cavalry mUSI have on t hem, Pe rha ps they were r clyinlt o n T hessall' and Boeotia to p rovide conl ingents o f hm.emen 10 keep the Pe rsian ca valry h usy. When these a reas fell 10 the P er sian s t he southe rn sl ales d id no t try 10 co mpensate fOT thi • . W he n they won 10spite of it. t he y prob' ably U-lO'inced themselves tha.llhey d id no l need ca"Blr,·. ea" alry a nd lighl infanny only really Clme into use in tm Pdoponnesian war in t he sec<.lnd ha lf of l he Slh crn ru ry. Illis ca"Blry was lig ht armed a nd was neH:r used 10 shocl< ac1ion Xe nophon. 10 his J:w;x.k o n the an o f horsemanship, ad"'>ealC'J t he usee ..I' iavelins by rhe cavalry rarhe. lhan t be tradil ional ' I""'T. T he lig ht _armed soldier pa. u .u/fmu was the p<"ltaSl. H e ,,'a5 named afl« his wicker shie ld (ptItQ); accOTding to ....n . to lk it was rimless a nd C(wered ","-;t h ,,,,at o r shee p skin. ArislOIIe ",ems to im ply that it was TOund . but in art it is cresce nt .ha ped . It appea rs in S<;yt hian art and is clear ly the prime" al shield o f easle rn cent ral Eu rope, The pdt" is hd nll carried by t he figure. o n the la te M l'Cl'naea n 'l:'arrio r Vase . The pdl" i, s< mel ime s shown with a sin!/:le ha n d~ > Ilrip a nd sOnlet imes with the double h" plite Iyp" gTip; this lalle r i. pm bably an istic licence. Such a g rip wou ld be a p"sil;ve disadva ntage to a skirm ishe r ","'h" had no neig hbour to Pl'Ole<:l . The pd/<J al<.. had a strap for carr ying. Xenopho n gi ves a very amusing dcscnpnon nf peltas," clim bing ove r fe nces with their .hields on l beir backs gelllOg caughl up o n the pali ng and ha nging by t heir shIeld straps. The peltasl W of aS T h raci a n origi n and " 'o re l he trad ilional COSIU m<: o r his count ry_patl erned doak., highboouand Phrygian ca p. This W S a fox-oki n cap wit h ea r ftaps. He a '"-or-.: no armour and relied on his speed 10 gel him out of Imuble . H i. '..." ap<.>n . was the )a,'el in. H i. tacl ic was to run in. Ihm'" the ia,,,,lin5 a nd then ru n a"'a r allain bef" , e the ene my cou ld com e to !/:ri ps Wllh him . The Spartans tried 10 dea l " 'ith pcl t asts by oTde n ng t heir you ngest age grou ps t o g ive c hase . For lo nger-range warfare arche rs and 51inllers were employed , Archers ",e re mainly Scythians a nd C retans , 1J.,t h used comp"s ite bows mad e of wond. horn , hone a nd sinew. The construeli"n of t his type of how IS sho wn o n p. SO . T he C reta n bo w was 'l'g r)1.ent "ha l'cd a nd t he Sq lhian dnu hly co"ve x. S,:yth i,1ll hows had a range o f some whal over Isom. Shnger< we re much used from the Sth cent ury o n wards . The men o f Rhodes W re the Mt ; t he y could easi ly OUI_ e range the bow . TheiT maximu m ra nee
  • T H E CITY STAT ES 800-360 Be THE PHALAN X I N T HE F IELD was probably in excess of 350m. Sli ng , n.0I could citn.er be of stone , clay or lead - rn.e last was probably the most effective. T housands of lead sling shot have been fou nd, includi ng tn.e moulds In wh ich they were cas t. L ead shot generally vary in weight between 20 and 50g, though rn.ere are iso lated examples both ahove an d belo w these weights , The maximum weight in use in the Near Easr was 18Sg. If D iodo rus is to be beli.-'ed, the fam o us Balea ri~ slingers used ston e~ weigh ing o ne m",,, (c. ascc. As Korfma nn pointed out in his article o n the sling, such a stone wo uld be about 6. 3cm in diameter -only slightlysma ller than a tennis ball, The lead shot, whi ch arc plum shaped, could cause terrible wounds , Xe no pho n describes how t hey elller the body and the flesh closes ove r them. L ight-armed forces had always be en treated as infer io r troops used only fo r skirm i~hing. T heir main purpose was to protect the all-im portant pha lanx from enemy cavalry and skirmi shers , T hey muaJly foug ht on the wings, hut someti m e ~ light infantr y fo ught fro m behind me phalanx . From the latte r position [hey threw m;ss iles over the heads of the hoplites. T his was o nly really effective on sloping g ro und fro m which t hey could see the enem y, In the fict ional baltle of Thymbrara, Cy rus lined up his peha m behind t he phalanx and t he archers behind t hem. H e t hen dre w u p his ""rago' behind tbem all to keep t hem in order. T hese lighr-armed specialis t troops were ma inly imported mercenar ies. States normally produced their own cavalry thoug h t his was often supplemented by employing Thessahans , Sparta [rained helots as light -armed troops and Athens tried to form peltasr units from her poorer classes. Mercem ary skir mishers were genera lly renowned for their unru ly behaviour , but when given tbe ri ght d iscipli ne and tr aining could produce remarkable results. In 390 ec a young itheni an general, Iph icrates, with a highly trai ned and disciplined gmu p of Thracian pcltasts , defeated a S parta n "'<>ra, killing nearl y half their number This feat completel y changed lhe Greek attitude to peltasts and ensured Iphicratcs a place in military h i ~tory . In 349 At hens ev en sent an army agains t Fhi lip of ll--iacedon that a (' £- "I /~ I ~ VI 1~"' was composed entirely nf pe ltasts accom panied by a small bo d y of cavalry . Th e Th eba n rectt c Xenophon d ied about 354 ec, It is a tragedy for the srudy of tbe deveJopmenr of Greek warfare that he nevcr thought it worthwhile 10 describe Theban lactics, nor the changes that too k place under E parninonda s. He tries to A bov e 1 r hr" ,.n. , nown on G ree k vase, • PIl lt• • ! (le ft ) ",meO w l1 h IVVo i. volin< and (right ) an Amazon d re ss ed as . PIl l'ast Wit h two jaW'lin, a nd a pella 2 _4 Va rious ty pes 01 'Phryg ian' cap ;Mw n in G'e€k art NO. 2. w h,ch c o m.s fro m th e temple Qt Apha i. on Ae9,na . sh ow, the ear tla ps t iea ba c" beh ,nd the he .a 5 A te ea sl,ng sho' w ith tM inSCf<pllD n " ' 0 That 6 A rec onw uet ion of a Th'aClan pelta't
  • GRE EC E AND MACEDO~IA show wh y the S partans lost the batt le of L cuct ra but never ex plain- wh y the T hcbans won. I t cannot be doubted rhat t he T heha ns had a great influence o n t he developme nt of Maccdcnian war fare, but , because oflhe lack of evi dence, it '" impossible to say exact ly wha t. We can only relate wh at is k no wn and t ry to draw a few conclusions , T he main factor on which all the ancient sources are agreed is that the The ba ns tradit io nally d rew up their pha lanx with greater de pth t han the other G reeks. A t O eli um , for exam ple, in 424 Be t he Athenians were drawn up in eig ht ranks, but the Thcbans WCtC 25 deep . At t he baltic of Leuctr a whe re they defea ted t he Sparrans, t hey were 50 dee p. T hi, 25 150 formation was aImosr ce rt ainly simply using t he ""omolIa, or pmtekoslyes in sing le file . T he T hcban army had an elite corps t of 300 picked warriors called the Sacred Hand . T hey are first men tioned by name 1 Gree k View of . SCYI~i.n . 'Ch"r f,om. plare at Detiurn in 424 BC bu t may be ident iin tho B, il iSh M",eum, fied wit h the 300 first and best of t he rong o m Bolog na 2 T hcba" s who died at PJatae a. T he noA vase rpainin~ • f'Scy t ~i a n oo w ' how;ng • plit" sl i ng Sacr ed Band a ppear to ha"e or iginated 3 and 4 A Creta n oow ano . " ow trQm a Gree k in t he heroic age . They were su pposedl y vase in the Lo uvre ma de u p of 1 So cha rioteers and t heir !i A recon"'"ct io~ of. Scyth l.n . rcher d rivcrs. In cl assical times t hey fo ug ht 6 The Scy'n,a ~ , ;<N; of o ne of their . ' c hers from . go ld CUD fou nd " Kul Oba in the Crim"" as h"p lites. T hey were pro habl y organ- The w,ng i~9 of. Sc,t hi.n bow was. V"' y ised im o I 2 e"">nfIriai, ea ch of 25 men as c omple, o ~" r. l i o n . t heir nu mber suggests. They were as ded icated as the Spartans and a match fo r them , I n 3l!2 FlC the Spa rtans had treachero usl y seized the Cadmcia, the cit adel of Thebes, and put a gar rison into it , T his act brought about t he dm" nfall of Spa na, fr gene rated a surge of patriotic spirit at T hebes . In 379 t he Spattan garrison was throw n ou t and Sparta entered he r last great war. In the ne xt few yean t he Theban arm y, main ly unde r the influence of Epa m inondas , was convcrted into a first -class, d isciplined fighri ng machi ne . Epaminondas must be included amongst tbe grear ta,:tic ians. For four ccnturie, t he phalanx had dem inatcd G reek tactics . All innovations had aimed at prot ect ing the phalanx so t har the batt le could he decided in t he cent re . As long as rhis stare of affairs existcd Sparta must Will. Epam ino nda, pe rceived a 1 A sma ll lOld rood" 101. bow . nd a"o"," C"'" (goryf",) 1<o m " Seyt hi. n l'""" pei m t hat see med to have escaped all 8-1 1 V.,iou, types of arrow head s fo und in other t act icians : the Spartan army, in G"*,ce Sca le 1:2. 8 ri",h M",e"m No II is com mon wit h t he ot her Gr eck armies, SCvlhian . nd no. 11 C'ete n so s J
  • TH E CITY ST.. T E S 800-360 Be ARMOL'R AND WEAPONS aJ"lIy s had ils crack troops 00 the rill:hI and from Ihls point th.. ~I of t he: army dr..... il. encoufllg,"",,"ot_ .-s a ~ul l 0.llus , the: strong righl " 'ing al"'a}.,; o pposed t he weak left so lhal , du ri ng l he: bail Ie, In.. phalanxes ten<kd to rotat e in an am id O<.- <"" se d ire...-rion. Tlli. was 1 fUl1hel aggra vated by individ ual hopIi leS Ixing inc lined 10 dose up on the:ir righI- hand ne ighbour in un ler to gel more proleCl io n fro m hi. shield, with the res uh Ihal t he ri gh t wing oflen ovellapped lhe enemy's left , This ha ppe ned at lhe halt le of . taminca. Epa minondas believed thai ifh e ~·"u ld knock OUI 'he crack Spartan l mol'S on lhe righl ....ing, t he res, of Ihe J....ac"da..monian army would coIla!"C. I n order 10 achie',e Ihi. he planned 10 reverse his baltle order . placi ng hi. own ......ahsl lrOOPSOIIlhe right opposite lhe Spanan kft. lining up the phalanx in «hd_. "'th In.. ....e2kest troops he:ld bad: , wtolSl at In.. same lime massing his besl troop$ 011 tbe left sup ported b~' t he SIrongest cn alry and lhe Sacred Rand , [n)7 1 Be. at Leuctra , E p;lm inondas pUI his ne.... lac tic to Ihe lU I. The: massi.-ell· reinforced lefl .... ing nashed through 'he Spartans, annihilating the h'ppti, and killing Ihe king. A. exr ." t ed the re. 1of Ihe army collap. ed like do min""•. The lactic was repeated al !I.h nti nea in 362:' un fonunately for Thehe. Epamil'Klllda. was killed in lhe hall ie and ...·ilh him fell the chan<-"C'S of T he: han supn:ffiaC)·. Of Theban armo ur and ....capon s " e know nothing fot amai n. Hearing in mllld Xeoophon's comme nlS o n t he d.-plh of lhe phalanx it i$ ha rd 10 conet"'e what ad"anlage the The ba ns could gam us ing 'he con,'entionaJ hoplile """[1011'. J ....ould t he refore lenlat ivdy suggnl t hat rbe Tbebam used a IWOhanded pike ",'hich "' ou ld make it ..""ier for the Irc:mendous ......ighl of the forma~ lion 10 be used. This l..-ouJd make much more sense of the rarer .' Iacedo nian phalan x, as u is ha t d 1 helieve that the 0 pike ot iginmed wilh lhe undi ....iplined Maccdonian infa ntry rhal existed before the lime of Philip II. T hel e is another poim that o ug hl tn be memloned: lhe so-called Boeol ian shield. T his is a sort of cross helwe.:n a Dipl.·lon and an Argive shield. It is sht:r.o.'n on .-a... paint ings as an Argi.... shield ...i lh 10,0 ...mi-Orcu1ar slota cut ou l of lhe rim on ..il he r side neXI to Ihe band gri p. This shidd hn been , ..nerall)' ~ -ondemnnJ by ...,hul ars and dismissed as an am" i<: coevemion for a he:roic shie ld. BUI is Ihis .'ie", reall)' just ined? A few )'ears ago , ,,'lxn expenmeming .... it h . hid d t)·pes Irying to find o Ul hmo' a pikeman .... ould ha.·.. to hold his shield, I tried to wield a pike whilst holding an Argive shid d, Ikcause of the broad wedge-shaped l im and lhe angk of toughl y 4~ o ocl ween the shie ld and t he pike , it was imro"ib1e 1 g rip the pike 0 with the left hand . T his could only he achieved by cutung a nUlch out of l he shield rim , which i. execnv wh at is shown in the paintings. or" Bo..or.ian shields. A r mou r a n d weapons T he ..hidd T .... o rtl;l;n I ~'pes of shield we re in use in G reece during lhe ..a dy part: of the: Slh ccnnrry: an oval t ype ...-it h a scal lop CUI OU I from either si de, which is general!)' kno wn as t he Dipylon type afler a.:emelerr al At hens wh..r.. a large num he r of represental inm of it ....ere found, and a round type wilh a central han dgrir. T he D ipylon shidd is almo.t certainly a d irect descendant of t he Mvccnacan ti.gu re-eig hl ly pe whic'h di.ap p':ars from art soon aft er 1400 nc. T he cia,. model illu st rated (o n Ihe left) is of jusl such a shi eld and com es fro m lhe Diryl"n cemele ry , II ha s been argu.,d lhat Ihis later form does DOt r e ,"nen' a real shield a' all bUI is a he roic form used o nl y in art . TI>rrc: are IWO main o h jn:tio ns to Ihis : Iin l, priminve an lSta al"'l1)"$ drew hisl,,, ical charael .... in contem porary coslume. and "'"COIld. the artist .... ho made t his clay shield knew exao..-rly ,,'hat he ""IS making fo r il o tl"lously represent s a ",ick... shie ld wn h stret chers o n Ihe m.ide. II is inconc-ei.·able t hat such accuracy of t errnenl'lIion could have sUlvi'-ed for over 600 years wilhom degenerating into a sy mbolic fo rm with. for example, a small er""s o n the back. T his has have bee n copied from an actual ,hield . T he fact that i" shape d iffels q ui le cons ide lah ly ftom lhe M y_ Ce naean type reinforces ils authell1icity and suggests a pattern of evolu tio n . The earlier shields m usl OO" e had a reinforced rim 10 retain their figure---eighl . ha pe. bUI in th e D ipvlc n tn'" the stretchers OO" e dictated Ihe shape. There would be a natural lendenC}' for such a shield to a.. um.. Ihis sha pe: "" the ends of l he stre-tchen. ...'hich had 10 be fitted tight!)·. t hrust t hei l ....ay oul wa rds form fOU l poinu o n t he ri m . The conseq uent strain o n the ' pinching' at th~ .:elll re woul d for~.... it into a genll e curv.. producing l he two umi -ci rcu lar indent_ alion~ o n either side:. The implicatio n of t his argument IS Ihal ll( At hens, which survived the da rk -age invasion, and had an unbro ken connection wilh th e .1.1'_ cenaean age, the fi llure-e ig ht Iype shield survived t hrou ghout t he later . vcenaean era and Ihc dark aile that succeeded II. '0 '0 8 elo,.. 1 '" wd pa ont'ng at e l<Iy"'_ f'IV'e -eog!1l _Id from 1<1 ,.,....,. 2 F,o .." . bact ~"" MCtJOn ot ~ ClBv mo<el ot ~ 8tn -".,,,,ury DlPVlon _ Brons/> I.A " ...,,,,, Tn.. ....,.",. wu dsortv coPoHI hom ~ _.... - 5'
  • G R EE C E AND MA CEDO~IA The round, ce nt ral-handgrip type of shield possibly originated in ce ntral Europe lil:e so mU<.: h of t he late My_ ceneean weapo nry. Ce nainly its presence in Italy as well wou ld indicate this. It had fi m made its appearance in Gn:e<:<: in late .tycenaean t ime!l but it 1'.'&$ pl"Oobably the Dorians ..,tding in t he Peloponnesus around I OSO Be who made it l he pndominant type in the area. T ..o late ex.amples of Ihis t y of shield datpe ing from the fint half of the 7th ce ntury have been found at Iklp hi. T hey are both made of beaten bronze but represent two d i~l inct types: one has a very pronou nce d boo~ covering t he ha ndgrip , " 'hieh wou ld ha"e heen flush wil h t he hacl: of t he shield, whilst the ot her has no boss at all and t herefor e t he handgr ip m ust have stood proud at t he ba~l:. T hese t wo m ust represent t he latest de velopment of the cent ral ~handg rip t ype an d woold already have been obsolete when t he y wer e made, for a ne w shiel d had evolved in the 8(h ce ntury thai , in a . hort time , was to supersede all prev ioo. Iype' : th is was the ho plite or Argive shield. T hi••hield may have evolved out of t he round, cemraJ- han dgri p type but, at least in t he for m of the eadiest a.-chacological exam ples. it is quite different . In fact , ilS only simi lari~' is l ha t il is round . It is m w::h more co nve x t ha n the earl ier shield and has a reinforced ri m , BUI far more importanll ha n t his is t he gri p which has co mpletely changed. A n arm band ha s been fitted to the centre of t he shield; the kft forearm ....",s pUll hrough Ihis band .o l hal t he shield ..-as festened to lhe fore;o.nn. There was ;0. ha ndgrip in rhe form of a strap near t he ri m wh ich was grasped wit h the ha nd to stop t he shield slipping down the foreurn. The ea rliesl recognisable repre_ sentat ions of the Ar give shield come ft om mid-eth-centu ry pottery such as the Ch igi vase (see p . 39). T his shows all t he bask cbat acte risncs of t he ne w sh ield which in no way resembles the earl ier t ype s. If was th is shield which covered t he huplite fmm ~hin to knee , and mure than anyt hing else made the ngid phalanx for mation pos sible. Because of t he placing of t he arm band in t he midd le, almost half the shield prot ruded beyond t he l~ft_ hand side oft he ..arriur and, ir the man on his lcft moved in clos~, he WI$ proeecred b~' t he shield " , on::n.oc 1 An lypO ~""-~p_tound '" Oelpho . Seale ,: t s 2 HopI'leI WIth Argive """,,1d5 _ G_ k _ '" ..... Btob'" Museum ! An _ _ ."_od a 6t h· ~ ~ _ s.... l , 4 - . Sa. 1:6 • An 01 ..........( lypO Imm ..... (1nItCot" 'lomb 01 tt>e w".,,,,· '" V~ tc. s2s Bel T,-......, ."" "')S' _ k..- V ,.. """OtIO.... -.r,'-ed .. G,.... ~ Romo sc.I& 1 6 F'~ .... n (. SCI(e , .J S-B of 6'h ·"" nlury Arg've , h ie lds S Pilt of Ina e l bl~, plttemod lim of the ; h i~ld h om e lri (ef no. 3 opp<J" tej 6 A , ", ry,ng ' HO a ttach nt. p 1 and 8 H.ndg, ip . He ch nts The ; eetoon opPO"te ,hows 01....... ho-w these we'" fixed to tl>e w e>od.." CO<~ 01 tl>e sh ",ld a "lt II .., 11'>0 th 'c 'n".. of ti'>o sh ~d al th is poonl _il>S1 aboul 'em , 1 1nd 8 0,., .11 ftom O1ymp, " 01"T'P'1 "_ m 9 A ...const,,,,,,,.,,, of a 6th-century Alg,ve ...e1d based.", , .... finds from Olvml>a hlI... r-n
  • T HE CI T Y STATE S K oo- j 60 lie AR MOU R A... D WEA I'O:'liS . overla p ,,'hich lIua rdcd his uncovered sidc. One of the g reat problems of t he phalanx " lIS this tendency to close u p towards lhe ri ght. Afrcr lhe end of rhe 61h cen tury , probably as a res ult of l he Persian invasions and the increase in , he use of Iighl- armcd rroops anncd wi rh mi5!Jiles, a kllher curtai n was sometimes au a.:hcd 10 rhe bouom of rhe shie ld ro prolecr rhc ..-llI"f'i<,,-'s legs from dan . and arrow'S , Aftcr a ba ttle u "'a. cuslomary for rM victorio us general to de d ica te an inscribed shi eld at o ne of the sa nctuaries. .1an)' such shields have bee n found ar Ol ympia . The~' vary from seem to r m in diamet er . Some of Ihese shields havc a complete bronze fa~ing , whilst or he "l have o nly a bronze rim . All the nonme talli c pa rIS of t hese shield s have disappeared bUI many of the interio r lilrin gs ha ve su rvived. T he se fillings , such as t he handgrip all achments, wcre fixed W Ihc wooden core wit h nails which werc bc nt ove r o n the from so that they could not come loose. T his nOlonly "cry convememly tells us t he Ihickness of the sh ield , but al"" how it was made. T he ,, 'ooden core. probably of ha rd wood such as Old. was made fi rst . All the fil li ngs were rhen nai led 10 rhe inside and rhe na,ls l urned over o n Ihe fronr .nct hammered tlK 'I);'hen all the inside pieces we re fixed in place, the fronl was covered ,,'il h bronze o r ox hide. The forearm band ha. N ,o fo nns: eirhe r a broad band ,,-ith a turned u p li p (J;. or a narrower band ( J] which would ha ve had a rawhide o r feli backing m the shape of the firsT In>c. T he broad I}'pe i5generall)' earlier, and t he narrow ba nd laler . Several of rhe shields from O lympia ha,'e filli ngs st uc k directly on ro Ihe inside of rhe bro nz e facing. These shields m ust have bee n made specially fo r dedications as they wo uld ha ve be en use less in bat tle . It has been sugg ested th at t hey wel e use d to ddleet blows bUl this wo uld de feat Ihe whole pur pose "f Ihe phalanx, where each hoplile was su p posed to prot ect hi s neig h bo ur's UJlguarded . ide , nol redirect missiles o n to it, T here is a . uperb example of an Argive haule shield in the Musco O regonano at the Val ica n. T his shield, which proha blycomesfrom an Err uscan grave, has survived sufficiently im ac'l 1 0 permu a comp lele ICSloral io n Wilh ab'SOIUl e ce-naimy. The complele bronze facing ha s . u" 'i" cd ;lhoUl d islonK>ri as well a. a oonsiderable amounl of lhe wooden con: and the thin lea ther ";Ih ,,'hich it was lined. This shield ilJusIllIles "-cll the technical difficullies of filli ng a brome facing to an Argi" e shield. Allhough t he front of the hronze fa..i nll: ..-o uld ha,'e be en beaten into _ sha pe be fo re il was fine d on 10 the woode n core. lhe edge wo uld "'we 1 be 0 fo lded OVe r afterwards. T he difficulties experien<:ed by t he u mo urcr arc re,'ealed in t he cross-section where o ne can sec bow he has ha d to pad Ihe rim of t he shield wit h slivers of wood In ifS o riginal fo r m Ihis shield wo uld have weighed aho ut 7kg. T he wooden co re of t he Argive shield was unly abuul o.y cm thic k in I h~ centr e and a reinfurcing p late ",'as often placed on rhe in side. Such plates can bc clearty se~n un rhe laiC 6l h---cenrury S iph nian treas ury relief from Del phi and o n Ihe C hilli '"asc. T he re is one fealure of Ihe Argi"e shiel d " hich o nly became o bvious after lell and .bo_ Tha E" " s.;an .h,old ""1 h ",,,,,, ins 01 lhe wOOden co re and '••,h." I;ning;n l he M,,""" Gr&go".no, Va tican. Rome. This sh ield " probabty 4tl'> ""nlu ry 1 The ,nside of th. ,hleld shOWi ng Inc armband. wh,en wou ld have l>een Iin-ed WIth hrde, the hand g" o ar><! t he remeln' of l he COt. Scale 1.l0 2 S,oe ,iew arod section ollne . noel" J Th...· Qua".r lOp view Shov" ,no lhe e'mIJo8<>l1 and ha!dQ" o 4 ReconslruC1>on of lhe nandg"p a!d "''' SP'I(Mo'ng lhe 01 ""OOd u sed to !'ll l he 10m ""pS l3
  • GR EECE AND M ACEDO N I A making a copy of l~ Yal ican sh~ld and Ining it OI.It. The sbarp curve ba<;:kwar ds on t ~ inside edge of t he wooden rim firs snuglr over the kfl shoulder, w hich la kes a 101 of the weighl of I ~ shi eld. This means lhaf a hopli le could march a considerable distance wit h his shield ready for act ion without feeling roo muc h of a sirain on hi, leff ar m. The musl nOliceable fealure of [hese shields as seen on vase paintin gs is their decorative blazons. These show an alm".1 intinile "ariely_geome[ric designs, animals bolh real and imaginar }' , fis h, crabs, birds , limbs. vases, encbors , etc. T hese probably ident ified rhe indiv idual hoph[e, who could 001 be rcwgnised "'i t h his belmel covering hi. face. Leser, towa rds the end of Ihe 51h century. tnne motifs were repleced by a let te r or s~"Illbol ideIl1if~;ng a hopli[e'. cit)·, lhe lambda, for exam ple, for Sparu i. La<:e-daemon) and the club for T hem. Several examples of bronze blazons have been found at OI~"Illpia . These show mainly m ylhiel! bean s _ gorgons , gr iffi ns, eiC. They were prohahl~' made speciall~' for dedications as t hey "" ould have been defaced in the firsr clash of battle when , as the Spartan poet Tyr[aeus PUIS it, ' bu[h sid es dash, rounded shield altainsl roun ded shield', The motifs on bank shiel ds must have been painted , Body a r mO Ur In 1953 an Srh -century grave was discovered al Argos in the Peloponnes us. I n u w re t he earliesl G~k he lmet and e " uira l1S yet found. Beyond Ihis find tbere i. a gap in ou r knowledge o r body ar II1QIr slret" hi ng back 700 years 10 the b le t5 lh-cennrry example al Ikndra. T he Argos cuirass , like ilS forerunners, has a Irene and back plate, Bolh plales are simplr decorated in t he form of t he anatomy of t he rorso, with narrow em bosse d ridgo:s around t he arm holes, t he waist and t he hips. Around the neck, t hc arm holes and the hip s the bronze is rolled fo rward 10 strengl hen t he edge. The breaks in t he embossed ridge••how withou t a doubt that the Irom plale fitted over t he edge of the back plate at the sides. On Ihe right edge of Ihe froAl plate are two lubular projection,-Ihese were filled inro ccrrespondmg , lors in the back ptare and he ld in position with IwO pIns lJ:' befO£C the ""ira.. was pUI on. The 10.'0 hah'cs we re sirapped {Ogel her b}' IWOloops al ,he OOllom of lhe left side (one on the fro nt and one om be back plate) , Under the left arm and al the hip the rolled -{wtT edge has heen opened up fO for m a channel which held Ihe front plate in posifion (4'. The shoulders were joined in t he Of'P'l' ile way with th e back plate overlapping l he front . Th e plales were held in posilion af fhe shoulders l>y [wo iron spikes on Ihe from plate which passed through eorresp<mdi ng holes found in fhe l>ack plate ( S) . A sem i-circular bronze pla te ca lled a mitTa (Ihis term is probably wrong but used for co nven ience) could be suspended from a belt to CO"er l he abdomen . All hough lhere ar e rome Greek examples of these, mos r come from Crete. Exam ples have been found 10 Thntcc " ; Ih la'tT 'enions of the bell cuirass sho..;ng lha l lhe } "~ re: used ' logel her. In t he second half of the 6th cent ury the bell cuirass ded ined in popularilY and was su perseded by rhe linen corse_ let as rhe basic hoplile hody armou r. Howe.-er, Ihe b ronze cuirass continued in m e and gradually evolved into [he e1eganf m uscled cuirass . Alt hough il never enjoyed t he same popularilY as the bell corselel, probal>l)' because u wu so expensive 10 ma ke, itlasted unt il l he end oft he Roman era 1,000 years laler, and bttame parr of [he uniform of seniol officers. T he new cuirass came in IWO In"'S, eil her shore, fi nishing at the wais. , Or long 10 cover the abdomen. The mu sded cuila," was usually joined al the sides , and sometimes al l he shooldel'S, ,,'irh hin ges, one balf of the hinge being anached to the fronl plale and one to the back. There "'ere usuall y six of t hese hiniles- Iwo on each side an d one on each shoulder. I n order 10 pUilhe cu irass on, th e hinge pi ns were remo.-ed from one side (us ually rhe right) and from the shoulders. The corselet was then opened out as with the previous IYpes , When fi lled t he fronl and back plates would be drawn 10gerber and the hi nge pins in ser ted on the r ighl side and [he shoulders. On eil her side ot t he hin ge was a ring whi ch was us ed to p ull the fro nt and back plates logel her. A fragmem of a coilass in the British , t useum (9:' has a d ear impre:1ISion of a buckle nexl 10 the nng showing that a strap and buckle werr used 10 r ull t he IWO sides together. Some of lhese conelCis h&'e no hi nges and were held toge-ther wit h rings and straps onl~· . Some 4Ih -cen IUr ~' cuir~es haw a Iefl- hand hi nge "" rending fro m the ar mpil 10 th e hip. Since ir would be imp<>ssihle to inserl lhe pin in such a hinge when th e cuirass was being worn, one mUSI assume rhar t he lefr side was juineJ before il was pUI on, Although t he developmenl of t he mu scled cuira' s can be t raced on Greek va""s, Ihe archaeological finds are ma inly Italian. In ,he 4fh cent u ry the full-length mU'l<:led cuirass was adapted for <;3."al~· A _. A Il<onle shoeId mo[,1 from ~ e 525 Be 1.1.... of "'"' ' - _ loon<. [hO goo-gon _9" be"'ll 1!Ie most P<IIIUlol< On boon .. .-_ mold _ ........... ,*,,00(1 ~ .~ A~_ An All) '" .~ield. e. 525 Be. ..... t~. ,.. nfaro "ll pl.,. 10 0'''' ....... P' ~ , on for (he ..-m . - . on _ ... ~ from [hO $ol>I'ItI_ T......., II [)e<p/'Ii. DeIp" M..-....
  • T HE CIT Y 51'AT E5 800-360 Be ARMO UR A:'D W EAPO :'iS , 1 ..d Z h orn anrl l)«k ..._ at !he Argos bol l euor... Argos M" ,.,,,rn 3 M.,fIo<I of ~Innl n g ' h. "ghl-ha<>d"" of lhe CuII'53. Tfle tubu lar . "t.nalOm on t"<o eti9'l of M Iron plaIa """ . pr, shed lh,oug h th. s iCl' In !h. ~. c k ~I.t•• nd . pin .n• • " oO on the '"""" • Uod.,alrn joini"" of ,"<0 lell . ide. S ""lImd of join i"" ,,,, ,noul"",. ' A Iale tlek 0.."..... C 525 Be . from 0Iymp•• Orvmll'O Muse um 7 An , _.naf pia'" Irom en". 1 -11 Flagmen" ,llu,","',ng !he """r>o<l eJ le ,n l"" !"" clMS'Cal muscle<! 1 A f" II · I. ng ' h h l""e comp le!e w !h pm K. " " "h. Ge rma ny 9 F'.g menl of . ""lh " no ' 1I0ch"",n! . nd ,"<0 Irnpr.n! of. buc kle (B1Il ,s h Museum ) 10 A puck.. of .,,,,.Ia, lype 11 A hmoe ..... from l/1e ;ns ide 1Z Metho<l 01 pulling ,..., hOr>g/I ,o0;‫ן‬II, c,,"... M , """"m c,,"... .... • " l 55
  • GREECE AKD M ACEDO N I A Above f ro nt VI@w of a 4 t~ . ce n lU f Y muscl ed cu irass fro m Conv@r"" no ned ' Ba,i in southe rn 1 ly It 1a has 0 full. l@ngth hinge o n the left side. The mu , c11Od cu irass Meam e 1'<11 of the un ,fo rm ot ,en ior oU,cers Sa " Mu.eum Abov@ The oack View of t he .ome Conve"a no cu ir.., The '; g hl "de of [he eu "o" w as jome d m the no lmol fashion w ith h inges an d " ng, The s ho ulde rs had no hing@ ond we re p UIIe<l . toget he ' by the , ing , Above A sM rt mu , c le<f co irass w i,h ,ing fa"e r>ers ond no hi nge, . Thl, 'YD<' w., otlen used by the CO ",lry Mo st ",ch8eo log ical eXd mple. of mu , cl@d ", ". , se , co"", fro m Itd'V. Fro m Auvo . SOOJt h@ ItaiV B'i li,h Mu,eum 'n Above A le COn, truCrr On of 0 full-length musc l@ d Cul<aSS rn f~e BfltISh Museum I' i. mo"" of b,on, e 8M i. deco'.ted wi th " lye' in, e t nipp l@, It is iOlne.d.t t~e ,hcu lde" and sid<>, w llh n ln ges dnd rrn g, Aboye A ho plite we ar i ~ g a musc led Cu rra" sh own on o Gree ~ vase. c . 460 BC H@is _.,ing . Th raci,n holme' o ~ d h•• o cu,," ,n h. "lI ,ng f,om hIS s hIe ld to prot@ his legs "g8inst ct mi"i les P" le ,mo Muse um Ab o ye A full-length mu,cle<:t c urr~ " ,pee-oIiVO@S1gne<:t fo' ~ ho rseman . It is "" 'Y b,o.d i ~ ' M hips to endb le ,,, we"er ' 0 , il " ~ o rs. Only th(ee " "mpl@ .rek no w n, andall(orne lrom t1a iy , P,ooably 4t h ee nlury. Bdli ~u ", u rn 56
  • , r • e , , 3 Greo '. c 450 Be. Vat,can Museum 4 Etruscan, c. 325 Be The S"CO!l h. ~ u. 01 the Amazon. I,om T"oum,. FI",encII 1_4 Tho ''''on C", '.... on G'''''k and f lluS<:al' ~ 1 G<.t. c 500 Be From Vulc< Berlin 2 .,ou""n. c 42~ Be F""" Too. 101.......'" Il<~,,.j, A,cllHolog ical Mu.. um, 5 Dell" f'em 'ho M. ", ot Tooi .... ,1>0 Votoear> ( Muoeo Gf890"."",j st>owi"", llmelll' plo,O$. C 350 Be ' A ",. 6th-cent""" "oph'e puttmll <>II nl$ Ionen <","."
  • G REECE AND MACEDOt-;'IA me . T he bottom was swept ou t"'ard~ at the front and back "J tha t the wearer cou ld sit On a horse. Such a cu ira" is shown d earl y on t he equestri an statue of ~on iu~ Halbus the Younge r found at Herculane um, now In the :-;apks ."-i useum. T hree examples of t his ty pe of cuira" are known and all come from southe rn Italy . The evid ence sugge sts t hat they we re restricted to this area, but wit h so few examp les it wou ld he wro ng to '''Sume this . L inen cuirasses had probab ly been In use since lat e .'<1ycenaean nmes, but it was nOI until lme in l he 6th century that t hey becam e t he standard armour of the hop lite. A hnen cuirass was m ade of many layer s of linen glued togelher 10 fo rm a st iff ,hin aboul 0 ,5cm thick. The corselet extended down 10 the hi ps, t he lower pa rt, belo w the wai81, having slits to make it ea~ie r to bend forward , A second layer cut into ~ imllar 'Irips ( pu ty ges) was stuck on Ihe inside to cover Ihe gaps in the outer Ia'·er . T he shin , wh ich had no shaping t o the wais t, was wrappe d around the torso and l ied together on the left side . A V -sha ped pica , fixed to the hack, was pulled for wa rd 10 cover t he shoulders. 'a~e pai nting~ often show these ~ houlder flaps spri nging back when untied, illustra ting t he resilience of the male rial A few years ago I mad e a copy of one of Ihesc cuirasses. I t was dithc ult to put on because of its stiffness , but o nce o ne had got us ed to n, il was q uite co mfo rt _ able and easy to move ahout in These cui ra sses were ofle n made in several piece~ and t he PletYKes were sometimes detac hable . Alt hough the linen was considered adeq uate protecl ion , Ihese cu iras ses were often reinforced with scares or plates, and Ass yrian -stvlc lam cllat pla tes are shown on some later E lru scan examp les , The g reat advant ages of the linen cuirass were it s cheapness to produce, its flexibility and its lig htness , The cxample I m ad e had nnmelal plales and weighed 3.6kg; a bell cuirass whe n lined would have weighed about 6kg . T h is type of ar mo ur remained 111 usc untilt he introd uct ion of ma il 111 the 3rd century Be . S hortly before Christmas 19 77 it was announced t hat a royal grave ha d been found at 'Clgina in Macedonia . This grave, whi ch is believed to hclo ng to 1 A ,ase palnllng (500 BC) showing hoplltes an"inq for batt le Vle n~. 2 The cut 01 a I,"e n 'shff shi,,' cui.. " Th i' was made foom laya" of line" g lued 'ogethol, • , t I I ,I " I ' 'I ~ . I • . , , , ,• I !' I . . 3 an d 4 F,on l and l>ack "ews of tJoe ioon CUll"" recove 'ed f,om the so ' called tomb of Ph il ,p II at Va'g ioa in .Macedo ni•. Scholars d isa gree abou1 the date of ' hi. 10mb, The i, cU irass snow, a t<a nsla llon InfO "on w ith gol d d""",alioo of a linen ""r""a' . " fo llows the baStc des,gn in eve,V data il " was proba bly WO'" Ove r a le athe r cMon "",th Plecvges a t ' he , houldars and h ip, S.... the Ale,aode, mo,.,c. on
  • T H E CITY STATES 800-360 IlC ARM O UR Philip II , ........ reported to contain an iron cuinau. H earing this I had It~ions of a muscled-type cu irass made afi ro n. At the Internation.al Congren of a ..... ical ,' rchaeology held in L.onJon in September t918, "'1. Andromcos , the ellcevator of t he grave, gave t he publ ic their f rs t vie.... of this L"UJraSS .... hich, «) my immense surprise, proved to be a tran, lat ion into plat e iron of a linen cuirass. T he torso is mad e up of four plates , ftom, back aod t wO side. , wit h two cu rved shnulder plat es hinged to th e bac]; plate . T he whole cuirass is de..-orated wit h em bossed sl rips of gold, It rrc>u mably had puryg .. of leat her or some Olher pliaot ma terial. Uofon uoately , this armour has nut j'el been properly published and therefore " -c have only t he pil."turc> to go b~' . ult a n d arlll guards T he full-length ],o.... er leg guard or g~a" e only came into general use in the 1th century. ,,' t first it cO'ered the lo,..-er leg only from belo,..- the h ee to t he ankle, hut was late r extended to cover the knee . The n n- and 6lh-<:emu ry greaves were often highl y decorated, The lat'" grea,'es, like the musded cuira.s, followed the anatom y of the kg. , 1any examples of the se mu scled -C greave. survive in both U reeL aod Ital y. The m u>culationofthe later t ypes i, generally less sty lised than th e late 6th-cen tur y ty pe shown here, The Greek greave was pulled open and clipped on to th e leg, but in ILaly lhe}' w'ere often st ra pped on to t he leg. Several Italian examples ha"e been fou nd with rings for straps. . Iany exam ples of ankle guard. ha" e bec.n found ....hich co"ered not jun the ankles but atso the heels. These are the anklets that Homer is so fond of describing. T hey " ",", tied on. There ar e also a fe.... examples of foot guar ds ....hic h were fi tted to the sandals, These were made either m one piece or hinged at rhe toes to allow more mOvem em, Although thigh guards are shown in s<:ulpt u res, only one Greek example survives at Olympia. Thi s is really just an extension of the greave and covers onl y t he lo....er thigh. In an they ar e shown covering the middle of t he t hi gh, G UilN S Ior both t he upper and lo....er urn have b«n reco vere d from t he ""'a "lt iom at Olympia. Some of them I re a xn W F.APON S , A_ 1 _4 T... ~ t oIlte g'u,", 1 La,. 7th'''''I"" t,w como.... "" 'I) ioA, _ f l " e C.- 2 ElabcIt... 6'.. ·..... n.v ..... ~~ _ ._ f r"", Ot<,mpoo Oly.....,.. Iol.,......,., 3 ~ 6m,-..urv ..... ?rooto... cc. ul'>CMioitl T - . o r lIlr<lon 4 f mtll I)ld ....,..,. . - 01 a "'.. Q<eiMII." ...... Iour>d ... ,tl'l the ..... armaoc """...noCfl .. d'spIave<I on P 61. M"""", GryPIO,e< 5 UPPlIf ar m guard 6tI'l - . t.... I l ..-. arm g ....r<l. 6lh century 1 Ant . guard, 6tI'l - . t.... ThIs ....... ,d ....... _ bed on "'''Ill ..... I'M> ptOngS 01. l he fron l • Thogll guard. 611'1 ~ 9 f oot ~¥<l, pt ~II'I ot<>tury. It is Ikr>ged at tile loes and _ "'.. _ Iaoed ro _ .- S- I f """ Olymp", orv""" a t.luseum. 9 from RuYl). s""' tern ' ...... Bnl"" Mu_m left Broont flgu"'''' 01 a S(lirtan "'lniar. c. S2S Be HI i. "",." r-.g """'r ",m gultclland 'l'Iig h Qua-d. 1>eS.de-s!>al1Cu"..... Co,m"'..n helme, and gr_ A_ eo N,l ona! _1OIoIl0Cll Muse"",. ss
  • GR EECE A:'D M ACEDO N IA very daborard~' d<:<:oraro:d. T ho: uppo: r arm guard s far outnumber the lower . In proba bility t~ arm guards wen: very seldom used and arc cenainly rardy s ho....n in an. All limb guards were lined with Icalher or fabric. Thns.: made befo re the mid-6tb cemury had 1he hning rolled over the edge and stit ched through , T he com inuat ion of this met hud of fi xing t he lining suggests Ihat Ih"re wa s a co ntinuit y in armou r makinK hetween the M y<:enaean and t he Archaic era, and then:fon: we should ex pect 10 lind bronze armour in use r ight th rough t he dark age. All arm an d leg gu ards except greaves ....em out offa.shion all hee nd of the 61h cemury and tho: greave its.:lf ....as never as popular later m Ihe classical era as il had been earlier . The helmet Thete ismuch argumcntamongscholan O" CT the naming of .-arious tvpes of helmet . This conlro"ersy has nnl hing 10 add to our kno.... ledge of the G reek milirary system or of its developme nt and i, Iherefore ignored here. Terms such as Illy rian and Alltc are m ed here for convenience 10 de note a parlicular type of helm et and do not im ply the origin of Ihe Iype. T here are several forms uf G reek helme t but lhey all seem 10 ha" e evolved from t""o p rototy pc,- Ihe Kegel and the primitive Cori nthian. T he Kegc1 he1m ( II , whose name is German, meaning lilerall~' cone or sltitl k shaped, is the earliesl Iron-Age helmel ~'et fou nd in G reece. Theso: helmen are all made in five pieces (u d ud · ing t he cr<:sl holder). T he exampk shu"" n hen: is from a panoply found in a late Geometric grave al Argos , T he Kcgelhdm disappeared at the bcgm~ ninlt of the 7th century . From the Kegel evol"ed 1""0 new Iypes: t he Insular and the Illyrian hd mel. The I nsular helmet (3) Was po pular in C rCle ....here m any min iatu res of it hav e bee n found , T he fragmen ta ry example ~hn wn II bove , which is t he onl y One yet found , is als" fro m C rete. 11 is made in IWO halves (incluJ ing t he crest holder ) whieh are riveted toget her, Eaeh half f"rms one side of t ho: helmer. The early IllyTian helmel (4' is a ckar derintion of the Kege l type, u can be soecn from its general shape and rhe em60 "" " SflO BC s bo/;s.:d ndge along its """"<:'I o:dge. The mai n difference is t ho: crest ridge acT""S l he lOp which became a characterisnc of Ihis Iype. It also ~ho..--s a l echnical ad"ana as" like the Insular he lm"", , il ;s made III [""0 halves. "'hich are ri"Cled log el her al" ng l he <:resl 'ridge. By the first half of Ihe 61h century l hcK helmets were bei ng made in one piece (SJ. The type su rvived do"' n into Ihe St h ce nt ury (6 and 7). The Corint hian helme l wa, hy far t he mos t successful G reek helmet . It eO'crc d t he head leaving on ly t he cyes, nose and moulh clear . It had a long life, beginn ing in Ihe 8th centoty ( ~J and evoh'ing inlOa 'er)' elega m helmel during the 71h and 6th centuries. T he very early hel mets were somet imes made in t wo pieces like t he earl)' Illyrian t ype . One of t be ch.ara~"t eriSIie!; rhat de'eloped duri ng the 71h ccntury was an indenta. lion in the bottom edge dividing the jawline fr " m lhe neckline (8 and •• ,. This waS conunued m rhe late 7th- early 6Ih-cen tuT)' type . A large number of examples of this type of helmet (9', have sut-Yived, hea r ing witness 10 its popuJaril y. It is know n as t he , l yros type after an en mple that had t he name M yros inscribe d on it_ In the early 61h century th i ~ inden tat ion was repl aced hI' a more pusilive dart which may have bee n derived from Ih e llIyria n l ype. T his remained as a characrerisri, of t he helme t, 10 is a cross- breed between the early llIyrian and Cori nthian helmet s, ha" ing more l han one characteri"ic of each. T he c hec k guards of Ihe Corm. rhian helmet were very flexible so lhat il could be pul led down overthe cramum 500BC , Abo".. The evolut,o n of the Gr••• Mt""'t h om , he 8th to 'h. 5th ce nt ury. T"" ( e QO I · I IIVria~ group ar. On t"" le ft a~ d the Co"nth ,an · C h ~ t c i d i .n · Att IC group Bitt or> ,roe "go, The rttd I,nes lIi..e en appro. im..,. dating . t>ul " .....1 be borne ,n ..-...0""'" """.. rn,nd that tvPn olowly ,n some plloceo than ot.... " 1 From Argos Argoo I,! ....." 2. • $ 7 1$ . "" 17 ... .,1"""" 0Iy""".. Olympa M.-.,rn 12 Itom C...,n'" C""nlt> "'_
  • T il l' CITY STATES 800-) 60 Be ARMO UR AND WE AI' O NS , • • , • ..----! " " 13 From t"" ","crapol;. al Cam po' . 'an o d ' C.mp l, CMieti Mu "'um 18 From To<l i. V,II. Giu li. Museum. Rome 9 14 1nd , 5 . re from sou thern lla ly 20 " f,om L. CWo's o G ,~_. n . ,'''' are of unce,la,n n ""g ,n 8 , ,.... 10 ..~ ,n (he TO""lf 0 1 London 3 . "'" Ii . '. In 1.... Museu m IOf K "~ 't und Gew$<tle, Hamb'Hll 9 11 1. 1 & """ 20 a", in ''''' 6rn ..h Mu >flum """ 19 • in ,hot M........ m 31 Yor k and still fit snugly 10 t he fac . Iku usc e of Ihi. flexibility the helme r could be pu~~d up o n to the lop of rhe head , ...'bere l he lkx ible cheel< guanh held il in position. ~s ":a~ bow t he hopIit( wore il ...h~n not in bank. .Iany .lalun . hoo' t he hd met worn this ..-ay a nd w met imes one can also s« pan of the Io<:tK undcrcap sl icking out from under 11M. dan in the rim of t he helmel . All metal helmets ~wre "'" inne r ca p for , al though a meta l helmet m:o ~' lPve pr()o tecnce from t he cut of 1I wcapon, il ...i ll not b ru k l he force of it, so that padding is ~"" m ial. On the ea rli er hetme ra the lining was oft e n folded oVCr rhe rim o f tbe he lm et and stitched along the e<lltC as in the Dendra armour, b ut fro m t he 61b <;e ntu ry il was usually glued in , T he Corinthi an helm el <l icd ou t in (ireece carl}' in th e 5t b cent ury h u t it lived "n in Italy , The Italians during the 6t b a nd 5t h ce ntur ies gradu all y developed their o wn fo rm of t he C o rin t hian helm et ( I ) , 14 and I S:) which d e' troyed the ver~' reaSOn fOT its c realion. Whilst relaining t he eye holes a nd Ihe na'al t he y t u rned il intoacap whic h wa~ wo rn on to p o ftbe head as shown LO Greek an ( 14 ). A s time "'enI on Ihe eyes gOI smaller and d oser l<>ge ther i l s ). So me umes l he holes " 'ere fille d with im r }'eyes , F inally they d isa p peared altogether , leavi ng 0II1~- t heir vn liges in the incised decoral io n. This fonn o f he lmer , whic h is k now n as the Italo-Corimhian type, wu adopted by Roman oftkers in l he later republic a nd o nly d isa p peared in the 1St n n turjo' AD. BoI h t he Cori nthian and t he Illyr ian helmer had one gro:at fauli - l he~' ma d e heari ng impossible. Experiments " e re made wil h perforal ions : seve ral examples o f Ihi. were fo u nd ar Ol ympi a. T hese 1001< t he fo rm of a four-spol(ed wbeel wit h t he segments belwCt'n the . pol<C!i CU i out, o r t he out line of an eaf .i m ilar l ~' cUI o u t. F inally the area around ! he ear was cUI aw ay altoget he r 16 ). Expe riments along Ihis line , ho w. ever , had already produced a new breed " I' hel met, Ih e Chalcidi an , This helmet clearl y evol ved out of the Corinth ian and appears o n vase paint ings fro m the early 6th century. T his ne w helmel came in two t ypcs : one wilh fixed ( 17) ami the o the r wit h hinged ( 18) c heek pieces. T bcre ...as a t hir d va ria nt of this 1)'f'C ...hich had hinged ch«k pieces hu t "
  • GR EECE AlD MACEDONIA
  • T HE CIT Y S TA TES 800·360 OC AR MOUR AND WE A P O N S nose gu ard ', 1 91 ; this IS commonly referred 10 as Att ic. [ have no imentiun of arguing wh~ther it sho uld or shou ld not be called th at-in lhi, t><.... 'k an Arne hdm~t means one slm, [ar to the: C halaruan but wit hout a ~ Itua rd . There are no Greek examples of lhis t n''''; practically all the su rv i~·als c ome from l ta[} ,,'here u was vel")' popular. The Italian examples ~u.ally ha~'e fealher holders and often thin bronze "'ngs, One fina l type ofhdmel that rnusr be memi oned here is t he Thradan ( l O) . This r~'pe appears to have evohed fro m the Th racian cap, I n some respecu it is similar 10 the All ie he lm et but it has a peak ar thr front ,, 'hieh eXlends rou n d thr side , gi~'mg protection 10 both the eyes and lhe: <:an . It alo.o commonly , though 001 inuriah[}', tw. long chl:rk pieces usually CUI awa}' sharp ly at lhe <)'es lUId moul h an.l curving OIItward. along lhe jaw, These ched: pie",," " 'ere onen hight}' dc.-onled " ·Ilh . for exam ple, a beatd and mousla~he . T he hd_ m"'- gained in.:reasing popu[aril}' Irom Ihe 51h century OIIwards. All rhese he lme" had crests of horse: hair. In most cases the ~"nl was fi xed di~I}' o n 10 the cre..-n of the he lmet and hel d in pl.... b}' a pm at the: fl o m ~ and ba.:k. It is O~l"ious how this "'"as done on l he lIl yr ian t ype , but less clea r "il h t he majority of Corimhian types . In 'lOme examples Ihere is an at tach m en t al t he back, in ","'hjeh <......, the fr om could be held by a loop ove r the nasal. Some of lhe: helmet s from O lympia show quire a com plex sl'Mem of h" oks and rings ,,'hie h appear to be slu"k o n, [f IhlS is rbe case, then we may assume that many oftheothe: rs have lost their attachments. Crests rais~d o n a prop are a regu lar featu re in t he Archaic pe r iod ( 700- 500 IIC) in G reece and th ey remai ned popu Jar in [Ia[y until the tSl centu ry Ao. These crest supptJrt S were dela.:hahk and we re lix~ d to Ih.: helmel with split pins as shown above . 1IO W~apo ns The hophte's m~in weap" n was t he , pear. An ~x~ m pll' from t hc' dark allc was found in a gmv e at Verltina in t all A boaut.tully p,eS4lM,d a'3rY1l>>e 01 & lal. S'Cl IV II ~9, No . ', 6t h-oen,u,,! Co"nth.an hOlme was 1".,0<1 w .th the g,""...., (p Mun ich GIVPIOI." j,,,,,, Abo~ . 1 ... dola I o! a G. - . _ pa.fIlI"Il ..-.ow"........ ""'" 1'1"'" d oeSl 2 '" G'ee. ' a'oed CfeSl hOI"", f ' om Olvmp... -3 An tu.... '........ ~ f'<>I"'" Both 2 ..,., 3 ..... - . d I>' Iplrl pons 11 011" . - 7 rt.e ..-.,.,., "' ..... G'ee. """"'" • &nd 5 T_ Ia", I,l..,...,_ (!Vl>e II I bforve .......,.,. lrom ..... :hN. e t 200 BC 1M ' he _Ie d a .om..... >Word from Italy I Eart,o G<aooo 'ron $WOfd 1,,,,,, 1<0<0"""005. e 820 Be I5a B'''''''' "and ... """, a ..... Ia, • .....,'d 7 I,on _ . , d >C-3btwd 0/ G,... . 'We "".,,, bone .ntav tl...., the CamPO"a1ar>o d. e".mplI "«".".,.os, e 500 BC (hoet. I,l """"m 8 Iron "",,",""lid of G_ k "'" . fr...., me C&mp<..-a""" """",pal .. Ch>et, Muoeum G,eek SJM!&f bull B" t•• h M""",m 'B ,""'e .1ac -cdo nia wit h t he iron head and bun " ill in posilio n. T his spcar "'as about 2.3m long and "'ol ld seem to be about the su ndard lengl h- t hose shown on vase paint ings a p pear to be between l and jrn long , By t he end of lhe 8th cent ury Ihe Gre~ ks had stop ped h uryi ng thei r warrio rs wilh l h~ir wea po ns, h ut t he practice continued in hal l'. Spears varying bet ween ] ,5 and 2,5m long have been foun <l in eth-cenru ry grave s at Cam pova[ano d i Camp ti nca r Terarno. The spears sho",n o n G reek va,cs ha ve leaf-s ha pe d blad es, .lany iron spearheads of Ihis type have been found in hot h nree~e and I taly . These spea". whichacc.>rdinglO T yrtacus an d Homer were made of ash, also had a m~lat spike, somel im," made of bronze, at Ihe bun end Mark [e, in his article o n t he ''Ia,e_ do nian pike and spear , estimated thaI t he weight of a 2,5m hoplile spear "'a' o n" kilo gram • • T he hop[i(e alw ~...rri ed a s....-..rd . Find. from the d ark age .1>".... Ihat (he: [ate M y< na ean t ype I I swor d which -.: ,,'as of cent ral Euro pean o rigin contin ued in use h ut ....as be ing ma de in i ron. An cxam p[e from t he Kemmeik", has a straight <s ide d . dou ble-edged blad~ 75cm long, By t he time <If th e Pers ian ..... an this had evo["e d int o a shorter sword ..... ilh a leaf-sh aped hlade ahout seem long. Several ex~-.:lIent examples of these have Ix..,n found at Campova[ano <Ii Campli. T his sw" rd .....as c,"cntially a slashi ng weapo T he 6t h and n. 51h ct"m m ics show the gra d ual intro<lucl inn of a curvcd, sing le-ed ged sword (k" pl<). T hi. wcapo n pro hah[y or iginatcd in Erru rju. T hese e"r1y cu rved s",ords wcre vic iom ~ I a, h i n g weapon s wit h a huge h[ade aho ut 65"m long, T hey were later modified into the shorter CUI-and- thrust W e"p'lD Ihal hecame S<l po pu lar in Spain and M acedon , 6,
  • GREECE AND MAC EDONIA Macedon 360- 14° Be Introduc .ion T he ce ntfe of developmcn' now move' ftom G . eece to M" cedo n~ tll c , leeping giant. T he rise of M acedon was due almost cn'i rely to t he enefgy of one m' n, Philip II. On his accession , ,, the rheone in 359 H he sel "oout bllilding up rhe e mo" formidahle fighting machine the world had yc' see n. It was with this m. chine ' hat hi' son , Alcxandef 'he (;rea" was to conque • • n empi. e tltol .tTe' chcd ftom Eg ypt 10 Indio, Afte r his de' lh 'lexandd , empifc w", divide d . mo n~ st hi' ~e nerals . Thc", kingdom' i"sted umil one by one lhey WC , wal_ fe lowed IIp by Rome. T he pf ime "",,,'e' for ' bi' pe tiod ,.e D iodor us Siculu, and Polyh iu, . Dio_ dor us wtole in the lS t cemu ry !C. His wor k ha ' quite jllSl ifia bly bee n severely cTitici'ed , i' ha' heen ' aid of him thaI he is os go" d or as had a, hi"omee' . For one very short period of not mme than 20 ye'ts, he follows the aecount of the hTilhan' H ieHmymu' of Cord ia, one of the m" sl fchahie histm ian. of ' be ancient world . W hat a il i, fOT the military histori'n th" l Hieronymus ' hi.,my has nol <Xlme down to us in ils origi nal li" m . Afrcr ' he dea ' h of Alex_ and er in 323, he acco mpanied fi rst Eume" "" , umil his death in 3 [6, an d then ,n,igonu' . nd his so n Demetr ius PoIi orce'es on t hcif campaign, ' nd gives detailed acco unts of theif acrion, . UnforluMtely D iodorus' accoum is incomple,e aftcr 302 H and only fragments of e the , ub",que n' Ix~) h <urvi,·e. Pol ybius, who picb up the story aboul 220 HC , recount s the histo, y of G",ece down to the seco nd half of the 2nd <'entmy lie , U nfOl"H' ,,"l ely lhe l'lter pan of hi, wOTk h", . Jso bee n lost . nd we po" e" only fragments . A ' oldier himself, Polybius is lhe best of ' he d ' ''ic' l military historians, I"" T he M acedonian Wars The r is e of M a cedon Philip wa' hTough' to T hebes as. hos· ,"~e in 36 7 IIC and loojl;ed in the house of Ep,minondas. T he gre" ' T heban', tactical vic,",,, wcrc no' w. <led on Philip He cscaped fTOm T hebes . nd on the dearh of his brother in 360 seized the 'hrone . l[ e was 23 ye'" old , M ac< oJon wa, racked wit h WaT on e"e,y side. Philip immedi. tely set .bout reor~ ,nisinjl; his army .nd bringing i' into the me"lern world , He ' he n tm ned hi' ,nen,ion " , ' he invade,". In ' wo ligh'ni ng campaigns h. subdued lhe Paeonians in the north and drove lh. IIlyrians in 'he n"" h_west ha ck oc yond B. low M.p ot the """h'''" ....".." , ho" ",g the '. 'otion, oip 01 M,e. _ i, ' 0 its "" 'ghboo" " was Phil'" of M.cedon who " . ",formed , w,, ·tom kingdom '" '0 ,he most ' ", m ,d , b~ m " '" pQw<!' 01 ilS d"" .'; • , , , " "... l 4 " "
  • I M ACE DO!'> 31J.o-140 Be T ilE MACEDONIAN WARS ,heir h onk,,_ H a ,-;n g 'ettled t he nnnh and .....e't , he sel . boUl establishing roUle, to {he east .nd south , Gradually he captured ,he lown, along the CO"", m an }' o f which ha d 'tr<mg cnnncetiom with the city ' tales, and so opened {he roUles to T hessaly and {he Helle,pont. In 35 3 he . nte rce! Thc""ly and t he fol _ lowin g year ~"nquered rn,,,, of it I n the ,ummerof3 5z he advance d 10"'.rds T hermopyl... In pamc the Atheni.n. sern a hoi ding for ce 10occupy ' he p o" an d P h ilip w it hdTew O n ly n ow do t he Greek, ""cmcd to h.". realised the gre. t lhre,,! that was h. tljI;ing o'cr {hem, but {hey were far 100 busy fight. ing each other to do anything . ho ut it. P hilip did n n' try 10 advance ,outhward again for six years. I n ,he interveni n~ per iod he continued to .st. h.lish his po'i,ion in the ca." re ducing t h e ' <>wn, of C h.kidice and lhe ThT""i.n coosl. I n 350 he g.ined ~ontrol of m uch of Epirus on his south-west bordcr, and hy 34S the last of lh e Chak id i.n towns h. d surrendncd The Greek st ates werc becomi ng ever more aware of the gi.nt thaI was rising in lhe norlh, bUl lhey were no t yet prepared to hury their di ffer ences and do any thing . b<mt it. They needed a brealhing space .nd in 346 signed a non _ aggre;sion Ire. ly wit h P hilip. T his treaty , "' Philip' s insistence, expre;sly exd uded P ho" i, which was .ccuse d of ou tTages .gain" Delp hi. T he ink wa, hardly dry on the pape r before Phili p pas, ed T hermopylae and overranPhoci, . lIe was imo G reece, Ha'ing established his fOOlhold , Phi lip withdrew to .'vlattdonia to '-'In_ solid .te his bor ders in the nort h, west and eaSl h"f m c cm har ki ng on the fin. l ~ onfti<1 . An uneasy pe.ce ex isted be_ tween Ph ilip and the Greek state, f<>r six years , By 340 th" Mac"<:d<>nian ar m y h. d reached the ilIad Sea a nd was besieging Perint hus an d Byzantium , Iloth citi es had slrong tonnec" ion, wilh Athen" wh i~h now wenl 1o war In the . urumn of 339 Philip took advant.ge of lhe chaos lhat ,lill persi' led and mo ved in", central G re e~ e. Alhcn, pal~h"d up • ha"y . 1Iiance wit h her erstwhile enem y The bes and advanced to meel the threa!. In AugUSI 338 at C haeronea on the no rl h_we" txlcdcr of Boeotia, the com bi ned T hehan lAtheni.n ar m y ~ . me f.ce 1o face wilh lhe war-har dened veterans of M acedonia. I n lh e h. n le Ihal followed the G rcek, were hopele"lyoutela"cd . T he T heba n B.low It., b"l;OO;r>9 of the grea'e " c"eo' 0 ' oo"'1u.". A'e" nde ' ",osse, "lilC' G"o;c ", ., t ho the ho.., 0 1 h.. ca val", to the P. " ,.n, . w ho "'d ' o,med up O t ho oppos'le bon" w ith n the " C,",I," on I<on, , ,,, ph.l,n , beh;nd
  • GR EECE AND .IACEDONIA Sacred Raod who were ol'l'o""d hy lhe crack M acedooian troops led by Philip's y< lUng son Alexander, who was just 18, remained truc to their glor ious tr adilion and foug hl to the 10" man. After the hau le Philip offered lerms ' hal were far more lenient than A'hens e{llld have ex pc <.~ ed, and t he)' were ac _ cepted. Philip felt 0 0 s u~h gene"" it)' lowards Thebes, Their leaders were exec u '" d or hanished, lhe prisoners were ' old into , b,'ery and a garr i"m occupied the Cadmeia. All the stales of G reece , wit h the exceplion of Spana, now came lo terms with Phili p . At the congre" of Corinth a Gr""k confedera,')' wa' ,c' up wi'h Philip as ilS leader T he M a"cdon ian now announced hi, long-cherished plans to invade the Per sian emp ire, an d the n""e"ar)' forces were req uISitione d , Before the ente rpri,e ~()uld he reali' ed, hown'eT, Ph ilip was a" a"ina'ed and hi, N _year_old ",n Alexander came to the throne, On Phi lip 's death lhe Greeks defe~ted . Alexan der' , Teac, inn wa' so fa' l that he re,'onquered Greece without striking a blow T hen he turned to t he north and weSI, crus h i n~ all opl'O'itioll, Durin ~ the se cam paigns he was reported d ~a d and ( ; T e~ c e again revolted Ak xandcT tumed sm ith . gain and lhe G reeks surr endered, all lha' is exce pt Thebes, Alexander took the city and rased it w 'he ground I nvas ion of the I' e r s ia n e mpir e In the ' pring of 33~ a " ' mhined M.~-e _ donian/tireek arm}' of 30,000 inf.n' ry . nd 5 ,000 ca",lry was ferr ied aero" t he Da rdanelles into Asia, W'hil" hi' army was crossing Alex_ ander ' ailed fOT Troy. He wa, th o now Ac h i lle s ~ t h e champion of the GTeeks and , as Achilles ha d done [,000 ye.rs hefoTe , he ' acriflced in lhe lemple of Athe n. T he Persian' were de tenn ined to "op Alexander' , <'a mp. ign hefOTe it "arted . l-leyond t he G ra ni~ u, river the Persian e",'alr)' were drawn up in line backed by • phal.nx of G reek mercena ries, In tTIle T heb. n 'lyle Alexander had " Tengtb _ ened onc wing , w h i~ h he led himself, T he ope n j n ~ a!laek came from lhis win~; .[ the he ad of the Companion ~a v al r;- he charged aero" the ri ver . nd srnashed , hmng h t he Ii ghter-armed Per_ sia o horsemen r he Per,i. n c",'alry btoke . nd fted, leaving the Greek mercena ries 10 [he ir fa,e, Alexande r sho" 'ed 'h em no mer, y. T he folk,,,'ing year w", spent in tb. subjugation of Asia , Ii no' (T urkey), The Persian king motched nort hwards ",i' h a large army and Alexander mo"ed soulh , ,, meet him . Th e two . rrnie, met at I"us on the border of Asia Ivl inor and Syria, ARain t he Slacedonian ea",.lry ,,,,., hed , hroug h lhe Persi.n archers and ligh t_a rmed lr<~'p', The Grea' King did nO{ wai' to see lhe o u ,~ome hut raeed from lhe ban lefield in his chario!. Althong h a[ fir" the Persian army !i)ught hr. vell" t h ~ new, of ' he king', fli~hl dampened lheir ardoUT and the)' too <urned and fled , Before advancing ea"wards Alex. nder knew that he must , eCure hi' line' of commun i,'a, i"n hy g.ining " mtr,,1 of S. low A'.,,"cIe" , " " ,nd ",os, oo, tly b,"l. A' , he Hyd. ,po< ,n 31 7 Be '0" Macedon.,o, _ ". ""n"on••d by a" Ind"" ,,"'v w, to 100 .l eDOa" " The po, I" , , dv," ceO "," 0 lock ed , h , e l ~, d"v'"Q ' ''e m b, e' ," eonfo"oo
  • M AC EDO N 360- t 40 HC T HE MACEDONIAN WARS the """'st and '" cu t olf the Persiam from lheir tket. Only T yre, which was situa'ed on an island aoout 800m off the wast, n:fu 'edto ,ubm it . The Cil~' held ou' ro, seven months, When i' finally rell Alexander showed no mere'y to t h"'e who had held up hi, grand desi~n; he cr ucitied many of rhe men and sold lhe women into ' lavery , With their gone t he Persian fleet defened . Alexander now ad"anced on Egyp l whi ch was quick to surrender, and he .stahli shed t he city of Alexandria On the coa" dose" '" Gree"e . The M acedonian army now returned 10 Syria and from here marched ea" _ ward" c",., ing the Euphrmes ,nd 'he T igris into the heartland "I' t he Persian empire , T he Gtea, King had had a year and • half ,,, ""Ilect rogerher a new army, At Gaugame la in 33t Be AlexandeT again erashed r h ro u ~ h the Persi,n wing and again the king fled. T he Per,ian infantry resisted valian,ly, hut when subiected to a comhined ea"al ry and infanlry " ,",ult it crumbled and the Pe,-;;ian em pire fe ll .part wIth it. Alexander now man:hed on Babv lon which 'urrendered . Suso .nd Persep"lis aho Jell into his lap. Hea ring tha' Dariu, wa, at Ham.dan , Alexander hastened nonhwatds, Once more the Persian king tied. Riding day and ni~ht Alex_ ander pursued him . Just south_ea" of the Ca spian Sea he e,ugh, up, hut the Great King was de~d _ killcd by his bodyguatd All wa, n"w a"eomph shed but Alex_ , ndeT', rest less spirit would not let him "op. He continued his marc'h ea' tw,rd s, fi~ht in~ baules and founding " itie, . lie heard of oppo'i tion in the north ~n d turned in thi, direction , lie p"",d Samarkand and pu,hed on into Ru" ia tothe end of 'he known world . Here he establish ed ,norber town called Alex_ andria the Farthe" , He nOw retra"ed bi, 'teps southward' and wen t into winter qu."er> at Balkh in wha t is now northern Afgh,ni",n In tbc early su mme r of 327 II<: lh< army crossed the western SpUT of lhe Himalayas known ", Hindu Ku,h ,nd descen<1<d into thc valley of tbe Indus , Hen: il wa, "pposed by an Indian army with ~oo elephallls , The M.cedoni,n, won the ensuin~ baule bUI with terrihle losse' , After 'he b,,,l< Alex.nder , et out 1;""" • lhe thTone . H,ving ",cUTed a power refused to go any farther. II wa, dear h" e, Dcmetriu, immcdiatel y began 'hat the soldiers had h, d enough. Re- .ssem bling a vast army in order to fulfil luctantly he lurn ed sollth towards the hIs father's dream of once more uniting er,." and from there returned to Bahy _ lhe empire , Ion. Two years later he was dc,d He Fift y ye.rs earl ieT Philip II had estabwas not quite 33 )'C , , , old. li' hed his brother- in- law Alexander as kln~ of 1'lolo"ia in Epiru, on the we, _ T he s lru ggle fo r power tern bordct of M aced on. Fmm here thc On the de.,h of AIe"nder his great em- ncw king had quickly e' t, bli,hed his pire fell t<l p ieces ", gene,,1 vied with aUlh ority over the whole counlry. By general in the quest for power. Antigo_ the time that D emetr ius "'ok over In nu , . nd Eumenes foug ht for runtr,,1 of Ma ccdon , Pyrr hus , , not her of t hose Syria. Eu menes wa' defe",ed and exe- eXIT.ordinary generals with which the cuted in 3t6 and it "'emed for a time 4th and 3rd centuries . oound, had taken ' ha t Antigonus, with the help of his 'on , over as king of Epi TUs. Ab Tmed at ' he the brilliant Demetrius , might be able prep" ati"n, that DcmelTius w"' TIl,king, and seei ng. chance to extend his to re-establlsh the empire . Hut in 30t four other general " Sd eucu" Ptolemy, own kingdom , Pyrrhus formed an alliCa"ander ,nd Ly, imachus, combined ance with Lysimac hus and P,,,lem~' for the invasion of . h eedonia. The ,-Iace force s against him and he was killed , doni, n, h, d had enough. The populaW'ith t he death of Alllig"nus thc sou th-ea,' of lhe empi re hc", me re",on- ti"n was already exhausted fro m its ably ""uled, wilh moS! of Asi. und er the many w.rs and , seeing D emetrius' <Xlmmand of Selcucus and Egypt under determ Ination to involve them in a the control of Pwlemy , Both ,he,. men nev<l_end ing contli"t , the .rmy mutiest.bli she d dyn. " i., ' h", b"ed until nicd ,nd deserted to Pyrrhus, proclaimthe Roman conquest. The 'ituation was ing him the new kin~ of M acedon , But different, however, in M.cedon and Pyrrhus' rei~n ",as equally , hor(lived Thrace , and he in hi, tu rn w"' driven out by Af,er the defeat of Antigonus , L y' i_ Ly'imachu" who took over Macedon machus, who already " mtrollcd Thrace, ,nd Thessaly in 285 llC. Alexander's re"eived non hem and central Asia ~enera ls were by now all ver;- old men M inor al'o. Cassander ruled M acedon Ptolem;- died in 2 82, I.ysim"'hu s was unt il hi, dealh in ~97 when lhe kin~ ­ nearl y ~o when he w", k i ll i n ~ fijl;ht i n~ dom fell to hi' twO ' "ns . T he incvit.ble " iviJ war f"lIowed . I n 2~4 Anti~on us' Be'o w son DcmelTius, who h, d hcen n,med Mep '''""""n9 A'e' aode, s o. m"" 9'" The ' I'oliorcete,' (the stormer of citi<' ) after ' 00 lioe show' t"" ,ou,. 'e'e" bv h" "mv Af''' , ,he H yn,,,,e, AI"end.,'s " oops woul d his extraor din"y exploi" in the fid d of go no fun"",. H ,e""oed bv wey of t"e ' Q<J t" e ' iege w"f"c, intervened and took over 00->" to Be",""', wh"e toe d,.d in 32 5 BC 1 the conquest of India bUI hi' army <)<
  • G RE I'. CE AND M AC E D Ol"I A ag;ain.. ~kucu. at the battlc of Corupcd ium in J ~I. and [he followin g yea, Sclc""us aloo died. Ptolemy Philadc lp huo .",,<ttdcd his falho:T ... t,,,, of Elol'l· Hi. Im>thcT CcTaunus toot ewer Ll".i ~hu.· t ingJon, but ho laded <bt Uttngth of his pmkcnsor and ""as unable to hold it "'P"hcT. Thna and M acedonia WCTC constan,ly , hn;atcncd hi" barbari.on invasions from tho north whic h Ly..i~ mach had succes.fully hold in " hcdr.. So the Ceh. a nd oche, [ribes along tho I)anuht ""","ed into Th"""" t illed CcTaunus and O.., n hi. l:ing dom. They pushod nn o" h""",<1> until thcy "'.= 6nally defca tcd hy the ' >TeCh a' Delphi. They t hcn ret ired nonh....a'd' ravallinll M acedon;" a. thcy ""cn!. An ~ tillonus Gonatas, the oon of D cmclriu>, who had rema ined in "o n[TOI of the Moced"ni on ",,...,.. ion. in G 'e<:<" e arter the <:lI pul.ion of hi, father, had ncver givcn u p h"pc "r ' cgaining thc kingd"rn, :-.I"w , during ['yrrhu" absence on his aho 't ive camPllign against ,he Rom. n, in ."ut hern hall'. Antigonu. ma"'hcd into . laccdon , dofcated the Celts and seized thc throne, Thc Celts retrcated intn Thrace , where tl><~ remained in control of the c"Ountry fnT morc [han 60 yean. So me nf thcm cros..,d nve, into A.ia M in", and 6nally setllcd in Galat;", In M a "Cdo>nia An' igun... GORa[a. set ahou[ restorin. order aft<:< .he long ana ,d'y. His p<aMsinm includcd TI>essaly, lkoeo<ia. Eu bonl and the t_"1I' of Corin'h. Aqtos, Si,;yon, : le-gaJopolis and Mnscnia in , he Pdopunnesus. Bu[ pcaa: ",-as ROC SO czjlj' "'"On. Whe n , he TWku Pyrrhus , ...u,ned from Ita ly ho laid claim", m""h of Antigunus' realm, In 27S he in•...scd and con.qucrcd ThcsooJ~- and uM"" Macedonia. and , ben ttuned to the Pcloponnesus. A,ui gonU$ followed him ,o.nh and ~TThus lUrned to ~ him a' Argos. Hcre the Epirot kinlt "'... t illed in a stn:et 6ghl and hi. army, " " hout their leader, returned to I:pi",•. At last , in 070 Be, the Ma",,donian throne " .., se-curc and a d ,'na" l' es tabli.hed tM' " 'a> ,n 1 ..[ un,il ,hc Roman """'luc", in , 68 IIC. High' }'eo'" >ef",c the dca,h of P)'lrhus f" ur AdUle~n to....n. had for med a lea~ue of defence against M acedon which W tn """nme known a. t he I< Achaean I.caguc , Dur ing ' he succeeding , 'ca.. ,i x nt hcr town, jnined .nd in oS' Sicynn , one of M a<:cdonia ' . keys to [ne Pclopon ........, ...... libe""ed and i<>incd tl>< 1cal!"C. C<>rinth .nd Acrocorin, h "'.= likc...ue dc ,ached rrom the M.acedonian hogcmon~. Finally T l'Oett n and the ot her tn"n' of ,ho <:al and 'IOU, h joined so tha t ,he ",'hole n( the """, horn PeloJ- nnut .... uble 10 for m a united front agains, Mo.oedon , A K-eond league "'. .. formed by , ho: Aetoliarts in ""nnal {irre«, ,,'hKh .uc<:ccdcd in ""tending its rontrol ewe' lkoeo<ia in ""IS , 8}' the time nf An'iJOl'u" death in 03~ thc-sc t" " ....It""" had g<ca[]y rcdo<:cd tl>< "r Macedon in , he sou,h. An,i· g<lItU. " ua:ttded by hit son Dem... • riu. ] I, ho f.iled tn ""..iet III~Tian piraq' in 'hc Adria,ic ,,; , h , he , esuh in'c<_ [ha' tl>< Ruman.....e'" forced ,'ene in 2Z~. giving the m a r"", hold in 'hc Grttk pcn inoul•. po""" '0 C<>n fll e t with Rom" Den' Clliuo died in 209. leaving a }'oung " ," wh" W 10'" 10 l>ecome Philip V, a' In the mean time hi, h.lf-cousin, Antig"nu> J),,,,,n , a..umc d p"weL I n thc sou, h a re juvcnoled S paTI a undcr its king Cleomen et had begun to makc in· road. into ,he poolse.. i,,", of lhe Ach:ocan league , Co ntu'}' i.. avowed aim. the leaguc turncd tn Maced nn for assista nce an d fonncd an . lI iance ....ith Anti/tOn,.. I>OOUn agains' S patU . A[ thc ""nlc of Sellasi. the Spartan. ....<:<e de_ d,;wly <kfea,cd . nd Qcomcncs dm..,n from the thronc. Philip tu.cettded to the Ma 'C'donia.n throne in 02 ' and run_ tinucd Doo.,n', policy of oo__opcr.uion ....th the Ie-acuc. bu, Ihi. time against lhei . mutual cnemicf, the Aetoliarts . I n z, S Philip un.... i..,l~ ,1m;.. in hio"'" ..' ,h Hannibal ....hieh resulted in his Ii..' ,n r with R<;lO'"I( . Th........ n indcci5i•.., albir in ..-hieh the Roma". "'crc primarily in[cres,ed in t eepi ng Philip hus}' ,,'hile they dealt " 'ith Ha nnibal . Tbc """T liukd out in aos and a treatl' ".,.......".n, hilt it " ... only a manc. nf ti"", before 'hc oonftict " resu med. Philip, look_ ing for . ne phe re nf interest, turned e~" .... ~,do and fonncd an alliance "1th Antiochu. , he G'ea' , [he king of , he Seleudd rea lm orS,'ria During the 3rd cen tury the , mall Slatc of Pcrgamum had emclll:ed in W CstC, n Asia Mino" At filSt it h. d bee n undCl the , u, craint y of Syria hu' had late, ,h lOwn olf t he S}', i~ n yoke ~ n d becom c '0 an independen' "a'c. Abollt z,o tIC Anal... ,he king of Per_ pmum had ...... n a .",at ~ict ory over tbe Celt., ""ho had mill""ted to A.ia. .I inor and vinuany ruled the coun,'}' , fot'Cing i.. inhabttant. to pe~ , ri bu' e '0 tbenl. Durine .u.cettdi"ll ynrs he had estah-lished a """,II e mpirc OVCI" much of Asia. Minor bu, i, ..... -.n lost to the rising p""oer of AmiochU$ ,he Gn:a.t. :-.I..... lhe a>mbtna'ion of Philip in , ho ,,'CSt and An..<>ehus in the CUI, An alus af'f'COlled to R<;lO'"I( foe help, In ZOO the lI.oman. , at las, free of H annibal and I'toI>ahly equally ,,'t"ofricd ahoot , ho efJC'<:1 nf the alhanee between Ph ilip and Amiochu•. d..d.rcd ....ar, Late the ..me .umme, a RoltUln .nny landed in IIll'ria and ,I>< ratc of M acedon " ... ",ak d . In 1 ~7 Philip "'at defcatcd at Cy n""""p h.I. e and r"reed ,n .oe thc Rom an line, Ant iochu•• s«kin~ to pr06, by thc "acuum left in Gr«<-.: af,eT ,he fill of M a<-.:don. invaded Eu,ope hu' wa. d, iven m it and defeOled by the Roman s. fi rst at Th<:<mol'ylac and later at Ma~­ ne,i a in A,ia M in" , . In '7' Macedon, now under thc cx'mmand "f Phihp' , ",n Perseu•. a~ai n roun d it.. lf at war with Romc , The ncw t ing ..... s defcalcd at P,'d na in ",uthe.n M:lC(:donia in t68 .nd hi. kingJnm ..... . com'ened in' o . Roman pr'Wlll«. A hundred years later SITia also b«ltme • Roman pro" ince, and a llCnention af'erwards Eglo'pt fol......oed , "it , r....,,,,, T HF. :o; F.W .IA C EJ>O:O;IA:O; AR." '· TM Inr. n . ry E>..,n before Philip's aa:cstion. <bt .l.acedonian cavalry ...... prnbably <bt best in GfftOe , II was d"''''"11 f<om tho arist..........,.. and, .. in name , the Compa nions, implic'o. it ltUIy haw oriItina,ed in a mounted 1'0)..1 bodn;uard. The infanl'}', ,,'hieh " ... raised from the pea.. n'f)', " ... a f. r diJf=nt maTlet. Iad.illjf in discipline••nining an d organi... ,K>n . Philip imposed . n aust= code or ,nining .nd discipline on hi. army. compcllin~ , hem ,n m. ke rcjI;ular f" lI..,d ..'ute m~rd><:. with full cquip-.. ment . nd bal/.lfage to harden t hem again.. , he rig"u," of ....a r. He banned thc u"" of wh...,l <d , ra", port and allowcd Qn l ~' one 'e,,'. nt to eve ty ten men to "arr y the hand mill, a nd ropes. T he
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  • GREECE AXD MACEDQX IA art ick M th~ .laccd,' ni. n ,ari"" " calculated Ihat a 'z -cuh ll pikc wit h " , hah jUst und.' r 4= ill d iameler. w"uld w~igh . bout 6.~ kg_ and PoI!'biu.· laler t4 cubil 0... aboul Sk, . It i. mull " '011der thaI Pnlrloiu$ """,menU on ,I><: greal ,,-";ghl of II><: ",n·na. moking il dIfficu lt fnr tl><: phal.ngil~ 10 cal1')' 1"'1i..dc ... kc•. It sc~m' ,·crtain th.. thc .h,-c<i"nian p halatl~il" were ",'1 rc'tricted to the uSC of th" ,,,.;, "'_ hUI, as ,," a' ~ >n demanJ<:d. used ,,,her "",apo" . , TI><:}' coul d hardly "'" T1' on .iege ,,·.rfar~ ,,'il h the pike, al Ieaot cc-nainl}- ..... "~th a pike of ,hat length . s....-erallimcs bot h Diodnruo and Arri.on impl!' lhal 'he)' used ia'·elin• . It i. un,..," ai n h<.,W toc cOTly . 0<"'_ ' .Io nian phalan~ile Wa' armed. At thc timc of 1'" lybius he prob"hly wore grea"~" • helmct .nd ~;ther a melal cuira... if he "'a, a h om rankcr, or a linen cuirass if he 5eTVN tn II><: o<beT .,mh. H" a1"" carried a round shield .boul 60cm in d ..",<:'",r. The-« seem.,ob<: no real rnson for . UppOil1"8 thaI I><: " 'as mu.;h d ilf~renl l!' a<rned in tl><: day. of Philip . nd Alexandor, Cenainl y :"rri.n ref~", "" h~ li ~ll er_arn,ed part "r Alex~nder '. phalanx. im plying that ,h~re must als<> b<: a h~a,'i"r-~nn~d port. II seem. puo,ible lhal 1"'- in lhe rear ranh_ ndudm~ ,he _<lgO<i, ........ ~ no body' armour.' all s",...,nl cumpl... of ~'h-e<:n'u l'}' I><:J _ me" han b«n found of "'hi,'h tl>< Th<acian 'y pe i. , he """'I comm"n, 0 ... m.y he , oxn < Ih e Alexander ,a room pha~u. al Ist .nhuL Fou rt h_cel1luty Thradan helmet< " hen ha" e ,'h« k piC<....,.. in ,I><: form " f . bea. d and mounacl><. Chak~ dian and Allic helmet. al$O ron,inU«! in .......nd a conical ')'pe of I><:lmet of unk"",,'n p;uemlllC' "'Z> al.., popuJ. r a, , hi. , ime. Diod nru. Ott m, to imp!l' ,hal equi pmcnt wa•• upplicd free. Thi, .ppr.... l0 he supporled by rhe late 3rd-<:entu ry Am phipol lO inscrip,;on which tine. 10 be im l""'Cd for Ihe los. o r i' ems of ~quipm~nl . T h i. could only b<: optr.tbl" tf II><: equipmem " 'a• • upplied flff. A, C"o..,r_i"""""mg lerTi,,,,",,,, came undr< Philip'. h~ "''Z> .hl~ 10 inlroduce n~'" u nn. int o hi, ann)' .uch ., lho Paron ian, and latcr tho The>_ ,ali.n. , a"o lry. Al Chaeronea in 33 ~ hc w" ahle '" mUSl~r 30.000 infantry' and Ii". """,mi. 2,000 cavalry, When Ale,",,<lor i"v. ded A,i a tiv~ ye.rs lat~r. hi, '''l al S1ren~,h had ri""" to 44.000 infa " , !')' and 6.Soo ,-a"al')·. but Ihi. ""'" includ~d romin/t"n,. from ,ho G..,.,k ...., .... Alnan&e' . a r m)' DK >doru, ~i ,· ... a hrcakd<no'n of Alex. nd,·... ar my : 11,000 infantr y and , ,soo "",' . tr y were left in Eurol'C .nd 3~.000 info ntry and ~, I OO cavalry lr.n'p'med I" t,ia Mim" , T hi, in" a, i"" f",," e wa' made u pof 12.000 "'''''N " nian infantry t<lnf"...:ed 1>',' 7.000 fro... ,he alhN Olaln. ~,OOO mr"..,nann. 7.00<> infanl!')' d ....·n from II>< frontien of .,~ and 1,000 arcl><" and Agnani." ja' ..... lin",," . Th= 10., ..'''"'' d....'n from lh~ m,lUntainou. " 0 " horn fron, let of 1< la,,,,_ do" . T he ~ .' OO ca" . lr y we'e made " I' of r .~oo . hcc,j on iam. I . ~OO T hes_ •• han" 600 ( irook. and 'i'OO T hracian and Paeonia n .......UI• . It i, mo<1 rq<<<,''''bJc ,ha, no... of lhe pnme -.Kn r"" II>< perm of P hili p and Alcull<kr N"c ,u",~vN. 1"to< main "'0'" on AIC'lla nd~. i, h)' Aman. woo 1i"N more than 400 y'ea. . .fler rhe ",'cOl' Ihat h ~ i, dese-rihing '1'he, 2.000 , !:lc -edoni. n infant", ae eomr.anying Ale""nder "'cre ,xlmposed of lhe 9.000 Com panio n•• already descrihed. and 3.000 !oyptnp' SlS. TI>< to.ooo efr in Euro pe seem hkd~- a]", 10 N"~ bc-<n cotrlJ'O""d of phalangi'", .nd It).ptnf'l'" dividrd in ,I>< .. me-~­ IK>n, T he hypa,,,,,,, (l ilerally . hidd_hcar_ er1) worc ,]j~htly li~ht er infantry Ihan Ih.· f,,," com p. nion, h"t fou~hl alotl~­ .iu. Ihem in hallie. They w.. ~ u.ually drawn up hc' wttn rhe phala ml; . "d II>< ca,·.lry. Th..i. job was probahly 10 vro,e:-ct II><: ,..,.,' ,'ul ...,.ahl~ lIanks of II>< phoolanx. It see"" likely IN' 'I><y ..-etc .nnN as ,he ,..dirional hoplil~ ,,'ilh 'pelOr and ArllW" . hidd . T l><:ir name ma~' ,,'ell go ba,'k r'" prriod when the)' formed a body of . quire. ro the ('-<lm _ panion (a".lry, It w", I'rohahly Philip who u.vdnpe<.l ,I><:m a, full y HodgN tnfan'fY uni". bin lhe)' are """ mentioned I><f",e rl>< rime of Aleull<kr. The: lnipa_ ,po'", ""'''' organi.."j ;nlo battalions ( c/'; I",u /';n) 1.00<:> "tong. The Ii..t of Ih=, II><: <l,fnooa, ,,-as lhe ki n~·. body_ guard, Toward, ,he ood of Arri.n ·, life of Alexander. hc ",cm ion• • unit in Ale" - B"low 1"" I, ,,,," ow o" '0 '0 ''''_ w" nI,mo"o, pt.,.. ',om TOOo ," ,he VOl'oal' 1"'"_ on !he M G...."" _'htl-. ) n•• ""'" ()/ _ . ""9"".. .mCKI _ ''''' _ .. ,- ~ - Fouon_"""""" -..... 1 Th.-.--. ""'" w.th ... UP ,n "'" .loom '" • I't>r;o,on e,o~ _ ~ """'" """"'."'" .. . be .. d ..", _ " laChe ~ OVl" "_ ' t .. '0 B"'g.". (• .,e,"o, To..",, ) A'ch a. ol"IJ,e,ol "om "',,,,om. SoP"" 2 l . 'e C.... o"". " tv,," to.,,'" _ B "'_ ""... -"'-- Sol"" ,•• 3 II<Id """ """"""" _ _, G. - . _
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"1 " 0.1 """" .' "'" ''"'II "'-""I"" " 01 p, ",! .. II '3uIl "-,~' "'l ''1l1w ~ '1l!nooj llw ' pu~ " pJ"::) JO tow."'" -'~' II lIuI,"" lloJ .''''l <I " uoroll! '1'1" ..,~~,' 09 J' p" n ..." lU~4' J" ,.,,, ,,,,, ,""'I 1'''" '~I,.",d ,~"ll J" ~o>d . 0' un "''')~ ,n",I""(] ''''-'' <~d'';'1 ~4'<" "'''w'' J JW.' ''I' 1'"'1 P"" Suo" s 000", ,' I,' i" ,"J'I';: I £ III 'J" l'll",·' ]V JO 4' .·>1' " 'I ' J,' I.1" <~,,~wn!1 ~l"'u.d wOJ "" '" ,n " 'I'<"(l "'1 <OWll 1""A"" I'0uollu~w ~J. "'4.1 'B'I'''I u""'I'''''x~ <" ( ' >lJ" " pur - u iV "'1 p~w'0.l ''''''~,~ ... . " Iu'w ,b , 1 :>J~." .' '''' ' u",nf o, lW ' p.o.'''V ·w",!, ''''''I" .,,""~ .' poq.,.~,, ~ ' "'II pu~ tdow, >l[P "'41 .J~ " '( "'4' ,'ldw, 0' '0 '~." ~ ":'''0 ul .... ' <XlJ' ~H .(uptd....a..to "'''''... J" ' I" "'ll M"" .' w n '""d, "" d, .j;>." ""'l' ,n", ° '"'I' '.'' f'<R
  • G REECE AND M ACEDOS I A eigh' d«p he "'l" I"" lloo ca,...Il)' " "uld oc<..up~' one ",,.It, In o, hn word. ,wo pace. are allowed pcr horse in ,h . rank, T he mo", dfcc~ i'< dep' h m u,1 h. ve bc<:n four deep. Bo,h ' he T he....h. n .nd fir« k honemen ....,re .rmed "" h . pea.., The 900 T ltracian aOO Paeonian moun,ed ...- outs " 'er<: armed ..i, h ja'elins. Their prime job " .... t o ocout ahead ,he army check for ambu.heo and to make conUc't ,,·tt h the e",ml' . Akx.wnder .1", uoed ,hem a grea' deal for , klrmi,hing. Fou r il~ i of Balk. n lan"e" .re al,o men, ioned Gran icu" Ac'Cordin~ 1<> Anian ( Ar> T~<:li<a ) t h" y fou ~ht wit h 'pe... at d ose quaners. Aleu nder .1 ' 0 draf,ed 1,(XlO Penian moun.ed . rehen d uri ng . he campai~. A. more aOO mo re oriental IIone-mm were drafted , Aleltande-r finally had ' 0 reorgam"" ,he a,...lry. li e ....tained lhe royal ;quad"'" but formed the <>the, Ii"e iLn into "'pt>,m;lruo, ea<h with 0"" il<l of Companion• . T he hip"",chy M<;ame the standard unit of the !"·Iacedo" ia" c. " al, y, thc'l"l'iodo m. di_ vide, ' he h,p""nhy in'o eijl:h, ila;, eac h commanded by . n il",,,It, I ii. ide.lised army h.. , wo """al r" " 'inl!', each oon....ing of fotor InpparelrJn , A , the ba u le: of Gau, in 3 1J DC, II yean after lhe death of Akx.wnder, • Il'pe of a,...lry called ,.".... "~. are men,ioned. The)' are d ..."." up in .m.1I troo ps ahmJl 30 . " , mg . Thi. may p"we tm-i r [t.lian origin a' Rom.n c,,'.lr}' ItmMe were ) " 'tron~ , Ac'C",d ; n~ 10 Arrian 'hey were moumed ;a"e lin..", 'IX'hcn Alexander di"rihuted the boo'~' after ,he batt le of Gaugam ela . . Iao.- .donian cavalrymen reo:ived 'h.... ti..... more ''''n ,he . Iacedonian inf.n'~"II><:n , .nd ,he allied cavalry . _ and a half nmn • • much. This probahly n:dccro the oompara'i" e ro~ ra'.... In , he cav.lr)·,.. in ,he inf. n' ry , then: was an order <If prec -ede nc" for e.eh d.y and the hr.. tla 10 l>e called ou" oo k up the po, i,ion "I' honour. Our mai" "'uree of kn"wledge of caval,y equIpment d uring ' he 4' h ""n_ 'ury is Xenophon. who wrol e ..,me So ~'eon Wore ,he . ime of Alt-lUndc.. He rec'OmmeOO_ I a coval!)"man _hould " "elr a cui " ' th proIccrk>n for lhe ,high>. • jl:Wlrd for ,he lef, .rm and • Boeotian helme. ,,-i. h all_rou nd ,-i_ion. An excelle", example of on~ of I~ hel mets, mayhe " 'en l>e ll,"~ing '0 on. or a, '0 of Alexander'. lroope"" " ,," fou nd in T he a rm y in .h" fie ld Ihe T igris. T he .hig h pun,"",i..,n w.o In re. pe<1 ' Ihe army of Alexander probabl y , he puryge., The left orm ,'arri.. 0" in m uch the .ame way .. th. , guard, used i" ,he a b.o nce 1>1' a shield. de. cri bed hI' Xenophon 50 yea" earlier ' <:em, to ha" e l>ecn in vog ue only in hi. Orders are given hy tr u mpe'. T he army own <lay, I I. , uggeSl' • ""'n,,, che.. deploy, from column of march ln,o pial' (~ual) and fao.-e jl:uard (e ham _ banle line, They .. ill do not huild Ptuper fron) for .he Ito..... Nn uampl", of fortilied compo , a)I"""at:h Alexander hone armour from Ihi. period ""'e yet oome.imn (OIl.truel1 • duch and rollbeen di.....,..ered . X. nophon al", Jll" f.... uJc. In ,he f..-e of ,he Penia... a, Gau _ lhe use of ,he ..... "'ed...," 10 ,he normal jl:""",Ia. Aman .. ~.. he ...d no I,,"o-edged and I.,·elin. ra,her proper defenc,,", . 0 hi, ""mI' . Like ,he ,han ' pea", Greeh a' Pl.,,,,,•. he camped wit h h" On the I.. u' mosaic found a, Po m pe ii arm}' in ballie order , On tho m"",h advanc.. 'c'Quts were Alexander ~l'l'ears to be wearing" culr· •., whkh i>, in ",me ,,,,pee '''.•imil., til <eTIt out .he.d and . •inc-e .hey are re. ha, tliscnnred a' V~rgin. ( k<: p. 58 ), fer red to eXI'Ii<illy a• •dv.n"" """"s, hy cxcepl,hat "nil' lhe chn, and .houlder im plica' ion ,here .hould al", he tlank girdle ....,m 10 be made of iron. The """'••. I:"hen apl' ,,*,h,"l ,he .....my midrift io made of seal probably 110 near lhe Granicus. Alaander ,lore.. out , .... il " .... IIc:Itblc. and , he ~ion aiJm-e • tcr«n .hn<I of ,he .nny (X>I'tSi.. ing i. appea", he mlKlc: of linen. Hi,hone .he SOOU"• •tt'ormnitring partie>. lhe "'eo",. c"'mfro n but no pe~1 ral , The R.nlan Ian....,.. '00 ~oo Ii ghr-armed Ita lian 4, h. ""m ur y m u>cled cavalt y troops . In ,hi, r..pecI Ihe .Iacedoni. n, cui.." (see p . 56) truly h"" e !>een in U ~ wcre far . hu.l or the G ..ek, . Pri,chet'. in Mac ed onia , ' here i. u nfon un.t ely no in hi. ar,ide 0" 'mu,". l uo'e, many ..am pl.. wher e "rmie. . nd d ~<" cville n"" for or .gain" it. rnoo' ''''1 "'''rd, or '0 ,.tt ...bo..... tK1 ... ooraoo _ _ .. _ ....... _"'_ f......."-- __ ............ -0-.._11Io_ .... 0>0'"" -" """ - ..... _ ..... ....0-'"10 _ _ - ' """"'" but •••, ,... "'........ 0' . .-,.... ' ""'" " , _"", I , 3 2 H"•••,-._hom ..... _ _ G"",~ b<t "'""0"" A'hltn. ~
  • 360- t40 EC TH E NEW MACEDO:-.l IAN ARMY MACE DO~ approac'hed each "'her undetected be cau,e <>f lack <>f ""outing or Nher i nt elli~ e nc e system s, The most notabk example was a, M:ttltinea where neilher tbe Spartan, nor Ihe Arg;"e and allied army knew that the ,>! her w"' Ie," than hve kilometres away , Sc'ou" in Ihe ",me of intelligence ,e eker> " _ m to have CXlme into use only 'e about Ihe time of Xenophon , but even so t hey seem to have been litt le used in Greece , Although Alcxandn, and pre_ 'umably Philip, mad e g(~>d use of Ihe, e scouts , late r armies seem 10 h.,'e f. llen back into the old ways and Ihe Koman republican .rm ie, were no b<otteL T he cl.ssic ddea" of Ihe Homan, at the Ca ud i n~ F orh and I .ake Tras imene cou ld bot h h.,'e bee n avoided by the ,i mple" scouling , At Cy n ()s c ~ p h al a e in 197 He nei t h~r the _ lac'edonian ar my " un d~r Philip V nor lhe Romans under FI. mininu, ha d lhe slightest idea where Ihe olher was, in spi" of , he t,'e! lhat oolh could h.ve pl.ced SCOuls un lb~ high grou nd in , ight <>f h<>lh armie, Se~ Ihe descriplion on p, 'OS' T he army in ba ttle Alexander normall y dr~w up hi, army with the phalanx in the c'entre, the "ronge", c'a-al ry, includ ing lhe Com panions, on lhe ril';ht and lhe wcake" on lhe left , T he hy pa,p iSlS were p laced at ,he right end of the phalanx, The ri~ht ,,-ing "-as fun her reinfor ced by lhe . rchers and agr"" ,," . Tbe whole line would usually be drawn up ohliquely Wilh the right wing ad" .nced .n d the lefl held hac'k The firsl au"c k wou ld alway, c'Ome from lhe advanre d right win~ with Alexa nd~r him,e1f at lhe head of lhe Compan;o" "a,'a lry Tbi, was Ale,"nder', vers ion of the Th ~han 1acl i ~_ I t was ad. pled espe cially for use a.o;ainst lh e fa" - tn()' ing, lighl_ armed Persian tr"'-,p, _ Se ~ the plan of lhe hallie of Ga ugamela d i, pla;'cd on p . X2 , Arcian i, i" d ine d t" unde restimate lhe imp,,"ance of the phalanx in Alexanders b"tt les an d to lreal the 'truggle inlhe ""m re as a , id~ s h()w_ Only whe n tbe phalanx is in tr"u hle and Alc~ an de r manages ", relicve it docs Arri an report its aetivilies, T his musl be b<ocause he is Lott ond owve 1 A ",c" cd eh.mhoo t. mell., """, ,.,, mas'ed helmet 3nd.,m 'hown 0" 0 reliet 'rom Ihe "ne'"" y ot A,henO" Pe,g,o,on, Tu«, y. 0 0W' at ~" I", 2 8roole ""w, 1 Nap le, Mu.-u m 3 BrO",O chomtron. K,,""u ho Museum 2 , nd J "e p ro b' bty t>o, h , th C_"'ury ' M m.d. ;" th_ ,.m. >oulh lM an "o« , hop 4 Horse, we O''"9 ,"cO, " ' ;O''' 'VO ,Md.. 'M"" on a pa,ntrn9 "om Ihe K ."ol" tomb on B 'g.", (, "" ont Th" c_j U writing a life " f Alexan der and wi,he, 10 c~m "e ntr.le on the hero of his story, In fact lhe cav.lry is only lhe sledgeha mmer which ; ha llers the cohe';o" " f the Persian f", ,,~s_ It i; the pha lanx wh i~h rou" win Ihe batt k _ A k ~a nder may be lhe most successfu l commander of all lim~ but he can bardly b<o mmidered the he;! He k ft it to hi, gene"], t" win lhe hallie whilst he was "if chasin~ lhe Persian cavalry. Allhou.o;h he had ob" iou;ly read Xen"phon's A ~ a ba,-" , he learned n,,'hing from the fat e of Cyr us the Youn.o;er who was killed by. slray arrow whilsl leading his cavalry. Poly hius, whilst nol di rectly c'ritiei, ing ,' Icx_ ander, '"y' thaI . gencral who Ie, d, hi. " oop, is see n by lhcm all but , ee, no ne of them, For mino r expedi,i" ns Alexander u>~J only pan of hi, army_ Thc<e ex_ ped itio"ary f<>r<;" were mainly light and fasl mo,'ing . Alex. nder normally com manded lhe m himself. T hey usually consist ed of half I he Companion cavalry, lhe hypaspiSlS, ,he ag,-iams , tb ~ ar ~h crs and " nc or Iwo 'axei., of Ihe phalanx Q """' "'.n '." ~ Hor",m, ,, _ 0'; 09 a BO'3o,,"" ,,.,,,,, , trom , tho Alo,,,,d., , ..00ph'9 O> 6 BO'3 ol., " helmotlouM;" Ih. M typo. To;, """m_O,I" rd "" "mOI.on 7 11etmet of "", d., , OOwo 0 0 m any Tigoi, to' "' of h.,moL;, lal. r Holl e";"," moou ""," ", Is"" P SO). A,hmo'. , " Muse um
  • Som.. ,mM II><n ..tte ...Icoctood tr....n I ~ whole f'/uIlan~ Talhtt [han tal<in~ ..·IM... '.un., On """ <WXa<ion at kasl ht ~IM.... [M lighl"" al1Md of lho: phalanx . "r<h1R~ n,~h[ and da~' t"""= r..,,;n ~"",ld ,..... ,·cr '" m""h '" 9OI<m a da~·. .- r' n Aln a nder -I he e lep ha nu "' ~ I,-.,able changc thot ,,"'.... TM pl""c ,,([cr 'he death of Alrxanokr W •• lhe im n >duClion of ekphan ... A' ' he h..' tle (;augamda [he Pe";an arm)' W.' rei"f"rc'ed hy IS rlephan,.. T hi. "' ''' ' he hr" , ime 'hal European, had ""m,' up ogaimt w ar de pham •. 1" I"d ia lhe . .."ed""i,,,, had '0 lace up ' 0 200 elephon" al 'he halli e of tM H)'da'J"" s , They ,,-.,r-e li ned up a[ Jom i"",,·o l. in fr"n[ "f tM whole ann)'. T heir print<: chiC<.' then. a' il was la[c<....... ' " 'h'{' [M ",,,·al~' . II........ do no( like tM 011><11 of drphon". Tho: .t:la'donian Iigh' ,n· ranII')' fin' "" acked [lie drphon[~ .."h ""·eli.... trying [" kill ,he mahou" or dri"en, Finall~' Aleunde' ga" e ....ok" for , he r-ear holf orlht pholan . ",,",,'e up i"[o , he int....... l~ t>-...-ren ,he Ii...... to fonn b,..k ...... hield, r"""",ion. 1""""",. ing ,he elephant' w;, h a rna.. "r'rnn. and in thi' format ion J " ","e [hem t>a<k. T ho; !;urupran. had been in[rod""'ed to elepha n.. an d now , f'" hellrt ,,' "'or",. e"ery ,,,If- re' pe<;' ing an"}' had [0 ha" e them , For o"e, ' 00 yea.. 'hey ,,'err 'he gTea' gi mmick, Alexander h",,,~ h t JOO of [hem wi' h him when he returned (r" m I n,lia. The arm ie' of Alexander' . 'u,,,..' ,,,, u,ex! d ephant> ,Im""t rxdu,i "e l~' a ~ ,i n,[ """all')'. O<"",ionally ,hey We'" u>cd in .i.Re warfare (or ."", h it"'- a' learing d,,",n palisades. '0><-"" d,,~",n up for hallie. lhr ;n,."...I, t>-.....,.,n tM anImal. wcre filled ",;,h lieh[.onnrd ",",!". A[ I ~ bank or Gazo ( J IJ -.:) [he« ..... a u"il of 50 j.,'diJ"o<;('n•• Iinjlen and arc",," (of " 'hom a ' hird "'CTe ho..'· II><n ) In iI ,n[r".,,). Diodorus imr! .... he "anJard numhcr of , ho[ Ih light 'rmed per ekphanl. The d ..• phon", main "'Cllk ,pot ....... the .. <In of ito fcet A[ 'he siege of . lcgalo,,"Ii. (J 18 DC) he:a~l' wooden rTame; "ud.kd wi,h irun 'p, k", wcre laid in . he p. [h of 'he ek phant>, . .., thc hallk or Ga'a op' ked d.,·;e," _ 1'<'" ib I}' .0 I[rops _ . " nnect cd hy chain, were throw n in frunt or them . I n ~ ~o lC Alexander', kin"". n Pyr. r hu, i"" oded It oh ' and introd uce,l' he m,,., "r '0 Roman' [0 ,,,,,,,= hin. [ank• ..-. ,he: ,,'ar ..-as < ...-..l ma1fily on I.ucania. d .. phan" rC<. '..... lhe lI ' han nickname of Lucanian 00"". All tho; clerhon[. "" fa. mrn[ie>neJ .."rc Ind,a". Ho..-",« . ror J>Iokm)·. ,-'>I[ "If .. he ..... in Eg>'r [. ,uprl i", ..-" re hard I" ,..,.". by and it " 'n no( long hef..re the Afrie...n elephant " 'a, bei ng u",d, Ii'" h)' 'he Egyp[ ian> and laler bl' , h. Conhagini an,. l>ol;-hiu•• in hi' <ir'Cription of 'he b,nle of Raphia (2 '7 "', ) ro ugh, be_ tw", n ' he ERypt ;" n. and Syriam, men· 'ion' ' ha' 'he Afric" " elepha nt ",a, ' ma iler [han [he India" . Th i, has led a ,Iorm or cont r" " e.. y of wurse. 'he ",'·e,..., i. " U<. T hi. wa. ofte n qU OIed "' 0. ' t1ofow ","""",,, """" by --'" .. :.,,," '."-.~.'.' ' _"II t.... :1m "'. . '0 tIC. ' bOO... _ ~_ "~"'ll . ..... ..... to f_ a ""'" or , _ .. 1~ _ . '0 'all OUt of t _ _ " ,rna DOn["..- ""-
  • M ACED O}.] 360- '40 kC T HE L ATER . l A C E J)O :"; IA : A R M Y an exam ple 10 , how thaI l'olybiu, wa, well infor mcd "' hi, admirers c1aimcd , Howevcr, in Tec" nt }'~a" it has !>een , ho,,'n thaI there was a ,pe" in k" own as th" !" rest d eph.nt wh ich was com mOn in Nort h Afri"a in l'olyb ill" J ay bm is now e" in~t there, T hi, specic, measure, about 2.35m at , he shoulder, wherea, lh e In dian mea,ure, iU>t under 3m and 'h e ifri~a n bush type • bout 3.5m, Du ring hi, ac,",unt of ,he battle or Ib phia , l'olyb ius give, a vi,'id de",ription of d ephants Ii gh' ing cach " lher. They me t he ad on wi,h lu, b i nt erlod~d , Ea ~h pu, hed with all its weight, tr yin g to com pel the ot her to give grotlllJ . F inally ,he Stru nger would force the weaker one ' , tr unk to one side m d then gore hi m in t hc exposed ~ a n k Alt ho ug h the I ndians who oppm;ed , l e xan d~ r did no t " , e lowers on thcir elephan ts, thc Indian d ~ p hant was large enotlgh to he fi ttcd with onc , TO""e" ,",ern fir" to have ""en u;cd b y Pyuhm when he in' -a ded It aly. T hc l'ort h ,>'fri _ can forc", ty pe wa, ral h~r '00 sma ll to carr y a tower , and ecrtainly lh c , ,,,,, haginia", never see m to have u' cJ them . However, at R"phia Ptolemy', dc- no' "' pham, cena in ly carricd ' hem . T hi, ,m ailer elep hant with its , ad dle back wou ld us"a lly h,,'e ""en r id den like a hor, e. I II 2 1H Be lhe d ep han t reached the height of its fame when Hannibal crossed ,he Alp, at the head of an ar m y which iJd uM J 37 elep h"n l< . How cver lh c heyday nf thc elephant was pa" and they fd l out of f,,'our. T he tater Macedon ia", seld om o,od ele phants and cert. inly the y played no signific"", part in the ir cam paign, . ' I 'hi, wa, pro bably bee'au" of the diffi "ulty of obt aining lh em, ''''In The Later Macedonian Army S lo" of ou r know kdgc of ' hc ph" lanx and of lId leni" i" war fare in genera l "omc, from ,he I",er Hdle nistj " period ( 0, n o-,6 HB ~ ) . Ou r principa l so",ce j, l'" ly him, the mo" rdi abk of all the ""eien! historians on mi li' ary matt crs He gi,' e' m" ny descr ir ,ions of batt les in whi c'h the ,lacedon ian l)'P~ of phalanx was used, and at one po int c,'en de _ , cri bes lh e basic structure and fun" tion ()fl he pha lanx , However , he nc,'er goe, fun her . H e wro t~ a separate tre ati", on thi s sub ject whic'h i. n() longer ."tant, and pm bably for thi, rea, on did Ilct elaborate on ,he sllbject in hi, hi" or y Arr ian in hi, AT)' T~a ic" "onfi, m, thc existence of thi, wor k b ut ~iw s no de tails, It is un fon unate tha' l'o lybiu' no,'cr m~n, ioIlS the title of e,'en onc " f the , uhordinalc officers of th e phal. nx . which wo uld gi,'e U> a fO Olhol d whe n ex.mi ning the wr iring, of t h ~ later tac"Clan' By th, ' " ,'en 'ur}' He Ile llenist ic " 'arfare wa, virt ually J c" d and the stu d" of .Iacedonian taW ", had bc""",e a branch (}f ph iloso phy, Fro m thi, pcr ioJ ,,",lme, the wor k of A,ciepiodotus . I n hi, treati, " he givc, all "CCOUnt of the sm",tu re, dr ill and tactic, of an idealised phalanx . H e gi"C, a com p lct e bre akJown of a phalanx of 16, 384 men. which i, com posed of ',024 files. each <'f 16 men T he figure of t .024 is ar r i,'ed at bec",",e it is the te nth powcr oJ ''''0, Su ch a phalanx as this probab ly' n ~v e r existe d. Only a' , he ba"l. of ['y dna". 16,000 phalanx attc",~d . Within th i, framework A, dep iodolU ' C proje ct a "n , I 'e".oo," ' ;gur< ot .n . I,ph. n! w,th , lOW.' "",ehe<! Oy eh. ,o,. Towe" we'€ to"t "se" "" p, ,,"", "G';""'M Rom"", m 100 Be It woo l" "" a;fl"'ul1 oo>" 've', 1o 'aem,,, m;,,, At""o 0' 'na ;. n. f' om Pompe;;. N. ""n" A"",,o,og;c, ' Mu,",um. ~oo 'e, 2 P,,' ted d" t, I,"", C, ".n" Campan., ,hOW'"9 ' " 'nd,.n e,. " h,n, w<th "',,. ., , O'Qbob'V f,om P,-" hu" ""'v. W " G," ';> Mu""m, Ro m, "Io'e m, , m, II ,nd 'Ouno b3C' ,O', J '00;' 0 e"oh.nt w,m towe' ,how'n"o a " " e' The H€tm,toge. len,ng,.d 4 '" c'eo"v ,,","" Od Af,;c,n . 'eOhant shown 0' ,h, 01, C,,,h,g,n,,n 00'" Note ,,,", e. " and ,.dd'e bac' ~ ". I"," . "'v .". • "
  • GREECE AND M AC ED ONI A mathematical formula lor the ph. l. nx. A' nre, are c"upkd in 'w"s, fours, eights . nd so " n, he can reco,d th" n.me of every unlt and officer Arrian in hi' A" Ta ct ica ~ ;,"e , a n . Im",' i d enti~ al aCc ount dm'in eil he< (to m Ascieplodo!lLs or ftom a common sou",e T he basle un it of Asdep i"d otu, ' phalan x i' , h. ,yn ,agma (meaning literaily lh at which is put together) It consi", of 256 men (16 nit, of (6) r im • rear guard " mee r (ou'ago,) , adiutant (hY MrtI« ), herald (",a,ol",J.'x). signaller (" m e iop ~ o ro<) and • t' umpete r (sa lp i ng k " ,) T he'e we re all s upe rnu meraries a nd wer e not part of th e phalanx. The 'Y"'aKma was commanded by • 'ymamarareh It wa, dh'ided into two , ~x<i, co m manded by a 'axiareh Following the usual Gree~ practice thc ,ymaKmatarch w" uld command ' he righ' half "I ' he uni t and hh su bordinate, the ,~x ia,e h , would comma nd the left. Each ' a xi, was in tur n d ivide d in", [w" ""arc hie< comm andcd by ,,"arch , Each "rra,ehy w"' di"ide d int o two diloe h w i or do uble fi les eac h co mmanded by a d i lo' h i u " and cac h diloch ia lOllS , ubdivided into two lochoi OT files co m man ded by lo'hagai A glance at the diagram will ' how ,ha [ ail , he' e offi c ers were r,u nH ank men ,h" (PTo"'''~ 'a,). Each file (10,10 0') h.d a h.lf-liie k ader (h <t>,,'Ioch iu ,) , ' wo 4uarte T.fLie leaders (.nomorare h ,) and a re ar ranKe r (ourago,). It is interesring t" nott how [he tradi,i""al GrecKunit, ' hc Io>ehos and its , ubd iv i, inn s, ha s ' hru n k, Th e p,n" ko" y<> is now called a hemilo,hion (half lochOl), the en omolia is " iil ' her e b u' of o nly fot" men , T he in,lividual .. nks ar e called alt erna tely front ranK (p rMo"a",) . nd Ie., ," Tl k (epi" a/C,). A compie'e In·man flIe would m n,i" o( raok I, lo"h ~go" 2 , epi" a" " 3, ""[,,1<,, p"",,"ates, 4, ,pi"a"" S, enomorarch , 6, epi<ta"" 7, protosta"" fl, ,pi"'au, (who is [bc rear· ' ank omce r of the haif filel. 9, h,milochiu , . W , epi"ate<. 1I , proto"ate<. 12, epi"ate', 13, enomotareh, '4, ,pi",aus, ' S, p m,o "~ ",, and 16. ouragcs, The "n omora n h' musr have been kn" wn as fro nt and " "r, as would tach _pi"ates. S(} [h" , evcry man cou ld identify his file and rank In phalanx each ma n stood nex[ t" • m.n at Similar rank on either , ide, omc cr next ' 0 "mee" ,pi,w us next to cpi"~",, and so on " S , nragmal8,ch Asclepiodotus cou ples two ,y",aKma<a 1"'0 a pwtek osiarchy comm. nded by a p"nt<kosia reh , which he s imilarly d" ub le s to form" e h ilia rc hy co mmanded by a chiliarch. Two ,h i!iarchi., formt d a m "a ehy Ll nder a ,""~ ,, h .~"de p iodolU s adds ' hat lhis l ,048-strong un it h. d formerly bttn c. lie d • win g (k<ras ) or a comp ieme nt (rei", ) Con · se4ue nlly 1'0 of these would h..'e made up " phalanx in an tarlier per iod Th i, is "n etted in rht nam e for a dO !lble m,,.,, ,,hy - a p h "l~nga,chy com manded by a phalangarch (who wa, "rl~inall}" • gt n tral -stra«g osj A do ubie phalan . Abo, . n.. c:c<r<=ilk<> 01 tt.. syn[agm3 , ,"" baOC " " pM"",,, ~ "'" of '0_ _. _ _us "as ""ti'v " the tst centlry <C , 81 a ""'•• ' ""'" '"""'" " .. """"', of """"""" w"'~ "' ...... , .. ... ' of the remote _ 1>1d ,he st""Y 01 M ae""","" 1act>;O, had """"""'. ",...-en of """""""" ,_ t""" the """"'k<> 01 """""'" taeOCaI rr>l<hOOs. "" ~ ~ ""_ "" ~ "" rr," ~1. ~ "'".,...,_"" M C<>.Jg> the later Macede<1iao' US<>d ''''' sa-ne """" '""", • was _ ~ ...., ""' • ..-npie( _ ~ . """'" an<) was bya"""'!VW , The M~ and c<lit was ~ 01""-" [~, """ consist", of """ was prolla<>i'j " .. sa-ne 0 = DI<:>c"""", It'<.< locroi. _ L . '(}(;hOopS
  • MACEDO"," 3(>0-' 4° Be T H E LATER MA GE OO:"iIAN ARMY I~'<.Y fo,m~d I "',n, (ku~s) commandt<l by a •••~,..-Io. and two ",ngs formed I Pbl lln~ co mm and ed by a ".,,,.,... It Ittma wonh rccord'lII all this to save !be hlIvtnC I(> tcfct It> !he <>nf:Inal wort. bu' 'I>cfc probably neve, ~__ such I phalan. as tbla , _ ollhc divisioos lod ome~ " a bo~ ~ 'be IY . ' ~ t .. ~ .. ~ p.obably h ~ po' betiu l. I"i~ed " b~ eoll~ elinl 'h~ ""lma .hlt co uld ~ found and mob.., u p 'host that could 001. '0 b udd u p I rlJjd m.,hem,,,ic.1 "'adc. ,n ~~m T h .. A n.ph i poli o .... iIi ' ary cod .. In 191~ lod t9lS I r"llmentlry Ii.. of ."IIc~donian militlry ,elllllllioo. ~'hich bId b~~n found II Amphlpoll' "'.. publi'hed. Th IS In.cnp'ion. v,bich da'~' to the relgo or Phihp V (22t -11 8 scj. lim. omonll otb.. 'bin",. 0 , .. it, of fine' be lmpo.ed for I"" of equip mm ' and d i" ·iplln. , y ma l.. " .uch a• • k ep in g when on guard II al.o ", en lions seve ", 1 lower o!J1cors I nd tlnll,. TI,C 'y m affma is ,,""c, ",. n'IOll "d, no, i' it me"'iollcd b y Poly hl us, The G ree k hist o,i o" , howc"", rc~ularly "'en ,l" m a u tli' called s Hc liso u"'. 'hi. word for ,h. Roman .., .~ ,p l•. •,hleh ,.'a. t h ~ . maile.. ' "Clleal unl, of ,he legion. just as tbe ,).,,,.., .... I. lbe . m . II ~ .. "<:hcal unll of Mcl~piodotw· ph.l.n. The .pe... , 0' irs co m ma nde' ,be ,p.'""Io. i' 11.0 menlJ" n~d .~~ ."I li m• • on ,he .' mphi po ll a i n.c ,i plio n Th. le.m i)"'''''''' la neve, uO<'d '0 relation I<> the arm,... of ,he G.eek pe nin.uLa bu' i' ia ....nl>Orled In documents relolinl: 10 ,he He ll ~n i ali c Ifm iea o utsi d ~ Eu,ope S"",larIy. ,lit- ' IMi... Is neve.....n""ned oU l<i d ~ E o.op~ I•• h,dore ... m, t~uona bl ~ to condud~ tha' t h ~ .,... .~ lOU !be Greek w tllnn of the: .,..,,,pr ~. Th~ Ampb,poli. inscri plioo regularlY m~njj on • .... ".c•• .... itb .pc•• in sucb a way .. '0 aulQlCSl ,hat lhc former .,ere ,b~ imrDtdill'e .ubo,dinarcs of the laltet F~YII. .. h~n he publi.h~d 'he 'econd Pltl o f l b. Ampb,poli. code. concludt<l bl-! co mm. nlal')' by ."gge'"D>: thal a ,pd ,.. "'IS compo.ed of four " ",,«hi.. whleh ~ach lOaM up of fout I""hui. Th IS seem. ,,, be '<","'tI. bly ce rtain and one mo" th.ref{lte h" id in doubt Ih" In l<lm.dia l. officers - t he 'a xi a ..h and Th e d il"chiw-menti oncd bj' A>d.pi<><!o,uS, '0 '1'<'''. .,d. _t. 11 would seem ,hat 'h~ OlruC1lre of 'he Mar~d on i l n philin . lbov. the .perT' " ... al.., "'Pnlsed on I fout-fold basis. i.e. foo' .p.i,..i ro,m~d a ballalioo (possibl~ ci lled I •• ,Ii.",.y). Ind fou, ba".lion. fotmed a " ra",i.. colo maod.d by • ..' ...., This h.. be.n . u"~"~d b~ F~~.I he <od~ . 1.0 men,iona ,b . . . .dmlnl lin office.. ~-ho Itt1Q 10 form. b "'hy. l1>c>e an' th~ I , re.y p., lod .yp.,.... Si ncc k no.... thol tb. Iryp....., ...... 'b~ admini""'li~e o fficer of tbe '.pn,... tho .. ,..-IrYP""" oulht I<> be ,he adm,n..tratiw office' of !be banalion. and ,be l'""........... !h:Il of JYII'''PO'' ,he ""'''ti'"oub~ .."h I Nsic "",,,p'• only Th~ of around m.n la Ihlt .. ~ a,. be ~i nn,nll ll~t bloc k ,h. pmbkm. f""St'd hy As<lopiodo,u' form"la, i.' . h"...· do you di~lde Inl<> 'wo wlO~' a p halana o f , o,000. whle h wa. ,h. ha.1e ",e n ~' h of Ihe ph al. n. o f bo ' b A nti ~ " n u , D"", n . nd Philip V1 TWo tlnl" ap p. " tan"II' i" Rly in th e a nel e," a u, h"" b ul . Il h T ' il'", h. . hi el d, o f AI" . lT dd, ar my, Ihe y arc never cleatly Id.nTlned ARain one ge " ' he f.eli ,, ~ ,h.. ev..ybo dy k new wha ' ,hey "" ere a" d ,h..e[o,e 'here was no poi", In ,,'asring Ume I de " ' l fyln ~ lh em The fi." i' 'he hroun .h ield,. ao d ,hc other the ,,' h il ~ .hiel d. P o l ~ bi u , men,iona the braun .bleld, in hi. Itcoun' of ,b. blo"l~ of Scllasill (. 21 IIC) . ·he,e ' he, app~" to be pa" of , h• , o. - -.. ronll phal.o ... but h~ docs not IIJVC the" ..renflh. Thttt 'C... II,~. they &pio Ippear. &J.., Ipporen1ly .. pan of lbe Ill.CJCO-"roOll pballn... M1ihp 11k.. }.OOO of .lIt-m (ImplylOll thli the unit ..... II,¥", thoro 1/Iu;) on IIi* .-in... expcd'bOOI 10 lhe ~Ioponne-sus Plu tarch .... n _ them q:a,n al ,lit- banle 01 Pydna in ,M .,. bu. lit- 100 add> no ~"JIllno'iorL ~ .-h". ""ield> N,n up in PlUll""" , occoon, o f ,h. baltl~ of Sell ..;. and again In blS OCeoun' of ,be b."le of Pydna On bo'h occasions ,hey ",~m be pon of ,h. phllon... I .. ould th.refore len,a 'ively '"u eo' 'ba' Philip', pbalanx "'as mad~ up or two S.ono·' IToog '''''''Ii~i called tho wbi" and b,azen shield. , eoch co n, b Ung nf five ,hil i~ ,,'hi .. ~ . oo o '0 '0 '0 .. r m o ur .. " d w eg poo s As ha' bee n me n ti n ne d he for c, ,h e Macedonlan pbalang'" " ... armed ,.i,b I lon ~ p"(~ tr..ri". ) ,."hicb ~i;Ji" , oaY' in hi. d a~ mu.u,ed I~ cubits (c , 6·3m) Thi a lelllb I. noI quI'" .., OU'fIl:COIl' IS ..,me eOm me01l 'o B ...,uld IU",,". In th~ Mid d le AJ~a the Swiaa u>cd pi ke. S.sm long. lod pIke. liP 10 S.7sm in lcn g'b at~ ptUe"-ed in . be Sew ."""""00C$ ollhe T........ ol London. Pol~biu, . I II~ . lhat Ib~ .. . i,, ~ ~... -'ri&h1N II ,lit- hun end (presumably this ......... tha' il hod a beny ""od. !k!beo eocs on 10 explain how it ..... bdd. Tbe (ron, hand (lcft) 111">1'" ,lit- ",riss.. aboo, 4 <ubr.. (c t.8m) from the hull.•"h 'be right l>on<l aboot 1scm funhcr block Th. mean, ,bo, to <ubi.. Ie. 4.5m) or tbe pike Proiec,(d bej'Ond 'be body In ' be file each man "a< lfllc. QDCm) from the mao in froOl; Ih~rcforc 10 I ch0T'll' Ihe pixe. of 'he fits ' fiv~ ,onlol w" uld PlOjec, beyond ,h. flOOl ' an k wi'h. a. Polyb iu. '";" . • cuhits h<'w.cn • • ,·h tm. of po inl<, Th. t~ar " ' art k' di d 10 1 tevel Ihei, <pc"" b u' k. p' tb. m .lanT u p in T ing he air to hre,k Ih,· lorce "f missil.,. whtl" at ,he sam. lim. "'"TR thdr wd~hl to add '0 'he to " e of tbe ch.. ~e . Tht phalanx co " ld be d",..'n o p ~lI hcr in ope " o rder with t,,'o pac~, per lite. In d o.. o rd e' wi' b on. poc~ p~t lit e . or in lo d ed ,h ield ' fo,malion "'i1h only ha lf a pa c~ PC' man, -'Ieunder. pl>olaru formed up wi, h locked ,bl.ld, again" Po tu. ' elcphanl< in IndiaTh~ pik.. .-ere comt<l in the upngh, posilinn bUi on ,lit- order '0 lnod_re levelled and ~ pbaIInx ,ba~ A ........ve .peat bun . ,.ighing 1-07Q and I omoIl af'Cll' bead ~ 0-"97Q s'ere fouod .mong'b apona in 'lie tomb or Pl" lIp II It "~rp in G=cr fjn~d ....i'h • s,,,m haft tape.i o g f.om '7mm 11 !be polO[ '" 40Rlm '" diameter .. lhe gnp produ«d a p;h .;111 a poto[ of balan<~ at . l"""t ~ucTly the poinT .. b.. ~ Polybl u. u y. 'be fr o n, band obould be. TlIe .occdonlln hopllt~ also carried I ''''''''d ..brob lit- ...,uld only"", if In> pil:e blOk•. The hopli'~ . ....o,d remlioed in us<. but 'he mo01 popular •...."d of th~ period "'.. ,h • • ppiJ, I 'in~l~..,dged " 'capo n ..."h I e""'ed blade: an .:<ample 12cm ~>nK i' In 'he Alh.... Archaeological .luse" m, Tbe p ho lo n~ ITe w.. ar me d ...i t h a ' m ail, ",u nd 'b ie id (", p i, ) w hic h Asde pi,><!nH" d,'"" n"'" as lllilde of bronze,
  • GREECE Al'01J M AC EDO!>: [ A O " QW Mac<KlOO... .........",., Sea.. 1,8 , .,h-<;ontco, _ • • _0 ""'" V.... "' ~-. 1 "h--cer>l"', ' '''''' .n ' he A'...... ....c-..g"'.............. 1. 001. 101 01 2 . 3. •.5 "'.., t>u1,. P.... . - """"">e,-" "" prong 01 • poke ... ""'" ,... '''''''' 01 veo-"..... ".0 _ p,,;,... ... , • .- loM .........., .._ _ ._ _-, _-... ....... 1210&_, _____......... n.._ 01 .... ",... ..... _...-'8_ ",..,... .... .,..,. ..,....01,... ..... ' - . _ ..,.... "" to bo """"'" 01 "'11"'-" ..._ ' " " " . - T....,., _ _ ..... ."" _ _ ._ . .,...." _ ....... llOc>YI ", _ f>--7", long " .. _ . . . . . "'OJI '" ann end " " ' . _ l>,- , ,
  • ....I AC E D O N 360- ' 40 II<: TH E LA T F.R M AC EUO;'li I.... ;'Ii ....RMy hs.,... 'nen much of the ..'rill[h' of , heg..,.' f'lke, When used .,..I<ide ,he phalans "",hou, a pike. ,he handgrip .......Id he uocd, . 1~ repn:senta'ioD1.ugge.. , ...., ,he ,ha' il "'a. rimles., i.e, Iha l i, did nol ha" e Ih. b,oad ri m on Ih. in, id. edge , h. 1 "'"' ' 0 <ha,acleri"ic of t he ATgive , hield , 'I' hi, 'yre of , hiel,1 was a<1opled ", ;, w'" imp"" ihlc h"ld a ,wo DO' !<Io <~m<a,'e and abo'" H palm. (c. hand.d , pea, ",hil.. u,ing an Argi,'e 6o<m ) in d iameter, l -ike e"ery·,lIing else sh ield, a, ,he letl forearm ",as he ld do ",ilh lhe M ace, h' n;" n phalanx, lhe again.. , he in,ide of , he- . hield h}' . he .hield hao ,",used mud! ",,,,flnio... arm N nd and , he- ....nd """I d no, reach IOrqmc:n•• of a .Ia.:edonian d1ield ,he pike. This is obviou.I)· ....hy A",Ie_ ~ ... (""nd ar Pergamum in '!"urkCl" piodolu.... ~'. , ...., lise d1idd most DOl n.e... oomi..ed onlj' of . he brorw: he .oo "".v~d , .heath (6~--67Cf11 in diame,er ) and .mall The Aemilius PauUus ';""101')' moo.ufrae"",n.. of ~d,men, , ..... had been men, a, Delphi ,""",. ,he ,...ide of soch used ... padd ing betwttn ,he- ..m od and a ,iml......hield. It ha. an Argi..._.. yk bronze, S orlling rem,une,j of ,I><: gnp, a, m bolnd and han dll1ip , A f~ .., )'can ago The .hearh ...... a" ""he d 10 ,he ",ooden the au'hor made a wpy of . his sh ield .~>r. hy four rectangula, l<mgu,," and a .... i' h a bronze fae'ing . imilar 1o , he one Iin le ,,,"er ' 00 do". cuI along Ih, edge found at PeTgamum, T he , hield weighed of ,he rD eral ",hi< h "'ere folded m'e r on ahou, Skg , Experimcm . ,h"w, d , ha' it In ,h,' insi de , "ould he handled ver y dli d, n ' I ~' u,ing I'lu' ar<h , d"c, ib j ng Ihe M ac·.doni. ns only Ihe armband . nd ,''''!rolling the . , ,he ha n le o f Pyd na (, 6 ~ 1tC), ",ys ,h., angle ",i,h ,he nc.:k " rap. ,",' hen an ,!>elr sh ield' wcr. hung on ,heir leI', Argi,·c shield i, being carried, , he inside •11<", Ide.... and ...' hen I hey ad "onced they of ,he- rim fn. comfur,abl)' o'~r ' he let'! broo,h, ,ht1n round to .he- fwnl. Thi. shoulder ' ni ng ,he ....righ' off the ann. has led ....... oommen.l1on ro 'uggc>' Il ,..... ,he ahocn a:: of , hi> ri dge on lhe . hM rhe .hield had no IDP. Repr<'Cn'a_ .'.'""""""ian t>l'C' lhat made a car-l)ing .ions of . he , t acedonian , hield ,ho", ....p ~' . Thi.....r .......Id oJ... '0 '0 -_ on_on_ ,_ . _ I '" ~ to< _ _ l ' '_"'."'a~ ...._ " ' T u ' 5coIoI ~ OA "'_ P <ong,..._ on ..... ,," "'" monu ", of Aemol,u' P....,,~ • • , Del"" T ",............ a "ml,,, ""'" of ' ''''''' "",,, "" _ _ .. A,g,,,,, O"p ~ S' ,O ' 00"'" on '"" IOl ..",,,, " . '" AU,""a" ( • ,.".,J. f,,,,,, It'" ~gom"m [n Ih" "">e of ,he sil,· hicld, brigade , Ihe f....·c of , h, , hield "ul d have be<:n tinn. d iuS! a, Homa n ar mour and ..... al" "" were. T wo , hicld , were repre _ "" m"d on the wall. oflhe , ,,mb " I'l.yson and Callide, whic h IIIOS r.. ..,mly d;s cover.d in .' acedonia, O ne of ,hese is bw nu or gilded a nd ,he- oo her i. I""in'. d ...'ilh lhe ro~'oJ ,ymbol of , lacedon_ T hebearer of ,Iii••hield maj' ha"e been 0 member of , he ~""'-Ihe bripde of l<yp,upUlJ ...'ltich ..,n·cd ib the king'. bodn:.....d--ur 0 member of the- royal u.. of the Compan;on ,",,,,,11)', [n hi. life o f Akundcr , !,rrian of,en ref... ,he ligh" armed pan of , he pha lanx, [ t i. clea r from ,he- <~>D t"'" of Ih..e rem. rks he i. nm ref~ TT i n g 10 ,he 1t.vf'~'P"" bu' to ,h. Com panion in_ ronlry. T hi. " aria' ion of ."Iui pmem is .1", ""t; "eable in H "nnih.l's phalanx. where gro up. of pike", . " arc of<c n re_ ferred ,,, h)' Poly' biu . a. ligh, armcd , As l' ol)'blU' d""", not ",mmem on ,hi,. one mu., a..ume that it i, n....mal . The Amplti poli. iMCrtplion 1i.I< a ocaIc of fi ...... imJ'<"!.Cd on .la.:edonian malan,,,.. ("" 10>0 of p;eces of their <qtuprt"lCnI, Thecuir... for lite urdilW')' '0 ,ha,
  • GRE EC E ". KD MACEDO K IA rank and file is calk<! a ""',!tw.... ...'hcreas fot.he fron , ....nkn't ot offlttn it i. rd erR'd as a ."-",, or _ _ ."-",,.TI>e"",./tylro< has bc<!n plousibly idcnllf1ed ".;.h ,he linen cui, , ...hil.. , ho and _ _ prot>. N y metal pl.'ed. Th.i. d,lf""ffl« i. amphfied when one l<'llodt the offic..n " 'C'" fined ' '''Oc'C ao mu" h a. t he nnk an<! file Th. implie,,,ion of i. , hat the Iron, , ..nk wa, mo,e heavily ..rm ed,han the , uecceding ranks , and ;t is p'-""ib!c thot ,he reor r. nks wo, e no body .,mnu, ., .11. The Amphipohs l'Clief menlinns greave. , hdmcls and euira,,"s, bu'this doc. no, necc.... ily imply lhal .n ,he rank> wo", ' hem , !l cenainl y seem. unlikely, fo, ClWfIple, ' he men bchi n<! 'he (m n, fiV<: , .nk> would rJoCOCd g",a> . ·cs TI>e """Iprurcs . nd pain, in r of , he period, both G .....k and E, ru..,.n• • 1100-0< the ,,'ide variety of armour in u~ a, ,his lime . Resides . he baD; linen cui.... l)·ptCl l of .he daso>cal en, quihed cuir· "'"" alto appea, on lal"" F.rruocan """'plu..,.. On ,~ sculplu.... """' al.., find. varieties of pla.ed linen cui ......, owcntd .." h ei.her scaJcs 0' ",'Crlapping ",cungul. r pl.tcs (l. ..... ll..). l"hf: moa, f.mous ol , ~ i. , I(, .' !.an from T odi in 'he Mu,co G regorianu a, the V.uean . The victory frieze from 'he Tem pI. of Alhe"".' Pergam um in wen<rnTu'key ,hows • ful1 _1e ng, 1i mu, d ed cui, a.., a ,ho"er cu i,.," which could be t he han;_ In",'." of ,he Am phipoli, in,e,ip,inn . and par( of .. dewra"d line n , ype cuir .". T hi. , of Wllr"" w uld have bc<n J1lOdc of in>n hke 'he ruira.. fn"" Ver_ gi..... Thi. frieze a1... t bows • Cc:llic mail . h'r(. PoI}'bius. in hi. description of.he Roman anny of this period'''Y' . ha. , he ,,'C.hhi... Roman. " """ tn.Iil. ..... he docs .... ""plain ...·hat mail it, one mun auumc ' hot ,he Greek, of his &,. • 1.., """" il The Thncian hel..... cominucd 10 be popular . nd is . """'-n on lhe Perpmum <'Clief• . Scvo:r:d (}"J'CS of high-crmo.....d I(,lme"'T••l....hown. T~ tn.ly have bc<!n de>'eloped as a defe....'C api..., tho . I..hing , words of ,he Cc:h• . T h i. l~'pc of h. lmet allo wed fOT a g",a, deal of padd,ng helwe. n lhe IOpollh e head and the helmel , Al Ih is period, which c "Oinc;de. wilh the mos, ogw es. ive I"',iod of the Ce!l k inv.,i""" Ih e' e w. , 0 '0 ,,,-= 'loor" ...., ,ha, ,hi. ,ha, ~ncnJ 'endcncy I Oadop!. hilth--crovo'ned helmeu. The eo m poK" lon of lhe . r my A ' • glance: , he composnion of , be lat... Helk nioti<: annin docs ..... tttm ' 0 hove changed m uch 51,.,.,.. Alen nde<', day. The "'ia~doru.n a nny of Anligo nu. Down and Ph il ip V .lill had !rypaJPlSlS, peh. ..., s1ingo:rs and .,ehers . upport ing lhe phalanx. Ho"",,ver , ,he"" do not olways sum 10 pe'f",m Ih . s.m. t.,ks a, in the eorlier I"'rio,j, T he hypa,pim now seem «, refer 10 a hoJy 01 "ajf officers (who undr rt ,",k ' I"'c'ial ' . ,k<) and Ihe a~"na, the king ', hodyguard. The Amphipolj••"Ode ..y. Ih.. lhei r lenlS ore 10 ho e''''''ed immedia,d~' . fler lOOse of lhe king and hi. immediarc enlourago:. The peh.... of P hilip', army appe.' .0 ho>'C compk lel y chaOlfcd . AI Cynos--ccphalac the-)' f<>rrncd up aJonpide.I<, phol.nx and ,...en dntJblcd . heir depth. lI'albank has .uu«tcd, and I<, Juts '<> hc ri gh., . ha. ~ rch.... "" ere in fact ItypaJpUu. II'hc1 hcr they"....., armed wil h pike or .par IS ,mpos,ibk to ..y as cl<, 50IIfCCS a", con (f~ ,'-""""Y. U > calb 'Y ,h= poll.." ,he word used by Desa, rOf lhe Spani.h lighH nncd l'OOps who, if H.rmand " right, . hould he idenl ified with Ih . lighlly d ad !Toops with round <hid d•• bown on the reliefs fro m O,u na in S poin , [n 219 B{; Philip had 5,000 of the.. pell."., The mo" nOlie-eahle change since the lim e " I AIc"",nde, w., Ihe SWilCh of p,ior;';- from c·...lr y to inf.ntry. In Alexander', army the propo.,ion of ,,",·. l, }· to inf. n"y " .... a!>ou, ,:to. ,,'herea. in , he la'er Macedonian army i, was around t: 20, One . hould not make too much of , hi. _al ,he ballle of Chaeronca in J3 a . he J>rOp<>rtion " ... 1:15 . The rcaoon for the high proporlion of in Alexander's army " .... ,hat mobilily .... .. lhe key 10 the ron_ 'I....., of Pn'tia. [I ,,'as " ..II k"",,-n , ho, ~urcTiol '" .n y~ G reet inf. ntry _ thing Penia could produce, bill the pholanx coul.J unly def"", ,,'ho, i, could c. teh. It "". Phili p'. I'hol."" ,hoI won lhe banle of C h..,"'... a, and ~"'I lhe ma"ive build_up or Ih e . l ocedoni. n covall)' must ho credited to P hilip T h... wuld only he ""e ,c.,,,n for ,hi. -Ihe pl. oned inv •• i"" of Persia wil h it' va" cavolry re.ourees , Although --"" __ .... - . - <II _ .....Poop ...... ' _ _ euor-. 2 ~ _ ~ '-- nv..c-_. _ S!ral>-on _ "" ",,'i, ' $. A ,_ ,,," , _ of M ...... l _ _, ..."11"",;.,-<><10<1<...... """""'Y a ...."" off"... , pouoOly of ,''' c.... v· ,010 fto" n;,," . l ",-"". "'uMum ~"'" co,"""
  • THE LA TER - _, ,..........""-,......... ..... ., " " , - . c 110 Be I I' , .... ~d " ' " -, c'1O Be 80th on_. A , l~-" " _ _. , _ B<v->1OW1. in B<> ~ .. Pr_DO. 3-d _'u", 8C ...""""""11 "'.-..n, $«>twa 4 HOHo'''",e W 0''''"", Be Lou... Mo""", cav.lry cominucd 10 ploy an important pan in JUi. for about 100 yearl, al,c. the death of Alexander ill Europe il quickly ......cned 10 ill subsidiary pos ition .. I'haIam:. Nnltd "';,h pttolam<. Epi..... and aU . he old city ".'n h>d .dopl:ed 1100 M .cNonian pholanx and, siJ>Ct <be raul< o(.he NIUe d<pellded on thi1, ;, .ct><k4 10 l:>t<;:ornc hcarit-r and conoequcntly leu ma.-u,..,.bk. In S)'ria and l':gypt II~ ol d uni.. of A1cunder'. army otiUlppeaf in .he La,c pd and ,,*"y and ""ntury . Both Antioch... and Ptolemy, .. ...,.,ld be ex_ pected. appear to have . n <It...... and " royal iJt> of cav.lry . lfyp.upiJu, too, ~re mentioned by PoIybi"s, but it would be .cmplina:falC ,os,,"n. ,,-hat ' My might be. Antioch". luo. tJV1'""", w ho . hooJd have b«n ,ai~d on the .-.hcm (ron_ tien of Ma..~d<'n ; no doubt {hey wcre r a i ~ d locally but ret.ined the traditional ""me of , he earlier t",op'. Aft er the dealh of Alexander, the vderan silver . hieId. regiment had come under llie control Humcne" on whose death they p. ..ed to Antigonu,. H e re we lose track of them , If they were a per n,a nent "e'eran unit . nd cons tantly rCC"riving re<;rui t, frQm . he veferan, of <>Iher units, they could have . urv ived . If not, they must have died out . A hundfed yea.. later Anliochu., the .ucccssor o( SeleU<;l' who had deposed An'igonU$, had 1 ‫ס,ס‬oo ",ldie.. "anned in the Mao<:<:donian fas hion" """" of ,,'hom ""rre armed ";th .hieId._ 1lfese are dis""", from his 20,000su-ong phalan.s and 0 ... is fempled . 0 suggm lhatthne ~ 1r.YfJ<U,.uu. 0:<tainly Anlioch... has /t)1'<JSPUU in hi. army , as _II as an t i I - ,,'Ilich is mentioned at the ....,., $.ardis. or - 5 ........ , . . . - ....... E......,." ..... m,.", _ . "'d> ' go "'.-.n. fIo<era, cl'OO8C ... _ . _ _ ..........'" ~-"'II .... !oa ~ "' _-- __ .il,'" or The ....., i n l be lield On the march ,n hOSlile terrilory the arm, was ltd by a rquJar nnguard of Iigh._anned t<OOPa. Philip used his me:r..,ruries for this job. ~y were llCCO/llpanied by p;onttn ,,'hose job was to dear lhe fOIId, Ikhind these, came the phalanx, with Iight-anned ' roopo in ("Irallel cnlumm on either .ide 10 ward off anacks , If a n an ack w... threatened from one ftank,the light .rmed would co.er thil side only, Simil. rly , the rear g""rd w"' alll<l made up of ligh, armed """pI, Philip used hi. Cret . n., whom Polybiu. dco" ib.. al the most MACEDON 360-' 40 Be ARMY MA CF.nO~"lAN elf"",ive okirmishen , as hi. ttarguard. T he baggage train was placed at the poin t (m heot from anyexpeereddanger, If the threat WiSS fro m lhe fronl, the bauale would he ... the back, and ,,'heo rctrcatinl i. would be at lhe from . J( an artaeI< WiSS expeered from one lbnk, t he baggage lrain would he plaoed alongoide the phaJa.... Oft . he (lIIhe. lbnk. 1:'ben IooLna for a I;3J'I1ping .i.., lY<J(lIIo<. ,",'as cno.en whid. offered . he best natural defences. PoIybi... enti_ cised the Gruk. for .heir lad of energy when amp'na. eom""nng them unf,vounobly wi.h lhe Romano. In light of thi, i• ...,.". unlikely lhat the Romano 101 their ide.. of camping from Pyrrhu. whe n lhey captu.ed hi. am p at Bene"en.urn, as u vy and l''''ntinu. rttOrd it . It' hen n""",,, ry the M ace donians did ent.ench, "pe,;ially if they intended to stay at Ihe ..me .he for . ome time . Li ke the Roman., they con.tructed • di. ch .nd raml' art with a pah..de along the tol'. T he pali..de Itake. were cut branches with ""ut sh""," . ll ro und the main stem, l' olyhiu, il ..ty critical of those , a' he nyl that two or thrce otlOckers could logether get hold of one stake and rip il nut . When they had removed it , there w.. a gap lef< wide enough for them to break through. The Ma<."Cd<mian. may not have camped .. well u,he Rotnao., but the}' did poot pickers al(lfllthe apprNCheo . 0 the amp-a thlna that thr Romano do .- ....m to haw done. It " ... the re.ponsihility of the tm <U<lrUs 10 p",,-ide these picker. and 01 the ..-rran:1s< to inspeer them . ThIS duoy wu probabl)' door Oft a n>U • il ..... in lhe Roman army. 'lltr Ampltipol.is code .t=seo thal , at nil hl, inopeer;on, . houI d he nude without a Iieh. so a• . - to gi,.., adv""", WllmiJlllto the guard. 'lltr line-up for banle wu . til l bai<:ally lhe same u in the pre....... period, ,,; Lh <he phaJam ,n the ernur fIanI<e-d by . he pel....., . he hlht annrd and the cavalry. ~ difference now was rhal the key to the baltic was in lhe ~ntre and nO( on Ihe wings , At Ihe banle of Ra ph ia in U7 .he younl Antioch ... I I I of Syria, tryi ng no doubl to emulate Alnaoder, charged the Egyptian cavalry and dtm'e them fro m the field. l Ie pursued t hem '" far, however, that by the time he returned the battle w• • "ver and he hod lost , "
  • ( ,RE EC E ... I'D MA CEDOI' IA . Plolemy, who appeared to be losing lhe hanle, wok over t h ~ phalanx who, en_ c"uraged by bi, prC'lCnce, dr<l'c lhc :;yrian phalanx from lhe field. By the time that Antiochus , confi dent thaI he had won lhe ba l1I~, relurned, Ptolemy was in p',,,c,,i on of the baHk fid d and Anliochu, ' infanlTy wa, ,eaHcred acTO" t hc e~,u ntr y in Hight , Plolemy slri p ped the enemy dea d and collected and bu ried his own , whi lst An tiochu, was humili_ al~d by being for~ c d to retTieve hi, own dead under a flag af truce. O n rare occasio ns lhe phalanx wa, broken up into companie, wilh , ,,h~r "'>op, inlc,.,;pc rsed hc t w e~n them . Pyr _ rhus did this in Italy an d Antigonus D oson di J it with hi, ,ih'eT ,bid d, at Selb , ia. Hefore bau le commenced lhe gene ral wauld rid e alottjl; in front of hi, trOOps W his officers and friends Tcminding ilh lhe 'ol die," of IhciT pO'l ac'hievements and exboni ng t hem to fight hra,'ely, p',inling out the advantaj1;es of "ielory, usua lly concentrat ing on the booty lO be won. In lhc cO'e of P' olemy and An lio< :hu" I><" h af whom had only recent ly eome ta lhe lhrone and lherefore could hardl y 1><",,, of the ir pa" accOlnp lishrnenlS, lhcy relied more on , hcir promise, fN th e future , The signal for baule , possibly a flag, was raised an d the soldiers shouted theiT war cry sevcral time, . At (;abiene in 3 [6 Be , where two M acedonian armies face<! each other , lhey rai,ed [heir war c, ie, alternalel y several lime, IX'hil<t ",aiting for 'he order to prepare fo, ballle, eac h phalsnj1; ite sfood wi,h hi, pih reSl in~ on lhe ground and held upright wit h his right hand . His shield hung by its strap around his neck and o v ~r , hc h"'k of his left shoulder. On the order to prepare for ballle, h~ would swing the , hield ro und to the ffOnt and pass hi, left forearm lhrough the band , lie w()u ld ' hcn ra ise his left hand ae ro" hi, chest and grasp the pike level wilh his head. On [he ordeT ' !C'e! pikes" hi, ri ght hand would , lip down I nl~,"" f'e"",,, Abo•• T"" ""ttl. of Ga uga""," >lte, E W M",de n AI." "",,, d'"", up h', w'th the w ho le 01 1he C" mpon,.n ' ''"V cav (led by " 'm",'!) '" ' " ,"" . d"anc.o 0 0,",'0 0 on H>e " 9ht W;'9 . nd ,oe <est 0" 0. " "'" "" ech elo n M en.'.,",,, Be low c8v.lty T"e b,"'e at R,ph,' (of'e, H H. Scull , 'dl fo" g o, ""t"",.n PlOlomy 'Vand " nMehuS ti l PlOlemv 1 0" "" 'M' ""ng but won 0" h" 0" "ght. r"" b.",%was won bVh" ph, I," , '" ,0. C€ot<, Med.. ,,'" Me<I""" - -- ,n'.,,,,, Egyp,,,, Pelf..", Ele~ha"!S flel ,h!,, '" • M",,,,,,,, ,"'_"" , on!am" An.'he" C,,,"',,,
  • MACE D ON 360 - 140 Be TH E LA TER . {ACEO ON IA:'>1 A RMY until the arm wa, "Talgh t, then he would loweThis pike umil il was parallel to lhe gro und., W.iSl level. T he order to eh.rge was given on lhe ' rumpe" If, howe,'er , the groun d "'a, " eey bmken and lhe army split up ., it was al SeIlasia, lhe signal ' 0 char~e was given wi'h flags- . white o n ~ for the infantT)' .nd • red one foe th~ ca" aIT)'_and would be rdayed hy the tr umpelee att ached to eacb ,peira , T he battle wa, normally started on the wings, When .dvancing in ba ltle (mk T, the phalanx had to be deavon up in open ord., and double depth , Thi s w", . chieved by lhe .h~r nal~ I",,/w, falli ng b.ck and mming into line behin <l the fi le on their eigh t, On comin g int o e. nge of lhe enemy, th~ allern. t~ I""/wi mov~d up a~ai n 10 form clo,~ order . T hi' was done bee. m e of the dilliculty of ad_ " ancing through open coun lry in close "r<lor wit h no roo m 10 ma noeuvr~ aroun d natural obslacles. If t h ~ r ~ wa, no roo m 10 d ~ p l ,, )' the whole arm y hc fore eeac'h ing the battk fid d, Polybiu, sugge," 'hat lhe advance should be made in ~ilhe r do u b l~ or quadr uple phal.nx, and th. , the rear phalanxes should deplo)' on e i , h ~r wing when thC)' reacbed , he open gro und, When the route to the b.ttlefield was restricled, th e ph. lanx could form up and ' hen ,urn inl<> column of m aech " , that all ' he o"ieees weee on one side of the colum n an d an lhe o!<ragoi on lhe other, Asd epiodotus mem ions lhi' form.tlon and Po]ybiu, i' cen ain])' d~ ,c ri b_ ing it at the third hattle of M antinea in uy/ RC, and ag. in at the ball ie of Cynoscephalae len years laler. At ....I.minea the Span . n lyram .""ocha" ldas wheeled his column", lhe right to l' lrm up in hau le ordeT, and at Cyno""ephalae Philip wheeled his to lhe lefl to form " I' his right wing. Al Cyno,",ephala~, o nC~ hi' right w; n~ wa, dmwn up, Philip or dned hi, ph. langite' and pelta," to do"ble their depth and dose up tow.rds lhe rig hl . I n order to do this, lhe allernate file' w" "ld be wilhdrawn , each lining up hcbind the hie on its right SO t haI the phalanx wa, do" hle dcpth and the files in open order. T hen, with the righ t- hand douhle fik standing fa' t, lhe rest of t he wiog lurned to the righl and dosed up, Each succe" i"e file would toke one more p.ce lhan the hie in fcont '" that they fini, hed up one pace . pa rt , T he y then lurned to face lhe front. If the cnem y appeared in thc Tear the phalan. had to turn abou!. T hi" however , would lea"e lhe ouraKoi in lhe fro nt rank an d the officer' al the back, T hi' wa, rcc,tifi ed by cou nterma'C'hing . Any one of three met hods coul d be "'ed to do lhi s, T he file leaders could stand ' lill whlle lhe rest of thc file fm mcd up in fro m of them , and tben the wbole fi le turn ed about face. Thi' was lhe M acedonian method . Aseleplodol US is "'" very h. ppy about thi, a' it appears to be a re'Teat. He ped ers t he method u, ed by the Spartans where lhe rear r.nkers slood fast and the resl of lhe file formed up behind ' hem and lhen faced about T hi' appears to he an a<lvanc"" There wa, a thied po,,,i h;]jty, tbe C retan or Pee' ian cou ntermae,'h , where the tile leader and lhe U'''''l0' changed place, .nd lhe intervening ranb did likewi' e, Thi' involve' n ~i t h ee an adnn,"" no r a retreat. Whichevcr met hod is used , the problem with counterm arching is thaI the comman<ler' finish up on the left of their uni ts and not the right . Th i, coul d he rectified by countermarching lh~ ranks of each unit , O f co urs ~ i' w., po,_ ' ible 10 co" nt ermarch the whole ph. l_ anx m wing in tbis way, but 10 do so in the face of lhe enem y would be suicid.1 and could onl y be considered as a parade grou nd manoeuvre , Any w.y , lh~r~ w"' no greal dIsadvantage in having the chain of ,,' mmand from t he Id e l'or mally, if; t was con'i dered ncce,"aey, each speira wou ld m(mterm . rch ilS ranks. X' h ~n draw ing up a phalanx <n ech e· Ion, in we<lge or in eTe,eent, the forma' 'i on w"' . chie'C d by slaggering lhe ,p ei,~ i an d not by drawing up 'he ranb a, on angle or, e,'e n w(me, on a c'urvc, At Sella,i. An llgo nu, ,plit hi, phal_ anx into its lwo wing, and drew them up one behind lhe other, The attack was iniliated b)' the fron t phal.nx hut , when this was pu,hcd hack, Am igonu, or<l eecd tbe M acedoni.n, to close up ' in lheir pee<tliar form al ion of ' he double phalanx wi'h its ma" ed linc of p ike" , and in , hi, fm mation dro ve the Lacedacmonians fro m lheir p05ition, T his c'an only mean lhat he marched the seco nd phal. nx lmo lhe 'pace, betwee n the file' of the f,e" and chaeged wit h locked ' hields a, Alexander ha d done at the Hydaspes river, Polybiu' Ii" , the advantages and di, advantage, of tbe phalanx to expl.in to his readers why the Macedonian, 10" the b. ttle of Cyn",ceph, lac, Under Ideal d rcum"ance' nothing coul d Wilh" . n<l thc ,'h aege oflhe pha lanx , BUI lhe phalanx ca n only operale ""ally ef_ ficiently over even ground with no dilche" clef" , dumps of trees, ridges Ot wate r ,'our" " whic'h beeak up the formation and ' 0 deslroy its strength, Al l'ydn. lhe flexible Ro man maniple, for Ged lheir way into thc gap, in lhe phalan x and bTOkc it up . Once this had happened the phal. nx was defenc eless a, lhe ,a ri,, ~ was obvious ly useless for d ose com bal .n<l , ~ncumhcred by tbeir long pike" the . h cedonians were unable to tu rn and face an . It. ck from any othe r direction 'han lhe fro n!. To ' ignal lh. l they wished to , uHcnde r or desert lhe phalangite, c'uw ,maeily Tai' ed their sa risme into the upeight posilion , W hen the ballle w., over the troop, were recalled by lt um pet. The "ictoe slr lpped 'he enemy dc.d and buried his own . T he captueed arm our was hung up in the te mple porli co,. In ' hank> fm the viclor y ' hleld' were u'u. lly ;n_ scribed and dedica' ed in a , heinc . Poly. biu' , 01 1, the amus ing 'lory of lhe dedicalion of the shields . ft er lhe siege " f M edion by the Ae",lian,. T he , i e g ~ w., . lmost ovet bu' , a, t h ~ dec,tiom were due, the ,ctolian geneeal wa, frightened he m;gbt be re place d befo re he h. d ""1'tueed the lown and so lose lhe credi l for it, (T hl, is a very COmmOn rc. tmc in both Greek and Roman W arfOTe.) In m dcr to appea , e the cunent general, but at th e same time not detract fro m whoever might succeed him, a compm mi'e wa, reac hed and it was detcrm;ned to In, eTibe t he , bields as being won ' by lhe Aetolian ~e neral .nd the candid. tes for lhe next ye.r', omce' . Embarrassi ngly foe the Aw,liam, the ,i ege wa, raised . nd the M ed lonian' parodied the Aetolian resolulion in amusing fashion h)' using exactly the ,arne wor d ing for thei r shield" changing oniy the ' by' of the inscription to 'from' .
  • ITALYAND THE WE iiiuoo ERN MEDI EAN
  • ITALY Al'D T HE WEST ERN ME Di TERRANEAN The Rise of Rome 800-275 BC - - ADRIATIC IlEA S ATRICUIl . •
  • T il E R ISE OJ' KO ME goo-n 5 BC T HIi S TI-W(;(;U, I--O k IT A L ' l"'rod I;"n T .... ri " f Rome ".-a. "'''I met.",..ic, It "'", a .10.,,, pam"aki"'l1 I'r,',:=> f......ght 'o.-i,h man}' ""It>o..i<., It ,no ,hi••10,,· proo. ...., au.>.>mpanicd b,' long period!. . of conoOli,Jalion. ,,'hich ...... ,he "",in ~ fOIl' lhe 1 0r'¥<""'Y of the ...bKqumt Roman em!'i.." 1...1}' "'U lhe Ii.......1 IIY bo",><kJ Hal of E .. rop: u. be u f>c<I. S e i,hcT Philil' nor ."In.ion.kr , nor an}' of thei. ~b1i.hcd fun a:>n'roI 0''-'" lhe ,,'hole ur GIft<:e, It 'ook Rome """" ~60 y. . . '" hling lhe "'hole of h ily un.kr her """,M. Once , h., h.qem<>ny' h...t ho:<:n <>1.hhd,c.J, the,e " '", """el any Ihr""t o f i, b",""ing " I'. ' hen ,he ..... .l " a, r" ..gh' belw«n ~ R" m. anJ M I allie. in Ihe lit ccn' .. r~i iIC "a. no, abo.., "",,,,.iun b.. t ,,"er t he ,ight< ,,, <i,jz" n.hil' " f tM nun-Roman h . lian• . It took an " x' « nal in~ ..enee, , h. ba,barian in,' ••i" n. more ' han half " millen ni.. m lule" to . hattc< 'he uni' , " f h . ly, T he w<' I"mry, "rgun"a , ion and taeti<, <>1' Ihe K"n' a" army. unlike thuse of ,he ( j" ",k" we", n"t an inve",i " n uf ,,,, ' h< R"man. hut tho re.ult of a pnxof ad"p'ion onJ aJa p' a""n , In orde, to unde..la"J lhe d",·"I"rme n' of the Roman army il I' n«... ",r}· to examine 'h< J'C"'l'ko ' M K,""an , f,....ght . nd ,,, ' f}' , ... i",I.0'< wh., Ih<y I"amed f,om each od.e" The "",in "'un..., of .....r kn ,.-kdge of ,tu. period if. Ih. R,,,,,,"n hi rian T i, ,,,, l.>,; u•. "'lIhoug h L,,",' i•• grea' Wri'CT, he iu r<"" hif.tMan, "'u """"""-.tive and patriot he thro,n lhe blame for man,' of R<.>mc'. miotak"" on 10 lhe .."..... daoon ,,'ho " ....., "ruggling for rc«JlfIU, ioro, II. regubrl}' "",,'en up an,~ tung that i...nf.'..,..... bIe 10 Rom<: , .00.... lillle '1'l'I«iation "f tupography .,.j mili... l'}' t"' 1;"''' and f"",ly' . ub" "uu,,,, con'<111I'''...r' · I........ for ancient ...... ..~ th ,-'Oml'k", oJi.re-ga , J for accu...., . ~ ..,..t of .U, """",'cr_ he or"n ..an.milO "",;oun" that he must kno,,· are fal..,. D;"n,..iu. of llalk . r""..... has left u' • " cr }' full accoun, " f the .a, I}' 'ue<:eUOn. Lof' Mop of n..,. ..... 1an<1., 8m -J'd ,*,'",iN Be ~om .n-L ..", """""•• 0'. 0 "' .... ' ''O"ll'•. (kook colon 'es t"" _.." .. "'"''''''''Q . , . t,....,.o "00,,",., ,,,'" on w,," UO' W,," , " ..ngl. ~ f....-. " ';, h Etru"""n . hi p" ' rading ..·i(h the en' ... hieh h...t to ru n the gau ntlet of ,h,i< colon ..... T h .. , rade " ..r """n .Je>.•1opcJ into. l>ittu con~;",'1 bet" ....n , he '"'' nat;""., I n lhe do.ing ,·.... of the 7' h """",.,. the Erru....... for,-e.J thei. "'''y' acros, the T ib....-. "",pured lhe Roman ,;1I. g'" . nd ....bILohc.J a land roul......th thlough l..aliu m , ll'1C,' pr""""J on oOlnh"'ardo in t" Ca.ml"l"ia. b}"PI""ng Cumae an.J CUl1lng il otr from II><: in terior, In Campan.a they Clpu",d ""'... 1 of th" ~".I to...·.... including Pompeii .n.! Sur..,nto, . nd ""raNi.he<! • 1.11" miILtary ,,,Iony at Ca l' u, ,,,(u h of , he ri'..,r Voh .. An Etru",an miHla, }' I ld ...as The Slr uggle for h aly . " . hli.h<d .. Rom e. Ij " gr po:.,j Ih. T he " f Rome " . r,. in ,h< middle hilltop vill. g... in",. to,.-n a. had heen of ,h. Sth ,,,,n'ury_ trad i' ionalll' 753 oJon. in Etruli• . • noJ for ' h< nu t oc , Rome <>",,,J hor found. tion '" the hund " J ," ' " under ito ' htee F tru"". n r uk.. K<>me llou ,i, h.d and hcc.me , h. riv~r Tihc " for , h" "'0. one of a gw up of hilltop ,'illage. lliat . prang up on " hid city in l ,atium, th e lef, bunk of , he , ivel at its lo west T h< Etr...e. n, " ached the su",mi, """"i ng po int, I'rohably in an altem p' of th<ir I'o"'er wh.n they fo,me d . n alliance with lll< C.. nh.ginians against to I<" y 0 ,,'II 0" ",,,,,,h ants , 'rossing t h< their m utual em' ml' the G c«k> and , ri,' er to .,ad" .. ith ' <nll hcr n haly, The T ihcr ri' e. in the Apenninc in a "'. baul. "n n", i~. in ~35 BC, , mou " ,.i"• • I><"'e A,rezzo, He", also fo,< d ,he I' hoe. " . n G'ed:.s to ..handon Ih.i, eok",}' at AI.Ii . and '0 gained ,""tM' , i, 'c.-, , he ri"", T he Arno ~<>"' . .."'.. '" ~ n le, tM T y 'r- con, rol of tM island, lIu' ,,:on .~ of g1<:»1' ,.-a> rocnia n Sea at Pi.. ....hil>l th. Tiber !k»<" ......'h f" , .ookm hef.... " 'urning . hortli,·«! .... h .... ugh the}' had i....Ia1 «1 sou th -""" 'l<' ~o .... in... the..,a at 0.,..., Cum"" b, ' lh"i . th tu" oouth..·. rd. into Ikr ",,,,,n ,he... t..·o ri".n "'•• li trutia. Cam pa nia, toc,' h...t f.il<d '0 hring II><: Duri"i , he Sth ,..,mUI}' the population G ""'" ei' ,' 10 ito k"""" I n fact "'~:<.< or b ruri. ...... dt>perwd in,o a mulli- the}' .uffe.-.:-d a ><:no... def..t "" land at Iud. of "".11 ,·il"~. H".. a high Iron the hand. of ,he CIl......,an•. FourtttTl All" cull u'" ,kn... . n •• "ill.no·..a n ) ,...... Ia' er . I'fOl;>IlNy., , I><: i""igalion . of , he Cumaean., , he t.' in. "",,11«1 fIouri, hed I n the 71h ~..n' u." , ..........,nul ruling an..t Rom<: npelle.J he. lO' ru""", ruler elal.$ emct,N in Etrun. A. had T arq u,n lhe Proud , 11Ii. ""'oIt ' pell happene.J in G Ift<:e , the}· uni'c.J the di...... for , I><: Etnncano as the Romano """,' elooe.J the ri,..r crossing gNU p" of "illaj(a to form weh l'O", crfui al}' "at..... Va i. an..t Ta, ,!ui nii_ 10 Il><:m. Il'ilh , I><: ...is...... . of T",!uinii .nd . The li tru"""'" ....,.., g"",t ",af...... and rna,' " ,. 11 ha," """" to It aly hy ""a from y . ii. Tar'!uin ,"cd to oub<lu. the lhe c,,, . Tbel,..,. , . p a,n. ooon "'lab- rebel•. T he " ".u,ng hanl" " .. s in.Je. li. ho...J a me",.nlil. em l'ire in the ,-~.in bulthe f;OClthat ' he}'had . u....i' ·c.J " ,ufficien, for th. Roma n> to ,-.. l~· " ''''' er n . I.oJi,.rr'~"""" where lhey lIi.. ml'h. [.... Po,,,,,na of e. m. in'" ~"n ~l<~ .... ith o.her OOn- hra C lu.iu m (C hiu.i) no < n , ~",d Ihe fr.}·, t~n.k .. 1'<>, ,hi. tr.de : th. Phoc nici,,,,s Collecting "'!Ieth lacg~ fo",. of "rcral i n~ f",m Ca r, h. ge on ' he nonh ElI ..,ca"" ulli nd me<~< n .ri", h. ~oa" of Africa ; ond th. (;,,,,,10.0 wh" had c l<>ni""J , h. "",uth. rn '~" lSlS of hall' m.d< . 10l'i d od," nc" on Rome, hoping " and . .. tern Sidl y, On. ,uc'h G reek to ,'ut<h them " naw, ,,., T he Koman. h.,l reali , cd th,n an <ohm ,. ",a' •• t. hll.h. d . t C um•• "'e't of N ap l"" T lie"" ( , r" ek> h<.' gan 1<l iIller- au ack ",a' immi n.'nt . nd had made hi" o'}' of K<...... ...hh<>..gh h. record. mIlCh ,he ..me ma'er"'l a. U"y, he has • marginally 1I",.,,,r apl'....aatio n or military' t""li<-. . nd. he<:au"" oc u'"'" Greek "'" ..., i, i. ofl"" .asier to ,·i.uali... the il<111. he i• .k-ocribing. L: nfonu",",dy hi. hi......" t><corn<> fnogme"'''-}' in lhe ....1}' 51h ""n' Uf}" ..; , h lhe mult lhal from c. 475 to the ou, break of.he h... I-'uni<: " 'ar in 264 ...• a,.., al.......' .nu rel} ., , he men.' )· of · I ..,,}·, Fonuna, d }' " .• ha "~ a , ubo,aruw an;~;",-al ""..,.J " 'hid he lp" uo to build up a fairl,' " ..""'" pt.."l u,e at lea" of 'M . r r . noJ ""a ponf}' of th" carll' l'<'''o.J, ,no, ''''1}' "',no. ,h. E".. c..., ,US,
  • ITALY A:-iU Til E WESTERN MEDlTERRANEAN p",p. u , iom '0 hold ,~ ri,.." croo;si n g . A fore " ·...""uobli.hed OIIthe JanicuIum, a hill on ,he Elru.... n side of the river " .!tidl coo,..,1'<'d ,he aJ'l'l'<*'h 10 ,he .hem_ bridll", ond ,he rit;zws anJKd selves 10 "i.m.and , lie anld<. In spi,e of 'heir J>!'<'P'8I'1I'ions ,hey were cought off pr<!. 1l>e Romans D<"I'er Sttm '0 hi,.., """'" '0 km>s "-;,h , he idea of """"'ina, Their h;"Iory i. ",,""'WI'ed "i,h disas,en ,hit COIIId easily hi,.., been a"Oided by propt'l" soo..,,;ng, 1l>e E.rusans aWOkhed unoccn, soonned .~ Janiculum and aohar>eed on .~ bridg<! In panic , he Romans turned and lkd. T~ pa,riocic L i' l ' ,ell. ho",. Ho...."'.. and his '''"'' companions, who curiously bol h hI"e E1ru!lC8'l1 names, heroically held t.<:k ,he ene my ,,·hil.. ,hei, fdlo,,' a , izens chopped dolO'n tM bridge and so ....w . he ri'y. Bu, , he ..,.,..., enli,h'ened Romans fel, force<t 10 o.dmJ. ' hat 1he a 'y fell. 1l>e army of Poneno marched on in,o I..aIium, ad....ncing 011 Aricia, the cent", of .he l .&fin ,..,.;.unce. 1l>e Gtttlr.s o f Cumac, m l;"ing that Ih;" ,,'to ,heir gm , opportunity, also the field. Cau~ht bct'*ttfl the ' W<> forces, ,ho E, ruscan army"'" ""li: -"" !:'i. h ' hei,land route cu, I~ Etruscans "'ere f,,,......,d to ma,n,a;n con,..... wi, h . heir s",,,hern colonicl bJ' sea. In 474 ,hey suffel'<'d yet another (TIlshing defe. ' a, I~ hinds of the GIftk. in • se. hlnle offCumae ,and.s a result ,be of Campania ""'" complc1:el~ ' iIola'ed. Ru. fate had •• tick '0 play; "i,hin 30 ~ hoch EIrus.can Capua ond Greek Cumae had fallen CO tbe SaIoni.es, FOI" • sbon ",hile Rom<. which had con.rolled Lalium undeT he, Etruoan ruIe~ f<>tlf:ht dnpen'e]y to hokI 011 '0 ,owns - ' -- _ . .... !""",,*, . "V ot 0..-.- {0Nus01...."'''' " - "" "'" JanocuI..... ~ R.,...,. T... "I''''' EIJUOCIn5 _ ......, _ _ ...11'.. _ , " ' " _ ... ....., . ..... ""'" 00fIt0l ...... -.""'" II. ..
  • THE R iSE 010 ROME 800- z75 He THE S T R UGGLE t -OR IT A LY ba "'PT~' , l>uI it "" as tho< u n ns who had defeated tho< Etru scans and noI the Roman. , At the beginruna: of th. 5th century, find ing her poIil;"" untenable, [{om. .....a. forced to , ign the Co"ion treaty of allianc. with the ",her Lltin town, a, equ.1 p.rtn. ... T h. nex, 1Io yea.......... r. ' p"nl by .h. La tin. llghli"ll fOT their ver)' ""i"e""" againn the usl""n hill po:opl..., . h. Acqui .nd Vobci, who ..." re being f<:>Tttd 00-..... ""0 lho< pLoiru; of Uti1,lm 1:»' lho< ""pension of ' ho< Samnitn. TItnc ru.ggN mou nt.in "",n hod gradually forad tOOr .... .y sou,h"""do lh:r""1lh 'ho< Ap"nninn, drivi"ll all before ,hern. In Ihe middle of tho< 5th ""n'ury . hory bum upon ",ulh.rn It ol}', ove r ru nni nJ C.mponia, Apulia . nd Lucanio. In .3' Ik A.qui .....ere defea' .d by the I...,in Leagu. and Ihe Vol ""i .....ere dr i.'en back. H}' the closing cu .. of the century lhe Latin I~e felt .",:ure enough 10 turn itt ."en'ion to soulhern E<1l,lrio. Tbc E.t","","",. mean....hile. b.J been tea1"chi", for • new outlet f.... lho:ir It"Ide . Aboo" SDO 1IC an EtTUs · can a>lony had been ......blillhW at Bologna in .ho< Po volle}' and • roul. opened up 10 S pina. a port at tho< hel d of the Adriatic, Hut , like the r""t. to the .out h , Ihi' ...... , ab", doomed, For ",me time th. CeI", of central Eump. had been forcing th.ir " 'ay throug h th. AIrs and se1llinJ in the Po valley , T hi. m'gtau<>n ga.hered ....." ""nlum ... , he cenlU"" ad.-anced SO . hal by .he end of u tho< Elruscaru; ""'" under prnou", from bolh north and south. R""",. DOW the dorn,nant pan .... of the u'in l.c:oeue, launched an all...,.... atta<.1:. on lhe litru>can IOWn of "eii ... ti<h cap;lui IIt.d . fte r a IonS si"lle in 396 IlC. The League', p"'sturc on soUlhcr n Elruria WI. '" hav." ba,;kla.h •• , he E'm' ca"•• who were trying to dcfend Iwo fmn'i. ... m.naged to ,u"ain n. ither. i.e" th.n t.n yea.. after the faU of Veii the Ceh. burtt inlO Euuria ald d""""nded lho< T iber vallc)' ,oward. 11."""" Al the AlI.I lhese: ...-iJd men from the north Ctt>toed the kgiom lhol had beat .... t to opp>sc thc-rn and .....ud the rily on the hiU, . It waU ' urible .... bood for Rome and she lotI ber dominant pooi';on in . he u tin L<:ague. Rome recovered but for Ih. Etru....an' i, W , he begi nni ng "f I' th• • nd , The Lea~ue had lo' t in h,t_ hold in .o."hern Etruria and 'P"IIt ' hrtt y~ kWDquc-rinS II . This reCOntl ...... t brought the l .ngue in ' " colli' ion with T arquinii and ,everal other "f lh. Etrmcan cili •• wh" were beL~H"jn~ f•• rful "f the ~rowing po wer oflh. La lins, In 3 8~ an<.l .~ain in 386 Torquinii ""'k up . r m. hUI f. iled 10 dri"elhem hack. I n 359 Tar'luini i Iau .....hed an im'a_ >ion of u lin-oonlrolkd Elruria. T ,,'o }'eaJ"> laler Falerii ioined in and tho< fono...~na l"ar ,be ....., of the E.ruso:an fcdenllion aI... 'ook up armr.. .- pilil... ...-or er,.ued in ...-hich ""'h ';..1.. """ri1es.1}" ma...ac oed pri""""", F inall)', in 35'. Ihe I.ugu. launch.d an all-out offen'ive . nd brought T. rq uinii and Falerii to Ihe ir knce' . It w"' ditlicuh for th. l:t ru scan, to mak e • concert e<.l effort "' they ...... re u nder p"", urc from I"'' 'h .ide•. In Ihe JIOrth Bologna " ... unable '" hold "", and by 350 it ,,'as in Cel.i< hand. and the Etruscan domina_ tion oflhe 1'0 "alle}' came to.n md, In lhe sou,h lbe Voltri ..ere ..ill a thrn' .0 'ho< League, which now lurned and fO«.'td them inlo . ubmi..;on. The Lague no'" controlled all of ...·n tem It. ly from southe rn E'ruria to northern Campanil . lIuI the q...."inn " f who gowrned La' ium _Ih. L<:ague or lI."me - re mained unre'olved. In 340 the final , tr U I. beg.n, Ali er a hiller war U la'ting th"'. ~eor< Rome em.rged a, uldi,puled mnler and ,he hi,tOT}' of halj" ......· bocame the hi,tOl)' of Rome. T he tit "'"1" ...;th Ihe '<>loci had broughl Rome to faa: ,,~t h ,be Samni. .. oIong . he liri> nver . Rome had >igned a treaty ";Ih them in 354 to enli.. lhe" ",..I aga in.. their mUlual enemy the Vollci, I n 343 hoo'ili tin broke "'" "", ,,·ttn the lwo nation, 'hal wer e to 1 for 50 yoar" T he fir" •., so-,'alled Somnile war lOla, hardly more Ihan • ",r ie. of ,kirmi,h. , . , lhe two protagoni". vied for conlml of Cam_ pania . T he main ",,,,!li,,! did not . tan fo.- another 15 )'ean, but it i"""il able. In 32~ the Roman Iabli.toed I a>lony II. lOreg<-n.... on tbe Samnite tide of lhe Liri. ri""r. I n retalialion rbe ~ni... mai""""'d a coup at "'oples ald <ktached it from it' Roman a11Iar>u:. Rome haJ been lookinS for an excuse and d.dlred "or The tint ~ ..rs of Ihi. war we", again eharacteri. ed h}' many inc" nd ",ive r""" tt,rmi,het; ,be Samni'n "'-ere rcloactant to _ the Roman infant!')· in the plains and Ihe Roman. were unwilling lO light th"'" o gil~ mountain..,,, in the hill" After ",ven ye,. ., of ind..i,iv. ,kirnli,hlng , the R"man, <.I« 'i<.led 10 m.ke a thru" int o Sa m nium itsel f . nd emhatkod u po n a venlu", thaI lOla. to eld in ..I i " "," and ignominy. 3Jl T be ' 0 con.ul, for the j oornmined lheir enti", ror 10 tbe in"..iofl of Samnium, Thi' ",n,ure ","ulted in tho cape"", of the I rmy at the Coud,ne lOon.. The I"llionar.... ,,-en: 'pal"ed bout "'''''' COrTlp"11cd 10 Iea"e behin d all their belongins' Ind. clad onl)' in a tunic. to 'pas, under ,be Y<lke'. Thl' wa, I fra me made from t....<l 'pea .. stuck in the gr"und and a th ird on e tic<.l aCT'''' h<>rizontally al " h"ighl thaI com pelle d the R<lmans 10 cr<luch d<,,,·n 10 pass u nd.rne.th. The Rom. n. them.d.,... had oflen forced .heir def""ted enemi.. '0 p"rf...-m Ihi. humiJiatina exerei",. It " '.. lhe '--'!')' 'j'I"bol of def""t and kindled in e--cry Roman brcut • lbinl for ....... e1I# . lOor ti,-c j'''''''' ,he ROflUru; kept tbe ·Coudi..., poeace' , but bj' 3t6 tbe)' could h"ld botd:; no longer I nd ",pudiated Ihe t",ot}'. c1aiminK fh. t the e 'OlISu), had no , i~ h , to sign if, T h. war w., reopened "n three front' with on. army opc r. t in~ in Ca m pania, an"th.r further north in Ihe L iris "all . }' , wh tl" a third "'''',ed ,he Apennines ' 0 ,he Adria tic coast and marehed "",-"h 10 jojn fo""",, ...·ilh the Apulians. The S<un niln "........, "~th bruthl. klllS , p«:d and oornpklely t'IUl _ manoeu,ttd .he Romall>. KC'CPine ,he Roman arm in in Apulia and .he Lir~ "alley OCCllpiaJ, Ihey brwhed a,id. the C.... mpanian ar m y and Ihru' t north_ " 'Ird, . The Roman, hand. dov.. pow. r to a die"1ator who gathered .11 .,'ail.bl. f,,,,-c. and pre"e<.l , outhward , He <.Ii. patch.d half hi. troops un<.ler hi> depu t)' (tbe ma..er of Ihe 00"") 10 """er the coo" road (, he later Appian Way) ",'hil>! be htrmelf .,h"nced along the utin 'W&)' be1w..,n lbe hill•. The Sarnnite arm}' " 'Ilich had been head,,,, fo.-the 1....l1n 'It".y now chollll"d cou"", ~ .he hill ' and feU upon the masler of 'ho< hotx near Ter......~lII , T he Roman ~nn)' Wll. wiped"'" and it. .ommander killed. Rome'. "" uthem allie, now reb.II.<.I, The Samni1 . S """''''nod "
  • ITAl. Y "'~D TH E l;'ES TER~ M EDI TERRA ~ EA '" ,..han<-nl in to Lallum......,royina: Cf'OJ>O an.d ra>'aging ,he < ",un'rys id e .. far a' ....rdea within )Okm " f Rome In panic ,he R<lman Senate recalled pan <If it> force' from lhe L iri, "a ltey T he Sam nil,·, ' here im mcd ialcly , ,,.. ,ed lhe river and auaeked the u'ea kened R<>man fo" e. The Roman. ,,'cre on ,ht r un, T o Ihe ""nh Rome' , ,,",o' Tal h ali.an allia wa>'crcd , I f lhe)' defect ed. R""",', arm!' in Apulia " ""Id ht "'" ,,11 A. ,h;; p<><n, an C-.::nl haPl"""Cd """" """Id ha,'e fO«"«n, The G m:l eitin of "",nhem h al)' and Sicily had " flo n called in G ree k llCnerals ." help .hem against.heir enemies, T he ery f<lr help hod g<me <luI from lhe Syra<'u, ans. and :' ' 'O, atU' of S part a hod amwercd , 0" hi, way 10 Si, ily he had brietly inl " rf"red i" affairs in Illyria . II" had tl<lW .rri"ed.t T ara" " , on hi. way'" Sieil!', I'or a momen. the Samni,,,.. fal,,,..,d. rearing he milllhl , ur n h.. f~ "Pin" lhem, Their ",,"ilalion ,,-as j..... enou.h . ",.nl!' . ht balantt The Romans """ nleTall:Kked. ' hroOli ng all .r>e;r a.-ailable fo'Cn again.. ,he in" ad ing Samni,,,,, a"d tl>u'ing Ihem , T hey had C"me '0 near '<l winning. bUl Ihe war w. ' '" b .. . no. her len yea.. a, it grad ua lly wou nd d<lwn , In 3't ",wral " f the Et r,,'can cities enter ed lhe "'OT hu' ,hey we", ea" l}' kn"eked ou" I low d,fferrn' ,hing. migh' ha,-e ~n if lhe)' had enlered ,he " ...r Ih= l"',an cn lier, I n 3004 Iht Samnlln sued for pea<.-.:: and ""'" lefl hard ly , , _ off rI..,n beror-.:: Tbe pea<.-.:: lu .ed only sia ~n. In z96 Be, af,e••" ... )-.::a.. of , be usual skirmishing • •hc Samnilcs agaIn m<Ode a dash """hwa.d., This.ime a Samni,. arm)' ad"an""d through Ihe Apennines '" join forces "'i, h the E"u'~an,. t: m b, iam and ( , ,,,I, for a ",,,,,wt ed attock On Rome, IIUl by no w the Etm, can. were a failing f",.., In 3" 'hey ltad lao nched an a!tack nn ,be Roman ronr... al SUlri.. m hu' ...·cre ea.il)' rrpul<e<l, l'<>Ik",'itllll . hi" (:..rt""". Pe-rupa and Arrezzo ".en: for""<! '" sign r"",,,n of alliona::, S",,' ,hty had .be Ol'portunlly'Omakc one las, elf,,", This ""s Romc'. greal..1 ,..., S<> far . ht had onl)' had . 0 f."" he. enemi... individually . S<l'" fnr ,he fir" , ime ,he wa' n pl",,~d by lhc;r eomhi n~d f".""s, ll Ul . like the " ,,·e k,. I he It alian, f<lun d ,ha, '0 '0 i. al,"",,1 Impossible a.:t in unison ....1 s",n1lnum . he Samnlle and Gall i<: a.mie. f"ugh, a long dr.wn ou, hau k .gain" lhe kg i"", .nd los, The failure of Ih~ ElrU,,'a ns and lJmhrians 10 tU'n up fel r thc bau le rna}' h. " e <""t them.1I lhe ir Indcpcndenc'c, Whcn Ihe Samn i, ... wcre ddcaled . ' he E'ru",ons collap«ed ",'i'h 'hem , During the ' i.., half " f tht Jrd ""n, ur~, ,ht ....1 "f , he E"u",-"n <:i. ion ""'" ei, her <TU. hN 01' for<:cd in,o allia",-.:: ....i. h Rom<:. "uk; rell in zllo and "<>I.,n,i In .65, R"man ooIonin " -.::re plan'cd ,n ,he ......rt land of E,ru l'ia an.d irs da~~ of grra'ncs. "'err ",'cr. Thc hallie of Sen,inum nor only mark cd . ht en d of 'be SOmnil'" but ai«, the bcgi n n i n~ <lr Rome 's l o n ~ purge "f 'he Cd l<, Of .1I l he peoplc, <>1' Ihe Roma n em pirc Ihe Cel,s , ulfered the w""t during thc yea.. " f expon,;"n northward. , In Z~4 . a. pan of ,ha, (lcncral "",,'e· m..." t>f ,be ( :':I,ic "'hieh ..... "" crth"",' . he king.Jom of Thrace ond pl unge .b ....,donio in.o chaos. lhe 'k.......,., , be 'lame tr ibe " 'h ieh had ucked Romc a hundred )'' '''' befo.." m,w('d <>f ' hei r ' erti'or!' on 'hc ... d.iarie ,..,." north " f Ane"'llll, ~ro."ed the Apcnnine; and ra ided Etru .ia, The Rom an a, my whid, nl .,~he d nort h It' deal wilh the in" ade" . utTt·.e d a <'r... h· ing ,ld,·a. ,,'ith the 1,,« <'f '3 ,0CiQ men I n an ,",-1 ..f ma"i"e re.alialion l he Roman. cr"..ed ,ht motln'ain, inl o , he S.nonic "'""eland and d,,"'e the en, ire ,rihc: ou t of Ital!', 'n.e Hoii. ...ho had ""'l"ured Rologna from rht E'"""-,,n. and had «ell k d in ,be area. "".... al... ~" ..sed lhe .... penni""" hut "'err defeal ed in cenltal Err" r ia, T ht follo",in& year 'h"!, e ~ ,t>< m <>u nl. ins . gain anti were on,'. more dcfe.'ed, T hey . uc.l r<lr pca~c T he Romans, P"~"'~"l'kd wil h the si'u " ion in '-"'Illral haly. aweed 1t> , h< treat)" ".. hich [." ed r"r so )'" '' i'ilh , be (011 of Samnium . Rom c wru ru lled almos. the ,,'I><,le " f penin. s,,1ar h al)', Onl!, .he G rttk <:iii... of ,ht ..,."h rem.oined ou"ide , be Roman alliontt , In order <'>noohd a.~ he. "",i.;.", Rom<: began ... pu t prnsu.e on , ...... G .eek ..a' ... ' 0 Iry ." f<:tra the m int o alh.nce , T he immed,., e result wa, , h. , T.ran,,, app<:akd ,,, AIe, andcr 'he G rcat 's kinsman. I'yrr hu. , kinl of ['p i.". , In z~o " c he '''bcs ou' '0 '0 ,............ lhe Adrio.ic and lan.kd in "" ulhe.n Italy ,,'i, h zS.ooo cra~k ''''''J>'I .nd 1 0 dephan r; , II" aim " . , l<l unlle R<lme', enem,.s In 'be """h bu' ,he R<lmans an' i, ip.,..l him and ru shed '<luth " " ds wil h 2 ,000 legionari", .... t I lend ea the R<lman, b ad the dreaded M"-.::d,,nian phalanx for ,he fin, ,ime The> ,,-.::re dcteatcd h", al' ht"'lh . he)' ' k..t oearl~' a ,hi, d of Ihtir arm)' .ht)' infticfed ".eh eas uahi... "n ~'rrh .... ,,'ho could nor enily fCpla<'C> hi< Ios>e>. , "", a ' l')'ntue •..,....." . h«:ome .be pto'erbiol n p....oion fo. an """rn pe n>l~e gaIn . Thc follo..., n& yca. Rome de.pa lched 40.000 'H"'J>'I aKainsl , he in,..dor. T h i. timc I)'rrhm "a' ,upf",rTcd hy , he ' " " II" ,,,, 1t. Ii,Itl" T he ",c~",d h.mle la,"ed for lW day, hUl it< re,,,11 wa; O nlu~h 'he ",me a' ,he h"l. Dq>r""sed hj' his I",,,,,, . Ihe king ~n:,.",d ''''cr 10 S idh' help I hc G = ks 'herr altlinsl Ih e Canbagin ian. , Fearing 'h.... he CarThagi man. had arrange.! a ha<.rj' aUiantt " i ,h R~ . The Ep",,' t ....oera! al....... dr","e lhe Can bagini.an. from , he ..land . continlnti: lhem the port of I,il)'hae" m a, . he " .... ,e.n "l', Hu• r",-.::d wi,h ,ht P' '''p<:d " f a l<lnK ''''II!', he one mo . c 1<». his enl hil,i a, m and " dedded to return h, It.ly. I'yrr hus h. d Ix n out of Italy two .. )'ea... T he R"mans had no' w...cd ,h" pr e ..i"". broalhing , pace and had ror ""d Ihc Samnil '" and l."""nian , inh' . uhmi..sion, '" when ,he EJ'f""e gene....1 """"",d be " . . on h " "",-n A. lhe king ,,.,..Kd rbe of .ns.lnalhe Canhatttnian ftee. all.. ...ed h,m and M lroyt"d ha lf his shiT", A. ht ma rohed Ik>rth ,,·i. h ' hc re m,,,nder of hi. for""" he "'as allaeked bj' ,he lIarri",n from Rhegium. wI><, inl!i",ed < '"n,i dcrable I",,,,, "n him . When. Willl the rem l"" '" " I' his ~alle fed arm y. l'yrrhm fin. lly arr i~ed a' Taranto. h., ",l l e~'ed log~thor what "''''l'' ht could and ad,'anced n"nhward. for a tina l conl...",.., ;"n ,,'i, h Iht Roman• . The Iwo R.-.nan .nnies ,,-.::re '''f'C' a. ing <el'an 'el)'•COW" ng , he rou' n In'O ""n,ra! h al)', IlInori ng .he arm)' hIm, be a, ,ht "-nit,,,. uf ,he 'wo R<Jnlan annin " a" oned near Ik no"e nte" tic marched 'h"'uxb ,he n,~h,. I><'ping ,,, 1I. 1ll tt>< """anlalle of I""il;<m hef",e Ihe Roman, reali",d he w., ~(lm ing. ~UI arri,..d " .., laIC and Ihe '0 '0 ,Ita, """"S ""'''''' '0 "rue'"
  • T H E RI SE Or II. O ME Hoo- 27 5 BC T HE ITAUA=" M ILll·.... K· S 'ST EMS Roman. "",naKed '" Jcplo~' lheir forces bdorc he could ~l1a.:k, Onc-c mor<: ~.".hu. r~jkd l<> pin lhe ,icrOT} he ... Ndh' "C'<:kd. Leam,nK lha' ,he "" hcr con.ul " . . """,,-.chin K. he retrea'ed '" Taran", and ....... ~her oct ... il for Eporus ; he had nn'c,!'ottn defea'ed b... he bJ "'" lhe " 'ar and "ilh i, l".... ,hird> of h.. army. The ~'rrhic ...., .. lhe key p<>inl in Roman milll~ry h....Jr}, Hanm bal c~ l')'rrh ... as oeoond ""Il' l<> .... leunder in hi, h"" itl' <>f le""",I., II i. unforrunar" ' l nu Iinl-hanJ rcpun of hi. ,:amp'"ln, or hi, trC"~t ik ,... military l"""lio.. . ha"e ,"rri.-ed, We ha"e onll' lhe ~e'l' un""li,fact<>r y aeroun .. <>r [.i"~' , l'lula,ch and D i""),. i,,•. I [a"; n,l ,u"';"ed 'he Pl'n-hie "'a, 'he 1I." "",n. "etC n,,,,· potent iall~' 'he fm em' '''l amo.mK lhe m,lilaT)' po"ers of the , teol;' erra " ea" The Italian Military S ystems Tbe lfe of Ko m u l ,,~ T he 'nmm ni, k , e, lahlished on t he .h hill. "r Rom e in ,he M .-em u,y woul d ha" e bc<.· n m u,'h lhe ,a rne a. ,hose of El ru , ia, .... 11 '''"e i n~ ""n<...,d h~' ,he ·illan<.wan clln.", ,,·"ich. 'houg" crn,,,,d on r~ ru"a ••p"'aJ a. fa, as ,he Pn "alley ,n the "'''th anol Campania in lhe ..",'h T he ""rr...... u( Ihe ,;me nr Romulu, footh, "" f" " l ,,'ilh .pca.., jo.-elin., ."..,..d>, Jawn and n .... Only lhe "'cahhle<' ,,-.. a""''''' , "hieh ..... g<:ncnlJ~ .... tn<1cd 'n helmet and ' cui.- ; ,he talte, beinl uwalJl' only a >mall bn:-a>lrUle f.-..uncm of an emt>.>.>c>J 1:ka'C fOtlnd in lhe Gro" a G",micia al Vrii. bu, as fa, as the aUlhue k""".. Ihi, i, the <>nIl' example from ""mraJ Italj'. Shields, ...."'II "etC all of lhe """'1101 handgri p '''pc, "v ied from la'le hody.....- m<ring l~'p.-. I" ,,,,,,U,,,. round buckrn, Cha.io.. <1<, ""I .......m 10 ha"e be<:n in u<c in , he Xl h <-cnlu,}', alt houllh , he fa""...' ehan'" f'o m ,he RcgoI;n;Gala"; h>mh al Caerc .bow. tha' ,hey ""ere a <"Cnlu,y later, T hey mal' h;,,-e been int roJu.,,,j ; n'o 1l~ ly rm m ' ''e ea" os pa" of ,he <Ir,e n".h, ; nl( phase in lhe e.. iy 7' h c'en,u'y, 1'", ... ha' , he " o, y is ",o" h !'Iulare·h leil. us , ha' ",hen Rumulus killc,j 1 """', king of ' h c .- _vl.-.v_ ........... _vl.. .· .__-..._ r.......... _ _ CWr ..... ____ "om Ccn,,>cn>.c<, he rna « hed in ' ri umph ,,,rr~' i ng , he king ', . " ,.." " as a 'rorh~' on ..i. , ;ghl .......lder, T he point '0 n" t<: her<: i, he ..lid not rid e ;n a cha,i... a' , he eU'lOm of the later 1T ; ~ m"h~to [, ....em. lhat lh. eha,;", .lid nol c"me ,,, fl." m" un,i l , he Eltu> _ "<> can < nq uc" lale ; n ,he 7, h ccnl U,y ~nol even , hen il W ne" e, " , cd in batt l. but as only fo, "ere ,"o nial Pur l"''' ', T he Hom an h ll >I,ldi," prohably fough, in ,Ila, _ __ f _ .... aNd ""'" _nQ ~ >Ome Ioooc form of phala nx. T he sword' of lhe pe-rtud . 'al)' front lon ll , b" hin K "'eap"n, to ,hon er <tal>bing one<, The longer wC"~ pon s are llenerally or I he an' ennae Iype named after in , as! h,on , . hand le Wil h spiral horn. T h. blade, whic h i. aIm"" alwayo maJ e <If h' <ln, e, alt houg" a few iron "ample. ha" e , ur" ived. ~a,;<:s in lenl(lh f'om H 10 51'>o; m, T he ma jorilY " f ,1Ie' e amenna. , w" , d, arc cut _and_ "
  • IT AI. Y A N D THE 1:' ESTE RN M EllI TE RRA1,a:Al>: 'hru.. "-npon• . Some have I<:>ni poin" .unable only' fo< 'hruOling ,,'hil... fC", ha,.., • oJigl'nly cun'ed sahre-like blIde 'ha' could M uS<'<l only fo' . ...hing Tht .n'ennae f)"J'C ...-ord. ""Illla'ed in ~tr,,1 Europe and IrC do,ely rela'ed to Ia'e .vcc""""n ')'pe II . ""rd•. Th< daggcn may M divided ""'ihly illlo 'hree 'y pes by 'ho: .ha pe of ' he bl;l<e; tho: majori'y have a leaf-.blI pcd blade ; ."me blIvc a blade wi'h . " aight . idc. which narTO'" about ,wo_,hi,,!. " f , he way' down to fm m a "i lcllO ,ype po inl' and Ihe remainder arc IrianllUI . r ;n . h a l~. The blades, which may h< cilher " f bro nze "r iton , .'at)" in length fro m 15 to 4tcm . T he blIndle. are made of wood . bone or e"en Slone bUI "",..,r bro n.... The handle is Clpred h)' • T .. h.pcd pommel clearly rel.tlng it '0 la,c' .' I)·ccnaeln ')'PM of daUer . Thi. T _dUlpcd pommel i. really • dc-so;rifllion of 'ho: metal lang, "hieh i. u.u.Uy 011 of rho: handle tha' ,u""i,'es, I n floCl tho: pommel nonnally takes tt.. f<>rm of. bulbou. di"". Scabbard. ro, 'h< . honer It><! dagcn are u'ualll)· nlkk of bea'en hron... ,,-jlh a bronze chape. Tht share of tho: section of lhew .... .bbard. suuc". tha' 'hcy wcre lined wit h "'l'IOd in .imilar fa,hion to later Roma n , wmoJ•. T he)' arc . ometime. elabo.>Ta, ely cngra. 'ed but a fe w have a punched de" ' ''t;" n ;n ;mit a' ion of st neh.·d lealher which w"' probab ly 'he com _ mone" moteT;al used !'" m.k ing >eahh. , d•. An antennae . wo, d, r"und al Ta rquinii in Etluria (51, wa' .. ill enca..,d in a fTOgmen,a l")' "x>o<l<n ,,:at>bard beound «,.;ctho:r wi'h bronze wi..... The chare of thi. ocahbard " .• • nlkk 0( bronze, and indeed "".."..1 "'her .....mp.... of bronze chaPM Mkmging ' 0 antennae . ,,-ords h",.., b«n found Thew a 'O<>dcrJ scabbard. " 'C'«' proboobl)' .....ercd "';Ih Iea'her . 'l1>e 'OP of ,t.. scahberoJ 0( both . ... ord. anoJ Jaa<n iI .t....)" mad<: ~,ely and iI of'en ml..ing. Thi, mull he hea...... it ..... mad<: 0( peri.lUlble malerial .""h .. hide <>' """",, , A f...· examples in bulle and bron han .urvived. The b.... ak in lhe de 'i"e de.ign iun I><low ,he ,up of Ihe ..abl>;o<d " n ""me exompl... (8) 'U11O.lS lhal lho: bald rio "'a' tiod 10 the "a" bard at lhis poi nt, i-Iany bt " n, o ,pearhoad , an d "un , .,,-ord. " ca" I " " ha,'c been fo ut><!, U ke the , ...-ord••nd dagge.. ' hew cou ld 01"", M made 0( iron . Some 0( l~ lUI,.., b«n found in pooi'ion in 'h< va'''' .., ' h< length of tho: " 'hole ..."Capon a n M rroeasured ' the nampel ..... 1><1...... n '.45 and •.85m long Tlle .ire of . pearheads nries enormously from h~ elWllpies tlKWe than hllf a mc1re In len[U h (Ihere io an cnmple f,om . l ' ri"" in La,ium measuring 56<:rn) '0 tin)' i..'e lin heads Ie.. 'han 'OCm long, The bronze javelin h<aoJ ( ' 4' wi' h ill l"ng thin 'haft i' an an'e...d<nt of ' he late' Roman javelin. , the h~ ..~ t·.lil~n·. a noJ 'hi' t he pilu,n .... 11 lhe Drn"u woap" n, ",erO ca" 1 8"""" _ _ sword "om _ 2_ .- w'""'''''''' ..-.. !toM , '- J B •• -.f_.. ' '''''' BoIDgno ...... _ -. __ _,,._- . . , -....... _-. 5 7 ~ _ !toM _ ~ . _ o x __ T __ """"'" ""- . . - ...... bone toe> "om_ ' - f,.,..,_ ..... __ 10 1Ir""", _ oog ~om 1112 11r ,.."",.,.., lor",,"''' U AI-. ...."""". "''''". _ _ ''''''' T...,".~" 1. 8.""... I' '''' n "'''''' 'ou,,", ,n L at,"", 15 8,,,,,,. , y, "'''. f,om T"-Q"'o;, 15 ,e.,. ....
  • TH E RISIi OF RO ME 800- 275 Be Til E ITALI AN MILITARY SYSTEMS from m<>1t~n m~taJ. Iron weapon~ had to be beat~n ''litO ~ru.p<: as i. ,,-as imJ'<"5ible obtain ...lficicn, t~m­ p<:ratun: fo. II><: c"'''''1 of iron. I'll fact bea,.... " "apon, ar~ far stronger than <2St ones. Some JO Villal'loO'an 'n'" belme.. ha<,.., bct-n d_rnd in Italy. MOtt than half of ,how ...., or the mctal <m,ed 'nlC . :_ Thi. ",a, . '11 CUllI""',ed f""", of • central European Wpe. h _ made- in t...." ~ joined aion& ,he edge of , be cn:ol. T bi, ,,-as. <loont hI' mala", one half ,1i,hIly la.-gc< ,han ,h. other .nd folding ,I><: ,u rplu, lIKIal ""rr tl><: ,nun.. half'o hold ir in poloi'ion. The k".".. cdgr. of ,h~ cap at th. fro.... and tl><: bad: aloo ""~<. lal'f'rd and ,,'~n: ri, '"cd ' Oll.t l><:r. T he join' ".,.. n:inforcrd by ''''0 rccrongular plat.. ",h ich " '" ,e ri, 'eted on (see e~ploded dra", ing } I. T he", hclme.., likr aU the nth", armour of 'he period, " ere dr<;o r, ,~d wi. h 1><,.,••. T he Ihre'" long ,pike, pr ojr<;ling frmn ,he rein forcing plot . ' at the from ond hack were purely dcc"rative . The way ' hat thi, helmel wa. "',>rn, ",i,h the , pik.. at ttle f",nt and hack . i, dearl)' ,how'll on a figurin. fT"m Reggi o in Emilia (". Th~ douhle rim at . he ba,e of ' he hclmOO1 on th. hgurine ",. m, ,,, ,how a .hi<k unckTcap. Mos. of . h.", ""lm~" and .h. larer Roman Itclme" .... ~d..ably "".n;zr and i' "",m, • • ry likely that tl><:y all had a , hick padded undnnr probably mad~ of fdt. Anotl><:r common form of hrlme! ..... the °bo:ll' type l SI. M _ examples 110.'. cas' broruc c«ol hoIdcn ,,'hieh ,,-nr drilled ,hrough '" ,g. a crest pin. T1u, . ype i,~..,.. common outsid< hal), npecially ''II 1'rar>lX -.l tbr Balkan>, onr can oJ... include: a b" tStb ........ 'ury ac hrlrno;, from 10' """",, ,n thi, gruoup . A uni'luc namplr from Fnmo ncar A""""" "'" • tube made from pla'~ bronzr ' 4' · The """,t common form of body armouT ..... t hr o.rnall rectangular bronzr r«'0ral(7and S). ~ may ha... been a>Cd on thr baci< .. wd l .. thr """'t. Se,'eral . ""mpko hav. been found ,..rying frmn ,~ '0 Hcm in depth . Hundred, of ro und p<:<:l'oral, have been di"c(",~red but ,b..e .eem to be of a , lilth' ]}' la"T da'~ and aTe di.cu,"ed a nd.. li,rUSCan armour, One or two cuira"e . of lhe Alpine l}'pe are .0 = - "'_ ...."'_ ' f_ 01 _ '.. ~ .." " . .nod "'.... . _ 4 .. 'ounol . ....... f _ f....., _ no 1 . ""*"'11 lWO _ _ ,_on b t _ "'""' """""'" 0- 1 V.t• ..,.." ,.."t..:l .......', p<or>ablv I,orn ~"f n", .. " "'" '" ,,," 2 ...'" 0 ' • Eo" 'O""''''Il Mw "QV'''''' ,_ 8<.""' '''_ ,t>o",""'w_ _ n 8=10'"' 1 B'""," _ '''01',,>m ,.",,,,",, c_"'""La,.""" 8 Br""", _ '''01"orn 8<"""' ...., "'_ .__u. § '" """ e-t _ 9 1.... 1 0 P",- "on......, pIoro "orn ... ~; AI' ",,10' § . - _ _ ... m <a>l bt""'" Ongon _ _ """"'... • '" I'on<l'><> "' _ """' ....... ,,~
  • IT AI. Y Ax u T H E WESTERN . ED I TER RA ~ EA~ """¢ bc<:n foond in l,,,ly bUll h~i r pn>v¢nana i. unttrt"..... Tho: ¢I "bora t~ I",,,,,,ho ' n'" cuira.. '. ' .' wa. di""overed a' Nar"~ in Etru ria , " WaS lUnd wilh a crr",ed Villanovan helme ' f< whi. h Honk en 'uj[ge". , hou ld be d " ed 10 lhe end " f ,h ~ 8, h . en ' ur )', Th e CUlT... con .i. t. " r a front and ba. k r la' e ""'de in 0"'"' pie<:e a nd held in ""'i'ion b)' 01 .. 1" joining ,he fron' and toad; pbte. under , he arm• . A feO' helt ra<t~nings and 1'10' .. "",.~ bc<:n foor>d I' .nd Te l. Tho: r..tener .,.",.i... 01. l'KI'angular pb,e "';,h , .." or ' ltree ri ngs rivncd ' 0 ,he edee and. rorrespond ing pl.,~ " i' h hoob on ,he edge. These two> r l.,e. were rivet~d 10 eu her end of . 1~'lher belt , Th... ~ belt ,'1•• 1" cvol" ed int" the , imple later ElTu<can I)'pe . h" wn on p. 98, T he .... of the he ll " .•, often e mhelli. hed with de<:o.. t~d rlat~ •. .lore I....n 8Q round bro nze . h.dd. .upposed to 01 Italilln origin "",~ bc<:n found •·..yin' bee.wttn So .r>d 97<11 in dill_ mc«r , T h"" , hid d., which ' hould bee ""'lOd to Ih~ 7th ce n'ury I'C, are made of em b<".ed bro nze and I'" ,b.blp pring from the . am. cent ral EU"'p" an origin •• th~ ,,'und centr.1 h and~ri l' shield' of dark-age G ree<:e. In ""nlral Eu rope exam 1'1", ha "e beeo foun d dating bad 10 ,he ~nd of 'he 5C<.X>nd millenni um. Thes.c ohield. do not Iwo,·~ • wooden .,.,.", .. might be nl"'dc-d. bu' .he handgn r . nd ..n r f..t~n<n an: lixc-d dil'Kl'ly '0 , he in'ide of ,he bronz~. Sont~tim... the bronz~ "'" bc<:n ,,-..nc-d 50 ,hln Iha' il has holed d uri ng manu_ f.ct ur e. The.. ronSlr U<.1 ion i. similar 10 b,on'e ArgiH , hid d. found at Olym pia (p , sz) and the y ..... ~r~ clea rly made f<lr ,; eremonial I'u rpo"", on])'. ""'he n a,k~d aoout thi. til'" " f shicld an em lnen, llriti'h . rehaeologi" r~_ mMked : ' Of cou"", ,he)' v."rte uS«! in bank -in an ~mc-rgeDCY one mllh,...., .nylhing, • du..btn lid for nampl~·. I na"" remar ks Iik~ thi" and 'Ul(gc-s,it",. tha' ' hoy mij[ht be used to d~H"'1 hl"w" do litt le to promot~ th~ uncle!_ . tanding of . " d ent .....arfar e , Such a , hield .....ould ~ ' h",lutcly u..,le" in h.nk. Neverl h~,"s. these .h i~ldo m u" ~ ba"'d on functional ~xamrl~....·hleh " "rte f"')bably IM<k of v."OOd or wieker ""h a nwhid~ f"';ng. Rome'. UQ')' ,he Gabtni " ... i.....-rihcd on • """"""'en .hield """'et"c-d "i.h Mh'd<. Such wooden . h",1ds may haw bttn dttun'ed "';,h met.1 ",ud>. In fact all ,he armour 01 thi' pniod may hav~ d~v~lopc: d from hid~ or "ic k ~ r rov~red .....ith bronz~ ' lud., which would . xpla'" tho embos, ing , T her< w. s an"'her type " f ' hicld .....hich h. d r rol>ably e x i ",~ d ,i n~~ tit< ll ro nu Age . T hi ,h~ lar~ o" a! body .hield " 'ith a ndl..... h.pc:d 1>0.. "" It , I r I I Vol a:oenl'O . ....... ""'" , •__ 1 T"- l,oot '" ,t>a _kl. """"" no ,,,- ..,..,,,,, Ofto 000. w"~'~ ".." .t>o-vo on<! t>t_ ".' " 10 ho ld on ".. ".n<lll"" Sc. l. l e e..e. '" ..... _ n... t,.. ...,-,g'no 2 . _no ".. _ .. .~ _ It,..,. <:¥"I'''O J So<t>on ' '''''''''09 """,,·WO C _I. 'ho hoo d" I", • Do,,,,'" p ...
  • T il E R ISE 0 1" II.O ME 800 - 27S Be TH E HA LlA:" . U LlT A R Y S Y S T E MS knm',n .. floe ~I"''''. ",h"'h "as u,..d h~' I h~ legionari<'$ of ,he l:o,~t r~puhhc A >culptunl nop',"",n'a,ion of a .h,eld .."'n'i.l. i. ide mieal ,he whl<: h in all c la'.t H"m.n ....m ,m. " a, found in an ~ ' h · .ent ur y gr." e ;n Ihe necrop"h. of P"u;" alia Guardl ' ., Ve'ul"ni . in Elturi•. Hep",,,,n" 'i" n, of , ;m;l. r ""al ,h;"M, which la.:k "n~ ......mi.1 feat Ure. ,he 'ri""d b<>oo. hit,·~ l>«n found ,n ,he Po ,·.lIe~' and in AUSlfl.l, Thi' d,ffe'· <to<e .. impona,u .. II n.I.bliohn ,he ...",n of , he "'..,.... in Italy. h . con· "nlled ..... there i. ''OfIlirIl'l<'<l by. SIh,-enlurl' boo-s f,om .lalr-o<> In ,he ....' ..1 highlands of h oly. '0 T he lil r useo.Ro m a n ar my of ' he 6t h ce n' ury A, ;n (iteee'e each EI' U,ean .ity h." ilS "wn aTm,' . AI,h"ugh Ihe se ci'ie' We'" "n ned in aleague, IhcyseldomoperOl.d 'OS"'her. "'hieh "ao 'heir gr ea' "'.ake~U" migh' combi"" f,,,. a "*"",,,lar ""pood ll,.,..•• nd lhe conqun' ol lhe f<lU1h ha" ~ been ju......,h. H"".-~ e .... like ,he Greek cily "aln. ,hey .pcn. moo' of .!>ci r ellC1ll)' ri.h"ng each Illhe.-. In the 7th ,-en,u,~' ,h~ Etru""a n. . ili>p' ed lhe G,~d me,h"d of lig-h"n. . nd "r"ani,ed 'he" arm;e, in to r h.lanx"" One c'an say with conl;,k'nc'" ,h.. 'hey ad"r' ed I h~ ·.,ch. ;c t"" k",' wllh iii ' z x ~ Imrhle. and fou, '''''~N'''' H " ....... S,,"'. ,"'"W'C. "'''''I ' Thi. !i«flI' e-en"in .. ,he unns of lhe E'ru"""", R"m,,n ",m~' re ean~d ""nlUr.... l.ike , he la'er Rorrum. , be En u.... n' relied h•• ,'ily On lTO"P" eilh ~, COnquered by", in .lIi. n" ~ with the m. Tho,e wh" f.CO an ea,lern <!rig;n for UI ' he Elt",c'an , mig ht wcll I",illl lhe PeT,ian army fo,. parallel. In , he Roma n "rmy"f lhi. period ,... are rrobahl~' >reing a I~'rkal Ettu5Clln E'tuoan king , army. L: n.ler ,he T ""IUIIUU. Pri""", t he ... m~' """,i"e<! of I h,~ pan " {he E, tuoa... (" '110 fOl1l'led a phal:onx;, ,he Roman. and the L:t"ns, The latler fou gh, In 'hei r free r na, i,', "}'Ie wit h spea", a. .. and ia'elin' on eil her ...ing. II.>lh .i,'y and Din nysiu, of Ji. li" rn."u, give an account "f the reo,~ ani '.l ion " f Ihe Etru" "... i{"man .rm y by Sen' i'" TulJiu' in the middle of 'he 6, h ...ntu,)'. T he1r " in ually be iden'i,aJ deocrirtion. arpea, d,," 'n f""" l'abius Pi.." ... ,,'ho., ro•• • hiOlOl1' ot Rome around ~ _ H i. infonna'ion ....-n' '0 be based on II genui"" docullKnt. ThaI ~ carll' docum~n" ... ''''ri", of 'hem nlS'ed i. attested by I-'"I ,'blll' , "ho " r re'" have see n ' he Irea' )' .~.~d ...i,h Ca" ".II'O c, S09 1lC, He ,Ie,c, ih<:, 'his as "'rin en in a'ehaic I.alin which could only be p.rti.lly underslood , Ser vi", Tulli",. ,he , ..." nd of 'he ".. '0 Ii,.., '0 Ii" , '0 £Iruscan o,'erlords.. perhaps bcca..... Iff hIS La'in origin, "oed '0 tn'eara" , ,II<I"'rul:o,iun b~' '"""an",ng 'he a, my ...... .-di ng ,,, weahh and "'" r.c~. Ji~ v d i"i ded Ihe I'Or Ul. ' i" n into six cI." ••, The f" SI 0' 'iehesl h. for mcd ;"'0 ~o eon' uries '>r h'hnl, The Etru,".n. .mu"' " ill h.," f" rmcod th e m.ioril y <If ,h i. cIa" . ...hic'h , .rmed ...i, h hel"",'. ' hield, grell. ' cui....., 'pear and ."-ord, Li,')· ,he 'n>rd to, ,he >hleld "nd U ion ,,,, ,,,. deocnho-s " a. lin Argolic (ArJi' -") .tueld, T here can be no <Iou'" ,hit, hoIh ... ~ <kscTlbina: ,he lind " ... pons of the ho.>plil~ and 'herefore Ih"'" 1Io cen'u,ies f...m ,he phal.nx . .>....... h.d the ti'" cia.. "'~r~ ,wo cent un.. of ar m<lu",n and engmeet'S (jab" , "' ho were n"n",'mbat a"'; , The ",c,md da.. were f"'med inlo 20 e~nt U"es . T hel' "'ele armed in th~ ..me fa,hion " . lhe rirsl d ... ex,..po ,he~' wore no 'OUI ..... and in"~o.d ,,f ,he Argi,'e ,h'eld 'he}' "*l'ried ,he "'.., ...... llion~· ..... and Uiodont. hoIh imrll' lha' this . h;"ld "'" r"""'-"lrul.lr or 1II1e2o, four-sided. This has rrompoed ~ ",lIola... ' 0 .ugges' 'ha' lhe r"""'angular «u'u'" "f , he C"arl ~' emr'" ...• • in use ,ighl , It,, ' ullh 'he repu blicon pe , i" d. lIe,e . rch"",!,'t(Y has come t" "ur aid in • ~ui .. remar kable w"y, 1!<11 ,,~n o wa, an E"u'e.n fron lier "''''n tn. "~r" simil .. siluati" n H",ne bu' cI." cI,_ u.,,. .,mou, 'n 'ha' '0 ........ ........ •••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••••• A""• • • n d , i9" r T". [t'","o·Homon f d O'ffiV C ;>O Be " "'.. " " . _ 0140.,.., (cIos> I) 01...,...... _ .. ,he Glee' , _ '0 oon"","" 01 ................... . . . . , I I ) _ o n l _ I"", ..... _(~ '0__._.. 0 1 _ .......... 11'1_"'... _ _ _ ..... 10--..-. . 01 .._ .,...tVl.....- ..•... _ . _ ..... ~ __ h".... ..... V) , ..,. 01 on trIO ..,. '" the . ' or t , CI ,~.,.,..",.,ol_ """''''... _ _ '_"0<1 A ....... . """ n, oe1od """'" 9u" 0 , 2 CI... II J C,. .. III 4CI ... 1V , "
  • I TA LY AN D T H E X'ESTER:[ M EIll1'l'.RRANEAN o n 1M non hoem fro n, ie., 1'hoe C",nos.o ","'". a Im.>nu 0( c. ~oo 8C, lA'as fou nd here, T h i, .,,,,/.. i, crnboo~ 1A·"h ",..-nor 6gures ~'ing round Arg i,'c <hiclds. O"al shield, and fourlidN .hicIJs, "111<= figures prohah ly reprnen, lhoe E' t'US<.....'" and ,tw-ir no ntw-m allin and , holA' ' ha' ~id... ,hi: "od "ional O" al shield a (our -,ide d .hield IAhich i. prob<lbh' o nly a " orion, of lhe ,>Val s in uSC a' , hi. "me, Th,' , hird d." was .i«, d i,'ided im o 2 0 '"emmie, and ar m ed as the ,""" "d da" hilt W h"", g r. a",s, T he r""nh il d . " wa, ,imilady di' ided in" , 20 cen'"rios. According l. i,·~' ' hey were armed o nly lA'i, h .pcar and j..-elin wMrea. Di"ny'ius gr,'e. ,hem ,he ""'fum. opcar and ,word , The fifl h cia.. lA"ere rocrn¢d in'o 30 ,.. murin; ac-cordlnll: 10 L i, ) · tM~' 1A'.r•• linge!">. ond accordina '0 D ionl·, illo both sling"" and ia.."hTte<'n. D.onl"'u. add, lhat 'he} fough' ou,side , hr h... of hank. Atlachrd '0 , hIo fiflh da.. IA n c '''''0 "n'unn of hornhkno·.rs (..,....iei....) and lrllmp',e.. (f" h' er,",). Thlo re m.,ndcrof , hr popllla'ion. ,1M: poores' <:i,i",n•• "'.re cx cm p' fro m mililary "".,,'ic"C. The army ...·a' di" id ed in ha lf h~' . ge , T he '·elc,. ns served a. a h"me g und. .. 'hey did in Gre""e, and , Ik>!.c in ,he primc of life we nt nn campaign , T hi, Wa' ' he , tr ucru r e of lhe Elru<,:.,. R"m" n .rmy wit h 2 x 4 0 li><:h", r,,,ming lhe phalanx . wh ich wa' ' " I'I'''''ed h)' 2 x 4 ~ ' "enl uti e, "I' progr."i,'c1 y liltl"cr armc<J who were hoI harmed and fnUlth, in l he "a di,ion. 1 Italian ' ly le. ' rhe di Ire...,n,"C. !>etwe<: n Ihe Iwo W U""C' bu.""', ,,,u'urn .... '0 '"'''I''' arc m ln"n.l and ncc-d 01"' no doohl. on lhlo b<l,ic accu_")' <>f ,he description, F abi... Pictoc lA'roIe hi, hi"~ in Gtttk and one m,ghl t..- jUSlilicd lheref""c III prcfernnll l>Ion)..i...· accoun, 10 , hat of Li,")', It i. likely , ha, tM ",,-"Ond. lhird and fou "h d a,,,,, foughl on lhc lA'mg;~' lhe allie, had !>efo..., the Sc",'ia n rdonn" Howe"er , L j , ) , im plin lhat 'he)' formed l he "","Ond . ,hird and fOllnh li n.." .nd certainly al " ,me I'<,inl all Ro m.n "il;'em m U 1 h. c' e hecn incotporated ' int o lhe ce nt ral lx>Jy "r tr ool"' , gi,'jng birth to ,he le~i"n of l he mi ddle repuhlic whh ilS "ari",,, type, of " 001'" ligh linlt in su,'ccss i,'e line. Ne,'enh<:l"", il i, ha rd 10 m nc,,;,'C how thi, could !>e d"nc with a ph.lan~ in lh e from line, Thlo " n' urin of the phalanx , al lea". rnu" ha"e been di,'idc<J into fou r ~Uu', t" ~ an urn)' wa. needed each c..nl uI)' p ro' ,'j<k<! men in propoc1ion 10 'M loral .... uircd: if. foc cum~. an army of , ‫ס,ס‬oo reqUITed , each ""n, u'1' ........ ld ,upr 1y , wo -"i"'- or ~o men. Al l hi. earl,. P<'riod ,tw- di,-i,ion of 1M arm y inlO ""n,unC'S had a, g....t a poIi,icoI a, a m,ltla'1' purf'O"C. T he original " ru" u rc remained in , hr poli. lical sphe re bU I rhe . , m )' graduall)' ad. ptc<J its . "ue, ure 10 ilS need" When ,he " " u<cans we re dri'·. n oul Abo. . "- ""'''blow<, oOQ" "''' on ,oo _ , of ,.... Amo, '''' mltror 1M mu" 'VPO 0' "' , " 00/ nom "",d by , ,,. Romoo, . "" " ' "lCoo. ,~ ,.... ~'h O.OW", BoIoQno. Mu_ ",".!>M" ," c"'co , I ,.-a, , _ Bo' ow w.";,,, (;gur., ,hown on,ot C" ' O" "tv'" C >00 BC Th<"" f,~"r .' l>I0v0 ,M, AOfl' ''' .~ "'d , . ·foo",,,lo< . I'd " 0 ,"",Ids ,"",'• •1 ", ." u.. " ,"" ...... "'... m it"" Th<' p",t"t>r, ,"""'" .t~ EI,uocoo .."", 0 ' ,.... " "'" ee ~ ft· Ab o• • 1 A I 'h · ""n'u", b'O"", " 0 " "''' of . ,'"'' '''' wo" OQ' c,""O<J WI."""." ....,""" , ..,; e,,'.,"9 on '''''00 t><xtv ,"",'d 2 """_lal"'" of • 71h ·oem"", _ =tum ~"'" v•..-.. i,. ~"" ".
  • T HE RIS E OF RO~tE 800-275 EC THE ITALI AN MILITAR Y SYSTEM S of Rome, a large proport ion of the fir" class mUSt have gone wit h them T hi, wou ld ha'e . e<;ou nted for Ro me' s much- reduced milim, y ~ . pab i lit y . J.ivy c1.ims th. , the ro und shield (in other word, the phal. nx) rem. ined in use until the intr od uction of p. y .t lhe end of the 5th century , T he king wa, repla""d a, " ,m_ m. nder-in_chief " f th e army hy tWO p.....et"" who ",mmanded 'he two h. 1 ves of t he army . Around the middl e of the 4th century ,he pr.etorship w., ' upet _ , eded , The praetor who w mmanlk d the veteran, rna)' have su,." ived in lhe titl e of p ..... etor U rhanu" but his job beca me purely leg. 1. Cert.in ly by the 4lh cem ury Rome h. d no ' pe,:i. 1army fo r the defence of ,he cit 1'_ The tw<> chief magi" .....te' were now c.lled consul s. The n.me of prae'or conti nue d to be used for second t.nk magi'tra,e,. By the time of Polybim their numocr had risen l() , ix Ar m ament T he ",I diO of the ph.l.nx (the firs! T< d.,,) were armed in G reek f. ,hion with round Argive shield , b",nze cuirass, gre.ve" helmet , spe. r and , wor d . Al,hough the Etrusc. ns h. d adopted the lactics .nd arm()nr of the ph.lanx, the native types of armour .n d ",e. p<>n> are found in Etru scan gr aves These includc axe head, ", hi,'h c. n hardly have been u,ed in the ph. lanx . P",sihly the inelu,i" n of these weap<>n> i. rr.ditlona L On the other h. nd they might h. ve been u,ed in , ing le comba" such a. that , hown <>n • scu lpture of tW (} hoplites frum !'akri i Vetere, . T hese are armed entirely in the Greck fa, hion except , h. t one wield, a , hort cu rved dagger. );'hate'e r may be the rea,on fOT the inclu,io n of t hese weapoll> , ' hey ,"<'rtamly m ukl not have been used in 'he pha lanx Thc use of fl.ii. n armour, which m ulct hardly affect the function of the p hal. nx, is well attcsted both hv ' he grave fi nd, . nd in .rt. A p. in,ing'from Ceri <how, • hoplite wi, h Ch.kidian helmet and a rou tld Etr usc.n breaSlpb' e_ Another cx.mplc from Chiu, i , hows a hopli, c with ent irely G rcek equipment but with It.,ion _style feathe," in his helmd _ 'rhe gr.'"C group from lhe tomh of the ,,'arrior . t Vuki (e. 52 5) shows a ,y pic.1 mixed equip_ ment : Argi,'e , hieJd, It ali. n hd met of K egau type (. ec p_ 98) .n d GraecoEtru,,:. n greaves Allhough <ircck cu"a,ses were widd y u' ed, many examples of circ ular breastplates ha ve been fou nd T hese all see m to come fro m the first p. rt of the 7, h centur y, p" " ibly before 'he im rod u"t inn of the phalanx. Howe ver thcir dat ing is very difficu lt as so m. ny of them have an unknown pH",enanoc_ The painting from Ceri whieh has . Iread y been ment ioned, and whk h c' n hard ly be earlier than the end of the 6th century, shows ,ha t the type remained in usc long . lter t he 7t h century _ T hc'c di,cs are shown on A" yrian h.s reliefs .nd later example. h.ve heen found in ho , h Sp ain and eentr.1 Euro pe . T heir orien..1 origin seem, very likely T he Cori paint ing , h(}w, the hreas tplate held on hy a ham """ prob. bly of leather . On thc hack of these plates ,here arc usu .lly three loop, at the w I' .nd a furt her one .t ,he bottom for .,..ching the plate to the harnc,, _ T he commonest form of helmet in , SCOlotu,e ot E c, " "" "'or, ," complete lf"' G'ee , 0'0 001'1. From F. I.r', VOler., 2 W" no, """""9 co<njlle'e Gree, ponc olv bot w'th ltal', " ' tvl. fe.,""" o~ n" helme' Frorr> Clu",m ( Ch '" " ) / / ,
  • ITALY A~[) TIl E ~· E STE R r.; MEDITERRAN EAN 8 e lo w ".'mel, I,,,,,, Bolo.. .... 1e P~""no 01. W","'" w,'~ G,oe' ....."...,""" E~"", .n ~ 'v"'. ,_. U Z. I",... , ... , ... 01 2 st.ter."II on ""'''II ,-.ng ~ C ." _.""Ol. 15 ..... £1ru","" 'ound t><.......,. , _ 1 (;_, 'C"'>e"loon· ....o~ ""..-,.,.. Z '..'..... 'Ne9ou lVI>t f""" .... too- . 01. 'oo.ond _ 11 Bac' '" _no ~"_"11 Vol" G.,I.. " " _ • • • J • ~1 ,= 10 I I [J:8J •. , n_ • s.-_ (II _ C,""usi (C (1'_.-!toM ""') $ ,~""'"" Ii Ewoeon """'" (II G.... _ .......... 1<om ""," .. Cottoco 1 """'" of ...".1.. . - moM 01 woOO ...., ;' 00 ""'" l",",o ",,",u,,"o 8 T"" cI>o"" '" • I'm,", 'WOld, blonN , bone ;nl.... lIomooch "".on, "",h Gem>on_ l ......1 M " >eVm. 9 S och' o<l piltIm h"", V... ", MvtOO G,"9O' ''''''. V"'¢.OO Abov . ""'' PO<'' 3 Typ'c.>l H,u,c.n ...moo' .nd ThO .,""'"", ~"""",,,,.d 1<om ,hO m'' 'd p'OW'v lo u nd ;n ' hO 'Tom b 01 '100 W..."",' . , Vule' "oon Q'" A'g '"" " ""., ' ,"Id. G".oo, E u, c, n g .." "" 'nd ''' '', n Nog. u " "'m., 10 T'<1;0.1 [ " u>c. n boll 01.,., '1 12. 13 r"" _ _ 01 of 1100 'UN"" ,,,ord 11 Vdl,,,,,,,n ' wo,d I,,,,,, Eo,. 12 [ I,u, c, n , w",d 1,,,,,, AI.....n C"..,O . U S"'" " ~ ' _d (IAICo"). B"" .h Mo_m
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  • I T A L Y A l"D T H E W EST ERN M EDI T ERRA NEAN A complom Etruseln ponop/J _ lbw>d in ,he Tomh or S.... n Roo m. a t 0Mt1O ..... Lake 1loIs<:na- TIll> ........... or I 1yplCai Enusc.n mu.cl.d cui ra.., 10.. classlcll ~a vcs. Arziw s11 ldd and I Mon tcforlino h,lme ' wl' h Wpl, di.c check plec• • In neld or weaponry I considerable cho nge had Iaken pl. "• . A I ' h "u ~ h the hopli" . word remolned In usc lhe w•• 'upersed'd by • heavy lovelln ,h. 'h. ,pe., ~l, TII poo boeca<M 1bc: primaTJ' o/fMUlW pon or 1bc: Roman IeVoo- It had • Ion& iron shank and _ all.toed to the wooden haft by I .oc ket, .pi k, ta"ll or • no t W1lI: wi' h ..... or IWO m ClS ·Ib••o<k,'ed 'YP' wU probl bly in uSC e.. ly In ' he 41 h c. n1ury 1houg h the . rchl,,, l"llicol . vidence i' uncerl.1n. Th ' ,p i:c . to ngcd type fi r" ap r " " in n"rl h"n llaly In the .I1h century. The fl ' l-lln ~. d !YI" ..,m, to he d,plcted on a . .II painting in 1M Gillloll 10mb " T.,qulnla. wllich do.... 10 1M period of Rom.', flit' coon"" with T.rquinl' ,n ,he tQid ,th century IlC. bur t~ orchaeoloKiul nampl. d.1inK to lh. lit.. J'd cen rury rom.. hom T.lamoo in E'rul1' . TIle origin or ,ht. lYPO remains obs<uro. Th. Glg]ioh "'mb prodates Ih, S. mnll. m. King I' unllk, ly Ih. t the Roman, adopted it from th' So mnll<S as h.. ""en ~ene"lIy , uPl"'ocd ,.rlies' w." , r_ _ omno _ .. c....ot .... Ih lllh' "''"'' ............. un<Ie< .... noc' ---' 2 ~ _ _ ..... . -_ .... ""......,_ .. ..._ t.ono .... _ot .... _ .~ , • • , , , , • Ii, ~l I '.i T I I , '- l " c""," """ IOtm flo"'" 01 ........ """"""'" .. Bot,"''''''''''''' 9'''_ . 4 Root","" E', eo. . .. , Mon'o!Q ~ , r>o _ f,om • lomb ., 0 ,.;. ' 0 , type .......""" A' g,.- .h;el<j , W _"'II .. 10............ "'11 ~ . ...,*""", El"**" u.... ' - Y " , -• .".) Gog>oI, 'omb, To,,,,",,,,, '"..,·eo"",,,,,,,, ',,"n'" on 'hO K. ' ....""" M,_ , 7 w.....".. ....... "" ......." ~om 0 - . _ _ ~ . ,,·Conntf>;o n _ •. Ont IIo,"'Ie, 'hO 01.... . evw_ • A """" 1. '·tarrgea _ 1 "on ',om T....""'" on Em"I., mu""" "". 1
  • THE R IS E OF HO M E 800 - 27 5 Be T il E ITA LIAN MI LITA RY SYSTEM S Th A ~"ui, Vohd a nd r cla .~ d peoples Dur ing th , ear ly ye . " o f th e 51 h cent ury Rome c.me into violent contact with the hill, peop le of cent ral I,aly: tht Aequi and Vol,ei wer , iu' t two of the many ",a,like trioe. who , with the S. hines . nd S.m n ites , occ u pied the vall ey< of th e Apenn in e mo un 'a; n, which form 'he backho ne of the Italian peninsu la, st,e tch ing from the Alp, in Th" . [It< no rth all the w'j to [lte toe in [lte south Tlte peoples who oceupied the centrai sect ion of these mou nt.ins may be loosely grouped under the h.. ding of O,,'a ns Th, ,, peop ies would have served as allies or me rcen" i" in the Et ,u,c . n ar mies . Exe.vot lo n, a[ the 6'h -S 'h " e nlury nec rop oli S", , t Alfe den. 130km east of Rome . nd at C.m povalano di Cam pli ne.. Tero mo on ' hc c", ' ide of [ltc Apc,," i1,<,' Itave produc<d a wcaith of ar m, and armOUL These finds, when compar ed with the [om ou , 1'1• .., 0' sto tue fou nd "' Capemano SOme 30k m e, " of L'Aq" ;;•. ena ble us to dra w up an exc ee ding ly accura" picture of a w. rrio r o f the hill peop le The Capestr. no w,rrior wea" a small ro un d pe cto ra l a nd co rr es po n din g back pl. .. join ed by • br oad h i n~ e d b a n d wh i" h p ass e s o' er tlt e r igh t , 10 A ~ ' O"' e Md ~ M k p'", ,, ",,"h hiog" d $hOu'<I(" " ,"0 ',om to" 0" 0' 000'" aI MOdeo". M us«> A O<l NioO. S<.,e 1 ' 6 . All th " parrs ar. "" .k. O w,' o woo TM r.;" g% aM o'he' ."ac O "",o,. a•• a,.o mado or I,,,,, ~' e'3t · So, e," 0' 'M,e M , . " ""0 fO"M In PO"""'" a A 'ecoo"'lIC,'oo of • ",."'0, " om ' he c,,''''.' h","'.nds. Thi. tyoo 0' " moo, . od ",eapon. ·~"'-" d U3.<j I>y He m "" . A" O,i aod VOlsc,- H. wO. " . PO' """'''', _ , go"o,no , Oi' Ovl,,, ",e, " _"M "" ca",,,,, 'w o ,",0 " ' '''& S!"'a,••no a Gr",, ' ".ve _ " 'he h p" . "". ' ',po 'w o.-O on 1M s k.I. ,oo '" ' 00 gra,o. " Tho ,n"d. 01 t,on' ' M", ; n~ ,n. hon OOCklO9 ,1>. p '''. w h'ch w as ", 'oppe<J b' o",e focing , ovo, ' h. adg o of ,n . ""''"' '9 ,he ,110< w,'" ,ts , ",,' the blOC" . Th. '.. m • • , ing, """-''' "' • • 13 TM w.."o.- of Ca p.ostr ar>Q. bco""plat . and '''' o<~. TM ""''''''' ~.><Kt on the "'",,'" '" Co",,",,",'" 14 Back 0 ' , he ' 2 " ""''''''''lICtiOO o[ the cc;"", seen f,om pre,,,,,,,,,,,, 01 te, H,., aM neve< ' u" i_. i, brim i5 w oo ' Dly g' osSly oxaggom' od sam ~ fig " ," , w,
  • ITALY ASD T H E lX' EST ERl' M EDI T ER RAN EAl' >houI<kr, On IIi , head he h... =tw hel-. with an e"",""",," brim . He i, a~ ...~th t..."O joIveh......·hiell IIave , hroWlng Ioopo, an ne and a , word which hc i, holding clooe 10 hi, breasl. ~eral example, of ,hese dioc breaslplOle, joined by a hinged metal band hove !'ocrn di,co,'tred a' Alfedcna ond Camrt", . lano di Campli. Othe r ex_ am ple, 1I.,'e been I" und., far ap ar! . s An,on.o, Ca.." a in Com pa"ia, an d Aleria in Corsica. TOOe are .11 ma de of 1:>TOIl7>: hacked wi.lI iron . The example $ho"'"Il here i. fn'm lhe roecro-po li,.' Alfedona. The di...... are ~ 3_ Scrn in d i.tme-ter (they are l e""nlly beI..""o J O and ~~crn ..i<k), ...'lIiell i, muc ll - al A _ 1~ '0 The broad , boulder Nod , ...·hieh ;, )OCffl long. io ma& <JI .hltt plo'" <JI bronze , rimmed -;.11 iron. llIey "'" joined l"llet her ~'h ,ron lI inges {hat are rio 'e,ed (o ,he pla,n . The band i, ioi""d to , he back Ji", with a hinge and I<) ,he front w;,h a hook. T he cui.... w•• held in p'"ilion by . har n"," ,omp<ScJ of lwo h""d 'traps, ooe pa"ing "vcr each , h" ulder and 1><'0 omaller "rap' pa"ina under u <oh atm, b , , .. ....... _ _ 50 . . I>ov.·o on , he Capes_ lnno ...'&rrior. "I1lne .1,..,., ..hieh "'" obvMlu.ll· derio'w from !he earlier ElNllQIn examples, ore " .... Ul· .1CO)f_ .'w ...'ilh rou nd houo:s and • m~·,hical two-heade d fa" n , On ..>me eu mplc. ,lie Jec"Ora,ion io in";"".1, The iron b"" king, wllich lI ad IWo . emi-d rcular p;cce, cuI oul of 'he c-entre. is rolled over 'lie cd~e of th e dioc ,, " , he front an d hamme red no.. larger l hao 105... "*"'" """"""""""m It " ..,""" ,n • Cot,""'O" - ....... ""' ....... ~ , 0,," R'aM "n."""....- 'loIi.n 00' ""- . . 1_7 S 1 I,," _ 'O<m '" ',,'..n "'" tool Vd_ _ .. Rome """""" _ "'u " _m : " .......,.. """, . .-:0 _ "' e - _ . a>nmon On """'*" v' go" ... "'-"' z. "" o~ :t> s.n- _ on Sest<> _ rei of J J _·110_ _ ....... , [,ole c...ooo ....... , P.-.lllv llI' .... "'-''''' of bOO e - _ ""'" A..,.... ~ o! • •."",... ,not w<InO Iovnd ...... C.....-... ," "-PJ "o f ,om " .. Cn,o" M" ..,,", ," __ --loa M> _ ~ "", a _ _ .. "" 5 • ...._ _ ofcha • _ _ ·C.",,"· 'obOO. 10""0" _ ...._ "'_u 1 _ ,l 5 G_,ono. Voncan l", C . rn~n,,," o ' Q 00<'""",,, " __.. "_"",, y''OOO'...a . . SornoI....._ II> two • ~ . - ... '"" Cont>oo .._ rot*"'" aI. d;oc..., _...-. Ie , , _ "" wi<;_ , , _ 7 eon",.1....... I,,,,,, Ope."" ..... va.o'» " .0""""''''' ><.' Mu,..;m, f"""""o 7. S,mHor "" 'n," on tno Rologn• ..wi.
  • TH E RI SE Of R OME 800--275 8C T HE IT A LlA~ MILITARY S'STEMS These.~ clnr l)' . hovo'n on the Capes- nano ........ Many broad-brimmed hdmcu Ita,.., Iottn f<>llnd but"""'" wilh a rim ao " ide .. Ihat worn by the Capcslrano ",-.rrior. The p'cdonunanl I)"P" i. lhe 'poI' hdznI;t ,,'h>ch ;1 fQUnd al l "'-..- ce ntra! and nonhem Italy and around lhe head of the Adrialic in nonhcrn Yug<>.......... ll>ew pol helmc1.. ""'0'1 10 bear "'" ~lalion . 0 ,he "".liel VilbncNan Exampl... <>f .i milat helmets from Austria artod Cud..""Im'akia su g_ gnt a cent~ of di.penion .round the had of the Adriatic. T he ea.liest!)"P" ( I , p . 102) is in Ih. fonn of. round cap turned QUI al the bnm. ll>ew helmcu ofte" Itave .....11 knobt ti'fled on IOlhe sKIn and • erat hoIde. " lhe lop " i lh . ttach..... n...1 lhe fronl anJ Nd.. llIe type is common in central h aly and an ~ple " --U .....,n round ar Rome. lYp"' . II 1~ n " t. 10 II u_ g g c.~ d k"", " ' _ t'<ll'l - . . . . SestO Calende in ,he foodlill. <>f the Alps , It " .... made in four pieen n,.."ed logethe1". like ,he earlier htlmeu theM lu" .., a cr..... holder .1 the lop and IIlaChmenlO " fronl and N<..ir., Thil I)l"" is probably .hown beina worn by lOme of the tirrureo on . he Cenou. .,trJ". 20 rr 17 "1 " t,,,,,, ,,·urior'. gra,,,,., t 9 , G_ eorn"o...• ....., d' 1 _ _• k""' ...._ 19 N um ber J i. a tl"P" reotticled ' 0 n,,"hem Italy and Yugosla' "ia, T he """" famoul nInlpk "''D foun d in a " I a ..ow 12 W, m", .. ""0<1 ...... .., • •••nd """ jo.;o,... Va.,. .,...., 13 Won"" ..,," """ .. -eo,,,. on<I • "';nod """""" ,",.-d..._ , . '''''' ...... _ V.......... ':10 n _.,--,----_I<>'>g'_ _..-.. I § ...... " , 2'1 22 ~ _ ~ k"", .... ,.,.,opoI.. 01 ..... eorn"o...-., _ 17 ,. ~ _ _ ' .... o<g .... - - - " 2D _ _01_800-._ "'~~_,_. Sao.- _ _ c.,...........,. T1'es< ;0 . 21; _ at-. 21 .. .....,. _ n eo, It _ ....... c.., ~ _'" ....... ......., _ "" ''''''''''''V "'.... __ f""" , . , . , _ at 21.0 - . . _ ~ 01 ... _ <Iao'O. 25 ~ . n,to _ """"ll QtI lOP of .... - . . : I ......... QtI p 83 "" , "om 30 '''''' ~ ""... w ... """" ...... C.... ".,...lo<>o 31 3.2 Sw ",O on<I K-OIlI>o'd. ,,.,., ...'" toor>e ''''ov. _ , _,.... 10 QtI , .... ",..,i", 01 e-""", A ll......... '"ot """'" 15_32 A" ..... ,:tO f,,,,,, '"
  • ITALY AK D T HE W EST ER N M E DI T ER RANE AN N um ber 3 is unusual_ only lWO examples have been found. T his , peci_ men, which has no p, ovenance , is in Ihe M u, eo Gregoriano at the Vatican, It is int ereSl i n~ because of ilS broad bri m ,- the doseS! yel found 10 Ihe immen,e bTim of the ,--"pestrano " ",ue. 11 has a pronou nced CTest cha nnel obviously adopted from the lllyrian helmet. T his is a very nO liceahle characte ti " ic of the Yugo, la'ian pOI belmcts . T ype 4 is common arou nd the nort bern Adrialic and in lhe Po valley. It is clea rly of the , ame fam ily a, lhe Negau lype hut i, gcncrally mueb broa dCT in the cap, N umber 5 has rece ived lhe na me of 'Cannae helmet' beca llsc lwo examples were found in Ihe region "f Ihe haltle_ field of " annac where the R" mans were dcfeated by Ha nn ibal in 2161lC, T hese two helmelS, which are in lhe Bri lish Museum, were long Ihoughl 10 come fro m the l>atl le and were used 10 cia" and dale ol heT examples , Fortunalely an exee llent specimen was found in a grave at Campo'alano which pb ced il firmly al Ihe end of Ihe 61h c-.,ntury. T he 'e helmets , of wh i~h aoout ten example, exi" (half of lhem bave no provenance) would seem 10 be limiled 10 Ihe Adriatic ~"a" hetween An,'ona and Hari. T hey aTe characteTised b y an in,el ere st channel at the fro nt , a pro nounced wai" like Ihe Ne ~au lype and Iwo h emi.phCTi~al ho,"s which are ri'eled to the , ide . T he ,e Ix,,,e' are made of beaten bron ze filled with lead and backed wil h on iro n disc, T he Cc rto, a , iwla , how, a peculiar helmet made up of Ix" " , or dis cs (6a), Examples of helmets of this type have been found in Yugoslavia (6), T hese are made of a wicker cap covered wilh bron7 di,~ •. The gaps ocl ween .., lhe discs are filled with bro nze . lud, Cuirasses made in a similar fashion have also bee n found in Yugoolavia , T he last Iyp< (7 ), which is shown on t he Bologna ,iwla (7a), i, c o n i~a l in shape, It was nol 'ery IX'Pular and cert ainly nO! as effeCli'e as lhe brimmed lype" hut a fcw example. ha'e becn found T he one shown here is fro m Oppeano near Verona , It is made in lwo pieces tiveted 10geIher and has a ~a" bron ,.., topknot. T here arc two , mall bTonze loops on the inside for fa s teni n ~ a chi n strap , The othe r types ." wete also held on by a chi n strap which wa, umall, ' allached to t he lini ng ,'ap and is often , 'i, ihk on the ,iwla. T he watrior of Ca pe'trano i, weaTing a throat ~uard : a very similar example wa, foun d at Alfedena, On his upper left aTm he wears an armband . Such armbands have bee n found in POSilion arou nd the left h ume.-", in t he warrior graves III Alfedena, which brin.o;s to mind the stor,. of T ar peia, t he Roman maiden .t lhe lime of Romulus, who betrayed lhe C. pi101 10 lhe Sabin.. in relurn for Ihe gold bracdets that lhey wmc on their left arms . There i, so often an underlying tr uth in the old legend" Even lhe sequel may havc a grain of tru th in iI, for Ihe Sabine, pTOha bly spoke O""an and they may ha'e had difficu hy in undcT"anding what Tarpeia ""a",ed when she lX'i nlcd to whal lhey were wearing on theiT left arm, and o/feTed hn Iheir , hield s, T he warr ior of Ca pe" rano has no shield and no shield remain. have bee n fou nd at the excavalions. It th erefor~ seems mOSllikely lhat lhe non-metallic ' CUl um in one of its for ms was used . A d""or ated brcast dis" fTOm Ihe Anco na area further nor th shows a fallen warrim holding wha l must be an Argive ,hield . The Ancona area ha. produced abundant evidence t haI the full h(}pJi te equipment had been adopled there, but lhere is no similat evidenc~ for its adoplion in the central area , G re~ k arm"ur wa. having only the slightest infl uence in lhe c~ ntra l area . Of all the ~ra v es exea 'aled at Alfedena and Ca mpovalano unly one ha s yielded any G reek armour; Ihe unique OscoCorint hian helmCl (sec p . 6', ' 3) and a 6th_century Gt~ek greave (.ee S, p . '03) were fou nd logelher in a grave at Campovalano. T his greave is eKeep· lio nal, and lbe warr i"r of C aI'C' trano cert ainly doe , nol wear an y, Further nort h , pro bably under lhe influence of the G reeh . nd Etru.~ans , gTea'cs hecame com mon p la~e and. pair were found in the famous warrior gra'e at Sesto C olende , A very sim ple upper and lower ann guard were also found at AlfeM n. bUI Ihe, e 100 are unique. Armour uoually comi ' ted only of a cui" ," and helmet. Su . pended fro m the harness of hi, cui rass on lhe right side, lhe Ca pestr ano warrior has an elaboralely decoraled swor d . An almost identical sword was fou nd", Alfe<lena. T his was only one of a large num bet of ir on swords and ""ahl>ard, thaI have bee n found. T hc," SW'<>Tds are all of Greek hoplile lype probably ado pted from lhe Etruscans. T heir hlade length, 'ary octwcen 60 ancl ,ocm . ' I'he handles and the top and Ix)[[om of Ihe scabbards of these , word, aTe made of bone covered with iron . T his iro n facing ofren has pierced decoralion so lhal Ihe Ixmc ,how, Ih ro ugh. The handles "fR oman dagge", of lhe caTly empiTe are made in exact ly the same way. T his and the wides pread remains of hoplile swords fw m Ihe Po valley 10 Apulia and from Ihe Adriati,' [() Corsica, wilhoul ",unling the areas such a, Hruttium, Lucania, Ca m p.nia an d Sicily which came direcl ly under Greek influence, leave no c10uhl Iha' Ihis wa' also the primary sWOTd used by Rome and the I.a lin League before lhe introduction of the S panish lype in lhe 3rd century , On t he Capesltano sta lue a small knife is visible a11a~hed to t he fronl of the swt>Td ,eahhard . S imi lar knives, with a blade lenglh of 20- 25cm, have been found lying on to p of th e sword scabbard in the gr",'es al C. mpovalano. So me of the gravc' eon lained iro n daggers complete with their iTon scabba rds and chains for attaching them to , he belt. The blades (}f these weapo n. werc 25-30<:m in length Mo st of these daggers ha'e four prongs projecting aro und the pommel, which seem 10 indicale a centr. l European origin. A wide variely of ' peaThcads have been re~ o ,"e fe d , betraying the many influences affecIing Ihe cen" al It alians , There ore ex.mples d early of My~ e _ naean, Gre~k and Villanovan deri'ation whil.. ot hers are just a, clearly fro m none of lhese sou rces, T he moot characleri'tic of these lallet lypes are quad rangular and triangular , haped Thei , , ioe 'aTies fTom liny lTiangu lar javelin lX'ints less lhan Scm long to a quadtangul", spearhead over Socm in lenglh. All Ihe"" 'peaTS and javelins ha 'e poinlcd iTOn butts . A any spear· ,t head, and bum were fou nd in pooitio n in lhe gra"e, m aki n~ it possible to est ablis h Iheir lenglh' , which vary between ' .6 and 2.6m Hefore leaving lhis perio d . omcthing must be said of lhe peoples of the Po v."
  • T H E RI S E OF ROM E 800- 275 £C THE ITALlA:' MI LI TARY SYSTEMS v.ney during the time of the Elfu",an expan, ion north of lhe Apennine" Ailhough they may only have had a mar~inal influence on the Elruscans, they had a g"aI effect on Ihe invadin~ Cell, who in lurn had an enO rmOu' influence on the Romans. Durin~ Ihe 6th .nd 5th centuries a vibraIlt cullure existed jm l sout h of ,he Alp, . T hi, ind uded the whole . rea of the Po valley and nort h_western Yugoslavia , These people had a unique art form known to archaeolo~i't s as "tula art. r he,e si'ulae arc bronze bucket' which were elaborald y decorated with em bossed fi~ures often including warr iors and chariots . These repre,en'a'ion" ~" u ple d wi, h the wea_ I"m, and armou r thaI have bee n found, make it po"ible to draw a fair ly accurate picture of the north It ahan warrior of the 6,h and 51h cenl uries In the north, to<>, Ihe 1">1 helmel wa, the mo"common form . It was gradually superseded by the Negau type dur i n ~ the 51h century. Shields of all , hapes and size> are , hown on ,he siuda., from round Argiv e type' , ,, oval and rectangular body , hidds . The iro n shie ld 00.. (' 4 , p 103) undoubted ly comes ftom a body , hield , I" sections show lhat lhe shield w", convex. The figu re from , he Arnoaidi situta (1 3 , p . 103) i, ohen identified as an invadi ng Ce il, and indeed it i, just possible that he is., but his heime!, Iwo spe ars or javelins , tunic and spined , hield should ' urely make him an halian. Howev~r, onl;' a ,hort time later bo, h lhi, lype of shield and h~ lrnet were he ing used by lhe Ce l" of the Po valley and wer~ uIlq ue>tionabiy .dopted fro m ,he Italian, . M elal euirass", do not , "em'" ha " e been u,ed and the C" idcnec of the ,imla. suggests Ihat "'en the linen cuirass was rejected. Bronze s<udded eoirasses were in use in Yug",lavia and i, i, po"ihle tha' they were employed in th e Po valley . Iso, though lhere is no ev idence to support Ihis. Hopli '~ sword, . nd tilur _pronged daggc", a r~ common in lhe Po valley hut lhere is • strong trans-Alpine influenee here, and m. ny of lhe swords . nd ' p"arhead, ,how centra l European chara,teri"i~s . The ccnlral ltalian tri_ angu la, and quadrangular s pearhead, are nol eommon north of lhe Ape nnines , The ,i",la warriors e.rry one or lwo spears and ",>metim", an axe . "" hen two 'pears .re shown one rna,. rcason . hly ' uppo,e lhat lhey are lhrowable. Ch" ri,,!S arc a regular fealUre of warrior bu rials. On ' he si",lae , hey are usually shown in a ceremonial ~~m te xt and il ",em, unlikely that lhey were u.ed in hattie, e,pecially as fighting hor,emen of,~n appear on the si'ulae, T he Vace clasp show, 'wo hor,~men fi ght ing wi,h spea rs and axes. O ne w~ars a po' helmet but neithe! h. ve shield•. A similar un,hid d ~d ho,",e man arme d wilh an axe appears on 'hc C ~ r lO,a , i",la . T his suggest' lha, ar",md JOO Be eavalry did not carry , hields, bu' ' he , hghtiy 1 ", Arnoaldi " ",Ia m sho"-,, a .."alryman , till wearing a I"ll helmel hut armed with two javelin, and . n Argive lype shield , T he Sa mn ;le . Wilh lhe defeal of [he ',loisci, who ()Ccupi~ d ,he L epini ,nd Au, oni hiih which hem mcd in La, ium 10 'he ~a" , the Latin I."ague ~ame into di r"Cl conlact wilh lhe S"m niles alon~ the river Li ri, . S, mnium wa, ,hat area of the ce ntra l highland, hmitc d by the ri"er Sangr o in the non h and the Ofanlo in the soulh and it "-'as with the people of lhis .rea Ih", lhe Samnite war s were fough,- However, , he area o~"upied by tr ihes direc~ l y rd ated to lhe Samnites was for greater. Soon after 500 Re , following ' he collap", of Etr u' _ <'an I">wer in the , out h, Samnite aibes pou red down into lhe coasta l plains , Outing lhe sueceed ing cem ury they ()Ccupied lhe who l ~ of the south fmm Ca mpania t" lhe toe "I' hal l' T he Elruscan colony of Ca pua fell 10 lhem in 423 and ,wo ye.rs la'~r lhe G reek city of Cum"e, whi< had piayed ,u, h 'h an important part in lhe defcat of Lars P""ena a century earlier , was also caplured , Apuli. on lhe east ",a" had similarl y been oce u p i~ d . The Samnit", mixed wit h ' he local I">pulation, and soon produced independent tribes with a mixed culture slrongly influenced by ,he Greeks who h.d colonised 'he co",t.l area, bd Me 'hem. In the middle of t he 41h century, prohably in res ponse 10 the rapid expansion of the LatIn L eague, lhe Samnites tr ied 10 fot ce lheir ki "'nt ~n in Ca mJ"lnia to join 'he Samni" fedn a_ ,i on . I n 343 th ~ La,i n League, , imilarl,. nervou' about lhc expansion of the federalion, intervened 10 maintain Ihe indepe ndence of Campania and so bro ught on , he fir" confmnta,ion be· ' ween the IWo powcrs. 8elow Co,,'" Somn it. ",ar,.o," w ito ,taoo"ds f,om in l uc. n•• . N,pl.s Mu seum Th., p, io,ing i, p<obabl, e,<lv 4th ",,"tu,," TWQ 0 ' [h<l ",." io" rio . 'Quo" t><•• "nla,., M h<l'. " P,. stum tt,. "0""""'" WOlO ,n"."
  • I T A L Y AND THE W'EST ERN M EDl Tlill.RAI EAl' .- r... _ .... ..,.. ... fo«,t .... -..no "' _ _ ....... Cad_ . _ ..... _,.. - F..... ., »1 lI(: Thoo _ _ • _ ~-... _ ..... _ _ , _.- .... ~_.'"'01 ..-_~IO. I _~--" ..
  • T H E RI SE O F ROME 800-17S Be THIO IT ALIAS M ILlT AR' S 'STEMS lbc Ionl "-u th:a' bop.n in YO ;,; dividN by th< hi><onant Into three pam , tM firsl , second and third Samnit~ "'on. U'"y"s accoun, of ' k fin, "ar is.., "n,..,li abl~ <ho' many hi.,orians ho v~ bf<,n led to ~licv~ thot no such wor loe"" pI""". Whal i. e~"ain is tha' no lain Wa' made on ~ill>< r . ide and in thi' re.ped the Le.l(u~ wos sucee.,ful The War l...ed only thr~ ~ )'~ars and ",os imm~dia'~ ly follnwed by lhe .. ru!Q(l~ beN'...,n Rom ~ and her alli'" for con,rol of the Lealf"~' 1'1>< main bc:p n in 3Zg and conti"u~d, ..,<h • brut: of six yean, unlil 210. "I1Ie hiotori<:al record of thew yeon rna)' be poor _but th< arch-*'eiall rr<;Ord. panicularly in reblioD .0 armour, is far <ko pi '~ tho< frcq ,,~rll diiliwhy <Jl dalina: tM pieces. S""""kk-u, il i. possible '0 draw a ..,.""nabl~ pM:tur~ of lhe Samn i t ~ wamor . Livy g i v ~ s a le"ll:thy l<:COun, of , I>< Samni' e army in which h~ de.cr ibe. 'hem n for ming two regiments, o,,~ " med wit h ,ilver sh i~lds and 'he other ,,"'ith 8old~n shield' . Th~ '.ilv« shield. ' ,,"'Of ~ whi'e linen 'unk. and had silver «;abba.-d. and bald riCI-, "" hilst the 'golden .hi~lds· had multi-a>loured tunica ",-jth gold scabbards and baldrics. 111< 1IOld>en wore a brea.. plll' e ,,'hieh L vy con . 0 ' poIlIl'C (~..)" This QOUId be in,e<p«ted .. mail (" """l h this woul d be a" anachroni""l. n."y also wore a cres,ed hd..... and a . ingle era« on 'k Ief' Iq:. Uvy goes on to dnaibc tM . hield a' I>roe<I and 1e>..,1 . 1 lhe lOp 10 protect ,he ehcsl. and sroul<kn bu, lape.;", ,,,wards ,he bonom . T hi' desc.iption be.." no relalion to the arli"ie or archaealollk ol evidence ond ho, '0 he re;.... .ed ent ire ly if ane i, .· to get any",," of picou.. of lh~ Samnil~ soldier, This ~nti re se<.1io.. of lJ"y' s hislory is s"'ped. Uvy makes ,he hodia'ouo dai m that , .... silver anod gold rqiments, "'hieh are reminiooenl of ,he :1acNonians, "..,re fonned .pecilkall)· for lhe campaign of 309. Of ,n. res( of ,he <'qwpmcn' ,he _ dari,.hl< mnark lh... can ~ ma.Je is lhat Uvy is <hcribina 11>< so-called Sarnnil~ aJadiators of his 0""" day. SCUll"u..... of lhese glad"l.,.. have surviwd ond ' hey carry who' i. clearly ' he OVOIIC~ I~ '" ,,; , h the lOP Cui off. Thc.~ a.~ unfo rtun. ,ely no undi s- representations of Sa mnite ",'uriors. Those Sam..;' .....110 had mia..,~d 10 ,he COlIS. ~ i.. ,o ron<act w;. h lhe Greeb and lMir annouc show. a stronll- Greek inll... ncc. There ar~ hundred, of rep . n~ n ta l i "", of lhese co..'ol Samnites ; the d ,ltieulty i' to detnmine whieh are lh~ (;'eek and whieh lhe Sam n i' e d ements. The, e pielur.. nearly always . h" w w ldie" armed "'ilh lh~ Argiv~ shield . I lo"'e"Or, ""led a pa,nllll{l from Cap"" tbqo,o'S a honeman Cll'r);nl " clearly defined """~"', wluch he appoean 10 ha' .., caplured, and arraam~mlr)' frc-tCO from Naples.how. warriors fighling "'; l h lar.~ ",-"I shield' "'ithou l the "",.,urned rim l.<> typical of t he Arg i,,~ shield. I n hi. d~scr;pl;an o( th~ Iin~·up for th~ bonl . "f A,euium in 279, Diony, i", af Ibiie _rn , ,, u, refero 1<, the S. mni' e 'hield os Ih"" Q' , which i, lhe ",me word lhal h~ uses for """ll"" • • ii i• ton,"_ - -- ,.,..,. .... --- ""'" 1 A ... s.-.. ""'" _ l S - Am< _ s...· • s-.. __ _ , ..- CotW ...... 3__ "'*'..... ...... _ N _ AoQ' , , >'C g , _ _ Tho. .",. .. .... Bont.... '" Sam " "",.IOG (WI .... G_ ""''''ong& .. s-w> _'''''_(_Q 111) '5'I/O 5 .., Po"" ..-.-""" _ I ,If> 7 Po;n,,"Q ... WO<rI ~_ """'''11 _ ! ' """,). 5. 5 """ 1 N."... 0.1 " .."", BA 4' " ·con,"", S.",",.. ~ "" '''0' '"
  • ITALY AN D T H E WEST ERN MEDITE RR AN EAN - , T' .... dol< _ _ "'9"'11< ,"".." "' "om AI"""'" ""'.. ' 8 " """......- _ 1. 0..... '" __, lb ~ "' ....·_ , _ 'c"'"- ...... "' .... .-. "'_ • , - , , , r• • , :> -,,' .... • , >, -Go- .W _ ..._ ...... A .- .... ---.....f A s.- ) -7 V ~ _ "' s..-.. 1 ..... 7 _ _ - 5IN ,, _ ,......_ 0C' ," "' ... _ .c._..._.. . . . . . . ... Tho ..... __ .• _ · _10"'" _ ...", . . - _ _ "'"'" 1 8 ~ "'"" ..... _nOt ... ," _ '" ,"" ' OP ~ s.._.. boI, "'d .... """ H,. ........ _,,"'Iv _ __.... _ ,. _ 'M _ ~_ ""'''''Il T,," <"-"'" !,_ ......... no G,.,.. "" '-.00 , M mo'" ""' " ;nd~ ,,,,,... """,'",.o,'"P "'Tho S"""',.. WON"" """ P""Q 0' " • IIood OX"""" '" ,,,. i"""plOy bo, ~ .,.'h,.oJ.,.."", ,od '0''';0 ••iao""" ,," llooaOInl _ _ ""'" ..-....(P 1 ( 6 ) - . . . _ , " ~k , '" . TM ~ _ ,..: _ ""'9" _ _ lib o,.ogo .. 0N0I '" , "0 _ _ '0 tloNo '" _ """'" ill S",1v ~ "'_ T".,.~ _ _ "' . '" AJ:nc . - _ _:~=~ .. bo<t~ A"""""'_ _ .... s........ w_ -. _ '"
  • THE RISE OF RO M E 800-275 Be T HE ITALIAN MILITAR Y SYSTEMS the ea rly Roman sh ield which Livy o.lIs a ,emum. The re was a tradition in lhe laler republic quoled by Sallmt that lhe L ucanian Samni tes used shields mac of o' iers covered wi'h ,heel''; k hide . T his shield seem s 10 be • light version of the SCUlUm. While Jl can hardly be doubled Ihal 'he coastal Sarnnile' adopled the Argive 'hield, what littk evidence ' h"Te i, pmn" , oward ' the u,e of lhe ,,","urn in Sam_ nium i{;elf and also in lhe highland lerrilOr~' of Lucania , T he fragmel1 ,.ry fres"o at Na ples . 1"" show, ;a"elins with 'hrowing loors X" " io" are most commonly sh own e.rrying two ja" d in' , Sometime' the,e ate rather long .nd i' <,X lUld be arg u~el ' hat they are spears , bUI lhe simplest interprelation is t hat when there are two shown, a, least oneofl hem must be fot throwing_ Sometime' a single weap<>n lhat i, unque" ionahly a 'pear i, , hown . T he w. 1 1paint ing, c~m fir m thal all lhe main lypes of srearhead found at Alfedena a"d Ca mJXwalano were in use in lhe 4th cemury, induding the quadrangula r and triangular ,ypes. A dCaT repre,entation of the lau et lyre is shown on a pol1io n ofa funerar~' paintin~ fro m Na r les, Thi s . lso shows a kopl> , which see m, to be unique as nonc " f t hc o'her painling' of warriors show, swo,d s at . 1 All oft hc warr i"" 1 depicted wear broad bells and helmets , usually of AHic lype, lOpped Wilh crest and fealhcrs _S<>me wca, gr~. ,' c s ; these are e"en worn by lhe oce..iona l h'm c_ man and a few wear a breastplate. T his is u' u. lly triangular in form and em"",,"<1 with lhrec di,e', T he 'warriors' ,eturn' f resro shows w' Him. wit h ,quare peclorals, but this is uniq"e, T hi' painting olso ' hoI'S f10~ lype <tanclard< whieh ~ppe a, on maIlY (}f lhe "as'" and wall painting' anel ore ,,"Hicd by bolh infant ry and e",'alry _ There remain; (}n~ ' mall examp le that requi,e, a ' pe<'i,1 mention. In tb5 9 the Lonvre mu<cum .equircd a , mall bronze statuette of 0 warrior whieh has , 11 of ' he charac' eri"ics described .Ixwe, AHie lype hd met wilh holes for ere" and fcat hec. ; triple eli", euira" , .nd broad belt .nd gre. ve, _ lJ nt()[t u_ nately his shield . nd javelins O'C mi" ing_ T hi' ;l atuette, which was suppos ed 10 "O'e beton found in Sicily, is very primitive and deO'ly owc, nothing to "m lhe ('" e~h_ The fact that i' may has'e been found in Sieily i' unimportant as it rould have been taken there by a Samllite rn ~ r ce n O' y . Every,hing about i' C'ri~, oul for recognit ion anel ,hn~ can be lill ie doubt thaI this is our only tr ue re prese mat ion 0 f a SamniIe warr ior , Wilh lhe a",h a~ol"gica l evidence we arc ahle «) confirm anel ' ometime< c10rify the evidence which i, el" wn hom paintings and seulplure An enormous numbe r of broad bwn ee belts have bee n found all over <'ent,,1 and s<,uthern h aly_ Whate ver eh e a Samnite, Campan ian , L ucanian Or Apulian might <>r migh' not wear , he wo" ld always ha"e his helt whic'h seemed to be the very symbol of hi. manhood , T hese vary fro m 8 IO H cm in b,eaelt h anel ar~ fa Sl en ~ d with l WO h,,,,b whic'h wcre in",n ed in'o ",rre'· pond ing holes at the other end of the belt , There were uSl1ally lhree p. i" of thcse hole, ' 0 that lh e hel t could he ad juste d . Thc h,,,,ks arc normally hcl el to the beit by a f1a n~e in.lhe shape of a palmelle which is riveleel 10 the bell. Although lhe'" palme" e' has'e a variely of fm ms _ threc of whi<'h are , hown in ""~ , I _ , , . -- . < ~ ' the illust rat ion (3, " and 7)- the vast maiori ly conform 10 I his ~ener al pattern There are • few which are lo n~ and nal, Ow (4) . T he' e are nor ma lly used in • gro up of four or fi ve in" cad of 'h e customary two . Som etime' lhe fl angc has ananthro pomorphicform and lhere are a few be.ulifl1 l examples whe,e the h""k ha' becn made into the for m of an elephant', heael and trunk. The, c mu" dale 10 the period im mediately following the Pyrrhic war , O n . few occasions the ho le> al ,h ~ othe r end of thc bdl were replaced by ring tastener< which were aho held by a palmen e flange (3) . T he belt was lined with leMher which was "itched throu~ h in the archaic Greek "yk Thc tr iple di"" cuim" which appe~rs on many Campa nian " a'e ' i. well . ttested in archaeo logy, About t 5 examples are known, i ndu din~ one from Alfteltna in the centr al highlands and onc h om !'a«! u m in l,ucania, ' howing lhal they were in us. bolh in Samnium and on the coast . The sample shown h er e i, fm m ,I f~ ele na _ h is com plele except f()[ one of t he ,houl eler plate' Thi s example is f.irly represemal ive , . Above and fight A ',"o'ed panoply hom l<;<,oi, in '00 To-we r oj lo "o~" . c. : 7, Be . TO. Att,c ~e"',," has 1 wmg' m,c.. of "' in '''00' . ""0;00 w~ , c h '" ' ""'>1 f, .,h. , ho l ~e rs The h, ,,,, "'ao ""c" m, o" g<e'''''' '"
  • ITALY AI' '' T H E t'ESTERN M EDI TE RRA~ EA:-: ,,'ith the .houlder and .ide plat... attached the front and bod:; plat". b~' nnp and hoob. The .houlokr pla'.....,,'hem'e. ,~-.urvin"archinged in ,he ""ntre. (TlloK on , he e:umplc a, Kar ln u ,,", ...., false n t~· are 1<><> .1Ion 10 """,,h tho: bad, p1ale.) The .JIouldn pW<:n <Ji ,he 10..,' cuirao.sd at Sapko are not only hincro in , ho: <nl,te but arc al!lO aU.a<h«I , he fron, and bad< platn by hin,es. 1M upper edge <Ji the front and back pIa,e a1",,,,~.. ha. a teinfoccin~ m ip <Ji ~ rin1ed '" iI, A f......upc-rbly doeoorated example> <Ji thi. I)'pe <Ji roirass has'e heen found. The finnl <tUmple, ,,'hi~h ""'. found in a lomb at K>out_Sad in Tuni. ia, was probably taken back to Afri~a by one: of Ha nnibal' s ."ldien. The origin "f ,hi. 'ype or " .ita.. i. ob",--ute, il must lOJ'Jleho... be ' elot<d 10 lhc single di<c h.c."pl .t... of the 61h ccn' ury. il appea.. on va.e paintings in the middl. of thc 4t h cen,ury and th. e. rlies, dOlah k exam ple, ,hal fro m Alfe,jena, . annul he dated t<> e.r1jer than lhe " nJ <lr the 4th cen lu ry. An exam ple in lh" Lo u",. ha, only two di , c" but thi. i, I hoa" as , h. righ, hand d i." ha. """ n removed and " i,ehing hok. ha,'. he.n pu nched along 'he edee of the rot to " s'e the ap!J"'ara""e ,ha, , hi. wu ito <>ri"nal form, I n fact ,me i. ~ne , he kft _hand and bottom disc " 'ilh ,he lonJ(ue to which ' he .ide plate ,,·u I llached . Al the lOp of ,he kf,_hand d, ,,, i. I f""gment of , he <cinfor.;ine plate ,hat ""1' placed llong tho: 'Of' of ali ,,,,,, roituK'l. T1>c " 'all r-in,in, to"",'n "' ' , he ,,-arrion' mum ' from ra...n.m sho.... ........ " 'oaring IqUite bter..tp!.a'", ,,-bic:h a.e moulded in ,he form of the musdn <Ji ,..., tOl'OO. $eo'"",,1 n;ampkt of """" survive. The bnl ~ i. a hrra>l and ba<;k plale in lho: Bri' i.h Mu"""m . ......... in tho: i1Iut''''''ion , B }' coml-'lring i, to , he frnco from P....,um i, i. pouibk 10 r«on"TU<:I il emnple,d}' . II i. only 29Cm deoop, which is faT ''''' .mall for tho: mu••:ula,u<c to fil to the ton<> of a no.mal man. All , he o,he, """m pl", a", of • • imila, . i"". 11 i. ck...., therefo'e , thaI , he navel and ,I>< pectoral mu,d ... We '" ""v•• intended to fit ,h. ror.e'J'I",ding part, ofthe w.are" The 'wo part S were only in tended ' 0 cover lhe hack and chest above , he bro od bell .. ,hown on th. fresco. 'n • '0 "" A bo • • A""•• t _~ 1»001' " f,om P,." om. l o<. ''' • . c. 300 a c It """ '" of , " ;p" d;, c 4 A 0"" '0. 1••" ...., " om Apol', ,n 1h" ~.p"" "' "••om 5 An It.l o Co.,,, e,," e.'m,,, "0m ",. ", 'n A£-y',. I p"","g 0" W'''IO' we.""g ", 11" 0 ' Co,,,,,o,.n f'ool""" "" 1f'oo Amaze " ~"'" l " Qoln" A'.',,".d , " " . ... All', ho'""" W 10 W''''l' ' M <.",.•, ho ld.""",, . S,,,,,,, ,. boll P..""," M"" , m Bo' ow 7_10 A "'10'. ""'_ ,,"'"<:C".......""", .. Tho A" .... ......,.. e." MuM " ", _,... _ ••, " _ c n o lIC , """ ,!b , '..-oOl'hog",
  • THE RIS E OF ROME 800- 275 Be THE IT AU A:'" M IUTA lt' svs runs Shollldtr pla'.... "" doub' similu to 'holot on 'M criplt di'" ~"'lfa •....., "",.., fa>'tnc<J to I"" frunt ~J ~k pl.:"", ...i ,h ,,·hil.. . i<k pla'.....hi<:h ar<; iu... , ·it.iblt on 1M frnro "..,rt .nachtd to ,hot bao;l< plaCt ","h h".", and no doubl ~ 10 C fn"'l rlatt. The M dq >!h of tbtK old< rIa'n, ... hi<:h it. dtttrm;nM by thot <kp(h of lhot hinge , it. II ,S""' . Sorno tum""" ha,·t no bad< hlQ~ and m..... c....rd"'" had inJividual o.idt pL..... All ' .... rla'to ....... linN "i' l> Gthc'r ,,'hieh was rolltd 0'.... , .... fronc .nd sticched throueh . TI'll<.-n of Ihi . art ckarly v;.ihk. 11e..·.u""' of tht l:kit of an au..... ra' t Pf<>'·t""n~.., CM da'ing of 'hci.c cui u ..to ;. ,..ory dIfficult . The wall paintine fro m P. ...' um must datt to I.... ,im(' of 1M Samn itt occup.:llion WO--l 73 tM.:. _"to"l "d,,,>I~r> wou ld prefer an earlie' J a't, "" r<=,hap. the euiu""," ,I'o" ld bt pl.etd in 'bt Ii" t half of the 4th eon,u , y, ThedtCO'. tionis undoubtedly the rcoult of O re,-k in]]uence being tra", (err ed r,,'m 'he mu ,ded euie." Hnwevc" e'-l ually certa inly these cuir · a, se. in an u nm u,ded f"rm must h",', originoted in Ih. ,:em,.1 hi~hlands , for Ih i. i' undoubtedly I nati"t form and Rom.n. W t .. ill .. 'ea,i n~ t hem al , he U 'i me of Pol}'biu. T wo L"e' enmpleo , prohably fTUm the Sa mnile " '.r r<=ti<>d, arc on , ho" at ),;apl.... A, Ii ..., .lance 'Mse appear '0 he from • mu",led cui ...... butthej' .re 100 .mall roe thi••nd " ""ld reqwrc shoul&' and .ide Tbc)' are oho"" .......,.,ructC'd in , he illuS1ntion "" p. 106 .I.t.... y s.m."ebelmelullrvi,c. They ...., cnily ICalltni... ble by 'heir fra.hc'r holden. T her .re ...ual1r a modified roem of ,he GkCCk Chalcidian belmel .,ith ~ d ....l< ~ but no nose ,..,..-d and " ill therd'....c he ",rerred '0 .. s.m.ile Allie I • • ' . p. ' 07). ' fbco<: """c copied frnm ,he coasIJI G recb and from IMr. IiI'efC'd inland . rump le. com. from the roo".l a"",s. A......"", Mlmel " .•• al.., making in dcbul. D urin. ,he 4'h century lhe . ton lefor! ino ' yre of Celtic helmet "na- ha,.., (sec p. l ao) ..'algnJ ....1I1' heingadoptN ouch u....rul purpow. It folio.... tllat .hroughou, I, all' and on.....1. peci men. 1M ehecl< p~ wu der,,'ed from lhe ha'.., h<-en fou nd ,n the cent nl high- cuinu and not " ice· ' " na. ·rltis i. ,..,....,. importanl .. llu. I,·pe of cheri: pi~ 1anJ.• . A Ii..... rumple ";Ih scaUoptd " ......k P"""" anJ Ii'·e·~ iron ha. alwo' "$ been con.idered to he of frat her ho:>lder C an he oren in ,he Cel,icorigln It i••ij:nifican, these LotI,·... It ;. "",",11 in , he ill~ nlion lobe> " ....e 1M 6m chara<1crioti<: of the Ot> p. • 06. tri ple di.. ched piece lha' the Cd" ahandoned , The d>t:d p~ <<t . p , ' 07), "'hidl i. one of .........1 "",.."n. (tom llm-ionwn The ern''''' , .... , are ........" on {be in IM bean land or Samnium, is i<kn.ical pai n, Utp are of eta..icIlI Greek tyre in design ' 0 the tr iplt' di.... breastplale. and " ....e «"'"","II' de-ri.-cd from ,he This ""l'C' of e toed piece io found on """"a1 G r«lu. A. in lhe ca.... of lhe Cellie .Io'"cf....lIno I)T'" helmet• .,.. helmet. ,hey liltered inland ..hc're «pI , ...., check pieca from , hi. 'ypeof lbet' u.... io confirmed by thei r avvea< hel m", al"'al"$ ....... onl)' a ,i ngle loop ance on lhe bronze .lalUCIte of lhe of tne1al a, .i,he, .ide 10 form the hinge Samni'e " 'arnO{ in 1M I..,.,,"TC. Exli ning. " he' ea. Ihi. eumple has a amplro ....v. turnN up In l ucania and h._loop hin~. " 'hich m.an. ,h., i' Apulia. "'mc of wh ich havt ring must cwnc r,,'m an Atti~ ' H>c helmet. attachmcn .. fo. " raps, a fa. h'on later T he IWo ll'heo A_ A protrude from adop'ed by lhe Rom.n•. the ,i d•• of , h ~ cuira.. to hold the & H:ul romple.e """ of ar mo u, have raSl<ninjl:' for th~ ·.ide rlale, .1", heen found in Luc. nia . On. of lhe,e appea' on ' he che" k piece bu, , crvr no pa noplies, which i. now altht T owe' 'Ila' 'Ila' pl.,.... .'.I"", , Right A ' - '''I,,' - . .• ..c "",.. do.. "'",_" > I,. n""'''01 ""•. To. ," " . " " ' ,0';1..- ."",p" " I w .... I,,,,,, ,fi. • """" "' ." So<l. T,,",... . "OW '" B..-"" Muooom, Ton,. ,, '. "",I<",m.o.v of N.,,,•• "'''' '"
  • I T ALY A~D T H E t"EST Ekt>: M.EDITERRA:-;I'A:-; of Lo ndon, co",i.. , of ~ win,.,d helm<1, hrea' l _ and hack plate, grean.. and bell , T hi> is an nld nnd an<! n"' hing is k",'w n of it exc"!>t tha t ;, (a",d rom L""ania, T he g,ea,'.,., ",hich al' pes' to he of late arehai,' t)'"". though the)' are ","nainl¥ much late. than thi', ha,.., ",rap fa..eni"lt' at the had, "Il>c helrnct "of An "" 'ypeand ha, ..-jnlt' of thin . h<xt bronze. f",,'he. hoIdcn in lhe form of ooiled . flak... and a rai>ed ern t holdt-r , It i. " cry .i "'t lar to the hel",et wOrn hy 'he Capoan h"".,,,,an , 11<,,,,n op po, i, e, Thi, panoply "'u" be da'ed to ' he n..t h. lf"f ' he 4th cen'ury, A ' ''''''nd " " n" ply, enn.iMing of W inged be l"'et, triple di" eUi' a", .nd belt, WH found in n:<:cOl years at P....... m I.ike the pt"e'ioou. exa"'pIc the heltnC1 has "';ngo tNde of .h<xt h""",e ..-hieh ha,." fea. "'" tu,,", behind 'heem, Both bclmet and cui,,..,; .how .ign. of ~rat ion in d...ign .nd probably date 10 tbc pc, i,><I of the I<oman conq ue' t, e , 273 m;, The Apulia" , tel l m uch m,,'e under the inAue......, of the G rech ,h. n their kin. ",en on the "'e,t coo'! of 1t.1,', A heutiful I""no"ly di. c<wn ed a, Con_ ""....<>0 near fl,ori co"'; of .. pair of bile e~ical G=k grn a G'e<:k "'t..d ed cuirass, "inge<! helmet .nd. of cottrse, a Samn"e hell, "Il>c "'..... decoratio n "n 'hee side "f , he cuir~ .., " 'hieh i. a popu l. r Samni' e mo<if, i. ma tched h )' the eombon the cre,t of the helm et "'hi"h .ct. as . ere. t ltui de , Thi' helmet is really a eros. heN ',"n the Sa m nite All k and the T hradan tn"' , . L ike , he "'her u ampk ' the " i ng. u e mllde of plate bronze and ha,.., f""t"'" ' ubes tucked . " ..y hehind thc-m, This panoply can he d:..cd 10 ,he late -4' h .... early 3M un,ury IIC. Othe, G=k .. yl~ " ....e popular in .... puli., I'ourt h-ccn' u r¥ conk,,] helme" ha" e been f"und and are of ten fc>tur ed "n the local ,'a,e pa;m i n ~ " T he '0_ called h al,,_Corinthi.n helmet seem. '0 h. ve ori,o:inate<l he..., in the 6'1'0 """'Ul'}' (= 1', 99), I n add"",n to ,he err",-" of ,he Greeks and S.mni' " on ,hi, area. 'he", 1", . "rong Celli<: inlt ...""", '«"he r the Celt. in" aded ,... tl ral h a l ~' , ..·hteh rhey d, d ~Ia rly in , he 4th """'011)'. ,hey u lly ended up in the COtn field. " f pulia , It i. pos, ible 'hat ...,me m a~' even have , el led the.., Se veral mon,o:tc1 hel me" ' q u ~ re han lurned up in lhe arc> and in one mi d_3rd---centur )' gr ave at Can",. a m u'ded cui, . " and CeI,ic hclmet were f" und together, To , umm.ri", : the ."uther n 1•• lian highland "'arrior in the -4th ""n'"r~' " '.. a fairly light]y armed ja"eltne-er or 'f'Carrnan U<inl ~ ligh, hody .hicld similar ,he """... All .... dicn probahly " ' ''''' helmet. and brlt. , 'Itoul.'h meTal CU lt..... and woul d have ba n """ia"d to the " ""I' hier cia. "", T o tr y ,t> i""late the ' ''ltanisati''n and laet;.. of the S.mnite ar my fro m the jumble nf ."ntr adietor y informati"n ,o:;'' 'n in U,'y an d Dion,.. ius i• • fr uitl.... u .• k, Lh'" call. the d"i,;on. of , he Samni'e army legjon. whcRas. Dion""n.. call. 'ltc-ir banle Ii... a ",,",lam . whieh is ~uaIl Yu...nlighfenifill, In all probabili')' ne11he. ci 'hem had the . ligh'''f idea nf ' br Sarnnn" form. ' ion .nd they ,hc-tcf<"e fen back on , he ..od "i"nal lCrmi", '~'lP' , The Somni' e ar m. men' '"ltll''' '' tha' they f"ught in " k'n,e f" r m. t;on, T heir ahility to oUlma noeu",e and nu, ma,,'h ,he Koman. ",,,,H, m, ' hat they " 'e"" more lightl y . ' '''ed . nd """" loosel y .... ~"cd tlun lhe JcgX>n.. 01 f.,.the ( ired ",,",lan~ , Surpn,i"l ' hough if mal' """", .ina lheir Ilomrland ...... in , he highl andt, , he s..mni,.. produced the bes t horse _ men in Italy, I n the pl.in. " f Cam p,mi. a fm mi da ble cavalr y fore o evol ved and in the 3,d an d 2nd centuries the '.-IIm p. nia", f",m ed the t.ackhonc of the Rom.n ,,,vall'}', 5o" era] C.-II m panian and norther n L uca nian paintinll' sl>o'" ,hese I'1oon(:men, The.., li"" eum plc fn>m Cal'''''' ...·hieh un_ fununa' e1)' ....' ''''"cdduring , he Second lJ:'or ld W'ar , In this I""inlin,o: . he horse wars " cham f'"" , unnounted by fea_ , bers, On anoth", example f",m Pac. _ tum the ht"", wea" ,,,me frn-m of pcytr.L Exam ples of h. ' th types 0 1 . , ,,, ,,ur can be at "' . p le" Th e ho=men "'em to be arme<l in exacrl}' the .... me f""h",n a., he infan try - . " "", e"en "'eu grea" .., One noIi"""hle fCal""" ;, ,he """"';"ll of . nkleu but 'hc-tc ;, ..... siCn on ci,hc. , he infan, ry .,. the cavalry ci ,he earlie r bracrk1 "-orn on the left uppc. arm, , '0 ,0:"".''''' 'Iu' _'01" ""It At>o.e ' A pa iM."O '" ~ ~_ _ ' ''''''' .. _ c. w "", _ _ ,.""'''11''' _ _ _ -.o<aIlO ......... _ ""~ • ' - guaod (- l Oll 1 .. _ .. _ . __t_ "'11 , ... ,) I .. _ (_ _ ... ~ . - . . _l .. ,.......... u _ ) . aA ~ ........ , ","" t"'ll "'. ~-.. m , ... ,..., " e",,,,"'lI a R... I'ftI* ,,_ Tho ""'''' .""".', to ... ""''''' '> • tv,," of """" a1 P"" " um Mu.....m
  • T HE R iS E O F RO.1 E gOO-275 Be THE H ALlA.'! :rl IUTA RY S YSTE MS The Celts T he Ce l" or iginat ed In southern Germ,ny and I;-<lm ' here ,p'Cad ou ' over mo" <If western Europe, By the beginn ing of Ihe SIh cem ury Ihe y hod overru n Au" ria , SwilzeTbnd , Belgium, Lu xembourg and part' of France, Spai n , nd Hritain. I n lhe following century they forced lheir way through ' he Alps imo nort hern h all', The lir5l tribe to arr ive in Ihe Po ,'alky were ' he In,uh re, T he y " "led in the area of Lomhardy and est ablished lheir chief to"'n "t M il"n . T he Ro, i, L in!"me" Cenomani and other tr ih~, followed, conquering mo" of , h ~ Po " alley and nltimatd y dri,' ing lhe Etruscans hack across lhe Apennines, T he 1 lri be "" to arrive ",as lh e Semme" who pre",ed righI on down ,h ~ Adri.. ic and fi nally settled in ' he c'oO',a l area oort h of Ancona. T his was the tr ibe lh"t s"eked Rome "t the heginning of lhe 4lh eem ury, Our na me for , he Cd ,ic race as " whole comes fro m the ( ;reek K elrai. However, l h~ Roma", called th",e fro m the Po ,," lley and Fr"nce Galli ( Gaulsj. D uri ng ,hc 4,h cenlury ,he Celt> hegan to m" ve into ' he Balkan" and a' , he beginning of t he 3rd centu ry, laking ad"antage of the lack of strong governmen, in M ace_ donia and T h ra c ~ , t h ~ y ow rr an ho, h tnnntr ie, and spilled over in'o Asia . inor whe re lhey fi nally sen led in Gala,i a. The lau er are usua lly referre d to a' Gala ta. (Galatians) , During 'he 4th cen lury the G" uls moun' ed a , neco"i on of plundering .. ids in cent ral Italy. u sua lly 'hey wero deflected by , he stronger groups- th o Etru, can" L atins and Samnites-a nd were channelled into Apuli" , where it is po" ihle tha' they I(lunded permanent commun1ltes, T he Romans treated the Ce lts as they , rcated no otheT nali" n , They sy,tematically ma"acrod t hem in nmthern Italy, Sp ain and France , T ne reCnn · quo" of the Po valley after lhe H anni· balie war wa, carried out with such brutality , hat in t h~ midd le of t h ~ 2nd century Polybius could say , hat t h ~ Celts r~m"i ned only in '. few regions under lhe Alp" . M"" of our knowledge of the Celts unfortunate ly comes to n' only tnrough ,heir eoemies, the G reeks and Roman, lJiod nrus , th~ Sid li" n historian, paints a ,'ivid picture of these warriors, de sC ing the ir colourf ul clot hes, long Tih mou'tacno, and h,iT that wa, wa,hed with lim e to make it sta nd up like a horse's ma ne, I nitially the Romans were terr illcd hy these huge men who lowered above them , But l"" r, whe n they were able to recognis~ ,nd exp loit the C""llie weakne " e" they became C'lnlemptuou , of tne unruly barbarians , L ivy's accou nl of the Celt ic wars very much refl ects this view But contemptuou, though t h ~ Romans may naw been, under " g(xld general t he CeI" made excellent sold ie" , T hey formed half of Han nibal' s army which for 15 years d" mi nal<d th" Roman legions . T he Romans la l~ r r ~ , l i, ~d the ir worth and f," cen'urio, ' hey fi lled tne ranks of t he legio", M ost primitive societies, includ ing the ~arly Rom, ns an d G red s , had a w,rrior da" . T he CeI" weTe no exc'Cption , T heir warr iors were drawn fro m a group which we would describe as ,he midd le an d upper class. T hi, warr ior d a" did t ne fighting wnil" . accord ing to P iodortt s, the activities of the free !XX were rest ricted to squiring and " chariot driving , T he Ce lt was a warrior in the tr ue heroic <C"'~ Everyth ing had to h ~ higger ,h.n life. He lived fOT war hut his glorifi cat ion of bra" ery, coupled wilh lack of di scipline, often led him 10 redle"ne" , Diodoru, in his flft h h<~)k gi" e, an ex t ~ n , i ,'e and probah ly fairly a<Xurate descrip'ion of the Celtic warrior. But one must remember lhat n ~ar1y 350 years elapsed between Rome', fir" enco unter with the Ce lts at the bau le of lhe Alii, and C , e,"r', conquest of Ga ul, when D io<!or us was Abov. wriling . D uring that time many cha nges A Soooe" Ch,ol",o, C. 300 Be. 1". f'Qu' . on took pl, ce in bOlh weal~mTY ,nd ta~l ics. the for""rou nd i, . chi.I"i" ' nd "'0'" a" "" ''''ot. So,.,.a< 0' ' ""0 w .. e fO<J od A resume of Diodoru,' de,cription, a' the "ecropo lis at Moore'Mi no, ",oicn nas which is sometimes anachron ist ic, is W 'to ",rne '0 th., tv"" of helm", Only v," gi,'en hcr~ he for e exami ning these ch.eft"o , wou'd h. "" worn ,,,ch helme" ehanges. D ioJ nru<' warrior wa, ar med n O w«'. "", .IIv m,d • • """. complete ly ot V " 0 0 '" of "on . od b< oOle . though , few ",ve with a long sword su' pcn ded . long hi, ooeo fo,n d .ntiroly of 0 ' 0 " ' 0. Tf.i, <h,• •" i"·, right flank by a cha in. Ho also c'. rr ied helm", he.. mult'o'e crest holde. made of a 'pear or i"vehns, Although many ;roo Imod w ,he topkoot. Too o,di""V "'","0" warrio" preferred to fight naked , some 'ou" ht n. "d ,,0, ",. two <iQu,", '" ,he wor e a mail ,hi " and. bmnzc hdmd . backg ro"od. It ",as the Son""", whO ,.o k'"' T his was ofton decora' ed wit h embossed ~OO'IO a, "'" M9i nni"g o' the 4'h ce nt"", '"0 b=>rne a const,ot U ".at. A I"t'. ove., fi gure" horn s or the f ronts of birds or centu'Vtale. to. Ro""o, io,oded ,hoi' four · l(x" ed anim" ls, li e carried " long horne lano io to. M"che, , ' ouod A.ico"a ,or' , hield as high a, a man whi ch might " ro"" thom out 0' ''' 'y ~' I ."b<J;... "as . '"
  • !TAL Y AND -nu, H :STER:-i M EDl T ERRM , EA l>: be d... "" ed w"h tigur~ em oo... e<! in " < hronu . Chariots '«"' u.cd for fi;:.l"il18 alt"in.. Clvall)" . lX'hen tlgh'ing from I"s ,,...,..11<,",, c!>uil.. ,he ,nrm. ,h",,,· his ~,.., Iin s ti.., anJ , I><n aligh'ed. in H.-.nni<; fas hion, '0 filth' " ith hi. ' '''''''d. lkfnre !>Mole. "'arrion ( hett Diodo.>r... m.... "'"" champion» ..""Id ..ep 0<1, ahead ,he li~. brandi. hing .I>cir ..-aJ'<'M .n fron' of 'hem to i"'ri", letml', and dWle"lte 1M ......, ,..I;'m of 'M e otm)· 10 single comba!. If tl>< d " IlJrnllC "'a' ac<:q>ted .he dumpi",... on , rue bart>aric f""hion. '...lUJd break imo song. ex,oIling ,he dc-ed. of hi. a""",,'o" and bo3s' ing of hi. ow .....'com r!ishmcn.. ,,·hil.. a' ,he ..."'" nme I""mng scorn on ,he c hallenl!"r. T he Ruma "s tw",'u",d . ...' ·e"l "f 'heir general. "'hi' had a,",er ' ed ,he challenge and killed a Cel.ie ch am pion in 'i ngle comha" They "'rre rewa,ded hy hring pc,miued !O dedic~" ' he ,pu ils (prima ' f'< ,lt a) in the ' em ple "f Jupiter I'c, el,iu. , T herc "'e'C al,o .«w ndQ and I""a ,polia , which dcp.:nded on ,he rank of t he winner, Ti, u, Manli us. in ' he 4lh cen' ury, ,e ru'edly "vercamc a gigan,ic Cell and m irpcd h im of hi. golden ' ''''lue, lh u. ""'eivintl- lhe c"lt""me n of T orqualu, The mo.,., ",..ewonhy of th... hen"" "'a' . l at'Cll. C1ludi .... lo rttllt" . who "r '" killed ,I>< G illic chid l. in Viridumaru. in single '~""Nl in 22: IIC. lie "en' un hecome R""""s ......, ...=sful l!"nc,al . tl-l',n.. lI a nnibal during his Clmpaill"" in haly. I'''''n I>< had killed hi. enemy, ."" C.d'ic "..rnor cu, " lJ his heaod and hung i' frunt his hone 's ned . He ....,.,ld . hen .. rir l he body and hi. oqui,e carry oil l he bloo.J__nerN .poi," ..hil.. he s" ng a racan .,.."" ,hem. '1''''' . poil s ""re ...,Ied 10 , he ....II of h is house. T he htaoh of his fl'lOS( disungu..hcd """"";", "...,.., cmboolmcd in ado' oil. T he head oJ ,he cons,,1 Luciu. Poo,,,mi,,s, ,,'ho "'I' killed 1:>y the Celt. in 'he 1' 0 Yalley in 2 [6. " 'liS d"rla~'Cd in I le...ple. The cxca,·~,ion. carried ,lU' II En.remo."" ha,'C r",...,.led lha' 'he "",'ered hc. ,Jo "'e'e fa r more 'ha n meTe , r" phies and hrt:onlC pan of a relig;ou. r;' ual. Al En tr emont bead, we, e d i s rl a~' cd in nic h ~s a",und a .-.: , em"" ial ~ .t ,'w ... . llef,,' e m,,,,ing on 10 a dotai led exami,,,ti,,,, " f Ceh ie eq uipment it m i~hl he helpful '" make a few commcna alx,u' (:': hic warfarc in general It w.. lhl: g< ""..1"rini"" " f ' he ancient o" th" " lha ' lite Cell• •It,,wod no app' eci, ' i"n "f 1",'1;" ,,,. ,,,a,elY, Polybius "''"''"'''' . hem "f h.,'ina: ""ither a r lan ,>/' cam l"'ign ,," r judgemen, in ",,,...:un na: i, . and add. ' hal they did ,,'hate' 'CT .he heal " f I"'" ion a>m- '0 Ito,.., manded . Thi• .... v giY Ihe impression e tlta' , he Cel.. f""ght a. a rabble. bu' ,he inel", ,,,n of " andards anJ 'ru mpet' alff(>nll l ite Celt,c .",~t. , I>:' '''n on ,he areh of Oranl!" I fairly rigid orga ni... 'iI.... and C........·• description of pol., rteranc ,he <>Vt1'lllpping "'odds of , he Ctll. m , rtftr '0 a do.c:_kni' pltalln. ,,·h...-h """ i' can""" ......, bet.. ,he n...rmal Celt ic formalion• s........ , bar , hey could <:vcn c ..... ~ too, banle liM. poI~·b"., · OO'n dcacripoion oftl>< ballle ,-'( T elamon .."",Id ....... to s" r ",'" ,h.. v..... . Hc-rc lhe Cel.. ,,~ Clugh, herWttn Roman armit;o and hned up bod. '0 back " 'i'h ' " '' Ii"", facinll each ....y "" 'ha' ,he army' ",.. four Ii"'" deer , Pol ~·t>i". is full oJ adm ,rali".. f" r .hio Ii...· " r and ...y [hal '. Ct...,n in hi. do~'. 7~ )" ~~ bIer. i' was <till a mattcr of okha,c a, '" which army had 'he "n"'~<r ",,.i'i,,n. for ne" he, "f lho IW" Cellie ar",ie, <XIuld h<: attacked f,,'m 'he rea, and wilh n" way " f <'care the ' .e11s m", ' tigh' until ,'iC y 0' d.'alh r u' an end t" lh. 10' conflic, . T ho K"n," no, on 'he olher hand, were '<rrified h)' ' he tine orde' and lhe d readfu l d in of , h. Cel". f" r lhcre wero in numerahle hI".nh~,we.. a"d tru mI"" e," and aU 'he Gaul. " 'ero shouti ng thei . " 'I ' cries al Ihc .a m< 'i me . Poly. hi"• •-oncl"deo hy ..ying 'hatlhe Cel" " 'ere ,nt'eri,,' ' 0 lhe Roman.only io 'heir ."unt. ,wo
  • THE R IS E 01' RO I, t E 800- 2?5 pC TH E IT A U A:ooi . U U TA R · SYSTEMS urn'. hooh . 00......".,1> and ,hei..hidd. ba"lIIln, O«'ic<:ahl" 'h;o" ........ of.he R """"",. Thcr" a", ma,, ~' ",pn>o;" u'io", of Cd' i~ an""' ,,,mcIlU of wa. ; " . nd;lTd•. hOTlls and lrumpcts. T ho: ~ nmm o .... Sl form or Ir ump"l u,,,d by ,h,' C"lt. was lhe "arny~ T his wa, • k'l~ in,trumem wil h it. mou th in 'he f"rm of' an animal ', h• •d at righl a"!ll... t he ned: or lh" ,n"rumetll, 1"..., .. ~ .ho.. 'n o n , he (;und,-suup cauld'on an d on ,he ar.::h a' Orange. ... c.am~'X ho:ad ,,,.. found a, De.Hord 1ft Scolland . O rigi nal!)' , his h.ad a """'..bIe jaw' anJ a ,,'O<>Ikn '<>nguc "" ,hat ..-hen " ..cas bIolA... " ,m..1J h.a,'" em",a! " ",uc"OUl n lliina sound. TI", 'uM of" GUTI~'x " " . f nd at Tan e._ ,hall Bridge in '-i ""~>l hi,,,. The " '"" of thc ' -n i. a"".."d 1»' P"I~t'iu . and i, ' '''''''n O il a ",litf from ",mllio in n,..,hcrn Italy l ie." ,I>< hornblower i. 'huwn wit h a m und . pinod ,hiold .imil"r 10 ,he ty pe u>cd hy , h" ~av alr y . T ho ,am" ,eulplure ,huw, a " and"rd be.",r wear ing a hor""d l'elliau helmet and carrying a Ji'l in" li,'d }' , haped ""ield, A , imilar .h ield "'0 he ••,,,n on ,he 'om!»,one of I Roma n aoxilia'}' ,,"ndard hca,-er from Il lod ril " "' Wall. The oddt)· ,haro::d .pear"""d at . he I<JOI of the Bo<mio .. an<brd Ind ,he ...... oJf '.",.y Ccltio:-Iook"", ......-K-.... ,,'hie h ore .....·iou oly ",..>I"a! (rum 0.11 ie >1"'"...- ,h. '0 .... . , .... ,,, ,.. de<:o<ot.,.,'" ~~"" ,"~ . "01_, ~ .~ "",,,0.. ~ '-""."ot l."'. ]'d · ' " he.........anda,d, of I>twfiri<un' in ,he la,e, Roman a,m~' kaJ. ~ the .0 cunei... "", , ho, ,he .trange . pea r~ heaJ•• or whieh ' ,'''eral " -ere f....nd . t La T tnc (l . .. " must "" f",m Sland" , d•. Fl a~ , Similar to the Roman t,,~· iI/~ . arul ani mal 'land.,d, . imila' lu , he Ruman 1 "llion. , y emblem" al~ ,h"wn " n 'he .r<·h . t Orange and leave I ; {{I~. doub' ,hal lhe R<>mam inheri,eJ Ihem f",m lh" Ce l.. The..... wae fou, ')'1"" of o.lrie sold lcr, hca,~' inl ,,,,' '}', Jillh, ,nfan'')', ea"alry and cho rio«",,", All rou. ' ~'pc> ar~ .!leo,a! b}' PoIl·hi... . The hca,"}' infantf)', KOOI"din l '" all , he ancien, sourtt>. " "'" primaril}' . ..-ord>m<-n. The " lh. inbn' ry """" prnu"",bly ",,'dineen. () ",nl·,i ~ Jes..,riheo ,he o.lr. ,,·hi.l ing ,hcir •..-<>rd. abo' e t hei r he.d•• ,id~ .nd , Ia.. h,ng , be ai, fmm .id~ ' hen , trikillg downward, al ,heir ~ne_ n"e' as if choppi ng w,~~J. It was ,hi. u,~ "f tile ,word th" , , orrifiod ,heir opl'"nenl' . I h" , ner, lll~ R"m. 1IS soon 1~ .. n~J to de.1 wi,h lhi<: l'ol~'h i u, ",," lha' 'he}' we'e train< h' 'ak~ 'Ile fi"" 'd hlo'" ,of lh~ , ..""d " n 'he , im of ,he .h;"ld. "'h,eh ,,·a. ,~," fon.-ed " 'i,h an iron ... il'. :·bell , be ........d ..rock the trinfor-ccd r im i. ""n, dowhk hh a <I"ttl. T he Gel , " ... , hen forced '0 Itralgh."n hi• •"""'d ,,'i, h his (ao<. .i~ine ,"" k~ ...r )' , be """"n unitj·.o ."0 '0 It' ...k ......-1< him ,,·hil... he ..... d",.. mad. The f)· al", found , hal .. , he o.lr .Ias d ,,'i,h hi••" 'ord . he ,,-as able to brc. k ,he blo ,,· " 'i,h hi• • hiel d and go in under nea,h i, to , hru. , .. ,he ..mna.;h . I'olyhiu" ,k.cripe;"'n of , he ,..-ord MnJinll i. pro hah ly c ~ a!lller. 'ed. Thi, m ~y . " mclime. ha,'. hapI'Cned hut C"'lli" >wur d, wcr o ~en" rally better ,Il.n Ihi" I h",'. ,,-"~n a 2.ooo-yo. r-old . ",,,rd whicb w• • dr<'d!«'d f",m ,be lake of l'eucha,el a nd ",hieh i., ill<;i d" " lally, fro m ,he period Pol rbiu. i. Jcoc"'h,ng, ""n, .1"""" douhk and then 8n t - l . PoIyb1u, alw mcn"on' , he o.hic f...hion or " ·.",.inS . nnku in bou" . ,he <Uues'ion .hat he.~y I>rac."k,. or , .... ,ype round in Hrn. sn " " '" ,,-.xn on . he ri ght arm """ '0 be ch;o lknged .., ,hcy " ""Id ",-",'c r h;ove " ayed on a man', atm . part icu larl )' ,he upper ar m , " 'hil,, he wield"d hi. " vM d. Hi"d"ru' >lro".. Ih" leng'h of tile Cd' ;" , word com pa' od to , he , horle, . wo, d. (p , ". umably "r the (;ro" b and R"m.n. ). T lli, exall.!l,'ra'od lellgtb of ,I>< . ....... d i, aloo rcflee,cd in 'he mller onclenl .ource•. H.."'.......r, it i. not " nti"'h' 1ft><." , ror a' 'hc ,i me of o."ie . .. pr~~'. c. 4 ~O-2 50 ao;, th"ir."""d. ..·....... ,enenJly compara,i'-el)' .!>on ..i,h I blade length or 6ocm. " itich is no IonJt<'T ,h.an , ....... "",d b)' the E'ru.... ,.n. and Romans of . he ..me 11_ ..,..",. .bou, "*""""" """"' .. " ........ c...... """ ~~,.,. I t > _ c ec .'''',,,, R 'lI ~ ' , XU'D'"'" hom ,......'" ., 000"9" '" _ ,...... k""-",, _ " l I ""'''''_ """'..... ...- ,....,.,d,. Tt_ '*"' twO..._ "10 _ _" _ of. """"', ..... ....,., ~ ""'-Ill .... e. 2 Tho _ ___ ''''''' .. Colt>< _ .......... ""'" Deu.''''''", ScooIo"" '_~~._ l J 00><l • 000<00-_ _ n_ _ _ Cotk'.......... _ - . ...... •_ '_""D ]2, 5 '" "'ul"",,,, ""'" E1o" """"..... eo,,", """" ," "" d ' "_ . " 0 1 _ " Ho....' "' 0000 _ '. ,_,'''''' oJ ,.... AD d'",,,,,,,,",, . , '"<> """'"" ti"",.. Wo" O/'>Qw• • ,_",'C" '0 to,,, nt ' hO BD"'''O C.".... ""'qh"" ~mDO' ,,,",,,,,,.,.,,", I n . " .. kl '"
  • ITALY AND T H E W E ST E RN M ED IT ER RAN EAN . 250· 120 8 long~r hlade did nol come imo fa.hion un. il 'he la,e J .d to lOt cenlune. IOC. Hundred' of Cellic .word. have bee n found of whic h a . m.1I .. mpl( is • hown he",. T hey Ofe grouped by the tradi'ion.1 I.. Tone daling >y>lem,,'ilh approxim.'e dalC$ The sword. from Lo Ttr'le I (c. 450250 IIC) have hlades thaI a", ,.,......lIy ~ 55 _nd 6sem long, Num~r I, which has a bbde of lloem. is ..,,,:epo 'ional. Th..... 'WQI"ds a", .n douhle. edged and poin.ed and are of cul~nd­ thru.t 'ype. The mosl characteris' ic f... 'ure of 'hese .... Iy weal""'" is lheir pronounced dlape . Daggers ....... abo common dunne Ihis period. Theei. hladt. vary from broad, almos' . ....nlrUl.r, •...,.... fO .hin uilello Iypes anod .... ,.........lIy l S- JOCf" in length. Dunng . be I.... Ttnc II period (c. l<;O--UO lie) ,he . _ d developed into a weapon ....... csdusively for slash,ng. The poim beam< rounded and gradually ir>crea'IC:d in length umil blades of 7S-lloem were commonplace . Such a •.....-d. comp!ele wi.h handle , would "-cish a tilograrn. Alrl>o<>@;h the early dlape form. con.inued in ,be Ralbns, in .......em Europe ,he chare was modified .o fol_ II-.: dolely the contour of lhe •...."d. Hundred. of 'bese . word. have heen dredged from ,be lake a, Lo T t ne in Sw inefland and although 'hrte are rqoonol dltr......ncn ....hich .ho..- ma,nly in ,he scahbard, lbe Lo T tnc Iype may he accc-pted .. T<:J"'C><'",.,ive orlbe period. The scabbard., ... hieh are u.uan)· made of iron, .'" COnslrue'led from lwo pla'eI. T he fron! pl.t~, "'hi"h i••IIShlly wider lhln the back, i. folded ove. il along lbe sidc-<. II i. reinforced by a deco.a,ed band around the lOP and a " hare which act. n. ",infoldng n m .111'0.. bou "", . OUTing lhe I .... Ttll< II I period (c . ra0-50 1lC) Ihe k nll' h of the hlade ""ntinu.d to incre... and IIOIn< uample. arc a' lo ng a' 9O<'m, Al' houjlh pointed ' ''''lid. ex isted, the predominani Iy pe "'a. ft 'H, nd~d T h.: k'ng ,,,abbard , hown in this group i. rmm Britain, II, ....hb.rd . hare i••le_,I)' derived fro m Ih e L a T~n . ty pe but its gre"' len~th of ne. rl)" S4cm . ugge. ts I bat it , hould be placed in 11'0" lat.. period period . T he , . . , , " • ._1 ,,. • • t'"""I < > r1 .~~ l _U ! .. _ ' o' t... c.~.. . _ ~ n 1 Z . "" J Sw<>o-d, oM sca!lt>a,,!> !,"" '.. M"""' ...... '" ' '' ''''' 5, Genna," "'""u m 'h. 4.5 oM 5 0 _ _ """ ",,,,,,,,,,,I, I""" ...."'..... ot f,,,,,,,,, St G"",o,n Mu,"um 7 _ 7. 5""'Q '"0 "'obb" d La Tene B.",I """'0"', Sw;t_,""" "om 7b boc k", 7 a ,how'"9 ,""",0""" loop 1 . " d ~ $wo<d ...., . . , . _ ,,,,," PO" 10 Scabb¥<l 'O""" ,~ "'"''0''''''' ,- 11 '" ,.. '"d ll b Swo<d ...., I,,,,,, .-.I t>acI< '" ',"",,",d I,,,,,, [_on. C...-nt>e>10n<l 12 U . S"",d .od oc_"d fi"", v"',"""" 13_1 1 S"",d 0.-.1,.. 13 fl"", T""' p", Bt ''''''''ltoo, V"' ... "" " 14 f 'o m Hod H ,M, Do<oo' ' 5"0"' "'" M, ,,.. vallav, F,an"" Ho''''''. "'"",, ' 70 10D '" tM co.'" of 7 a 16 F,OO' 8 Co.... "I a 'W"'Q f,om ' '' "ce. < 200 BC 1 6. Sc"'pt,,," I",", Po'.''''''"', T" , kO'
  • T HE RI SE OF RO ME ~OO -2 7 5 Be TilE ITA U AN M ILITAR Y SY STEM S T he conquest of Gaul by eacs" in 55B<: , pelt the end of the Celtic warr ior nn the m n l in~m of Europe, In Brim in a Celtic ,uh<;ultur~ ,urv i" ed f(}r " nolher 150 years. T he swor d hl" de, ITom thi, period (La T ime I V) ar e ~en era lly ,hort er than in the prev ious era , "arying fro m ~5 10 75em . T he ,worel '~ah b arel from Em blelon in Cu mh<;r land ( u a ), with i" , mall twin - foot ed chape, i, lypic"1 of th~ p"riod. $ w(}rd hanelle" which wer e no rmall y m.de of woo<J or leather or , orne Olh er per ishable mater ial, ha" e almost always el i ", p p e ar~ d, T he t.. dition. 1 sword handl e wa, in Ihe for m of an X, "i tt echoing l h ~ ~"rlicr Ib l" ",, anlcn nac type, . A handle of , hi, lypc i, shown on the victor y fr ie, e at I'ergam um am()fl!!' I h ~ spoils laken from the Gala_ tian, ( ' 6 a ). A .imilar shape i. ea, y to· .dele," on lh c C"rly sword from I ialstall in Au"tria e' 6i an d on lhc La Ttne II sword from $ t . 1.u r le, t' o,"", in ,he "'·Iam e v. lley , l'r. nce ( ' 5). T he handle of lhe ' word from T horpe B ridlin~to n in York, hire ( q ), Ihou!!,h latc, " ill echoe, Ihis tradition al li)[m. Some_ times this type of handk w" mael e in the form of a man with his arm , rai sed . The later L a T t lle IV hand les, such as the exam ple fro m H od Hill in Dorset (' 4 often show a <ln mg Rom" n influence , Diodoru' ,ays thaI the swor d was , usp. neled on t he r ighl side by chains -any pi~c~, of ' uch of iron or bro nzc. A ch. ins h"v e been found along wilh scah bards. T hese us ually take the for m of . piece of ,'hain 50- 6o<:m long with. ring at one cnel and a h(~)k al lh~ oth ~r (see 2J ). T hi, i, u,ua lty ,,'com panied b' a much short er piece somewhat <imilat to a , n.ffle horse bit (21, ~ . ) . Diodoru,' de, cri ption is a lill ie mi, le. ding a, Ih«c .rc no t parts of a ,u<pens ion cha in bu t of a h<;lt fro m ""hi,'h the sword is sus pend ed. Thc longer pie~e form , the b~k and lefl , ide of I he bell. , " rap i, a lta~he d 10 the ring and p•.,ed thro ug h lhe loop On the back of the sc. bha rd (24) where il is f.' tened to one of the r ings of the , hort er p j e ~ e of ch. in to com plete lhe belt which i, (a ,, ~ n e d with Ihe hook . nd re m.i ning ri ng . Be tt, wer~ u' u. lly made of le. ,her , in whi~ h c as ~ IwO ring' were f."e ned to the scabbar d in tho same f"hio n and a leather h<;lt ~o • ~ 1' . '. A bovo on d '. right 11- '9 C, It" c..It cia, ,,, Toov.", , II f,om I• • " ,., "",> 17 F,om E"" 1 oo"he'o Ital, 4th_3' d 0 co,,,"'" Be E,,< Mesoum 18 f,om c. Ten• . 1,d_2n d ",,"," 'V Bf Neooh; lol Museum 19 ' '' 'eent"" 'ype 0' hoo' ' ,,'ene' Rom'W-.e , G.,,-o, oiseh.. Len" .l mu, eum M,,", 20 R", 0" ,e, b ~" d "om nO',"em lta'v , hOW"'" the ,o"",n"o" lo(>p M,I," Mu, .u~, p.,,, 0 ,wO'd ch."" ' 21 22. 23 hom L. Iene ~ . 4 5 0_ 2 ~ 0 25 Be 25 (0< '''' '''1 0.250 - ' 20 D C '" 3J 24 "etho<> of at UiCh,ng thO ,wO''' 'hO longe' p;oco of to.", (231 "jol oed lo 0"" of m• '0""" p"' e, bv a thong wh ;c" pa"e, through the 1 D " n me ""abba'" 00 Toe '"",'d " ploced on ,,.. ' ;yhl "''9 ".net the 1 009'" p'oce o' cha;o p,,,", 'ouM t-eh lnd lh. 'u,"""',,," O, e.. to hook up", the " on1. AD 100 " 34 39 45 Ah ov" 25- 49 Ce"'c ' P'"" . nO., ,,elin, Seal" 1 8 25_29 S pe " M ' ~ ' 30 31 $po., butt> 32 J .V, ;1n h e, ~ 26. 29 " 0 30 f 'o", the Mat'. are, 0' F"ooo. 51 Go"".," .M" ... ,m ~ 5 . 27. al ,o ~ a2 O" gio u,,'nown Sl Mu, eum. 33_36 5",,,,ho,d, f,om l . Too, ~ooJch;", Mu,"om ]1 SpoarMM h o m the M"oe "e, 0' f ,, <lCe 28 f ",,,, no"hO," ".IV G .,,,,,," e,50 BC_ <. 120 -50 D C . 5' Ge"."," Mu•• um. 38_44 5ee.,head ' .~"v"." " the " to of Coo, o( , ' ;og< 0' Y,'clngelO''' a' AI",a '" C en"" f ,anc. S, G"'rr>o ," Mo,eum 45 See", 0011 " om A."" $ , G. ,rr>';" MUS<lurr>. 45 J , vel; " O<tad " om AI" ,•. 5t G.,ma", ",",", .m 47 J,ve l", h',, ~ ""'" wu ,n.,o 8';..;" 48.49 Spearheads '<0"0 C,melon 5001'ond '"
  • I T A l. Y A ~D T H E WESTERN MEDITERRA SEA l': _pea.. lhal ... usN , Spear and ja,-di n n:pbccd lhe dlain "";"11" daor ~ of.1Ine ~b.ps_ comrlel~ '" ilh part of .he kolhe. hel" ha ~~ bt.:n rccover<:d from lhe 10k<: al La '1'..... . They an: " . ually in lhe fOnIl of • ho"k ,.-hi~h f"I~""d ' 0 a . ing al lhe <><he•• nd " f lhe bell . T he ~ar l l" bel, d ••!" w~r~ ,oughly "iangulal_. haf'<'J p la.~" ol"len hig hl}' J.'c" , alcd wit h • IOnI[U ,It nne end . which w., . i' ·eted to lhe Ie. lhe' bd t and • h<.... >l< allhe othe, ~ 1 1 ) . "l"h~ eu mpk' from I.. which ""m~ f.n m the La "("..... II period ' n: m""h .impkr, and an: u."all y in the . hape of. ring ",ilh a ...... a"oehmenl ( I S" Lat~, it ...."OI~ ed imo. mo.-c <:orw~n,i..nal book ,.-i'h an anoehmen' pia... In ,110: , hird reri<>d the hook ..... oft"" ~ lone and 'IOm<1l""" Iln~. b.1I in il' decoration il bo«nys ," evoilll ion f..,m lhe rinil ra..~...r of ,110: prr>->OU' period (I,:. T he C~II ..'•• renown~d ••• • wo,d._ m.n .nd }'.I Diodoru. d= .ibc, the ........ are abo """"anlly ~nl in ",aniot buriab. Thi_ ~n.. a con>i<kn bk probkm , for if he catri<-d a ' J'C'a ' ,h<:n he 'us not' primarily a ' ......d.man. which i. a' odd. with . 11 ,he deoc, iption. in ,he a""icn! rom ce" S"mc """pl~ ha". sugge'l ~d Ihal all ,h. 'I",a, hcad< ro und in .he I[rove. arc in fael i. ,'elin head• . Qu ite apa't f, om the huge , i.. of ",mc of ,h• .., head., th,""c ~~' m plete " 'ith t>cad. and butt. ....e .. di"""",red al La "1".."" , l11ese are .....r1y 3.s m IonR and cnuld ...."'. be "" ",lin•. To confound ma"eh r,,"btr lhe)' 01 1 had .......11 hc'aJ~ im!'l)ing..hat n>en ........ orthe heads""" and . - "',..Ii.... Th i. d, rf",ul,y _ IDS l<> be ,murrnounlabk. for In . man ..·ho u a . pear. "'hieh i. """ di,pooabk , hi nrd mil" be a _dary " ... p.m. The only .~m d u. ; o n ,hal .-an be dra,,'" frum ,hi. i. tha' althoullh ,he Cell m.~· A _ a<>d . .hI t 1 2 0nI ", .... - . .....,. d'OOlve<l ' '''''' ,... '. ' ••, La r .... "eud>lI,oI "'_ h"""7'p """<I> Sw"'''''od 1 rho ',on' '" "... 00' ."'.Id "--" "<1 ,,'. "' .... _ ""'" Tho '''I ~ '" " "Y h (/","o" S;m,,,, "' "" c.,..,od "",,h '''''' -r.."" 'M "on ",.p"""" < 2SO BC. St.", 1:10 u" ,pea" r...,..., .poan _ Tho _ . !O (II .... l . t _ _'" _ " I I .... <u'''' """"..". !O " Q U M"_. """ 'ho .... '_ m h... ....... ''''''''' ;" 0 ' 0...." oM 1 "".,><1 ha,,,, h«n I'fl maril y a . _doman. bt .... nn' nd"',rtly so. lli<odorus 'alko or . pea,lInd. a cubit in Ie"ft' h < about ..,em1and """n ~. T hi. i. no nauen,ion ; ..""ral head. uf thi s proportion have been fOllnd .",ming f", m .ll lh,,,,, Euro pean period' . One enor mou, e. am!'1c r",m L a T "!<· ' 3.. : i, aim" " I>o<;m long Thc«' ' l"' . th cad, C "me in on alm"'t infinite ....i. ty. I'h<"c Ihal are m"" , }'p;<'l lIy Celt ic ,well nUt a' , he base and 'hen Clr~~ conca~ el }' ,,,,,..rd. the I""n t. Diodoru< men , ion. a type or "" ..lin lind ,,; th an und ulalin(t' ed(t'e ..·hich bt .. ~.. "'" only ....... lhe 6nh but '"""Itb it a. well. S""h >pear_ head. (""" .... . ha,·e h«n found on borli La T ....., II and III ';1 ... ~""....r the Celt. """'" "p .pim.< , ... Romans they .....m '0 ha~e ad"pted ,he .. ,,:k~t ed type of pil",.. , Exam!,"" or th"", have bt.:n found a' min)" Celtic .""at_ f".. _ _ f,.,,,,, .....'ho ll... , ""'" 3 S<>o_ <:..'" . . - ""'" Or~ ," _ _" t"... 01 ~"""""", v"',"'" To,'.,. .. Cor"" ,h,o'" c" ,Oed b'y tOOl «>1<1,.... ",...It_ on • • ' h· C"o' ",. ",""'ord
  • THE RISE OF ROME 800-n~ Be TH E IT ALI" :'; . II UTAR Y S YSTEMS oil.. in sout""m Europe . Thi. milh, explain " 'hy Ili<ldonl. ""l" ,hal . ~ r javelin h""d, are I. rgcr tru.n ,,' her pwple' • • word• . II i. poo,ih le Ihot Ih. ' l",arh". d f,<>m l .a T~ne uo men · li"led above i. f,,' m . iavetin , . 'I(·...,n Diod" ' Il' ""}'. rru.t Ihe ('..h ie ohield was • • !.,JI •• a m.n , ..., i. gr"". ly u .agge.." ng. T he remain. of Ihtoc ohield. " 'Ore found a' La Ttne . These are m Ions. Ttm ..."",ld llj)Jlnr 'n be: fairly repn:scn,ni" e of d", lhiclds Iho-..'n in Cd'icoculprllre ....hich , _hen ....ing on lhe ground. """""' "I' 10 a hnle above Ihe ......i.t. The ,h",e exampl.. from La T ene , ,,'hieh have now .. nfon una'ely f.U"n I" piece" were maJ e of oak. They wcr. appro ximalely •.2cm Ihkk in Ihe ce ntre , ,apering , tighl ly " "' -OTd, lhe lide. T wo of Ihe I hidd . ha,'. an h ahan ' ype . pindle boos . On rhe ,hird Ihi. pan IS m...",s· T he cenlre of lhe: .bou. .., . pindle bolO i. hollo" ied 0111 ' 0 .llow bIInle . The Celli< , h,eld. ohown on , hi: , he hand h > grasp lhe ru.nd k . This ' i<:lor y frico<~ al Pcrx-am um appea.. 10 handle i. m.Je of a sepa ra", piece of ha" e • hide r." ing, Thi, WOlIld have wood u'uaU y rei nforced wi,h. ,,,ip of covered bolh f"ml and !>ad I>f lhe: iro n which wa, nai leJ 10 the shield a' . hk ld and ha"e I>c"n do ubled up .Iong eilher enJ , A reeta ngul" iron pla' e the edge to reinfor"" Ih e rim . An ~x· wa, na iled . eros, .he fronl <I f lhe hoi. am ple from Clonoura T ownJand . T ip-<' 0 gi ve fu n her protect ion r.... lhe: hand. p<:r.ry, in I reland , has a ri m of hide S h;cld, of ,hio . ype have .1", bttn " 'hi"h is ..",.;::hed thfOllgh ,he shield . fnund in Denman. and I reland . These wmplco of mel.1 rim. hav" oJ"", bcnl "" eTC hidc-<:<»."."d and lhere e m be round . A Ltt T en< '~-p<: s hield """""-'<l ~ llle doul>r lhal lhe Ltt T ene eu m pko "" ;Ih hide """,ld ..-eil:h 6-- 7k& (Ihe wood ...-e..~ <;Oftred ...; Ih hide , Of pouib/y at>oor 4kg, the hide about zk.1: and lhe felt , .. boo..~ -.rood ",,,,,,Id hove sph, iron Ilo5s 250ll). The an.:ien.. m llSl have ",'hen . "u. k with a oJ",hing . word . bttn ....,11 aware .ha , oak con be hardSimilar I->a .. wooden . hicld. wcr• • 1", ened by b.J:j na: . al<l no doubt the shield found in . hip buri.l . in Norway. Thi, wa. gi v~n the 11(,01 trealment. m.kes one wonuer wl->.. her ,hield. The or igin of lhi. Iyp<: of . hield i, were moM ,p<:cially for I->u, i.l, and ol->"'ure The , imilarilie, be, ween Ihe other c-eremo nials a' Ihey obvious l;- Roman ",.m"" and lhe ('.chic ,hield are """re ,n pr imilive Ure<:ce and It aly. .... rem. r kable Ih., ,hq' must hao.~ e I h~ 'I(' hao., is cen.in is . hal .n uncm'e red same origin , The e.rl;"';1 evidence fo.. "'"O<kIen shield """,Id be ".el.... in the Celti<: ohield is Pf'O';ded bl' tltc 1 230 _120 10<: . " . " "_.. . d._.. .... M.m '" f'.....,. S, ,,",-0 ... _ 11 ~ hom foo-.. Vugosl . 12 l J 1. ' 1anOg"" 1><",,"_ La T...... "on _"'.~ e- ._. _ _"""". v _ n.. _ _ a _ _ .... _ _ ... r - _ _ _~F<.....,. _ _ bo O _ ...... d ........... JusI _ _ "10'1 .... ore <:on _ "'" hon<IlO ...... _ .... ..... ""' ""II~1- " , .. '" " • , 11 or I" COlt"' ... bou. 1 _!t I,,,,, "" . _ I,om ,,,. M ... " .. 0' S, G.. m, io Museum 10 EI. b""" " !>roo, . " "0 bu.. ' P'.... . ..... _ f"""" wi", !,"'" -. -..,.,_ _ s_. - 15 """ _ _ _ .... .... . " C - - ' . _ .. •• , • • ..-. .. _ ~e"' .. f,...." So ~ ......... So- Goo"." ' . .-... n '" 11<>0I from ~ ""'" of """ 11<>0I _ _ S, Germaon M .l..... ll.,... Alp<-·_ ."""'Jw,..a _ '«ln '_ T... - <:om""'" P<-1,.ca .. ' ia on y~ _ ..,;. 19 B',,"," ·bon.. f". ..... loo nd " ..."", 'i" .. I<fu,;j, f 'ntsh". , Walt> Mu"um C..doH ",
  • ITA L Y A ND T HE W ES TE R~ M EDITERRANEAN figm es shown on ' he Holst.., s~ob b"d , .Il h.ve a back peak to pro tect the neck, c , 400 tIC , wherea' ' he e'idenee for ' hc They ar. generally refer red to as 'h< SCutum preda' es this by som~ 300 ye.". ,lontefo " ino type . fler th~ buri"1 Th~ ()nly poss ible co nclu' ion i, that the ground where , h~y were fi " t fou nd Cd" adopte d ' he It alian ' hield when T hese can dear ly he traced h. ck 10 • the;- in vaded holy ;n the 5th century tn '" ()f helme ' ' hat was in use in F rance and from h er~ i" use f,lte red bock and Au'tr ia dllr ing the loter 5th cemur ~' . cro ss the Alp" T he Ha l"a11 ' cahbard ( I , . ). T he,e were bron ee helme" wit h c 'Quld well be an e' po n from , h ~ Cel" . n elon~'l<d "'I'knot f hi' type of ()f no rt hern It"ly. The suggestion that helmet may have becn brollght to Ito ly the Cd " did not u;e shields before h y the Senones. com ing to haly i, u nacc ~pt ahk as the In It . ly the helmet eyoh'ed into ' he Cel' ic style of fi ghting d ~ m a nd , a Mont efor tino 'y pe whi"h , while reo . hield. t. ining th~ topknot and ba,k peak, h. d f hc ,erie, of b()s;" show n . oov e " m uc h mor e ,ou nded cop, >:l umber; traces the d cvelopm~nt from the simple 5, 6 and 9 ore fro m Se nones graYc, and strip boss of the 3rd century Be '0 the mllst d>te to 'he period hefm e 2 ~Z Be, el"borote butt er fl y oo"e, fotllld in when ,hc,~ Cel" wer c d riven Ollt by the Bri..in in the '" cent ur y M' . Alt hollgh Romam. T hey ore generally da'ed to all ' he bo"c, ' hown, exce p' ' 9 , were the lale 4th or e. rly .'lrd cen tur y, Th~ fOll11d on the '~ ll1 t i nc n t of Eur ope, in helmets from the Sen o n~, ' graYe, are most coses s;mil" exam ple' ha,·c heen llSU" lJy m. de ~i , her comp letely of iro n fou"d in Br;t.in , llgh 0 few or of iron and hrome, thO T he ma jor;, y of Celt ic shield' were co n tinll ~ he maJ e entirely of bronze. oval, bu t ' he archa~<>1ogic" 1 nam ple, Several ex.mpl es h.ve . m ultipl e ere" .nd the repre""nutiom , how that they holde' m.d o of iro n fitt ed 10 the lOp_ could also be rectangular, hexag()nal kno t (see no , 6 ;,. f hi' pre,"mahly held or round , T hes e ,.me repr esent. tions f~a the" a' the , ide' and. horseh.i r ,how the 'hield' J~coratcd wi' h sym - ere" a' the top T he cheek pieces of bo h , anima h or gc~,me ' ri c desig n, these helmets o, e near ly alw"y, of tho Diodoru s elaims that these mot ifs wcr e tr iple disc type ( Stt 6 1 which m u<t have made of bro nze , but i' seems mnre bee n adopted fro'" the I talian< . T hey likely 'hat the y were pain ted. lk may .re so sim ilar to ' he Samn ite breasthe refcrr ing to t he elabora'e type of pla,c , (, ce p . 10 ~ ) th., Ihe ir or igin must bronze shields tha t h. ve been found in be Italian. J), ing the 3r d ~ e m lt ry , hi, Britain, but these m Ust h.-'e been used oheek piece degener ated into a triang u_ for ,ome cercmon ial pllrpo' c and could lar ty pe wit h th rec bOSKe, . T he .lom.fon in o helm~t wa, ," pidly . dopted by ne'cc ha'e been "'ed in hatt ie. J)iodoru,' descri ption of Ce lt ic hel- the othe r It alians. An exampl e be.. ing met s does not tit 'try well wilh the an Etr uscan inscr ipt ion wos foon d at ar ch.eolog ic. l evi de nce . lI is helmet' Bolog na .nd therefore m"" da' e to the arc of hTO nze wi' h brge em bo"e d era before th e cvac·uati()n " I' ,h~ Po figllre, " and ing out from 'hem, whieh ,'alley by the E"",cans in the midd le of gi'e' the . ppearance of gre. t stature to ' he 4th centu ry . Represe nution, of those who wear them , He goes on 10 these helme" .1", . ppear in 'he 4th. npla in IhOI 'hese ar e som"i mes in the cent ur y to mb of the ",lid, at ( :en'ete'i. f()rm of hom' , whi ch "re attached to Both have , ca lloped check pic . Ex""e, the helmet " , ., to form . single piece , amples of the triple di', type also tm n or ln t he shape of lhe fr onts of birds or up in Etm ria, although they do not four- foo ted " nim.Js , Helme t' rou ghly Scem 10 have omli'ed t he 4t h ce n'ory. fitt in g ' hi' descrip tion ha·e httn fOllnd T here ;s " Iso an isol.ted example ()f . but t hey d() not ,cern to fit in'o Ihe scalloped cheek piece fr om ' he ." Iom em. instre. m of Celt ic' heim CI develop- fo" ino ceme tery (9) hut this m. v be.n ment. For con ven ien"e t hese m. in- im po rt s"e.m helmet ' will he considered fi"l T he .l on' cfon ino type sp read A lar ge number of he lmets h",·e bee n throug h()ut the Celtie wor ld : IJ wa' di",·overed in the region of It. ly (,,-"cu- found in Yug oslavia anJ an almo" pied by th e Senone, (the Adriat ic· e() ' id entical G.lat;an exam ple is shown ''' between Ancona and Rimini), T he,e on the victor y fr ieze ot Pe r g"m om. '0 A,1>o• • A, Celt" ch.F" om G," I., th ' ' ;'-1'0 of C,o,., " . W OO" a n ito o 001",,, . od "" , , h" t H" long , w ",~ o,"gs 00 h i, 'ig h' " ip. Swo<d' .. to" " me ",.re o" eo " "'uco" , metre long g oh i"" oim '1>nd,. B"' ,'h Ce " "" ,h li'D" ",,,heO h,i' ao ~ , k, o ",,,OPed w i" wo, d Tt-, Q"" m'l",i" pf Ce'" wo'e 00 armo ur. T'ev I, me ",,,hed the ' r Oa,r. oomoi"g it b." f,,,,," the I",ehe." to ,t-o n.,,,, of the "C' . ' 0 that it ,"", mbleOe ho" " "'ane. Th. st , Ie " 'oawn 00 ' 0"_' of coi" •. ThO '''e mpt to m, k. the h ""d uo "'. th " of " ang,y ,,· ,·,i,""" e" ce O<J,ng l, ",i'D i'i"" ' "d ,n. y "'OV,,,. the ' "" 9 '001 he" et" " C ",, on he l"",,, The f<o m, " toward' the Celt' "'"S p artie ul." , 'uth'. " . n~v , ,,,e m., ,,,, ,,y m."oc red in ""'rhom ''' 'y. SP"" oM r..nce Aft. , , he H," o'ba"c "'ar ,he ",C OQ""" of the O Po va llev virtu. lly QOnu""d tt ", .re. 0' ( ,It" ,,,,,,", me n """de w .,.
  • T H E RI SE 0 1' k O.I E 800-n~ Be Tim ITALIAS M ILI T AR Y S 'STE.M,S Bolo", 1 _17 Tbo ......,_, 01 ,... ~ "o mot a..o.... ,_ .......... COt'>< "om on . _ .... n" _"""0",-. <lea' . - . - _ o.x- _ ,o g 12·· ..... _ 2--6-- .. <Iea' " 200 lie 100 lie _. ":~ ~~. / ~- -.....,- OJ...,.,. """ nMo....,," I,l""'o/"",,,,, a..... 1 """ .""'.,, " om • En....... """"" .... """ '" ' - ViIIo I,l,-..o • IIn;.nzo _ . . . - "' ....... . 0"'" - . '0....,.,10 .......... t".... v_ (........). ........t"".... ...... Moo. F."""" S, Go,mom M. _ m 11 "ouod 'oo"ood b,w". C. oo. " "o ....,mot Cr. m"". Mu,"" ", 1Z I,,,,, "._, " om CO....""10 in ,,,. 11. '_ ,--""'" ,. """ A"", , . _ "" 1) ."", _ " o m ", yugoo ...... _,,_I,l..........~ .............. 1 $ 80-_ .... mo, 'o.'" _ "'" (S. . . . . _ .. 1 B,oc, . nolm., hom Som",e ·T"" ,,,,, F,onee St~m .m M, sev.. ... 2 11<""", ........., """" 0..""_9 boo .......... ~ J _ _ """' "• &on>t Au..... V-.. ... ", . f •....,. ~ l1< otI1O _ , _ . _ ll' """""0.......... i B'""", """ 'on .......... "0"' " ,. ~ """,,,,,,,,;, .t Mooteto" ,"" A"coo . Mo",,,m L,u.) C••""'.·.... ·S_ " y""," 11 I,,,,, .......... ' ,om Pol! "" , ~, d "", ,w,tzo"",,1 '""en M".."", 1 7 Iroo _ , ""'" G,,,"IOSro, Tie"'O, .. "" S..... AJ... Z..... cn M_ 1. Boonzo _ ' ......... 80- ""',., ... ' ...._ ,. _ _ '"' l .... _ _c-. ~_ 20 kon ChH. - " ..""' ........ s, a--n ",- ._11 *"""'" 0" ,,,. ..en., """ 0.10 ' " noo 21 ' '''' hoi...., O,an",. . ,"
  • [TALY AND n lE W liS TERN M EDl T ERRAl" EAN Altl>ough Ihe Cell. had been almo;l dri,'.n OUI <>f hal )' b)' Ih. fi",' quartet ofille 2nd ",n1ltty II<:, ,he :.t""",fonino Ill"< .Iill lum' up in lhe " ~ll~~ of ,lit ....Ipo. The .umplt> found htr<: ( 12 , ' 4 1 ace . ""lu.i""ly made of iron aR<! h1'" lilt nttk Sua.d made ..,pantely and tlltn m..".,d on T M ehttk ~ lin <kgen<:n'.d oon."knb[l' fro m i" o.-iginal <inign but ... " ill rtlain• •he ba>Je eharaet...."..,.. The .Iun,d"onino he[mn " .... ,he mosl . u""",..ful . y"" ",.." . ""'ign<d. It "..,n almost IOlal Kctp1a""" in tho< Roman ann )", " 'he",, il " .... u""'" ,; n ually uru;tIll"~«I for ....arly four c..,,,'uri.... Al a "on"'r....liv. a,ima« ",me ' h""e '0 fou r milli"n or lhoo. he[rnt" mu", h.". Men mll<k, T he. e w• • • ..,,,,,nd I~p< of h.lrnt' , ha, "'•• v«y . imita, 10 Ihe Mo ntefon ino ')'p< bUI 1" 'ked Ih. wpknOl (" . , II . ' 5), Thi. i. u.".lly , . f<rred 1<> a> ,h, CooJ us In" .f... 0 '''-<:en'u')' nample found in J'n""" Although il ".... never . , I""f"lla. n .1>< .Iontefonino'j"I>¢. it, "OC' bttarnt ",id.. preaJ in 'M 'st c..,mury 1lC . R<! i. apran ' 0 tIll" e b«n the fot<1Un....r of lhe early ",...,..."ury ~D Roman I<gionar)' hel mn. The origi" of ,he Cool... helmn nuLl " he .. car[} " as 'M .Ion,d"oni"" I).·PC ' one ...... found in ,he &none" graves anJ the nampk fro m J1.I~lan nuL}' M .. ""t ly ... 400 II<:. Some helm" o have . 'll'< of "';"1" designon the oide (...., 7. I}1. Thi• ..,.,-n. 10 till"< originated in ha Ir ...... may tIll"e b«n inopiud b}' ,he ";ngs on Samnile hd m"". Th" 'ypc popular in ,he Ralhn. in ,he l rd to 2nd «n'uri« tIC and i, 01.., . ppears on lilt ,·io;to')· fri",,, from I>"" .mum in Asia 'Iino. An ",ampl". Ih"ugh il ~." u ld M an im port , h•••1 hee n found . , Amf,._ .., ville in nor lh" rn Fr ance """.me a .- 5 1 ...,.,' "'._"' • ....'''''' ""'" ~....,n .., ,,,, nthe ....... Ih. " .,"". ......," ""'" 1 8<""", ,.,,,,, """'COl _ !rom ...." .. T"" toll.. bu' II.......... .. , ottoo<'""..,n "'" ocl 01,"," "'''''''' . . - ...... _ n 10c nd o n f,"'" .... ""'. _ ......."on " s.-..,., ........." "',," "",n· "'. ...,....n '101 e." ... ~'" , 2 "",n"om oli"',,., .......... 8<,', . h ... "...., m 3A ronf, ,,," ',.nc. >how '''Il . 1.... ·"'••ho>d h. " 1 c.l' "" th .. C N"O," " "'" ....,mot j,o m the Alp, ."" Th"" .1"'0", """,,,.1 '0'h".,,1 ".1 """ "c.p ' f", ,no "0" " ~IO 4 In. I<Ie the '1m 0' 4 . ,.,. '." ,""""n ~ ,h o,n" "'h"" "01 ' he 'O'Om" c; p . 0' of f , "lI'o.CeIb<: T"" "'••,,,. _"0'" _no 00'"", 0""""" ~'" < ..',,"'" ec ""'"'" .. ",.wed on, '" "'of_ on"." "",pol l 'h. " 1 00.." ,... • """"''''''' <~" . .. ........"" '" j ",,,, N'"",. 8 " bolt , ,• ." of ,,,. ""'" wom "" ,... ",.n'", 01 G, o••n f,om A"" ,. ,n C"" '<:a Th" " no" C "'c 'vpo . 9. 10 T",o " "",,"0 noOd' f, om S••nte ·A"""". ' '''I e< N'",., "".."m lIor""" M ime.. rca.llinl" ,hose des cribed hI' Dtn<l,lfU' a. . .hown on ' M arch a' <"-nil< · U,. Bearing in mind , he Jlurmio ,..,[ier ( p . "~ ) ,hese may be ime-rpt"<1cd •• OIandord hc lmn •. s..ven l helm"... "';,h hornlike . "arh""",,, cu' out of, hin bromt , heet ha'" bcett found in 1,.ly. A e . u pert> eumple ofo hor""" ~ial hellner ..... found in lhe Thamco at t"' 1<' 1oo Rridge ( Ill . II d mcto deoora'cd ,,;,11 onim. l. .. dncribcd ~­ llio<lo<uo Ite VCI)' Only o n< <>lample hao come '0 li~hl. Thi. "'.. found at C iu...... i ,n R"mania. It io . helm", of ,he Ra11na '}-PC: II } I ,.,i,h a bird nn .op. Thio b,rd till. hinged ou,_ '''tlehed " "m", " 'hieh mus' h.ve flapped up and <k>wn . s lhe w. .' e, , alk'ped in..' ban k. Som e 4th ." enlu ' r Celtic have !><en diSUlV.." d in n,,,thern I'aly which conla,n Elfu'con Ne,au 'ype helm"" bea"",' t.... "a,"e,
  • T H E RI SE OF RO ME 800-a75 RC THE IT AUA:'" -"' fLITAR" S·STE.tS Tha'I~ Cell. adopo:td lhe Scpu ~l_ mel i> wnfirlmd by ,he .ll~~' of ""'....al nampln c( a Cellic for m of S egllu hellmt in ,he c.mral All"tlC ..•.. ' 4· 1'· 11:). In the , . 1 cem ury IIC IWo n.w appellr, T hl:y are ct<»ely rd ..t•.l and are generally rde " ed to a, ,h,· A~en -P"rl type, . T he Agen type ( ' 7) a c·op r..her like a !>owler ha, with. hri m. T he P"rt h.. a . imilar cap hut a .leep n.d guard ",hich iHi veted on (•• I, Bo,h a ....... type of d >ttk pi....., " 'hieh ...' n l,ner .dop(ed b}· ,he Roma... . T~ Pon Iypc ""U I~ direcl ancn'orof tl>< "I-em,ury AI> impcril.l GallIC I<'gion_ orr ~Imet ( Ott p . 22~ ). E.umpln of thne hcl......., which 1I«'.....Je .... 'irely of iron. hay. been foond in ",,"hem Yugool.Yia. ,he cenlnl All""" K gion , Switz.r lllnd ond centnl and .o", h_ ,,"'coter n Fnnee. T he peo.;uli..r Ihing aboot their provenance i,"ho , il i. ..long 'n'" h ., 'n" h,,,·. , he fronlien of the Roman dominion> .. lhe bqinning of ,he 1st cenl"ry Be. A , .. -em tury Celtic chec k piece from Alcoia in eentnl Fnn<..., {' OJ . how. an 0'10.1 m,x 'ur. of ,he d .... i".1 h alian ehe.k pice. decora,ed wilh hossco harping bac k", the old tripl. dis<: type , Simila' characte ri"i., appeal 00 the carlie< chcck piece fro m nonhern Yugo,'av ia U ' .> Helm cts of ( ireck/ltalian . conical, ype wilh Cellic dccx>f~ti"n, . " ch a , I . 1', I l l . have ~ l so bee n f<lund , T hese all Ott m come from 'he area of Apul;" in .o"ll hern h al)'. The ...·hed de<:ora'i<;>o on ,op i• • Imos' iden,ical ' 0 those .ttolA·n on I~ .." h of Onn~ , f.'·.n in ",,"hem hal y 'here ~Imc, find. are rommon. , he v , .....ion'y· c( Cell. "''QUld have ....orn no atnXMJr Diodofu" tdlo u. , hat theoc ""Trio" lime_washed llH:i. hair and I~n rom bed i' b.o<k from Ih. f",. h.ad '0 I h. nape of I h. n...'k to , hal il looi::.d like '" hoI""', '0 rrune. s..-'cnl coi n>, .uch .. ) . p . 12a, .tto,,' ,hi...yle. Thi. an.mpl 10 make the h~.. .,and 01' lik. an an,..red alumal i. exceedIngly primitive and mal' po;n, '0 Ihe origin of honchoir """,to on helm. " . Some ,,~tue, from ..,u, her n Fr ance IA'Cst uf the Rh6ne , shuw an extr a_ ordinar y' headgear like a h,,,,d wi,h " or.. t un it (see below). T he, e rna)' he pre_Celtic and <:enainl)' .h<lw a gr eat similari,y to ,he hoods sbown 00 'he Osuna relief. from S",in (see p. l 50). The uo< of hody annour &mo.>J1ltSl l h. Celt. IA'' '' probabll· '·.ry rare. A pan from a f. w bronze <L oa .... h"'h coold be eh.·. . armour b OI ore more likely '0 he tw-nc» dc<:onot ion> for """"- , here io noIllinl1: from the eor ly pe.iod (,. sG-a so acl. The 4'h--]rd cen,ury' "al"" from Grnan in ,he SO<J, h of Fun« ( s«: 5. 6, 7. p, , >2 ) .......~ ...." Trior wearmg .... ha' appears 10 be eilhe r. ' quare from and " A,,,,,......... . ;ghl sa.""". .. mo" """'"_at,•"....,. r.... 0 ..... .......... !n_, ""' II of COIl< , """ C4oIt>c ""'" '}""-0_ .-- lJ 01 ColI>< m;oI <IW! .. p. . "n .. _,'" - . .... COI>O _ _ _ _ 12 A, II " C _ .. B. C r _ _ oI".-og _ .. _e-m.. ,-~_ D _ oI "", _ , . SIlo.. Of 0101< C V _'_.F' ......... ,"",..,.$lyIO ..........'" '5 A, " . ,.....,. "'~ ..... _ .. 01. c.~ j,,,,,, ""''''.m "'''''''0 on > n " ",* mod on", ,.'.• "or,. , &A, "'" 'P'"'" of. mo" ,o "t I,,,,,, POlO' mom ., To"..., '"
  • ITALY A ~J) T HE WES TERN MEDITERRA N EA N , back pl>lle "'hi,h is " rapped on or a comple,e cui,,... deco,," "d in form . This . h lue ",,"not ~ co,,.i<krcd '"' typic:olly ('..,lIie . I n fact ; .... y not ~ ~ltic af .11. The hood <ype helmet , like 'hoac from Sainle_ Anas...ie ill the 'hi' same are a (sec p . 121 ) p robolbl y origin_ Ol<d """"'I , he 1b<1ia... and no" t he Cel... ThnrlOf" rara11<1 should be . JooIi;ed fo< in Spoon n . her lhIn France. The claw bell fUlel>tf ,.-hi<h " com_ mon 10 .he ..-hole of ..,.,them r <anc<: and Con>a il • prc..eclric tlo...· The ""ample , 1Io• .-n on p . III i. from A"'ria in Conicl. A round)OO Be mai l ..... i n ~ e n t e d _ In . pi'e of , he Celts' disto"" for armour, most of 'he ....idtnce ('lOin, s 10 them as ' he in'·cmo. of ,hi< i.. mo>' . uCtts. f,,1 form. Stn bo rde." "m.il •• Celtic . T he .arlie", ",main. come from Celtic gra,-"" and the Celt. were the gr• •, iron WOlke.. of the andent world . Severol statue, of w.rrio.... from southern Fr an,,, which have bc<:n t"ought 10 'how pi~.k in ' >r leather cui" " " , , h""I<1 be re~arde<.l . s dcpi~t ing mail. The me "I' mail, which was very ex~n.ive 10 makc, wa' pro bably te'tri~ted 10 lhe .ri.l<><;r8c>y. The variou. >lalue. "f mailed warrin,.. from ' olilhern h ance and norlhem hal y show lW 'y~s of cuirass : O lhe tin' wilh a ca ~ ' ha l hangs ",,,,r 'he shou l<kn (..., II , p_ njl ; and lhe o.eoond cuI like . G reek lincn cuir... whh no o,·",.ha n, al , he . boulders ( ' 4 . IS. p . n 3). The tirs' il probably the mot<: u u ly a..lle l!·~. Pieces of I mail , hin ""ere di""","red ..... lh the bird helm(t in a 3rd--ctlltury gravc at Ciumnti in Romania. T herc appc:l' . 0 M rutl of 'wo ditf=nl cuinun u one of ' hem (p. njl i. made up of a1t......lC ........ of punched (A) and bUlIed ( B) ringl " 'hil" another p;t« hal n VC1cd ri ngs i.... cad of bulled onn. Tlul il much .. ranger_ Thnc ri.... aft' 801m in di.meI.... II is pouihlc .hal thc sh in " 'i, h butted ring. """ ' ntended for <;<:remonial onl)' , wh ICh would lie in "",II with the ul rao.dlll.ry helmet_ A,lached 10 lhe hUlled mail wa' a bronze fa' tenet for 'he , houlder pic""" whi~h i, decora'ed wilh rosene ' . T he , oction (D ) .how, thor onc rnd wal riveted to lhem ail " f " ne .houl der pi"". , the centre rn""tte w•• purdy decorative PUT_" AbOve a n ~ b O'' '''' '"..",",""," ""v ...--;~~ ,L;_ r...~, n"'_J 1 A g,, ~ . "on . " ""' p .~y. ,oo",ng . C." ,o On , ,,", "" to, do"b" Mop " de. 0 ~ BC 2 C"," "0"' t.... ,,,,,. of Coe.. ' , oowlng , w,," . C ", ,n"'01 .' 3. ~ A "'""' '1'," _ bl.·/>ooo .... Calt'o vot• • n<! "' _ 5_11 M t' ',om · t~ L. , _ My""",. 0 200 a c _n '" "".., """''''' n M.-... $ I 13 ""...,_ " ..- . .1100/1.......... 7 ..,,1> cap ," 9 ...... jo;nI 1 g 11 e. -.. , u H"'''' ~ " po'l< of I>."rM,,,, f"A« 5' 14 n t....c: ". 11 I , . I .. """" of 0" a.. ... y--. ....._ ·1 ~ "(...c.- o , o tel) c~d;Q
  • T HE IU SE 0 1' ROM E 800-l7 S tIC THE IT ALlA.'Il MILI T ARY SYSTEM S and lhe far end must how ho<:l«d behind. similar roon.e on . he <>the< .houl<kr pi"e ". Th .. muS! b<: from a cui",.. with ov"rho nging ,houldcro, Th" ,houlder flap, uf lhe cuira.. thot Was mode in lh" .hapc of 0 linen co~ lct faoteru:d to lhe e hc.., but wilh lhe overhanging ,houlder ftap$ such • flSloni ng would mlrie! the movement 01. .h" arms. lt .... lherefore cucnlw , if one .....hcd 10 raise one', ann., -""'l 10 IU lhe faslener IO d>e f"",. oI. l hc shin , ~ is in II"" M.h II>e fw enc", ohooo-n on the sculplures from <he soo th of Frana: (see II , n , p . u3 ). lkfore I,,~ving lhe subject som" "o mmen l mu" be mode on Dioooru, ' Slatcment lhat ",'me or th. Gaul. wen l into bo"}e naked. T hi, is un'lucSlion _ ably tnk of the early pcriexl , hut """'I of lJiodonD' dcscrirt,on refers to the Ialer pe1iod. At the bertle of T cbmon in Z2 S IIC lhe " - I i, who auoocd lhe Alps from S..iuerland 10 figh' on lhe Cellic sid<, wne noIC'M>fthy ' o Pol ybi.... !>cause they.nll f.......' in lhis fashion whcr~ t he "'her Gouls did nor. They wore the ir troUOCn and light d "",ks. T OO on<I "g'" Tou't>o ,n . f , ....... , f"""" S, G.,.,.. n "'",""m, I I A 1:<00<0 ",. f'le b,t e aoc 8 C II A ~, k lt>QO ,""' .. , bom _ S, Gom>o," ZCI & _ trom T Somme ' .... H In ",",ual ..-..... e !>O 6C ~ __ --- n A - " " - . 0 a Goooe*_c....e _ .._ v ,.. Tho _ tw. " ' - , . e:!OO BC u •• " :.0 ~ .- I """" <t>onoI "" . . - ..................... """"" !IIO<l a IonI C~I" "" "", ) "om ..-.... _<110<._........,,_ -_ .... __ .-_.- ~~ _ en' 11 s.n. U A Coor.; "",.. ,. , _ - ",
  • I T ALY AXD TH E X' ES T E R:" M l'lJl T ERR A},IEAS Ily' ttlc ' ''''''' of Ca<'sar , tic Olts apronr to h.jttrt funy' d="",,, U1 slu" and .~ Poly'hius, In his accoun' of ,tic ~,'~r'" ~,n, up ." .tIc bank of T~lamo.>n. oars ,ha, ttlc lia.!he arm ~' had 2O,lXlO ""1llry and ehano... Thi. is ,1"0< I.., ref~r~n,..., ,,, ehariol. being u<¢d in wal far~ un , he European "",in land. T hey ar. nul encountered again unt il '.-..:sar invade, IIritain in 55 llC. Oiodoru. tell, u' ,run ehatio" ",,,,re drown hy 'wo horse. and carriN a dde'", and a warrior. I n hallle ,he ",. r riM ,hrew jae'd in. fro m hi. chariot .nd ,hen descended and fOUll:ht on f,"'t, Cae.or·' aecoun, of 'he Bri,i.h cha,im, i. , ,,,ry . imilar , Bo,h au,ho,," m. ke '>r.e im por,an, point: ehario.. "",re u..d again" ""valry. Thi. sol".. a 101 of problems, f...- 0 ... could 001 fi,h, again. , infan'." in this " ",,y' Ucel" in . kirm,.",,", Caesar CXpln'" gm, admi,.,nion rcor ,he chariol:cen' "" ill. tie <kscribn ..",trion runnin, along , ... charioc rok and " and ing on .... y'"b aho-", lhe !>onn' . houlde,,". Ses-'1'lI1 chari<>( gnt,.. . !>a" e ~n d,ocovercd in France. (;nfon una' el~' mos, or ,he ,,,,hiclM appea r I" have ~n dlOman,led before buria1. .ony ur , he me,al pan. of ehorim. have ~n pre'erved in ,he.. gra" ... Amung ,he•• ar e art icu la,ed hamessings (""e p. ' 34, 5 . 6 ond t ) .' which con onl)' hav. hee n ",cd f<lr .he o"oc'hmen, of Hace rein" T h. 1. oftth of , he bo lt on ' h"••u/tlt. " , tho' ' he)' must h. ve been ollo"hed '" ,he axle. Thi. i. certainly ,he Ill";,i",, in wh,ch 'hey were found in Ihe gro,'e , The ........ <>f ring'> w.re fou nd In",l wi, h , I>< hones' m,..t ha,·. l>e<:n fu.ened the ginh ....I' ,,,id. ,h..., , race rei n•. These gra'... con,a,n many mher bi, s and piccn, indudi~ linchpin' for hoIdi~ o n tM ,,·heel. I' 4. ' 7i and rei n guides ('.rr~u) ,,'hieh "",re attached , hr )....... . A "cry .."'" ~'ed yok e and wheel compkle ",~, h iron lYre ' 4 ......., o.Ircdlf"d ftom ' hr lake a' Lo T~nc in Swi,urLond. The ~ie<;n ''''''''n h.~ are nf '·ariou. do, .., T he aim i. '0 " j. 10 .how lh. oon of pi.... "oed in Ih. conSll'UCfion of a " ha, io1. Pi..,.., sand I J , ah t.uugh uf dilT"",n. do.., obvio... ly ""rfurm ,he .ame f.. nction. Un,il recen,l)' on. had '0 rely "n c" in, 10 glv. ",mc idca uf the form of C.ltic ,ha, '0 e"'", '0 .,. '0 u ehariol•. Thr-sc .hMo· ""hide> " 'i,h ..hat appean be •..-0 . . mi-cin::ular lidn. A fe,,' ~"Can "ll0 rou nd a, PIOd ",, ;n nonhern 1t. 1)' ,,'hieh . b",n a ehanoc or a "miLor '~.pe <:aff)'iog , ,,,,, men and a ,h",ld whicb ;, " andi ng on irs ,io.l< ;n .he chariot . I n ,h i. relief bo<h oemi-cir<:ular .ide 1';.-.. ... . are . how lI in fru n, of , h••h.i-<Id. Thi. .. n onll' m.an , h... ''''0 pice-.. repr«cn, one .i de, U nlik.!}' ,hough. ,hi, may' <cern, i. i, suppon cd by ,he arehaeological .vide!l<·' , In the henc'h chario, bu rials ,he sp. ce between ' he "' heel , is litt le ''''cr a m~tre , which is far Ie" , han the Cypr;" , chari,,1S (which ,'ary fro m' J 10 '.7m) where dn,'~' and " 'arrior . t<><>< , ide b)' . id• . A CeI,ic ""rrior must , herd"re h..", ,,""" hchind hi. driver a. ,,,,,,"'n un , he coin of Hll5,iliu•. TI>e lon, chariot bo x req.. i",d for this a<XmJ nts for ,he doubk .ides and for lhe la~';ng k ngth_ " "'l" of a " 'atrio. in hi. chariot, as hr " .... in 'M French burtah . After ,hr «>nq .....t or Gaul . O l, ie ca... lry became .hr ma,m ' ay- or 'M Roman arm )·. Yet i, has ~n ' ''lll!'CSled , hal , he Cel.. had "" 'N. covalry and 'he~' di.""",nl.d and fougb, on foo,- A' .hr baule of C"nna. (2 ' 6 llC) ,he Ceh. , Spaniard. " no.l Roman. ce r_ ,ainly did ,hi. b", i, may ha". been nee"".r)' beeau•• uf lhc exc..,d ingly c'amped ,pace in whkh ,he)' we.. figh'i ng . T hc commcn, uf Hannib.1 a, , he b. 111e uf Cannac «curded by I.iv)' ,eem. til ",gge.' tha, ,hi, was no' n",mal ~,ac!i",, : wh"n he w., lold ,hat Paull... had o, d.'ed his ca,'a l,y di,moun' , lIannibal commented he migh' a, wdt ha,-. deli-ered 'hem up in ""aim . Thi. implt.. ,hat d i,muun,ed CI"al l")' " 'ere u..less. [n IN, h i< i. hard concci'·.Ia..... numbers of co...I.,· di.moun, i ~ '0 fttlb'. If ,hr Ronun. had dol"< , his, PoIlN .... commenlO abou' thri'lIdor<ir>n of . he G ift: 'f'C'Ir ,,'h.ieb did Il<J' ..",...,. in ' M charge would ha,-. I>ccn mnningkss. The O l. ic CI~ all")' emplo)'ed by ,hr Roman. in ' hr early .mp". is regularl)' depict.d fi, b, ing fro m """"t>ack. 11 ,I><tcfore ....m. ... ..>na bl. ' 0 conclude from ,hi, pcN"••ive .~ i de nce ,ha, ,he Ceh. indeed prod uc. d lNe cO'alr y. M any Celti. hur..bi" ha,'e bITn fuull d. These are u'uallj' uf ,he , naUk ')'pe T hesclIlpm r. " n 1', III (u) , how, '0 a"""....""'" """ ,ha, ,ha, '0 ,ha, '0 a ""'-an !I<'n-;ng ,,; t h 'hr , u.... .Ionian f"...... at ,hr hallie 0( I'yd... ( , 6lI 1lC). The round . hi-<Id...·hoch n ce..aml)' Roman 1"10I' GrttI:. m...1 he a C.,lIie CI1llry .hield. The "",Iplurc (J J~ on p , uS ,00... a Cd! ridinl( ov.r I falk n G reek . T ho, rlder_ Ie-.. h"r"" ......... ,hr '~'pe or oaoidle ,n uoe J m' >n,..' lhe Grttk... ,h;, " ",<. The 0 ... uoed , he ..me ' j'pe of-tdl, a. 'h. I..er Romans. Thi. ' l'pe of saddl•. ",i,h pommel. a, ea~ h cornu . a ~ pea .. on ,hc Gunde..,up cauldron and more d • • r1y "n the J ulii monumenl at S, Remi da, ing from the latc, , " century lie. Thi, e"mmem"..,.. a h,,, le invol "; n~ R"man, and Celt " On. "f ,he hor..,. h.. fallen and , hro wn "I rider, The falle n rider mu st br a Cel, a' Roman triumphal monumen.. depict ,hr d.a,h. of Roman I<>Id..... h fnll"",.,; ,hat . 1>< four_pommelled oaoidle .......-n '" "",Ipout. i. Celtic and ""'" Roman. n.e Gundcouup CI..ldron al.., . ........ ,hr discs ,hoi ,,~ u"",,, 10 O l,ie hones-. Some of .1>cK, made of .. IWI', hov-. b«n r nd in nonhern llaly. Thcor f>Ir<J<u "'. ~ al... acI<>pled by , he Romam . nei,"', ne.·" .h" dceora,. The K.. m an - ..... ' in a . m y o f , he ~ .h e e n , .. r y B C The Ca " ian Ifea, y of ~90 "1: ,ro.:o, Ill". ..d R"me in , he l.a,in Le ague .nd for , hc next ,60 years ,he , hored , ,'ommon mili ta,)' de,'dopmen, wi, It o,hc" l.a,in " . les . W hen Rome mad, her bid f" r 1 • d....h1p of ,he I.uftu. in • , he l .o, in t'"r " f 340- 33 ~ , l.iry . "uICS u, .ha, ,he mili' ary organioa,ion " r ,he La'i ns and Roma", " .... iden, ical. ~o do..b, hr is rillh, bu' when he "l'S' hat 1"1,,, faced pri_ pUla in , he baule M,.,,, a link carried ......)'... , bey "'.... ha>-. l>e<:n a' """""i,e end!. ,h, pn_. ol'hr~ . Rut her. once ''If:ain Li,,. givn on ,n",IWlb!e glimpoc of ,he Iqion pnisa''''''. All Icgionaries no.. u<¢ ,he Italie ""al .h,.1d (....'_l The phalanx had been abandoned and ,hr I....... .... now .plit up into ,hree It TlIc rrar Ii had's companie. ( d"... each t>divid.d into ,hre. p.'" (w~"I<l). A, , h. fron ' were ,h. cream or ,h. V,'.'an, (m'" ,,;,), Hchind , he>< ,·am. ,h. }'(lunger and Ie" di"in~ui,hed men (, ,,,,, , ;,) . nd be hind th••• ,h•
  • '" .onon . ...., ,, iu~''''"0J peJ lit "".,lnIU,"" < .... JO llOIldt.m:lp .,n'q·'IOd 01 w.JoJum 01 I! IdZPI OJ , "u 0«." - "l.L -u()!,d lJ:"~p [.." i IJO ,'pJ !lU~ u. IP I . .• •." <),><1.:» , ' ~ 410 II' U Itl'! 'lu ~ w 4 " I1"" w , M' J • 1" 1'1'" "l'l"'l,"d ~H 'I! p U""J "4 , . tlo II p<><nd ""'I '"l ·'''1''1. ' !4 J" lS"'l "41 OJ. ·"4':ouop ........4 "4 :>J~H '.Iop u ,"" 0... 10 s>h<n "41 '" ""'>du;>S;>J> ""I >d~ "llftWO'> PI"""" ~II""'I"-"POUI ~H ' P'04PW "... ,,~. 01 Iltl " p~J"I" ' '''I k'r l 1"'l 1 ,( n "'l. ~" U " .(~ 0>1 ', ) ''''4''10,1 .14 P"'l !JOSOP '"'II pur (:m 0>' . ~) .Iw ," o r."nJI:~ ' 'II " >OMI"" ""·jl"4 O! Ii w J. o."~!'[ ' ;>11 0> ' pur ot f U»'''' '''l p..xu· p " -un """IOW:>J ~ I' Jl ~ aUl"" ..t»A "4 plnn.. " pur IU~w.1op.~ IURI""'" J" ~IRlS • Ul ..... muJOli "41 '.o.u.owH .~J', "41J"lU:I""'''41 '" WJOJ""" 01 " JO UOl1.1U....", '"", ,, p~P:>l:>J ~.''''I ""'1"'1"" '''''W :)Uno<> :>,n' J ~ 11fJ 'I"'" '"<I .'wn .. P""'= """J '~ ' 4 1 'l". p'WJ. ,J.' . " ''I' 1"4' 'wn ,," ,. nw pu r ' W!' "!'l l Ir ""n OJ' ~"'''' "IW ,"' ~ ' .x '01'''''''' pur ("/"Il ,~ P"'l ."'41 , I' ....oq"l"d h " I ' p>oWJ" 'u,. "..,.... pur <J4r.Nut1 "4' .""4 ..lOS lOll QOP ..... '"1 ·ww 000'> Inoq, lO IflO• • 1.",lUI' ,." " , ,,, """ Jd w nJl ' ''''''''oq PJ" plRl' ' '''''''''I/O ~ " "J -J.JJ '" 4,n, . " J.J,w nllJJ<j", pur " ""41° ' '' Id ',{ J n l U~' ,J<j ,,'w o£ am -"'nn... '' 'Un,U," ' I'l nop j(l P"",>d w,,~ U. "lq rq<>J<! ,,,'" ""'4..L .,, '"'" 09"M> ~1l'1 • 1'"4 'A"'l :>JOJ:>J'"l1 ..nw . ,,'.... " pur J" Im n '1:':-1 ." ,"", 981 f*I ""1 ""'" oql 10 "un 'I-:! '000'. .... 'I """''' uodJf "'-1.1. ' UIP-'rl l"'" Jr>dt 'II'" powrr ("'''1) sd<1OJ1 p;>!W<- I'Ia' l N JJ~," U"''''''f jO ' Id,,,",,, 4"*' 01 1" '1' "11.... "'Id "," w > OIU! I"' p' A' p "'I" I , ,,. "''I./. " j'l J" ' w ud ' 4' '" <In ~"! _ ,,'w ~"n".' J" p:>«>dwoo "ll" "Jm w"" JJ:M (" ..,....) ''''''1 "4.L '~JII J" ,""" Jd ~4 ' uo ","",_.(ua;n, .... . J" WUl~ ..... <>.I"" a:MU. -(""'UlluoI) ,u1lI" JU' .... ~ 10 (»!dnrrw ) , . ,,'" >1 JO dn:>prw"," ""1 'IPP'w :>q.L '$J""wrs "'11 JO '*'41 a" '14w~" 1J " 1 '""'" ' I''''pu." J<!.(, 4 '''4' ''''p.,"f o¥, ,,,,,n ""'._0.4 "A< '"1""I" - - ............ _ ......... -..01 _ _"",,... _ . . . """" ..,..., pu o - . _ .. ,u """,," >,M'1 ~~lr'o' ~ -~I; 8 ptll>OJ! "I' 01 '" P"ld~l U~ pa./ "'l.L ' p:>qfl (O'lO Il»q 1''''1 :«I. -10,,<1 ~ ..1 1 llU' w '. p =J UI"' H JOI 1ll/I ~l1'"1"'1d _au"" ""' ''- ,U nlU,", 'l It _4'.1" l!uIUU ~><l ''' '~ l1~h 0 _oou' 1 """"w ",, O~ .""'" 0 ' '_) '"'<1 JO ~ 8.>! . ' jl llulJ nr '3, , - .• • <1 ~,' !:>''' 1 01 U.S", '~"~ U ,,! bl ~'l l OS >Wll " lU ~' ~4 1 "'l l l"""_ p""" l' uoq. U''''l P'4 (....dIp ) PP''l' l'u noJ ""II <w l~l~ "" '1 J" . ,0 ," ,," 4"'" 0)0""'" ....., .""'''',''"'' A .-, ""'4 ' " L" u .oop "" '1 ,,. ,,~ /0 . ", ,",," 4"'" _Ol.. . __ ......, 09 """lO "' _~"'" ( Poow>O, 4_ U"JN<i OllI'noqo)opJOOUO ~_......,_......., __ "'_"'1 -_,......"..., _ ~_'-'- "'ll ...., "" - "'1' ~. "'l 0 1 ..... jUl1Clidtno:> p~ "''''*10 00' Ol UOlld<=p _,Mn ""'"....' '''11 Ul s w ' US .S AHVI T U W NVn 'l'J.1 'IIIl. ;)Of 5Lz-<XIS 3 1-'1: 0 8 ,10 ;lS UI 3 H.l. ""'I «n""I1.''>(') " J"Jq ' 1" "1'''"'' " I'"" '"O!In''''''' O ' '",w09 M .a"H• P'IJJ.~ ',,!M JO r ~ I "' u,, ~ "II.<J[~.~ ~Jl4 ':>q1 JO 4·'0;1 P""'l ",:>q ' l':>ql 1"'1"'.1.,. "'" uop .(.,q 'I"'" p;.uu~ """''' 1tH'U, "4..l. '""eJd. ·$J.UJUI ....,.., ~IIU:>"I <I'lL "("-~"') """""""l4rpu.:>dJp lU"l
  • I T A LY A ND T HE WES TER N M EDITERR AN EAN Ihe Allia and it was pro bably for thi, rea,on that it wa, dhcm" inutd .nd the whole ..my was ..med with the I" g<r scutum whieh was now rein forced with an iron , im The Sefi an ",my h,d <;on,i"ed "f ",,, p.rts. each composed of 40 cent uries of hopl;,t , a" d 4. centuries of lightly armed ttoop'- h can hardly l>e a c"incidenct ,hal Uvy s iegion, from which 'he hopl;te, had di"lppeartd. eonsislS of 4S units (1. Q,di" " in 'he , .~ r line and 15 maniple, t ath in Ihe midd le and fronl line), Allhou g!l the veSliges of the old class 'y" em " iii remain. cI. " es onto'wo . nd th ree seem now 'n he grouped '''gether . nd divided by . ge and not weaith; the younge>! form ,he hastati, those in Ihe p, imo of lifo the pr incip" .• " d the oldesl the "iarii Th e rorarii <till Seem to be ,h e old fo uTih c1 . ss and tlie au<n,i and lev"" wll h lh e ir pr opo rtionately higher mm h.." m.kt ll P the fifth cia" Tht , ize or lht ce," uries , hou id nol SU'pTLSO ono In ' ht ea rlier army tile size of the centuries v3ried with tho ,i'e of ,he army. Ille centuries of the ,,.iuri; in POl yh iu" li mc wcre ' lill on ly 30 strong, In the new army the prime offe nsive weapon of tbe It ~ i o, ," r y mu st by now have hoen ' ho hoa"y i3ve iin (pi/urn ). r he oid spear men still existed in the tria r;i, rorari; . nd ace, nsi Ii Ul now ove r a third (If lh e army had b een moved up 10 the front, pm b3bly armod wilh p;/a 10 br eM, up the adva ncin g enemy. The thre e lin e, aro drawn up in q uinc unx for mali on , li ke tho h la ck , qu ."s on" ch ess bo ar d T he 15 eon' ur ie, (If ha.<ta ,i art at Ihe frOilt with a gilp between eaeh, Tho pr inc;p,.( are dra wn up similariy covering tlie gaps, The uni ts or ,he " or li ne sim ll.rly cover th" g3 p' in 'he line nf pri" , ip". T he battie stor ts wit h the , kirm i. heL' (lev,,) Hying lO br ea k up tho onomy f",mation with tlleir light lavelln, As the enemy advance. the lightly armed n oops wit hdraw thr ough tho gaps and IItC ha"ari char ge, ' hrowin~ their heavy iavelin, and rhen dn'i ng in wi,h thei r swords, If this f, ib to broak the enemy, Ihey retre.. Into the g.ps between the p,;ndp« , ",hn ' imilarly eh'lYt. If both lines are bealen, they wilhdraw <>n the /riar;; . nd retire ' hrough lhe gaps in the line. n ,t ,,,jar;; 'h on clost the gaps 3nd tlt o who lo army retre ats . Livy ', suggestio n that the rriu r;; ai, o charged i, probably .n attemp t to disguise the fact th3 t the e. rly Rom an arm y some limes lost h' ttles The old Roman adage. '1 0 ha " e come lo ' he , r;ar;;' , mo. " t ' hat things had reached. terrible state, X'hil' l the ha" u ,i aod p" 'ncip,, wore ngIHin~, Ihe tria r;i knelt on one knee "';th their left k g forward. Their large oval shi eld , re" od again" Ih<ir lor, shoulders coverin g them fro m enemy mh, ik,. Their spear hu tts were 'luck in the grou nd wil h the 'pc." p(}i nt in~ ob liq uely fo rward , Livy says, 'li ke 3 p. ii>. de·. ,",0 1 unless all eise has f3iled di d they enter th< hall ie I' i' no leworlhy lhal lhe " 3ndards were with the r"r iint . so th. t i f lhe units opera ting oul fm n' wore ' cattered. lhe)' knew lhe o,din" on v.'hieh to fail b, ck. Livy doc, not tell us whether there were one or ' wo cen ' urion, 10 e ach m. nip le of pnnf;Jf'" and ha .<J~li, or in r'e! nOnC Dur in g Ihe firs t 2 0 0 years of the rep ublic Rome prob.bly suffered m3 ny dereat> Th ~ palriOtit Livy usually sa ys lha t bad w031 hor '" opp od play' '0 account for the Koma n, not gaining a vicror y The ~ rt.tes l of lhese defe at' was Iho d i, a" or at the Allia ( 390 Be). The se defe ats , , nd the Ali ia In p. n icul.., m.y 3ccount for the mongly detens ive eh araCler of lhe 4th-century kginn Tht mort mob ile to rmalion of the h~,,~ r ; p,ine;p « wa, pro b"h ly . n answer to lhe fasl-moving ar mies of the Cd t> and $am nites Th e I,,'elineers at the f", nt m3Y have beon p. Tl icul..ly desig ned 10 wilh ' tan d and h'eak the force of the Cdtic char ge '" t'" """,,";,M W ",,, l'"nc'ptiS we,e Iogot'09, ogn, k~ ,,,to too< arod too' .hields ' 0' ''" 9 "1lainst U...... t<tn ,hou'ders to D 'olect te..m f<om 0 o,, " te.. "'''3".nd orinows ,,"'. defea'eO WO"1d ' hey eotel the '''' l,i3,i, . """ 00 '"", ' peors $10<><"9 I"'war~s "'"i1.,. b attle Be'ow 'e11 . A le>oo dlO'" uP ""'<:'Y to, o,,'1e ",h 9' P' b€'w_ ".o" 0' It,. un ,,, to "" 0" the " '" '0 ;,t10,"n""ge. II ""aMn, ''''' orint'''''' 3nd ,,""31' " ",' d w"no'3w dOwn ' '''' "'-,.,. ""'''OM ''''' "'dines 01 '''3m,. "Na", arod aceemi. The OfI1ines would , _ close ,he g",,' 3nd ''''' army oould "" '",,raw _ ,nd 3 ""ogo of _a'S. B~ l ow, How the OfI1"",s m,ghl close Ine ga ps by ,rlO"';"9"" the 'e81 000' "00> ------------------------------ • ---- -- -- - --- ----------- - ---------------• •-• • •-•-•-•-• •••-•-•-•• A c c~ns, .qmam r"."i ••••••••••••••• ,," p,,,,,,,,,,,, Has"', • • • • • • •
  • Rome 275-140 BC The Roman Army 160 Be On :1 June tM Ie the Romans defea'td .he M cedonian. a, Pydna . nd reductd a ,h. homel.n d of Philip and "'ltunde, '0 a Roman pro' i"" . , "'flor the battie a n" ,nb" of Grteh who had ' ided wi'h M.e. don w... b,ou~h' Rom. fn, Que"innln~ .monK rile...... llIe hb'onan Polybios H..... placed in ,h. cu..ody of the SdplOfo. ~ • clooe mend of Scipio .'>fmilianu•• nd accompanied him on hilt CMBP8J1tBS In orde, ,ho, bi. G<ttl< rnckn miP' undenland me of the Rom.n army Polybiu. too l< the trouble 10 de.cribe ov.n ,he .01.110$' del.lls-somethinK ,h., "or " ,her Kleal 'oure . , C. e ' .., do •• not d " .' he th, ' hi, rc.dc rs al,eady kn"",. thi.lllformation The f" lJ"will~ .ccoun, I. taken almo>[ .n,I'ely fmm Pulybiul '0 """"lIP '''"mes Kcc r u ;t meDl and o rga o ' ''' ' ;o o A' 'M bcpnn1"l of nch y...r """ cblC1' "'.,i....... (con.ulo) . 'ere e l. cl.d V. d.. no, ma l c ' , c u mOla nce. u cb consul _u ld b..ov• .. llio di.pooat twO 1, , 10 no ' 6-ao.000 infanny a nd t.Soo-2 ,sn" caval,y Abolll ha lf 'he infan,ry ond on'-Qua".. nf 'he cavalry w..e Roman cllizen . Th e r... ' w..e drown from Rom e'o ailies, In tim.. of eW,' mc danger the "",,,hilled con, ul. , ..ml.. were pu' " nd. r ' he eo""ol of a d,c"'"r wb" u.ually h.ld olft"" f" r .1 . mon tb. A ..co nd ·i n -co mm. nd (...t .. .... e••,,'.,,) .... 01>0 nOmll>lt'ed. " uo.wly by 'M d>C>ltlOf AI,.. , h. ir .lee Uon tb e co nsu la oppoinltd 2~ mill",,,. .l1bunts. T. n 01 tlint ~ ••","', rnbu on. .-i,h ar Ieul ltn m rs ..,rviC", 'h. OIb.. J 4 n.od only ,,, have ....,n fiv. yean ..,nrIc~. Th. fi... tw o .. n,o, 1ribun~. n"mina,~d "er. "pp<ll"!<d '0 'he fi", l.~ ion. ,he nu l ' hr~e to ' he .econ d. Ihc nu l two to the third . nd the 1 " lhree I" ,he foullh . SimUarly. ' he n", four junior " ibun •• OWr. I ppo inled ' 0 'he fi.., legion, Ih. nexl .hrtt 10 the otC<>nd and so on, .. . raul! . a<h letion ll.,;l loil 'ribuJ><S. As _ ' he Grttb. i...... a priYiLt.,. ... ~ in !be army and only _ ""'" o.. n.d ove, a ce rratn ..nouo, "e,e IlalM loT >CfI1ce. 0I'l an .ppoin..d day etC h y. .. . 11 c IU z. n• • ligibl e for milit..y .~rv i ce .... mbl~d on ,he Capllol He lt 'h ey were divIded "cord ing ' n p",pe"y T he p'''" •• ' dozens _'. Itn, ... "'~ na...,.. 'The ""XI group (th~ -";tb • ""...... or 0 ....' 400 d..cbm •• ) ..,,,,.d in the 'nfantry, and th. rich. " •• ",~d io ,h~ Clvalry The 1,200 men needed for 'h e ,"volry "'~rt ,.Ie"e d hy Ih. c~n .or her" .. Ihe ~.ner" 1 ~n r " l m e n l b . ~ an Th re e hundred of ,helt we re . "ached 10 • • eh I'gion. A ca,,"lryman b.d to ...... fo, ten ye..o and an Inf.n ,ryman for ,6 yea.. before h. reached 'be.,. of 46. [0 um. or ~. , danger a .. infantryman migh' ho.... 10 ......, lor ao yeats. ~ thooe .UlPbl. fo, 'nfanny >ervi"" hod be.n .epar,u.d 'hey ..... divid.d in,,, ,h~" "U>.. F,om n ch Inbe four m. n "'ere ..I«led of about Ih••ame age and build . nd btoogh' before ,be trlbll"es. Th~ Iftbunes of lhe I~ g i o n had n", ChOice. , hen ' hc ,,,'ond and third, tb. f" urlh legion taking Ih~ one that wa. !tn. l'h~ n ,h~ ..cond gtoUP of f"ur was brough' fOnl;a, d tb. . .cond I'Kion hod nUl c boice ond th. firs, legio n look ,he man that "'.. I. ft. So th~ ... 1«‫0ס‬o ronhnutd unr~ 4.200 had been d .... n lor each Iepon, In lim.. of n ceptlonal danKer lhe legio n .,rt""h .... raiKd ,,, S.ooo. II m... , bt p" in 'ed Oot lhat .Is. .. b... Polybiu. st" te. ,hal ' he leilon .tr. n ~lb ...... 4.001I Infantry and 200 c..alry an d ,h. , ,hi' was ra ised to S,O inf,n try .n d 300 OG c, ""l ry In lim •• o f gre.. d a n~. r. It . ..ms unfair 10 day that f'o lyblu, i. co n" adicling him.elf, U 'he.. flKUIC. mus' halt' ... ri.d con.idenbl,. Once . h• • nrolm.nl had b.... compl••ed . be oalh . 'U r. ke n One m Iec ted bJ rio. t" b.. nts to co m. r" d ond ..... r ' 0 obey hi. office nd .."".... th.i, orde far .. in hi. power. The o'he 'he n com< fo""a,d on. 01 • 'im••nd ''''Ort th.t they would do ' he . am. . . th< ftrst man ('Idem in mi l Th. ,,' hunc. then g. Y< a !>IO<'e and d" e where .ach I . ~i on was ' 0 ...embl. '0 that ,h ••old lers co..ld be a.. I~.d to lh.i, ..nl.. WIlliS! 'he I• ...,. ",os .. kJ n ~ plo"" lb. con.uls .100 .. nt ord ... '0 lb••Ili.d clli.. O1,"n~ 'he numbe .. or trOOPS ftq~i ..d and rhe d.y .nd place " r ....mbly 1lle """'I magi'"'''' chost the ftcrull. and .. at Rom. OWOIC 'h.m ,n, They tb.n appoin,td a commander .nd. paym.>Ier and despatched 'h.m When 'h. y anived a' 'b. rend..vou, Ihey we .. " n cr mo rt d ivIde d Int o n", groupo ..cordi"l '0 __ I,h and _ . In each • .~oo·>Iron ~ lellOn lh. younK'" and 1'00"" 1.l00 fo rmed lh. I!~hr armed (wlim), Of ,h. o,her 3,000 ,he ~ " u n ~ . S1 UOO formed th. first line of h• • vy Inf, ntry (ha" M i) . tho. e in th. prime of Ilf. form. d th. second line (p.ine;pe,) . [.0 1.~on ."ong an d tb. otdeS! formed 'he ' hlrd line (,,".rii or pilr) _ Re~rdl ... of lh..... ot lbe letion. the .ruori; weft al..ays _ ..",ng 1lle olh.. 1rOOpf _ft increaoed prnporti(>tuoltly. From .och of th.... voups. -";,h ,bt nce pllon of ,h. ~d"•••. ,h e 'n bune. . I"" ,ed 'en crn' u" on......o in tum .ach nomln ote d 0 p. rtner who ""as .1.0 called 0 ce nturion Were caUed p, ia. 0" 0.1 po"" i" r, ' he elH ' ed Ce nturl"," he lng lilt p.;o, centurion), The fin t centu rio n .ltcted In the le~l o n (p.;.. . . , il".) had . . . ., wit h 'he tribune. on the milillry cnu ncil. Th. cen,urlon o "He cbn.. n for lh.l r ....dine... Th. cen '.."on. ~.cb aI' _ po' nted a ....gu ..d Om etT (.....ri..) Polyblu. catt. ,Ilem ". ,,,,~i, .quati..g them "lIh the ·...' ·ranke..· in ",. Gftd ..m,ca. The lribun~. and crnlOriou. divid. d .ach d .., (Jt4Har;, " in, ;, .. a nd "i 4d ;) in to lt n unllS (m. n lpl.. ) wh l<h were numb. ..d one ' 0 The ,;e li, .. we re d l'l ribu te d ev. nly amOnKS! tbtse manipl.. The p,i,"~ , ,i1 ~r comm.nded 'he nn, man, ple of ."0.... m••• ,.,1. ,h. IT;a i. T bu hl v, a legion of 4,l OO in(onlry divided in,o 30 "",nipl•• 'en ......., ... Itn pri.< i~. and Ita ' ...4 ...... The '''''4,i .nd p";"".".. had tbe urn. COmpoaltion, lao h.o...,. ,nf.nny and 40 IIgbl-a,med ""Iiuo. The '''·4 '';'' had 60 heavy Infan ,ry . nd 40 V" il" fo ch man lpl. w•• eompoa.d of two cenlUrl•• but th. y had no S1. IU S Th. , malleS! I. ctical on i, w.. ' he monipl. , Th. ce n' ur ion' "Ppolnt. d '''''0 of th. be .. and bra veS! men •• uanda,d beare.. h .. ~ ~;f....) The Etr u" a n _ Rom.n a,my h.d r.. o cenruri •• of trump u .nd ho,nblo ..en ",hi ch all o d lust obou. on. p~, ce o' uf)' Th I. no men,ion or ' hio gro..p 'n Polyb'u.· dcK"f"iOn but h. rtgulorly memlnno nump..... (, ,,bi,"u.) and h",nblowe.. «Dnr;e"~,.). II .... m.< likely that ••ch mani!>le had a 'ru mpeter and a ho,n blower " 1'''''' '"
  • (k.a>ionally one mample '" ha>ta'i, " "e of pn~,ip<' and o n. of 'n'a , ii "l"'faI.d 10gClh.. a, a uni ' ca Il .d • ""horl. PolyblU' and Uvy bolh u~ lhl& .. ,m fo, lh. lin , 'im . In Ih. lal.r 'la~n (If lh( . « ond Pun ie .. u wh... il io <I • .,ly describing a 1:1<'I1 unll '" ~""""'" In <:11 ~ 2nd « ntll lY 'M I<tnl IS ,>I'lcn U><d for a unil of .1Ii.. ' .1 • • ohon of . 0..1, • ""bon from C... mooa <1<;. How don thIS Jnd-e.mury 1(lion compa... ..i1ll ' hoe i<Iion 0' ,hoe "me of lhoe Loon wu lI~o -l,}8 -';» Po lyblU o' um1 io divid.d Into )0 manipl.., lIa..a,i. tt n pn>Kip<1 and "0 ma'" Th~ old ", ,,,,ii h.n dio · ~ a1~th<-r. rcduci1ll1llo: 'tmIC'h of ,II< Iqion ll'om .bout 5-000 to ~ ..IOO 1b< l.zoo 1idI'-onnW """,.." i and /nn, no..- ull~d .. ~I"n .. ~ dl.tril"".d ,.n 1~ d>< }O ........ pl<s. TI>< ... nipln of 'nan; .... stiI 60 ~ The p.i. c.p.. and 1I.. " .. ,i have M~n doubled. rdler'i n, lb~ n~'" ..,...U,V< opi n ' of the "'~ion ..lI lch 10 no lonl~' filhtin, for ilS Hry n" , . ne ~ bu' <OnQU<finc Illo: W<JrId Al'mou. an d UV<>nan.. pons OI1th a ","-and · th",.l _ d (xIa d,. ' 11""........ ,,·.1 1b< r..-o oartirsl rumpko dahllll 10 abou, I1 S -.; <:om< from nill<l In SIownla. Thetor b.v•• li~hlly " ,.i'l~d I>I.d,n 61em and 66.m Ion,. _~. It, n.m~ impliu , 'hiO .....mn originaled In 5"",n. rrobably • Iong-poim..... ,..,tsIoQ of ,II< ,..,llIC .........-.:1 The adopllon of thi....ord muot h.v. occurred dmi,. ,II< S«OIId runic .... u ,h~ Smlh~1 , ,,'n rd•• rc <I.a rly nol l h~ lhruoting """l'Ofl dM<:tihrd by Polyblus •• u .. d in ,be G. llie ..... of HS -HO ",-,. Hn..~.. 'hey li , pcrf""tly th. cUl-. nd!h""'t """,rd capable of ..,..,rllll • head ' " .....,-d R;';" , , _ '" • O .2OO-Olf<lnol """'" • .-.._ ~ 0,- ....-........"' ''''"..-_01 _~"" .. " ' _ ..... n ~""'....."., '" too _ . Tho ~ _ "'""" C4' '" """" ......... -"'''' 'QOOOd "",,' c<i<II. 1M _ _ thO _ 01 1wO . """", ""' • ...., '" "'" "'IJ"", Eort1 _ '" ,.... rriant oonoisloo '" tlJ _ .... P'-'" 00'" ,.,; . _ I, The"""""""' 01 ""''"',"""-... """"""" of , ;>0 .......... """"" piuO 00 _ , C• ~ " "k>o s • •",nil'" 0 . 01>"" Old>
  • RO. E n S- I40 Be THIi ROMA ' A R.l Y "e "i" guUing a nJa[] described by Livy in th e ' econd . acedonian war of 200-1 97 6<:, Polybius doe' not mention daggers. but ,evernl examples whIch are clearly de" ved Iro m Sp"nisll prolOlypt, ha'e bnn fou nd i[] the laler 2nd·een1lTY Rom, n camps e,,'"voted around ,,'um ant;a In SpaIn The "",<lJ,i and prin" ip" also ear rlcd ""''' lo ng I""ell" s (pila ) Tilere wer< L wO basic type> of p ila in me ali bi, timc differing in Ihe m"'hod by which the iron "'as attached 1o th e woode n haft. They were either sockete d or had a nat tang " ,c tired wil h o [] e or two ri " e" Th e , ,,de ted ty pe h. d , lon g hi' IO IY and wide sp read u, e , Exa m pl es have bee n found in Cell;c g,",'es in Non hern I[aly and i n Spain, Ro m an Iypes vary from a,l,m L um lo ng, The w ry , h,," tY i' o I><' pTObahly 'he i" 'elin of the "eli", (h aHa ",li' a , is ) whic h Po lybi us desc ribes as bending on impact so Ihal il c. nno, I>e thro" n back TI,e e. rlieS! ex,mpl.. of the n" ' tanged type were found at Te l' mon in southern Etruria, pro bably from the banle to ught there ,,, n s >lC Th ~ , e were ;,ery d lOrt weapo ns , o, - 35em lo ng, Sim ilar s ho rt "",ap<J n, w,n found al Smihel ;n Slovenia (c, 17 5 BC) and Ephyra in Greece (t 67 .d , Longer e""mp les up '0 ;7cm were aiso lo und at i;mlhel and . n cxamp lt 740m l o n ~ wa, found a[ ~ um . n l i . in Sp. in (153-133 "C! , Many of ,h" e have the ' ide ,dges of the flat tang bern over to lock ,hem i",o the woode n hall The earliest "amplc, have J . n <!Laped poin" ", il ieb 'ppe. r to ha,·c gr. d Ll ally ,'''olved in" , the ttaditional pyram ida l head well known from th e early em pire . The po int was oIlen barbed , The long pilJ were ckarly designed to pierce a , bield and ,,'olmd the man behind il. The ,h ort flat-tanged type must have had " d;{ferent fun cti o n It seems likely that i[ lS • pilam mamlis. • courller " i"ge wcapo n u"ed for fi ght ing from ramparts .-Ill the heavy infa",ry u, ed the scu l u m. a I. rge curved shield two . nd • hall' leel (c l scm) wide a" J I'o ur feel (c. I.2m) lo ,, ~ A"cording to Polybius it "" dO made of two 'hee t' of woo d glued to get her and covered flr" wirh cam'", and Ihen c. II skin, This type of shield is sho wn o n seve,al m OJum t llS of [he re pub tl can period A., in the ear lier p<:ri(M it i' """I l " 'ith a spi ndle sh, ped boss and a lon g spine, .1 shield of this 1)'pe "'"OS found a, Kasr El Harit in the Fayum in EgypI I[ wa' iJ e[l [iHcd ", Celtie b'1I i' undoUbledly R" m, n This shield, which i' u Sm lo ng and 635cm wide. is made of I. mi" aled birch ~ I []e or [ ~ n tbin pls nb of birch wnod varying from 6 to JOCm wide were laid o ut lengthway, an d sand",iched bern'ten ,wo I, ytr> " f narmwt'r "ri r' laid hnriwn"lly The, e three I, yers W glued together to ete form the wooden co re of ,he shield .11 the ,1m i[ is ,Ilghtly less ,ha'" "emm,etre thid, -,welti ng '0 'bml1 '-t ern in the ceoTTe The whole shield " 'OS cove re d with sheep's wool felt which wos do ubled O;,er . I"" g Ihe ~d gc JI,d "itched [hmugh 'he wood The sh ield h" a horizo nT al handgrip which i' held with an overgrosp. Th is grip is 11iustrateJ on m, ,,}' Roma" , eu lp' ure, Po ly-hiL" . dd, that the , hield had an iron bus' an d an iton edging on ,ts upper and lower rim, So mt }'eo" a~o I made .n exacl copy of ~igM S FI.' ·IO "lI"d pdum from Rorwa Dlas " Spa 0 5 "",""" """" '" " pikim ['om R"""""., In Sp" o, 7_9 SocM' od p',a from Ron,ob'. slN, maor,. ,n " od .bovo Ro m'" w• • poo, of ''''' 20<) ';<'("u" IlC Sc, le ' ;8 $0""",'"810,oo,a , ... FI.' -'o"g." oihJ ,," '" p'OMbl, . pflum m u'a'" No, l ;, the F,y um sh ield wh ic h weighe d somewhat over lo kg ThiS wtlgb l wa, Je d ared [0 he riJieul"'" o n the ~ o u n d , " Iha' nobody ,~) u l d h' ndle a shield of thi, weight. Recently the remain, or. ' hleld we", round a, D!>"ca,,"r. A r<,on" ructio n or Ihi' I,m<d o]t to h,ve a ' imilar ,,'e igllE T he Rom an sh iel d of this perio d was essentially a body ' hleld, It was nOI me"n' '0 be wield ed Whe n th" leg io n" ry <harged, he generally held his shield wi,h a ",aigb, arm and wi,h hi' left , hou ldcr re 'ti "~ ag"i n" it. Wh<n he re"Ched the <nomy-, he hit him full-on with his shield, th ro wing th e who le wei ~ ht of his bod y . gainst it, . " d tried '0 kn(x:k hi' , d"e" , ry o v~ ,- He would Ihcn ro,t hi' shield on the gro und ' nd , cro uch ing down- fLght from be hi nd it The fo ur foo t shiel J """ pro ba bly Ihe regu la tio n , i,.o SCi piO Aemili ,nu, " ,"'erely reprim, nded a soldier d u[ing the siege ofN umamia for h"vin~ an o'ersi'e shield. Til e ar m our o f Ihe p,i n, ip " "n d h~ " ~ ,, <on s ist ed of a s ma ll sq ua re brea"plate about 'o cm square t ailed a he art ~ uar d (p , ,,o;a l.) and" g reave Th i' wear in g of o n ly o ne g, ea ", is e o j Spa," No, 9 " proM b<, a ""st. ,ol,t.,,, '0 A""onWuctioo' ot . has" veMoo's, a tl." 'aogod P"'''' aM a sot'kotao pI/urn • ' -12 Two gl'di' his""niens . s ' rom Sm,he! ;" 81o,"",•. 13- " D,gge< " ,d , cat>ba'o "0'" Numao" . ,"
  • ITALY AKD TH E WEST ERN M EDl T ERR ANEA}; __.. . <_.. ~-- 1 1 . <11 _ t_e- .. . . __ ... -...-_-- __ _ Tho _ _ .. , :... ....... _ e3~_ .. _ " ' ...... t-;to on _ . . . - . "_<11 '. _ A ~ _ _ _ 'CJ<Il ,.,. --v"t ...... _ _ .... _ _ .~ __ 3 ~ -,., . . _"' _al_. . .. , 7 F..,... _ _ ..... _ .-...g .. (loIpIooo T ....... ~ _ (>M • )~ ..,-.g _ ...- • So<:1>on '" _ 5 ,0, Moo k,,,, •• ,, _ _ I">gIio. c 200 llC .......... _ ......... e-oIo Tho _,.. ' 10_.... ""'" .,.. u.- .... __ .. _ """" _ • ',a, "- _ .._ ..-......__ ,._10___ 001_ _ ""Il _ _ I CI J .I" ~ • J Abo• • e ' E" '" V""Scu'p,"""".". .My"""", ,ytcOo "ae hom ."., nV"om ''''••o ho'.... """"" .t• < 1!>O Th" ,hews ""0' .... ;t~ C .M ...,.." Th., WPO we>uld n_ ,." C"'.o,~ o.. " m U'O ." '" , "" Rom." .,my .. ,h" po" od
  • 'mu <:onlinn.d by Anian in hi. A 'S T""liaJ ... hen he " )'1, ' .•• in Roman Ityl. one · gra.vc to p<OCecl the kg ,,'hieh "''as tllnJot r..........d in lighung·. Thil iI, of <X>Une, lhe left Iq , T he P«fQr<>J~ il • deooendonl <Jl the 0<1""'" bretilpla,. 0( the 411l oetltwy . SOM 0( these: hilv. bttn found but rem.ai... ol a cirruIar ')l'C wen: found .. S"tnantia. WeaI'hier Iqionaries _ . mail oItin . "Ibe <:UI' or lhew ohi.ru, whidl is ";milar 10 the linen CUU--, is """"'n un , he 000<}" <Jl Acmili ... Paull". at Delphi in Gre«t'. 11Iil '"" let up dt.r the Roman dd..t of , I...-..donia. in , 68 (1(;. Thew mail I h,n l wen: .Ia:<:dingl~ heavy, weighing abou' '~kg. 11>eir immen... weillht i. relIect.d in lhe ...- coun' of ,h. ban i. of Lake T ..... imene wh.re ,he ooId;"... who tried 'u I wi m 'u .. fety were drowned by the weight of , tw:ir arm uu,T he h,"'''li and primiMs wore a bronze h. lm e, decora'.d with a ring of three upright bl.,·k or purple feat her> abo u' 4scm high . Polybiu, ,aY' ,ha' ,hi, wa, tl> make every man h,k twice hi, normal heigh t. The ~"{>mmOne" helmet in use at the time ...·a. the M on'd .....' ino ty pe <Vol" ed from the Cellie helm.ts of the 4' h and 3rd cent uri .... A lin. eu mple lKIW in ,he K.rloruh. M u>cum in Germany ..... found al Co_ di Puillia. h ","'as . to this t"""n many of the I.gionaries fkd the di....t.r .. Connac in 11<;. Thil helmet appean be CIa<1ly risht for the da'e and i, is a"rxtive to thtnk ,hat it belonged to one 0( ,he Can.- Iqionlries. Thil 'ype ol ltd met had a hole in the ,opknot. "Ibe ''''I'l-nut: ..... filled ..illl lead and a pin 10 hold. honehatr err..< ..... i.......ed ,n ,he 109. Bomeallt Ille peaked ned- guard . . . a .iouble ring .."",hment. Two It raps ,."..., a,,,,,,lled to these rines, .. hich <;tOIIed ...nder tile eIlin and a"..-:Ilcd ' 0 the hook . at the bonom of the ebft,k pieces, holding the helmet linnly in pooition. The monu_ mentl lhow lhat lhe halo-Cori nthia n helmet wao trm in u"" Ind ,he di.cov.ry of a Sam ni'. Attic helmel ofth. tot century AD .t H.",uloneum .hoWI that thi. Iype of helmet wo. al", still in vog ue. A I'Odded ClIp " r lining wa, W Orn under the helmet. A Celtic type of Monter" r tino helm.t in th. m u.eum at Lju bljiana . till ho. the re mains of ~ .......,,,",,,,u ,hiI, . ,6 &f,,,, '0 felt ca p inli<k . Fell "",uld cenainly m:oke , he lnO$, . ffici. m furm of pad<kd lini ng . The ,,.;,m; anned in cucrl)' lhe ume fultion .. the .....'atl . nd prUoaf¥' excepc tha, in1lead of pJa they caTried Iona: .pean (........). "Ibe ,,"Un Wft'C .nned with s...,..d, ja"eli... and • round o.Il>eld lJ'ar-I) about ')Oem tn d ....... er, "Ibe javelins (.....,... od.,.ulJ ) an omaJler vcniom of ,he th.in ,w,.,. They have • small head . S- JOo,;m ....... "Ibe wooden shaft is n•., cuhits (e. 9O<:m ) Ion& md a finger · s wid th in br,,"Jth . The ... I,,~. wttrr J1I1 armour other ,han • p1a'n helmet some"nte'I cover.d with . woWs . ki n, Or a o.imi lar d iotinguilhing mark, so that the centuri"n. oould recognise them from a d"tance and judge how ",. U lhey fOUl ht. ROME 27S-140 Be IH l M-A :'" A R M Y , 60 Bl. II..,.., -- • A _ ""' " ~om or _'UI Poul~ Dolp". te$ 8e He • ",.d 01,.. " ..go 00 t~ .. <-On ~, • ,"n""" li... bu, , pht .t '" ,. .., ,,," "".m " C a"alry a nd I he a llies 'ow The 300 caval ry W<fe divided into ten lurmae, each 30 . " " ng . Each turma had three decur io" . , e1ect. d hy the tribu nes and three rear-ranker. (oprion. , ). T hes e ten -Mr"ng unil, mu,t he i"tetp rC1ed ~, file, and on. mu.l ,hetefo ", condude that the eavalry Ii r>ed " p . ith. r r.n or he deep depending on circumst.'ln.:e:t. T he Ii"t ..,le<:ted deeuri on of each 'ur"", commanded th. unil. The horse-men ","'.re arm . d in the me f..hi" n as lhe G re-eko lI'ith ~...i and ro und .h;"ld (pa rMa "IW""' )' Th.y carried a Iturdy opear lIi , h a bun l pi k. ,,'hich ... ""'_ - . on. could be "",d If , he lpe.r brolr.• . , Roman cavalrymen olto'. ..n on , he 'R.",.""'" _ Looa . . - _ . . . , . , .. F"""" ... ... • . e...- '" '"icl0I)" monument of Aemili ... P.ull". ....... _ 1 . 1 Delphi (1 68 eel " e wearing mail 01>CaI oItiru al..-I identical ro tltoloo of the Jeg;onarin excepc for • oplil . , lhe rhillh 10 allow them to ";t on a hone. "Ibe di"inetiv. Italian ca"ol.lry . hioeld ca.n be seen on many 0 - . "......10. H..ing orde",d tlte legionaries to 1.1.1.1.1.1. iot. arm {hem",l...,. in acoordance ... thtlte i ullin in whi<:1t tltey ........, ",mng, the <rib"""" dilmio..,d ,hem 'u th.i r homes . "Ibe allies ...~'" ..mil arly formed into hriga des 4- S,OOO I t",ng 1'1 . bou, .... t,1, 900 cavalry . On. of these briga""" was .ach legit,n I<> that ","'h.n au.e hed 01 ,'-' " ne ref. n a legit", un. m.an. aoom ....bo• • " ,.",... 01 can '... _ to,OOO infon"y and 1,. 00 cavalry. _ <I'1H, '" I" ... _0 ~ "" I dec",,,,,, w ho _ ",<lorI E",,, m. .. Polybi uo doc. not describe the hreak_ '"" ..n'., '0 ,""''''' M P . _ ~ ' ", n down of ,he aUied uni ts hut they were ron .., probably . imilar '" lhe Ruman units. - ~ ""' """'a "1~ 1.1- ' ;;" 1.1.1.;'1.1.1.1. "1Ji 1.1.1.1.1.1. '0 '0 II·,." 11 'it." oo . . ., . '"
  • I T A L Y A N D T ilE t' E STER~ M EDITERRA NEAX Genalnl)' lhe: u.in allin had t h e _ orpnioalion as lhe: Romans , I n a normal t..'O-1egion arm )' , he: kgiom fO"i11l in lhe: ttnt ", and , he: , .." aU;ed bri~adC'S (aL~ waom... ) foughl on the: wings. on~ he:ing calk d I h~ right ""ing and lhe other th~ Idt . f.."h "'ing WaS ""mmanded b}' Ihr<:~ pr~f~,:t, nomi n_ at~d by the oon,u l, Fr"m the all ies the hest third of the eO'alry and the best fifth "f th~ infantr y wer~ sd e..1ed to ' f<>lm a picked unil called lhe <-"lra _ ",di",,"ii. This w.. a ~rac" force: ""'d ("" sptrialas, ignJn<cnlO. They 01$0 made up ,he (OWTi ng for« for lhe legions on lhe marchOrilfi..... ly soIdien had snved ..i ,hOU! pay but lince lhe """ drn,-n OUI oiq:e of Vri ; a' the beginnin!!, of l he ~Ih ct'tl' W")' lie Iet:i<>nariea had been pa,d. A Koman infan, ryman ;n Polybi u.' <lay recei,'~d Iwo cN1i. a <lay. A .,.,nlurion "",~i,'~d Iwitt a' mu<:h and a cavalryman . ix oi>oIs a da}', The lI."m. n fOOl .ol die r got an .ll(wa nc~ of aboUI 3S litre. "f corn . month and a horseman ' 00 litre ' of whea' and 350 lia e' of b.a rl~}', . Iost of thi., uf "uune , wen' 10 feed hi. ho= and groom. A hed char~ for Ihi. ,,-a. dcduc'l~d from , he pal' of bo'h l he infan,ry .nd , he caval ry by the Deductions "«4: also mad< for c1o'hi ng and Tq>Iac<:_ _ ,cr. ment ann. The all;ed in fan try olIO m:ri>~ lhe 35 liu".. of rom. bu' 'hor _ 'alryman onl }' recci ,~ 70 IiI,.".. of " 'hao, and 25 0 Ii,m of batley . H ow~ v ~ " thi s Talion "11' all",,"l~d fTC<: of d,ar.~ to the allia l'... lnlng O n thdr a,,,,m bly at the place and da'e >ti pul ated by the . on.u!, lhe new I~g ion. l.-crc pu t th 'ough a rigorou. ,raining programm ~. Nir><ty ~, cenl of them would ha v~ o«n ", ,,,iC(: befol'(:, bUI e'eo ...... would ha,'~ bttn nul of p,.aia. The new rttnli" m u51 al50 ' hrough some ..,.,. of bI'ic ".,nina. During , he r<:crUi1 _ lrai ned to ligh' ' , he ualte' wilh ............,i&h..."'"porn (~ p, 1 1 8) and no doulto oomething .imilar 1001< place during th~ r<:puhl ian ptriod . Polybi us u. a good id~. of the I'(:training of <llre..~nced ",Idi~ .., "'ft~. Scipio copturcd ~ew Cart ha~ c in U>9 RC, hc initial~d a r~!rai nio g r rng,am me for his arm}'. ha,.., ...... Ifi"'" '" = 1"-'" • 0.. ,he 6..... do y , he ooIdicn had to run oil kilom~..".. in fll l armour. On the oeoond lhey po!;.hed theiT armouT and weop0n5 .nd had .m.. ; n.pecrion. On ,he 'hird da}' Ihc}' T<1lt~d, O n Ih ~ founh d.y ,~' had " .... pan, drill, I'ract ic ~ 'wor d li~hting was done wilh w,~,dc n swords oo"ored wit h loather T o avo id acci don" ' ho , wor d had. button 00 ' he poinl. They al'o prac ti.. d lhmwing Ihe ia"elio. which ,im i~ Iarl}' had a bUllon on Ih~ p<~n'- On ,he 6fth dal' lhe'" w• • • nolh ~r . il_ kilom<t'" lTaini"l!' run in full a"""" r, On the .i.,h i' ..... '.pi' and pol ish' ap' n. On lhe se>'CIl, h they had a. -hcT ...... day, and SO on. On t h e lDan:h 1l'hrn- the r-ct,..inin, proeramme .... . cnrn r l<ted lhe arm }' 0C1 oul 10 mak~ COolOcl wi'h ,he enemy. t'hen breU:.i"l!' cam p ",...r}" hing wn done in a di...i _ rlined man n~T. Upon lhe fi.., hi." of the lTumpets ,he lent. of t h~ con, ul and tr ihune. were struck . T hon the , ol diers look down theiT own ten .. and I"' co.d their~quirm~nt . On .o«ood ' ignal lhe p.ck .nimals "'~r<: I""d~d, and ona ,h; ,d the colum n ...t out. I n addi'ion '0 hi' own ~'1ui~t ~ach ooId i~r ..... ""peeled to carry a bund~ of pali.ade ....... A. Pol}·bi... ta}'l. DOl: d, flicul' .. their Ion" ohid'" hung from IhcTr shoulden b}leathcT ""PI and lhe-y only had 10 carry thei. jo,..,lins in bo ndl. '1'"", Ih",~ 0' ~""n fou, palioade >lakC'S rould he " -rapped in . hundle .nd ~orri~d on lhe . ho ulde.. The ""lum n wa, ,,,uany led by Ih~ tx"",,,.di~ or;i, ~e~ t oamc the r ight wing of ,h~ allies and ~bi" d them their b.a~~aKe animals, T he}' wcr~ follo wed by th~ Ii'" legion wi' h il5 b.a ggag ~ hehind. S OXI cam~ Ih c oecond I~gion follow ed by its bagga!l" 1'1... ,he b.aua~ of ,he Itfl "ing of ,he allies ,,'hieh formed the n:ar[(U"N . The a>rI'ul ..i ,h hio bod}lluord, ma<Ie u p of • un;' uf hurw and fooo: .pecially od«ted from , he ,.,._,.........., probably rode at the head of ,he legions. The ca.al<)· ~ timn b«>ughl up lhe rn., of its ov. n t....g. de and at OIh~r ,imn rod.. on ,he R.nko of ,h~ baggaj(~ !rain 10 k..,p ,he . oiml ls Mgelher and to ocr..,n th~m If dang" was e~ pe<:le d from the ",or the txlrQordi~ Qrii form ed the re"r~ u a rd . One m.... assume l ha' ri,her .. ' -an "" ra'JUlIrd ,he 600 CO·.lry of ,he ' x""" "<tt di.pn-wd .nd t<:Outin!!'. The tw'O k gion. and tbe right aod kf' ,,·ing o( I h~ alii". ""chang<:<! JK>IIi' ions on . lterna< day, or>< dl}' Ih ~ ri~hf wing aod 'he Ii'" le~ion led and on I he ncxt the left wing and Ihc ""m nd lO Kion wer e at , he from, Thi' manoeuvre enahled each in its lurn t" ~njoy lhe adv a n,age of the frt .h w.t t , and foraKe. I n lime of dang<'r whe n the ground " 'U <lp«t Ihe Iull'a';. pri""i~. aod ,......" marched ,n 'httt panolld column•. If an a"ad; was npecled fmen .he right, 'hen ,he ,. up thi' posi' ion wi' h .he".-iwipa tin, '<> ,hem $0 ' ha' , he-y could ,urn ;nlo billie orde' wi'h lhe Itt:u/a'i fonn _ ,n, ,he fronl h"", the """"'''' lhe """"'d .nd ,h~ 'ria"i , he rear (.... r . ' 41). In ' hi' co", ,he ba_ _ would ~ on , he left . iM of ul.'h Iin~. If the cr"""',, .. '0 'ha' INn,,,. """'ld .hi' ....' 'hei' a. l a. R _ _ ...h_."- ~._to ... ..... , ... co"", The _ _.... ''''' "'~ 'Q ",oje<f '''''''''''''''"' "'" ",.,n ...."" t+>e •c ...,,·,",,, g<><l ..,., T....... m .·' "o'. .... II ~ "",, 'od ',om ,D '''''"d i" . "" b' o".....""h·. wo.k,h"" . Po"" ..,;. whe"'" hid booo o tokon 2 A, F,.U5COO .- to bo .. p ....d "om 1""'''''1 ~_,"_ 3<0"",otic al ".n ,"" An , 8C Viii. Gi..i. M _ ....n .... t>t . - on t+>e otu.....,roo ''''''' Oouno ,
  • ROM E 27S-' -4" B<: TIl E R O ,tA :"i .".R .l ' •.., 1M' . n aek "'.. , hre..encd ftum thc loll , the red 1I. g .... s pl.n ' c<.l . nd a lin e .... s w,""ld foem up on th c left a n.J t... d 00 1 p.ll.all.1 to lbe Ii"" of the " ,rib""",' ten". Beyond , hi, line the baggagc would Ix on the right. T hi' oppeIn '" Ix a ~el<>pmc-nt of lhe: Iqion> encamped. A, the cen,,,, of Ihi. .' I~d",rllan s~ ..... ,l' umi"l into blink line the lribu ne ><:'l "I' h;' .......")'''1 line could bc5t ..., adlieYed if the "",rument W_l t" mca<.. re oot the: maniple.. man:hN not in tile but in re.. of t he ,'Om p , T hi, i""uu ment rank_ a. ,he ,Iacedoni.n. did when enahled him to du... up a ree,. ngula. going in, ,, 1>."le_ :«, Ihat whe'n thcy gri d and ", m.ck ,,'ith 'I"" c, ,he turn e to f..." ,he enem~' the fron t rank two main st reets . T be lirst "f Ihese (V ia -d "',," in position and the lil... did no( p,,·r!Cip.;Ji,) un he• ....,..n Ill< Iinc of the hI"e to dcpIo}'. If the: CCfl'Uri« h:od a . rib .......' ICO" and . he line ak'ng " hieh ten file six rank basi< fonnation (sec lhe k gion. ""CfC he d no"n up, divi ding the camp Iaterall!'. The >«Und 1'. 141), the: n the S<>Wicn would maceh ( t' " prat,,,",, ) un from the poi n' six ahee..t, ",hich is """,,'Iy ,,·h.. ' hey d,d durinR t he cmpiC<' The . cmy whe.e , h. lro"", w., pl•..,d in front covered . n a,-er.lle of ahout .1Okm • of the P'~"'''''' '''' .t , ight . ngles t" d. y, bu' when I,.""''''t)" ,·ou l<.l m,,, h the "' h" r " ccel, d"..." thh,ugh the much fUrl l>CT th:on ,h i, . Am"ng.t ,he middle of the camp. On,,, t""'" ,wo pionecn "'00 a.:<>.>mpanicd the nn_ ","ds ""re .,..tahli.hed he could ma.k guard ro make sure the mute "-as dear OOllhe It"" for ,he dllCh and rampart. ~<X1I'Ially • mudling camp " ..... ..'C'e sr«ia1i... in brid~ building PoIyhius mentI",," t""'" ",I><n Scipio surroun<lcd by a oJ"rh aboo' a me,re efO:lsed the T iei"" in ,I>< "i nter of deep. T he eanh "'0 ' pikoJ Ul' " n , he ztgnc . in,ide , f""ed wilh llrf .nd k '-elled off to form . low .a ml'''!' T he ,wo legion. T he ca m p eon"'ucled the f. on t . nd rear defene", As the o.>Jumn app","ehed tl>< enemy of Ihe amp a"d the alii", 1M b 'eral puoition one of the nib""", anJ u..- defeDtt>. Each maniple "liS ollourd • of ,he Offlturiom ...-Ito .."re spccilkally OCClioon of lhe lkfencn, The a nt .. rion> eho.ll"'! Wl.h the duty of scl«ting ,he rhecked tlu. the: wod " 'as done pr.... site of 'he e"""",pment " "Cre oent on pe.ly " 'h, l11 t"" tribu"",, su pe.yise<.l , head to .urye y Ihe ground and mark ,he ''''crall ,,,,notruelion " f each ,ide, ou' Ih e c. m p. They would h,,,k for . When r nca m pinll in the face of the suitabk .. rel<·h of open land .bout . nemy , for more imr<" ing defcn,,,, hod 800m ........ re, preferab ly on ...ise <.l to he eon>tructed groond . T he site should no( .>lfcr CO'"Cf T he hagpge InUn " 'u plactd behind 10 lhe .......y and had to be dose to lbe line of the rampan (""/' _). The .'alCf. wli..., ""',ahy and half the heaty H" 'ing decided ",here the <;antI' infan,ry, drawn up in blIn le array, ,hould be sited, Ihey oelccleoJ t he Spol were p laced in fmm of the line. Ikhind which h. d , he be" general view of the this human rampalllhe ot her half of the l"C>' of ,he com p and plan,e<.l • whit. he.vy inf. ntr y Se' to work throwing flog on 10 1' of ;t. T hi. would be the ,il. up the: defence•. The kxionarles dUll a I",nch , h= 01 tM """.ul's tcot (p'M,,,,'i,,,,,). T hi. """'" .....".)1> , he period " 'hen the two me1res deep anJ foor " i de . The earth cb;d' rnagmra>:es " "re called prac1on. fr<>m the dileh " ... pIIcd ur on lbe Around this while lIog on ...... . bou, imide and I,,'dled off . , a beigh, of 30m sq.... r. ,.... mca.u.ed o/f, abou t t ,.sm . T hc f.onl of the ram",," On , he , i<.le of ,he p,at' ''' ;'''' best wa, face d with the turf fmm 'he <.Iite·h, Thi , ditch (jo,,~ ) and .a m p' rt (agg er) , uit e<.l fot w. ,erinll on <.l fon ging • red lIag wa. planled , T hi. ",,,ul<.l be , he " ret ched for all'ut 700 m A, the silk ..'here the k gtom ""eTC to enc:unp. const.U<.1ion of Ihe r.m part pt"OCe<:drd Fih cen """res from lhi. oi<lc or til< ,be consul .."",Id ,,'i, h<lra'" ,hc infant r.,oquue moehe. red flog ..... pbnled, maniple h}- maniple, bu, ,he """ If}' · """king lhe line of ,he: tribunes' ten". ...CTe "'" broughl in .. nlil lbe f ....... n...... tcn.. were pit cheoJ w" h their facing the enemy .....0. <>.>mpleted. Each ",Id i.. carr ied two 01" th.« bach tt> , he pr~<"'''h'''. A hu nd red feet in flOnt of the tri ~unes" ten" anmh e , " akes which he emb< ddr d in the to p ....',,'i ,,,n '0 ..,tt, " f the r. mp... 10 f",m a fen ce, ( I n . c.m· port wi,h • ],ooo m ein.·uil 40 - S0 .ooo .. ake....."uld all",,' hcl,,«n t 3 and ,6 to a """re. 11>csc >takes "'CTr cuI from trees and usually had I"'" Ih "", or at lbe mool fool Ia'....l branches. all ..." h sharpened poi nl>on one , ide. ~' wcrr planted '" Ihat the ~,aneh .. intertwinc<.l in such a way , hal ;t w.' not easy to "'" which hranch !>ci< ,ns ed 10 which ..ake; no. "... i, e.,y t" I'u ll '"'" one by itself. A. the)- "'t'rc planted ,·efl' dose toget"'" il " .... difficult for more lhon one a"ack.. to .... hold of . he same .. ake , and the!' """,ld g:osh ,heic ""noJ. , ry ing to oJ<> '0 O O e the d. k ncc. wrre 'ecure , the " w ldi.rs could set up thr com p , The 1a~"Ul of , he ",,-m l" w"' alway. lbe ... ~ and ",'er)' man kne'" ",a<:, I~' " 'here 10 pi'ellll;' te nt. 'T1Ic IWO IcgX>no encamped beyond the !",'lCip.>Ji, and on cit"'" .ide of ,be The eavalf}' ,,'cIC rnc"",ped ,,""" b)' ' u r""" f.ei ng , he ",'~ 1"a~'on~ . the Ii,,, W r m a being neacost thr p rueluri" m and t tbe rampart_ T he thr tentll neK """,', "'ere encamped bact '" hack 10> ,he ca,..lf}' "i,h II>< li", manipk """'est tbe ""atl....t_. Th... the JWi..... of ..... 11 Ieg;.,n Wt>Uld be the nearnt centurion 10> the general'. trnt. In ftunt of ,be Icn" of ,he """,n ran another rood 15m wide . lo ng which the p ri~ dp .. were <Jrawn up facing t he ' .....' ii and hack to hac'k with tbe ""'<I,lli. Simil• • I~·, at a di...""" or a furrher , sm . nd facing .he "'"CfC lbe all;ed ca,-alry . nd bq....... them the allied inf. ntry. When Ia)'in g out the camp a soft ' pa,. . was left between thc lift h . nd ,i"th m.nip le. i/,m"". ( , he,e were R-om.n feet, about 2<,><:m), Tlti. for med anothe. latrr.1 ","d called Ibr < a , qJ<J"'''''''. All of these "'ccl> were marked out " i tl> .pea... The space beh,nd the tribunes' ICO" on ei,he. side of the 1"_ '''''''''' ".... used ror , he mark ct ([""",) on one ,i<k .nd for the olliee or ,hr quu"'''', wh" was '"'I"'mi blc fo' , upplie' , on the ",her. T h e oelcct f" ..... . of e...·.lf}· and inf",u')' frum ,hr .xma"'Jiowrii ,,·Ito ma.:Ie up tbe con,ul'. bod~'.uud and also ,..,juntce" ,,·Ito ""'" serving a, the ,-.>nsul', ""l.ue>t wcre encamped ""yond 'he ~,,,..,,""'''' and I"'h'" on either side. They wo" in " " " tant attcnd.n,,, 1"-'''"''. '0 ,,1... ""',,'i. '"
  • I T A L Y ASD T H E WESTER!>: MEDl T ERRAl'EAS on the ~om u l. T he ""t or the ~ .val , y and infant ' y or the exm w rdinarii w... encamped behind 'he /W!Utorium ; n I similar fa, hion [he Ofl><.. ,,~[ h [I( """olry faci"i . be 0<11'....1 road. On ..,her side 0( lbe u""_.n-.tf, in reat" comen of tbe camp. any fOf'<'ian " OOPS or l lli.. who ~ come in ~"' e"""mped , For • "andlrd _.iz~ d . , my of , _ 4,200-st , ong lellio,,' plus allies . , poe ,", '0 'wo T he ex~ avalion of manIple block. 01 N umantio ha. given u' " ,me idea (If how [he "",nipl.. cnutmped. r he t WO cent uries en,:amped facing inwards along ritbcT <ide of the square. The "",mals ......., lled II .he i.... de end Mlny f1lll: 0( .tttrt haY<: bcaI fOfnd on imperill camp sit... ~ is no ,ea...., 10 SUPIX'SC thai these Wi:« any diffeTent fro m t hose in use in the , epublic. i.e gi" narie, ' ten," were [en_ 100ft sq ua, e w. s al1" lled to each maoiple or [U' '''a. T he /ria,ii were allowed only 100 h)' s of', Fo, leaion. which .....,.., 5,000 s'rona • pro poni<matel}' larger ~ was .llo..-ed. "I1>e first I....t at ri,l(r end of"",h maniple •• ha[ is ne:l1 to II>< «»d, was occup;e.J by' ho< cen'urion. If lbe lwe consuls comt>ined forces . Ihe two a,mies en""mped back to bad wi'h Ihe IClIio"s a[ eit her end of the comp , --.. . "'.' ..- ......... .. . . ... ..- ,.. .,. "," . ... '.' ~ ; ...." 'n!;; " . ",,- ., u . _ ~ , . , ·,~ ~ ,., M .,... _ ~ . , . . u ~ . ~~ _ . , ~ ~ '' •• .."w ' I§;~ ""~ . ... .. ___ .... ....._,.,...~ " . •. ..• . . g.. ~..... --""Il'r "'-... .-• .. . . . ..,./ ..... .::.;,., ' , .". , . .. · .... ,.. ... . " ~ ' '' _ ~ ' " . , •• • , m,_ • "'H ~ • • ~ ., • • "'----:'f'''''' ~ ~ ~ . _ •.·.u·.-.,...·•• •_ '/ . • • •_ _u·. ,_.• ••,.• • •• ••' .. • • n .....-•• "u. .. , ~ ,' ..., ---. ., .. . • • •• . .. ,,-., ., ~ .­ ' ." ~ ~ ~ . ~ ~ · ,l " ~ ::11: · . , • .-"..,.!: ~t...._ ,~.~.~ I..' r ..~ ..... -'W, ~ r,;, . ~ .. .. , . ........,.. ..-.._ . ......... , . ..........",. - .. .,•.,. . ...... .. •...._ ....... .. ... - .-, ••••••• ..... . ... r" . , . .... ......• .......... ..I r" , ~ " " .. ",' .. ... , .:'. l '1! '. --... :; ~.~;o . ~·-"· ~ "'' ~ ' '' ' '' I: ' ~ ''''_ . ' ... .~ • ,,, • .. ~ , ~., ••.• , ~ ~ -" L .... • •• . , "" . ..........' !I'! . . . . .. . . •~~ ' m •• ~ . ' ~ . ~ • •~ , - ~ . _ ~ . ~ ." ~ ~ ~ ''Y.'t: . "'" • •" .. ".~ ~- • ' ~ ~ .' . ~ ~>~ ~ - • , ,,.,.. h c, C~ ", '''' ~---"' V '-" ~ ~ '. " n . _. , , ' -' ~ •• " ~ • , .---~v r--~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ . ." < h~ ••• • .,... ,> • • ...... p ••- " ,~ ' ''U '~ _ .. • - . d~~ "l " .:.
  • R OME 275- 140 Be T ilE R O M A:'O ARM Y c . 160 BL -----• S. 'ow A c, mp for 'wo 5.000 " ,oog 'eg,oo, ., d<"" ,jbe(j by Poly bi", It "os .boo' 800m --0:; 3 _ """'''', It ~.d throe " ," " " ,,', " ( V'8 pM«",,' i, pr""' ",,~, ,nd vi. Quin r8M ) 'nd I"", ."" ,i. (P"". decum8na. pat,. "",,, c,fJ'ji,, de,,,., - "pe, 3T ","'u, • pMa pr,oup.J'S " "",,. aM pal'" pr.." ",,~ ) T"" lOb of gu.,ding the "" . " " wos oe "or",.d "'' '0.<. "" 1 _3 TM 'h,,,,, m,," of <>"'p.en",nce " "" d by th < Roman, ThO ,.moan i, lig ht . M th. ditc h " " , O,<.>Wn 1 CI, o;C" '" 2 Ag" "" , " w ho we,. QuO" e rod wi," , h." man," "" . 01lw du, io, w ""ri ormed ,". by the o..vy ,nf, ,,,,y. h eh 'e nt .. Id oigh' moo As quO',", 0' ,o. man,p", ""OS , 'w ay, "" d"tv on 'V .00u' 20 te n" were ,equ i' '''' try the gu .'" • ,boo" • . " " CB"'W,O/l',' "'" ",J • . . ... e..": i.Ai..••_ . & n .• • ':. '.'~ : ; ~" ••- : ':': :~ ~,';,.':.:~;;:. W.'.:;:,;::. ' .. .'.. .•.. _.. .. " ~ . .. .. . , • ~- .....•-, ......... ".. _..... • ••• .4:.• ........ .... b_._. . . .. , . 'J' - . .. . , . ....".- ............. ........ "". . m. ' . ~" m " ' . _.~ - ~ ~ ~. ~ , w Abov<l ~- ,h .""'"'""., · . u .. m~ :- ~ o' 4 T"" j ,It " man,pl. h.,wi " om the second I. gion e"oamped ;n an are. , bout 4 0<0 , quO'. The centuri"" , ' ' O (" d) .,. " ,.,. head of n" " ~..,-- ., . _ . .........."" ... " "' • ....-._ u ••• • ..... '. .. . '.1 .• . ...... ... ...... . .. .. . ... . .. , •..• - ~; • . ,; . , " . u ... , • Abov<l 3nd below v/- - - - - Ali," , /I • -. ~.~. J TvP!" 01 ,ent< , "own 0" 1 ,.,, " ', Col" mn. ~ Ei got -m3n I. Qioo", y· t.nt. 6 Oft.'oe" ' ent. . J Gon. ,.", t. o, a Two ",on t. eO' _ ' from Numa"'" Rom" ch Gorm, o;,ch" Zon" , lmu,eum, Main, ."
  • ITALY AN D 'HIE X'ESTERN M EDITERRA NE A N .-.,.....,_ ......... -. -... _ . . _--,- , _ " - - ' _ . ·..""'"9 ..... _ "--,-""-,,~ -_ __ ... ................ - . 1 -) lio'o.on<I __ '" _ _ block> "".. .._ .. $o>WI T... _ · _ IIIII , • R , , .. ........ ..hoeloon 01 ono 01 II.. _ _ block> ""'" .._ , S<>a<I H •• !ego.,.,..... ore bol_ -.g .C«l1uOOno '" _'h "'" ..... - . . ' ' ' ' ' ' T......... to< "'" ..._ _ a' .... I>a<t. '_ t ..... _ 7 bowoIJe <II ,.....,.., , r.... 0«1 " ... _",;ng __ , ~ --'T ,.- . .... «:1>"0 "me> '" .... lacao 01 ..... - . . . 7 ... """" '''POn hom N"""",;•. >pa;" C- ~ r .<,- H - r- H - ';~ • • .- - • t. • ," .... , . . . - . _ .., _ 1....
  • RO ME J75-[ 40 Be Tli li HIH1.A " AR M Y , 60 O( "l ua.., ,ncludlng IU )' ....'P"'. T I",y "'..,.., m:odc of "'~'M' and M id ~igh, men and 'MIf "'luip"",n" Otti,..,n' ,en,s '" ",-ell", ' huoc: of 1qJonor.... are ,ho""n an Trajan's Column Al'OInd , he .. hol~ a",. marked ou, for ,he ....mp a,. d, .. ance-of zoot, from lb< 'en', , he dneh :and palnak "'..,.., f~, cons'"",,~d Ca m pdu.;oes Ai l... en,,,,,,,,hlng ,he amp ,he lribu.,.,. admini..ered 'M o," h indi" idUlllly '0 ill ....i, hin , he camp includ ,ng ,he .~,..,.. Each ....n .""'" >leal ""' hing fro m the camp .nd '" hri ng an)~ hing It< fou nd the ' rihu"", . Th~ cam p dUllC'S ....e re d1'i<kd " u, amonro' 'he m.>nipl '" nf p.i...i~. and T"" manipl", from e"'h leg,,,n ",n e re>pon, ib le fo' k~l" nll 'he "''' p.,-"",pal" d.an, a, 'he ""Id ie.. ga' he,ed in , hi. loo- fl -wiJ e ,hn'nughf•.., d u, ing the d, y. rhe ' w" maniple. had [0 " " . 'ha' it wa< " " epl and w",e'eJ carefu lly. T h' ,"" of lh,' remaini"g I ~ man iple' wero a,,;gned hy I", each of the lribune•. Th",,, manipl.. a"endod lhe ,ribune in lur n " n a Ihree -day w la. T hey we, e ,..,.ponsihle f'" pit"hing hi, lent and levelling 'he g,ound around it The)' had 'n r~n,.., ' ound .ny of hi' baggage tha' n«Jed p'<>ltt ,ing and . upplied gUll,ds f"r ,he fron' and ,..,..or of hi. ten, where ,he tt.>nes uwe kept. Each ....n'pJe of ,n.,.;; h.ad ' 0 supply al"""d r"" 'M ,..""" of "" ..If)' behind it. Beoidn keeping a Iookou', this ~ kep, an el"e ..... ,he hones ' 0 see , ha, 'My did ..... iniu,.., ,he"""I,'''' bceorne en,~nckd , n ' heir .<-then or ~ Ioose.nd ell...... dJ.. in ,he camp Finall)' each manipk in """""ed suard.........t ,hecomul's"'nt The ~" ••• "'00 "'''''' free from ,he dut.... of 'he he.,")" infan[ry ('S'en , hough ' h<)' we'e t>tJle'ed ..." h 'hem., ..= ttlpon.. bk for gUll,d,ng ,he ram ran . The C3ffi1' h.ad fou r ~ntr.n,.., ••, lhe ell,,,,,,,i' ies of """h of 'M [.....,. main road•. At each em ."",.., , he,,, ".,,, a guard of len "," us. IIe' ide>. ,he guard, . tread}' men' k,ned , . , nigh, ,he,. "'e'e u,ua ll)' th"", pieke.. gua,d ing the " ore, " the qu" ",,,.-iu,,, and ,wo a' the [e"l> or .ach of the I<'Il"te. aud ",he, mem_ be" of 'he milil ary ""u nc·il. l'olybi'" due' not id" ntlfy ' he"" tent" but they wOre p,,·,umal>ly behi nd the tr ibu nes' ,0 '0 10..>,,,,,. '0 ll"""'" u_'" ,e " .. . ""' ''g', ,1>0 v"lun,ee n be1id~ 'he ~,,,",,... and 1_.... A gUllrd ""'" 21$0 1<1 over eaeh m.niplc:. Eac h guaed """.i1ted of roo ' .....n. one r" e .ad, of tM four mgh' 'ntelln. ...., . uppor." ..... _ heven,ng , he hornI>kno..... (c....-.....1 :and Irump<'cn ( r....a:.u.) ....... n.J<.t ' hotir 'tl>lrurn< nl1 ouls,d< ,he -.oul't'em. On 'his signal lhot ,,uu d ftorn each nuni['le "'00"'" ; , ,, ... nd 1M hnl ..-.,eh " ... brougl>l 10 the t<Tt t 01 , hot du'y ,"btl"" bl" 0"" of the opti<otu> of h,. man,pIc: . The- 'ribtlne ga, 'e each gUllrd. _mall ", I>Ie, (u n ...,,) ",'i, h . n ind,,·idua.1 sign on i' and dismiucd him to hi, ""',. On. m.n " .., .d.'Cted from [ It< , en[h maniple of e."h cI.... 0( ",f. n[l)' . nd [he temh ,urn", " f 'he c",·.II)', . 11 " f which we'e hille'N a, ' he I.. end " f , he camp undc' ,h• •ampa", T his man "'as relie" ed of ~uard dut i... Each e" eninRat " ",'el he ,,~, eepm' ed to the duty tri hune ,,, receive the " ·ate hw"rJ . "l'hi. w., in",ibe,l " n a W'k>den tab l<'t. He rel u rned ' 0 h is maniple .nd passed lhe tablel in flml " f wi,ne"" w [he chid cen,u,i"n "I' ,I>c next manip le. I. ikewi'" he p.,,~J il on 10 the next maniple um il it n "" hed the commander of , he fi " t manipl" Of ' U T", ,, , who '''u,,,,,d II ' 0 , he !rib" "'" b<;rore da'k. Th. ehief dn.",i"n "f 'he /i"t,..,...... of caval, y in eac h kgion h.ad given o.den .... Iy in 'he !1"k>rning 'o .....e of hIS 01''''''"' I" "'leel f"u, ins pect ' M nighl guard• . Th.a' ...'ening the _ rna.n had '0 g''''' noli,.., '0 lhe leading dent'ion of the- "" ~t ,...- t h.at i' ..... hi. dUll" I" P""'id<: ,he gword i",p«. ~on r"" , he ... ~, dol". The fOW' " ........... d ..... lou (Of lheir ""pccti,.., . nd .hen .....,n' '0 ,he n i bu ... to M:<'ive "Tillen ""de.. from him .I.,,,il(l ..·hal ..... lhey ""e'" 10 vi';, and .. ,,'ha, ,i"",. Afl er Ih i. ill fou r er..,."..,.;! , he ",,, pl....pah.• • nd ....ited out.ide the ten, .,( ellM' tM p"""" ",u.. or h" feU " , een'urion. "'00 ,001< " it in turn '0 10U nd lhe night "·.t,,hes . At the appointed ' i"'" a hor n ""' nded the beginning "f "", h ",·a, ch . Du'ing ,he fin ' walch 'he 1""'(>Cf "'hose du' )' i' """, ",'OOm panied by some fr iends •• wltne' ''''', made the ro unJ" ,'i,ili"g 'he 1""" men, i"neJ i" his orJers an d ."lIc'<:'ing 'he """"'" from eoc·h gu,,,1. If he rounJ a m. n .,Ieep or a"'ent hi. 1""' , he .n ,,""pen '" 'urn "..,,,lin ,k>n. 1'",,,, called hi. friend. t" ,,'nne" i• • nd W<Ttt on wi' h hIS ",,,nd•. I.i,")". pro bably folloo.-i"B Pol ~'biu" gi..." a oery colou. ful de1eriPiion of a Iqional)' . .leep a, hi. poo( " 'i, h hi. heltn<1 on. hi. chin .....'i"3 on lUI' of hi. lon g . hield, !""N"nB h".nclf up",h, ,,-j, h hi. 1'iLJI"'-y "')' , hat ftorn ' his 'i"'" on".. , d ( , 60S K ) ""', .... "..,n for bi4.kn to <:arl)' . hiel<l1. The ",he. guard in.p....:t..... ".., nt their round. in . he 0100 " ·alche1. ,i ,;' ing ",he. poo(f; . , dal'''''''''' , he)' I"tJ'Clned back 10 Ihe 'ribune. If th<)o had roIle<.~ed all ,he .~ou. ' he)' "..,n; di.mi, «d " ', Ik.,,, q u","'io n If 'hi' had no< hoen done, th~ ,"hune could ident ify b)' , he siltn. on ,h~m which one ",... m" "nlt. The ' eibune then 'ummoned the ,..,m ".ion of the ,, /fend_ i"g manipJe, who h"",ght wi'h him the men who " ..,re on picket duty , and the "001"" ".lIed hi' wnIC>SC' , T he tribune imm"diolel)' ."embl ed a court martial of all ' he lribunes , anJ th e gu. , J wa, tr kd , Iffo und guilty he wa, conJ emned '" ,uner the He wa, led oul and the tri bune touched him ..... ith a cudgel. IIi. comrade' 'he" be.[ 0' .toned him'" d.ath. If ' he failut< to eon"", ' he It..... ~ w.., the fault " r the troop<r h• • utf~r.d , he j".. in.....d . The ..me puni,hment could (all on the "p'io or b<kt of the ,..,."'" if they h.ad failed '" give prop<' ord<n 0. nql«t~d '0 info' m the """t ' ' ' ' - lha ' il ..a••hoti , , urn 10 .u ppll" ,he PIll"'/. Poll"boU remark. of , he Roman dryly. ',he n,gh, urn)' at< """" 1C1upulou.ly kePi' . The / ...,......_ al$O ,he punishfor 1l...:ling t the C3ffip, bean "3 flOl.., ...., ....., t"" . tteml"'''3 to ...-.de: du'y by ..,Jf·inllicled """,nds, and for brine """.·i<:ted of the >a..... offence- th.... tim«. This punisluncnl ",. .. . Iso """ed ou, for """,...dtee, for th""'ing a"..)' one', ' '''OI'd or . hidd in banI •• Of f'" J~·, n, . hou, one', OOU 'ase in b<I" le to , he tribu"" . When . ",·hol. uni' " .•• fou nd gw h~' of eowordi,.., in , he f"'e ,,( tbe eru:m)' , thel we" , uhl=eJ 'odeci mation . T he trib"ne..."em bled 'he legio n and led forwa.d who .....en Ituih y of le.,'ing the ,ank•. They were lin ed up . nd len I'e, "ellt " f them were selected by In' '" he heaten "r ,"'ned to doath. T he rest we," ("reed '0 ea, h"r1 oy 1 "81""""'" """i"", _.1In mert, ,1>".. '"
  • ITAL Y AN D T H E '(' E ST ERN M EDIT ERR AN EAN """ld otter _ r,fie""" each morning and ha"e lhe orom> r""d by ,he aug........1to ...... t>m!"'nied lhe ;ormy bcr""c offering " banle. I'hen t>auk had bo<on do<:i<kd 0<1, . . . . . rln dorok. lied 10 a .pur, ....as di.pla}."d oulsidt' .he ..-011'. lenl 10 warn lhe men lhal bollk ...... imminenl. I'bon . he ""do:-r " ... Ifi,."n, . he kgions as...",hIod inside lhe ramparl a' the fronl of lhe (llft'Ip.nd.-m<qe<l by lhe I'<1'la 1''''''_, The allin ••...",bl«l r~ng ,he <ide rantparl' ~i'c their onnmrmcn.. and paucd out bl' lhe I'<1'la pnJf<Tpal., on each <ide, 10 lhal each bripde """,-,Id he in i.. cotTeCI posilion """ilk lhe camp ....i'h ,he lejtion. in Ihe <:entre. The ,,"valry emerged fro m lhe pur'a Mc~""''''' and pTO<:e'Oded ' 0 Lkploy on lhe t....o ;ng". T hc Roman ea"al~' t....' k up IhoiT po<il ion o n Ihc right " 'ing and the allied cavalry for med up on ,he lefl. When two eon,,,lar arm i« wc.., comhined, all the legion. mu,t h. ,'e ..r"Cd in the centrc,", ' m. " ive hlow in 'he centre w., thc ha.le Roman tactic. T he iT dism al perfmman, e 'K.in't l1a nnil:>.l and his en,eloping mo""men" which wa, ,perine.H)' de.igned , ,, de.1 wi,h , he l e ~ i on . , . how. , hal up Ihi. point Roman RCl>oro l. newr con.ide red . ny Nher I&<,ic. E..en .f'er the time of IIannibal il w•• nul abandoned , as it ""'l"i",d no lacl........1 ability on . he pan of ,he gc.....l. Roma n armies W O f) baltIC'!! becau~ rhe lelionary " ... lhe ""'I soldier. I'hen d","·n .. p 1'"" boltk lhe Joa.'all made "p lhe linl li , lhe ,.-...cip6 the o«ond and lhe , lhe thiTd_ All in lhe ~lh-entl"ry Iqion dC'!Icr:ibN by Livy , PP' "-ere Idl be,,,«n ,he manipk'O equal 10 lhe "wlh of a maniple 10 •har , he li.... """It! inlc-rchange_ The ,,"valry ...,,", ' im,larly d ,,'n .. p ,,;,h '.-eo bet....".,,, .he , tV"ing lhem room in whi< h 10 whet-I d ma""".......,. Th< .pa..-n bet,,-..:n the mani pl" prcscnt the """'I oeriou. di fficulty in undeAI.nd,n, ,he manipul.. formaThe d.y o r h,"I~ E"el;' da~' a, da....n lhe tribune• ..,- ,ion. Did lhe """ali and "n..a1"~ ..,ally ""ned al lhe con.ul', 'enl. ll'ocn ' ocy fip;hl wi,h gal'" in lheiT li nc •• Polybiu. , had ",ceived hi, ordc.. for the day, by default, ""em. 1<> , .. g ~ e '" m did thc)' thc,' Tcla v~d lhcm 10 lhe centu rio ns and d ose thc gap... di d the Inarii d=ribed dec"urion~ ....ho " 'e re waiting at , he bl' L ivy (..,e p. 118), Som e commentr ih.. ne' te nts, T hey in ,heir tu rn tato" have . " gge1cd lhat , he ",Idle., tran, mill ed lh e c'On. ul'. orders do wn «l in eoc·h manlp le ', huffled' outward , to fill the gap. , Thi, i. com plet ely unthe ra nk " nd tile lr<N'p'. l .ikc the Urcck ~ encr a l . Ihe con, ul accepta hl•. In lhe ftro, pl" 'e tlie ten_ in"""d of "'hea, and 10 pi1< h ,heir ,en.. ouI1ide lhe ,am!"'n. on an unpro,,,,,,ed 'poI. ,"feer tbe bonk of Cannac ,he .un-i,",," "'e.., all pOl' on a ra,ion of barlc:~ and f...... eI 10 camp oul all , he " ,'""r ':""'nd , Tribu..... a1... had lhe righ' io li..., <kmand ."retie< and Bog 1'0< m,nor offences. Dnpile lh;" ""Ah d,scipli... , not all ,he a>mpul on a Roman 10 do hi> d..ly"..-te of a p li'·e 'n"'. L ike ,he .l.Kc-doniano lhe Roman. had a .~""cm of "",,'ud•. t'o< plJ.amry ,~. aloo g","" JUld "",,,'no. Tl>t:-oe ".".., a,.-a.<kd '0 lhe fiAl man '0 mounl the " ...11 "'hen a......hin' a lo,,'n (cor""" """ali. ) or ,,'hen a... ulllng a camp (cOO''''''' ,-alit,"', ), Af,cr ,he caplu re or Car'a~ena . Scipio ''''ankd • """"" mllrali, a I~gio nar}' ~." n, urio n and a mar ine who .imuhaneoud)' reached the lOp of ,I>< wall. A man who ,",cd the life "f anolher ,oldier . wh etheT eiti>;en or all}', wa' ,:",wne d with an oak wreath (carm ll' ci~ica ) h )' the man he ha<l ,", cel T h,' "" cued man had to rev ere hi. , aviou , a, he wo uld hi, fa,her for the re.l.,f hi, life , 1.i,'y d aim, tha' ,' ·l in" "iu, Rufu" lhe . qui/llm , did thi. '" the elk, a"", Fabi" s !'laxim us , afteT hi. elerivera""e fwm lIannibal al Gerunium in a t' 1lC. Thc man who bael .. ~ed an ar m y, " Fabi..s bad , wa. " . ...lh' . warded lhe cMona oiniJ,·"..,ui,. Thi. ",,,,,'n, made of grass, ,,'.. ,he "--' cow"'d of all ,he "",,':u-d•. Plin)' ,he FJd..... ".,.",nl in lhe t.. <:«n',,')' ~D, could name only eighl pc<>JIk who Iad ""-.,,ivcd it. TM.., "-'-", also ",,,...-.u gi,'cn '0 ....., who had d, .. ing"ished ,herr=h'C'!I b~ I..... r COlI'" in .ktrmi'...... A man ..:"", had ndoed an n>otDy on such .n ~ " .... ded • • peat. An infan,ryn>an,,'hohad t illed and ..riJ'PCd an e...my =ei'«! • cup. H....... t... ppins> ""..., ."..r.tN to .he ,,",·.11;' for .imilar f"",o, u'..,..,... I"" '0 ""'IIi,,,, '" '0 dency In ek••e up loward. ,Ix: ngh' .......h n """gh, .he proteclion of hi. nc-illhbou.o .hield (a n, urion. """'" ehooc:-n fr"m ....., who """,-,ld Sland thr:O gro<Jnd 10.lo,,,hi. happening). SecondI)' •• he soldic:-r-< ........ Id Ila~e discn~ from the ......m y.nd ' "".. m..' bact again hero« lhe li could inlc-r<:hange. When lo.....ing r Ih.c: "","'er to p"'Mom . . - dtouId consider ,he m<l hod uK'd by Polyht ... in explaming Roman pra<"'lK-n. I;'hen ,he Romans 01"" som<1hing emirdy forrign 10 lbe Gt=ko, pul}'btu. upLoin. i, ,n grnc detail : for uample, their infantry' .hield., l..... r ""ml'" and lhe boarding plank......-d "" their .hips . B.. t ,,·Iton thcy ",", ,he G....,k .ystem, a. ,Ite)· do for exam ple Wilh cavalr} equip"",n" Ite doc. nol prO"i,k an}' dC<c<ipt iotl TIte upl,,,",;,,,, proNhl}' lie< in tbe G ..,ek .yOlem, Thc G ru h would h, ,e filled the gap hy lhe . im ple cxpo dien, of hrln~in~ up lhe rear half of the unlt, E.,·h m~nipl c wa' ",l ml"" ed of twO ""ntUrI", Polyhi,,' tell' u, th.. the se nim cent urion ••" ,'e d on the r ight 11owe, 'er, we know from other source, that con,uri"n, were named fm nt (pri",) and I>a~k (pM'"""' ). They cXlUld h..-" been e.lIed righ, and len as "'cre tlto alliCl:l hrip"'" The problem wo.. ld ee,uinl)' he solved if lhe c""'uri,,, w.rr lined .. p ...ne hehind lhe OCheT. wi,h tlto ..,ar cenl.. f}' mnvtnl up inlo lhe gap to form .n .. nbroken Ii.... as sonn as lito NUIe bc-pn , AI lhe Nuk of Co........ Pulybiu llla l lhe .i<:plh of tlte manijln " man)' Ii....,. thei< widt"S""I> • dncnl"ion ........ld he ino;:on",,;vabk irthe ""n,uriM......" d...,,'n 01" .ide by <ide bul q .. "~ aca-pu.bk ",hen ' hey arr fronl and bod. . '0 ,m Th<e m . n ;" I... in b .ttle .~n .ucmpl ,,'ill he made ho:n:- to r=nnstNCl a ..an<lard t>allie sequeno:. On mte<J'inll rrom ,he camp """h legion f<>rmN up in 'hr« unbroken Ii.... "~Ih lhe ""nl .. rie> . ide h)' .ide Ikfo", bailIe ,he ""MOll """uld add ..... hi. ''''''I'', rcm,nding them tha. the}' " 'ere fillhlinll for lhci, fann. lITld rr ealliltjl lheir Pll'l vi<"lOrios. Hc wo uid ", uall y hdinlc lhe enemy, pointing out lh,,;r defca.. at ,he hand, of the Roman•. On a ,i K nal the ",,"triM cent uri es turned ahout face and feU in hc hind thd r pri"r centuric<, <>pcning
  • ROM E 27 S-140 Be TH E R O MA N AR.1 Y ,60 Be -• - -• - - -• -• -• -• -• • • • ,"" . • • ••• • • • ••• • • • •• • ••",,, • • • • • ""'.'••• • • • ','"' =~================== P""C ,""'" 1 v"",., =J=) =) =) =) =) =) =) =) =J •••••••••• •••••••••• • •• •••• ==================== - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -- - - - • • ••• • • • • • • • • • • • • • • • z A<>ovo A m. 'wl. of " i",ii " ,>w n " p io " " .d.,d 1 0'"""0" w ,' h, " 00 ' of te o B. fo w A m. n ,p'" of ha".,; "rown up '" ","d ,," fo, m,1'O" w't" , h on t of '<0 "lXmOpe, mao ,p'e would , o on ' the " me fo rmat ion UHUUU -- =1=) =) -- =1 1 - UUUUU uuuuu - - - - - - - - - -- - - - - - - - - --------------------------------------aUUU~U . uuuuu .. . .. . . ... ... UUUUU ~ UUUUU UUUUU tUUUUU UUUUU UUUU~II UUUUall 4 · 4_ · T he ma~ ipul"' ••ct ic Ph. ... 1 The leg.oo "d"wo op on th" . I," " w,H, the N.II"""' """'",,., a!oog , ide the ",iOT eeoM 'e, l he 'e" h.,,.,, . '0 " tho 10 0'" '"" ,no Id.ni" too 0 " ,"" G the ooSl.nIX ceo""e, ,".r " w 'thd 'aw ."d fo<m op ""h ,od thO {mo< eeotu , ie" Ie" .og gap, '0 , he I,ne, Th< "" I,tes I. ". tt,. " " " " .pl.' .M form u p i" f,ont of too leg 'o o Ph..e 2 The oo,,'e i, beguo by , he ,. 1 "",, who /Iv to Oie, ' op , he e""mv fo<m",,,,, . ' " ad.. ,,,,,,, The, . h," ' . 'ir. '" ro ugh the ga ps: /he oo" a,i close the g ' P' an d ch.. .., 4 · L #l . Ph... 3 II <he n""Oli are "",ng roeq"'YheM led . the i' pos,e',or oO,,' wio, di"'" g,ge . od 'oo ""n " . h ,,, .", ga ps The ' heo w" M,"w ""oogh to. g. p' in ' 00 1'''00'1>'33. woo '0 tum 01 0'" 'ho" g' ps . od C I",1I" Ph• •• 4 P-" ""'''''' If tho a' • • 1 be.,o o, the" !>Osterior ", ceo tu' i.s ,. """ " g , p, The y ca" Mw ' ''he' <h."g_ p loce, w"h the h8stali '"" let the m o, ve aootoo < go or w " " " " w th' Qug" the ga". '0 'oe Af," , 'h" m,ooouv,o tno po" ""or conto, io, o! 'he move .oto ' 00 gap' 00 fo< m, , oM p" . ..ox aM tho whol•••my ' '''.a'' in g OOd o.de, ""h '''d the" ,pears "'Of". "* "i""" '"
  • ITALY AS D T H E WESTER S MED ITERR AS EAS I",.,. up tilt gaP' in , he It"hcn .he "anal '0 p~pa~ for I>ott le ",as aiven, . he ",hits lef' .lItir manipln, pa OKd . h",ugh . he gaps and , an fo,war d to han." .h e advancing enemy , hu rling" "a n' shower of ja" elin, . T he purl'<"'" 01 th i, wa' '0 try to b'eak up ,lit enemy format ion in anticipation of lilt eha'i<' of lhe !>eavy ,nfantt'}·. I'ol ~·biu. dn<:rit:>n , hi. mal"llXUne at .he bo"k of Tebmon. '«'"hon both 'ideo had ligh.ly am>ed .""'P' in fron., 'hi< ,..;tic ..... ""utn.lised and . ho hanle bepn ",ith a ' kinnish. ~ ' he n ,he enemy cam< wi, hin range of.he !>eavy infan try , the lrump<t= !IOUndN ,he recall an d . he "'liltS retreated 'hr"ugh 'he ga!", T llty then rd orme d beh'n d the tria'ij "r w,re di,pateh,d (0 th, wing, 10 join th" ea"alry , Here , hey we,e eu " ,,,,,a,ily di'p<rsed in 'he lIap. bet ween , he ,,,In .. ,. . .- The ""', eenourin of ,he Msft"i _ . """'N up '0 e"- ,he ga!" and bq:an dashing rhei , J'i1<> api_ . heir ~Ido as if impaOen••0 gel to gtip" " i' h ,he e"'my. Therrum pn.bbred, .heMs,,,,, n.,w 'hei, ,,-at cry and, cheered on by 'he of . he army, ru.hed in hu,ling lin' ' he ir thin an d then their ' hi'k "il". In the eonlusion . hal lollowed th i' hail " I' heavy ;a,'elin., .he Ii..>l ali drew thdr s"'ord. and charged into th e enemy, th rowing the whole weight of . hei, bodi.. again" ' heir .hie ld, in an a, temp' .0 knock 'hei r OpponenlO olf balance. Then, allowing ' he ir k>na . hidd, '0 rest on ,he JfOUnd ,,'hih. ..itt leani ng . heir k f. ohouJdcn .,.;",. .Mm and 't'}ing .0 [orce .he enem~' bad, 'My foug h' from behind 1M . hidd. Sometime' . his fin , charge "'.. suffieien, '0 b..ak .11<: en. my line. If i' railed, .h e trumpets .o u nded the recall a' "'" n ... h" moment um w", dissipated , T ho ""SI"w.- centuries di""ngaged and began to ,ctrca' u n,il the y " .."..: level "'i, h ,he rea' of ,be " .....'eent uri.. ; ' hen 'My turned . 0 ,he right, p....cn' ing 'heir .hield ';dn .0 lhe "",mI' and movN ...,..,.. behmd lheir ~ """" . uries. ~n .he whole: Ii"" retoea,ed and ~ .hrough the ~P' in .M p,,1fci~s Ii"" . The pUtci~" who "..,~ 'he cream of ' M a.m ~·, now d .....d a a", and on the ,rumpe' bla" cha,~d in , h" , arne way, U.u ~ny thi' wa' . utft"lent to , haller th e cnomy, who ..." uld In. ,h¢t. '" turn and run. TI>t "",..Iry and ,-.Ii", ..... ,.,ld 'Mn hunt o;k,w'n 'M tl""in~ . nemy. If, h" ....... thc wo,. roughly hondlo,l ,nd the h. " le 'cemed to be I" ", , th o 1i~ ," ~I ; wOlld hr~ "k t"nh, pa" lhrough ,he ~'I" in , he '",,,ii and rcfl>tm behi nd 'Mm. N O'" ,be " ,i,......~ "",,uld be gi"on tho "'okr on ,he ltumpet to ret '"", .nd w""ld ..copen ,he gap<. ~' ".,..ld then ..i,htl..." , throul!'h 'M '""no, "'00 """Id """'e up .0 make lhe- retr",,' easie r. Ono..., .hroul!'h the ,he "rutO'",. would fill 'he PP< in the Ii'" of It."'~li , T he """en,,, ""ntu,;" of , h. , he t ri~ F;; would now mo," up 1<, d o.. . heir rank. and th e wh,M . , my wou ld ",,,o.t in K ,,,>tI " rde. heh ind " hod~ e of ,,'hen "'e ~no'" .ha. ,.ooo-stronl!' Ie'gIons w..,~ UoN _ Tela"""' . Conn.. and Py d n~-'hc legion. d, lIer had to "'i, n_ ... nd I particul.lly violent charst ,,' h" P<'<l.o break t hr""gh hy she" force of numl>crs , The maniple """ld he d, a"" n up in open o,de', allowing .ix f"'" per man, or d~e orde' "'i' h ' h"'" feet pe' man Thed nll'olorm e"-order from Of'en order ..... prot.bl y ......."1ly tM Am<" .ha. of ,he Gn,dt._"",,-.ng 'M rar hal( of...,h lik in'o.he .f'"CC' bel,,'ttIl 'M file<. It i< c lea r lrom PoIy'bit." contpati..", be, ,,,,,,,n ,be phalan, and ,n" legion ' ha' the klllion~f)' norman~ f"ught in ope n or,je. wi' h ,i x r"", per m.n a, h. , ay. t ha' each Roman n. d '0 f."e te n pike" 11 folio.... , h.t lh. fl." n,." d "'" ",d.. wa, thd . oquival, nt ' pc'''. If du, ing ' hc hau le an~' "f 'M ol.he ,Ia"" do nian h.·ked ' hidd', "'helt ma niple< bec.me ....ttc<ed. ,h. 'IOIdi... 'he" " ... a hoplite .0 "'e~' one and. "-ould <e(",m a"",nd 'he" ..andard< half feet. Although Pol}'biu...... '0 be as .bey did., G..-""illm in ZI711C. cor""" ahou. ,he .,,, feet pe' man, ,,'hea ~ qumion of ,he okpth of . be ,he Roman, ",,"' f'" 'M .....sed breaIrhey did a' the T ~bbia and man iple< <emain' unam"..,red. '«'"ith 'h""'f:h, 60 hea,")" infan' f)"o a """'Uf)' ' her e are a, Can My m...' hav~ fonn«! up only .h"", p...,:tical forma,ions-three In do,", OT"der so 'hal ,hey could .... deep, si" deep and u dee p. These are .he" ,,',,;gh, .0 it< ma~imum e-tf... " each rorm<d by d"uhlitlf{ , h. pre" """ Some, hing "ill ,..,m~in, '0 be saId lorma,i" n, T hi. 6 x to hasie [ormation "hou, tho thro"' inlll 01 th. ,,' Ia. The . eem. to he ""nflrmed hy th., <tandard . llgge, lion 'hal 'he neovy p,I.,m "',., m. rchinS "r,ler of ' ix "h'''a, t (. oe '1 uek in thc ground while the li ~hler"tI< p. 135). If the ".ndard wa, ,i x dee p Wa' ,h lown, and , hll t hc Icgi"n.ry ron a"d 'en wide "' he,, thc 20 .~jla were h""k 10 It''1 i. , i' .00 lud ierou, C"en ' 0 added, one arri,·cs at .M llood old be di....,,'..d . He prot.bly carried hi> standa.d of .-itth' me n '0 a lik, " 'hich !>ea,'y' "u- in.ide hIS ohield " i ' h the ..... a sllb-uni, of .be R""", n ann~'_a hroadened pan , a' ' M ;Unction of.he """'........_01. len' (ul, 1M memben met.1 and 1''00<1. hoobd over ,he ' OP of • file muM ha,.., ,barN. lent , ,, of 'M sltield, The haf. could be held In et>COU lag<: comradnhip ; modern mili- pIac~ agoi".' ,he 'hield "i ' h ht, Ief' 'af)' manual. call thi. ',mall -lfl'OIIp 'humb. I hav e . ried Ihi•. The hmo>dcned d)'no mi",' . l''''''h m.n had hto regul a' j'>l nt "",ms to he d..illned for jll" ' h" placc in ,he ra nk and fi le ;u,,~, h. had purr<-: , Huwever. i' mu" be ad m itl~d in thc cam p. O nosande. " mfirm, thi' th . t i' wa, vc'y difficult to h"ld ' he h.ft when ho . ay' how wonder ful it wa' to in p t" o with my thumb, Perhap. th,,.., , ee lhe ",Idie" run and up their W I thong on . he pi/u,n, or perha!" a' place. in lhe line, A, he WI' " 'rit ing in ,he ",,,~' i n g . trap "n the .hield W i< the '" een lUI"}' AD, he COIIld hardl .. be "'rapped round . be ",IIIm and gra.ped de...-ibinl!' an~'lhing "'M' than lhe in ,he shield hand, Roman .rmy, '1M man ,,'ho Kn'ed in '«'"hen ,he pJ ....., ,trro..'n,.M IMa ,he from ",nk, a J'O'i 'ion of honou,. 'hIA iron npectN .0 """'It ".... prot.Ny'."" , he <mior toIdier of <Ill impa:! so 'hal .he enemy could noll the te n•. .hro'" i' ",",-"",. If.he pOb<M mi<ocd lIS rhe n , be lelfJon st " "llI,h woo rai5<'d mark and ",uck in a .hield.• M ba'hed to 5,000, ,he a.ddi'ional Il<>Idien wcr. hca<I p",'cn ' N i' from heing pulled out pmh ahll' u>ed to inerc••c 'he depth 01 and rendered ' hc shield u"""ntrollaMe. the file. "I lia,'ali and p,j,,,,p<, f, om ' ix to ei ~ht , O n ' he .hr"e o,,,.,ion, er, ",m """ In''''''. '''ke .haf,
  • RO .tE Zn -l40 T ilE RO.'IA. i AR.'I" ' " " T HE G REA T W AR S R~ no..' """, ,,>lIed , he " 'hole of renin.uw h al )'. The Iqtions .... d f~d up to the .I... edonian phaLlnx undn" the DJmmand of one of , he e rro.,n , ge....r.oI. of tbe a"'-->en, ....,.-Id a"d had tha' they "'e'e ellUal .")'thi ng Ih., wor ld '''old p, ,>d o, e. In the ..lUth ,h" Roma" , n" ..' p;,,,,d ,he "rai" of ,l,tn,ioa to Si.-il)', h ..... ine...i,. hk tho' Rome'.npansion ..,."h_ ..-ards """,Id Mna: her inlo heood-on coIl ~" ..',h , he gtn'n' .......1 0( ,he <!al'. Cartbag<- , ..-hieh noc only ."'ntrolkd ,he African roast "' f.r •• •he . ITait. of Gih" l•• " .o"th-•• st Spai" and Sardinia (o n which .he had live coIoni... ), bUl al", W""ern Sicil)', The e",,' .nd of 5i.ily " '.s con,rolled h)' ,he S)TaCU. . n. and • bond of former .hI,,,'" '0 .e,,,,, """,,0< k_-.. ... ,he !"Iamen'....... .. ho .....1 """"d the ' ''''''' of .In., . quan., of. """,,,ry .., her. ~narin, The S),,",",,"'o, had dcko'.d the Mameninc, and wc, e ' 1ll lh e !,,>i"t of 1. )'i" g .iege 10 Me" i" . when the ea"bagini.n. .... ho ...e re a""iou. to p....~, the "rai" frum falling in to S l""""""" hond., came 10 the aid or the th",•• ened town and threw a gar"""n in to it. At this point ( 264 IIC) the M.meni...... tIOI ",.hina: to he OlXIf'icd either I» S)ucu.. or em.,.,..• • nd ""';"1 """', much f=dum the I""'n of Kcggio on the opposite .ide of tlte ., rails .n;O)"d ••• member of the Roman . llianee , ,,,hm ill ed Rome. Romc knew tha' accept ' he . " hmi"ion " '.s tant.m<><>nt to decl.ring "'a, on boIh S)ucu.... nd Canhagc• btl, nn·.... he1c>. deri<kd to go .hQd. A military , n bu ... acwmpaniN 1»' a lmall for"" Knt ouuth by se. to e.,n""n tlte I" n . Th. Canhalinian•• ...ho," fte. t Wa, p-". ro lling the "rai1>, .... tc , d o,'IO n, '0 ru.h into .... r an d m.de only a half· hurted attemp' to SlOJ' lhe Ruman, entering the t",,'n. On.." ,he K<>tnIns had arrind ,h. M.meni..... ,hre..'ou , , he Canlta&,nian carmon. Car111agc re'ah'lled by sefld ing • n .rm}· to lhe i.land, ,,'hieh m.n:hed .lunK Ihe .ou th roast , ~,ined fo""s ,,' ith i•• er"w hile cnemi.. ,he Syr. cu, ans and ad,'on""d on M <,l ina , M , an...hilc a ooo,,,l., .rm}· .....1 ...i'·ed.1 Reggio .nd " '", ferried """"" Ihe o" . ito. The """no ..... no..' set for ,he Iona:a, and '0 '0 Be ec hiHere" wa, in Rome' . history . O"'er the next 120 yean K<>me "'as to " '''l';e Ihrtt ,,'an apin.. ,he Canhaginians in ..·.....h she: ..... 25"PX' and ,,'hieh ended in the compkle ""'rruclion of Can""!:,,.nd he, popul.tion. T he e.rl;"'1 accounl or ,he...... n is liven by ,h. ('H,e k hi"OTian Polyhi"s, who wrole ah<," t the ti me of the th iTd "'ar. Polyhio. had con.iderahle military "'rerie~ .nd a dear onde1"st.nd,ng of " '"' eg}·. nd lactics. L:nfonun.alOly large portion, of h" ..-od ~ miss,,~, Lis")' liy... an almosl """tin""". account of ""ento from the beginninK of the se,,"Und I' onk war in ~ 1~ do...n h' 167, ho' af,er th., his work is a1 , 0 I"" A' ha, hecn pointed ou, oarlior l--ivy was an a , m_ chair hi"orian ,,'ith no I<ra.p of str.tegy or l:>.:tics. Much of his ....teri.1 is dra...n from PoIyh,..., bu, he of,." suppk-......... ,he G...,k tuuoriao from ",her inferioT """rca .nd 'his """,."tI"at.. ""'n htow M." 'M OQ '''' ,M.". of to. "," ;1$tPuo," w" "" Iorot ," I.. l<aIy, C' ''N9< Rom< 0:0010"" _ """,,_ """'" A~OCI, ...., Soc;"' ..... Soo-d>n.. R_ 's _ d _ ......... _..,._-~ ....- , (JIIfl'"",,A' .,GAH,,. .:. 'TA.. rrs "F , ,,ySOI UM . "'SSI~" (""",• .,Ai '. • '"
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L p ~ lH , u q '" ' p ' % ~ p m o ,,,,,, AO '~Il 1 ~u '" 'l"J 'su.. n~"J "S ~41 pu~ 'll ,,(x! ~"'''9 ~'Il uo Po"U"., p~ hll, L " U~I -Uj~~'I IJ13J ' 11 W"'J lU" Il ' ,no!'" . m w , I~ n w ~'I' llj'" ll"U' le,p "'OJ"'-l , no "no -"JA VOU ~ 01 P~Pl' ~P slnsu o~ 0'" ''lJ, S '"u", ~Il ' p.,,,,,,,~ AW"R pUO',,",' 0 PU" PU" I'! ~'I l 01 s ln .uo ~ J' I Ill'''' P ~ " !W - W"" >WO)! « 9<) '"~,' :,IUI,,,olloJ ~'l.L "U"" l-' WOJJ ," OJP4,, '" 'll' ''l '~Il"WJ ! ~' 1~I " u l " IJ" PU" UO"U1Il" ' I' Il'!'" l e~p 01 lllnou~ :l'U(lJl ' 11"J '~OJoJ U"jUj~~Il 'J~~) JOU u e.n~V-J ,'S JOl I!~N '.1.10," Sj'l j!l w'Il 1 ~ ~" W 01 ~1" lnd L1l ~w 01 P~"OJ <1''I ~ ' ~Il.L 'p OJn,,, '"'I'" S!'l 'll1'" '~ UR ! J"., I" U>lJe OJ~ 'l~T4M " UO' UP" ' j AI,u'.J ~41 UO' I"AJ><OJ InO'lI'''' Iun""OJ 01 P,81lllO l10J ' ''"I 01 'w~"" 4 '" uOlln"~ II!'" P ~ '"" '" "'-l "nw '~ll !W"J ,n w lx.w PUg snlln",] ' ojdl'S "]1 JO suo!"e ~'II JO lUn"", " SI'I PU" >Idood ' '"II JO " '''pIlIOJd 011 'l~' ~OJ ~J Oj~J~'l' ~'O," S!H ',uol"e " ' 11 01 "','IUUU I",' "U,' jO sp'~p"e" I~nsn 'Ill "Idde 01 ~1lleun '". " Snt q,'I0,] ~1,10od "'~'l l llj'" 'U'W~A!O,' _w "'l jO o< n"~ > g ' ,nw, x" w <n 'q~d J" ,'['WUJ "Il' Aq J~'l'''Jq "4 PUg -' 11W ~j o!dl'S ~'Il ,'4 p~,d"pu ,~," ,nuol l' W'V 'd n "~o'q '~"I'J"W S ,J~'l I"J SI'l u ' 'l M ', "uu "J JO ' jl,"q >'I' l" P 'Il'~ SR" 0'1," ,nlln",] ~'I' JO "O 'PU"' ~ ~'II PU" "UP,'" JO m )jIA ~Il 1 ' , nlln"d < n 'l ' w~ v J" u"" ~'l1 ' O Oil '" ' ,nu~IIIW·'V ",d"s J" M pU~!JJ ' '''l' e 'WR) "'-l pUUA I!WRJ o!d !~s ~'II 'II'," p'pJooq m" ~ 'l ~ W O }! lf ''''' 89 1 ul "UP,' ,] JO ~I ll~q ~'ll J~lJ~ 8u, _um,,' nh J"J owoli ol 1'l8noJq u''''-l pO ll uuu" '''Il V O ~Il,L 'm l'l ' I" d j OO<u ~Il ' JD 01 ~ ~e q "' . J p 'U O 'nU MO " 1 .>J" IlJ . l '.';P P ld wo, P>JOU ~ I OJ" ,"" m ,,, "11" ~'Il U.>lJO pUR ;>" u' p~'OJcI u,~,~ s, e· I" " 1l~"jPv-'d '! ,n!q,'lod ' " " pnl' SI'II uI ',,",u' Pyuoo _U" 'I'! '" ' P;)l[U :>q ' 4 u", , n ,q" lo<! ~ u l,,,o lloJ "'-l '" u'' '''Il ' .' q U""'I ;'01," "l uO " ~J1O' 'lq~!lOJ ,' [J~l n "!lJ "u V- l0U ' ! ~Il,n q ,' ~ q PU" <nt q,'I0,] u, lP I <Il"~ ' ll UI 1T!1 01 p",n "'-l U", ~ J OM <Ill ' S J ~," ' ,' WO}! JO lUnO"" " U~ ~"u," ' uv ." mu~~ pc," '4l (l! '01," ue!ddv U"!"'l" 1 U' UPU "X~I V ''ll "~Jn"" pJ!'I'" '! ' ' 'I,L " uu,,"', " "4 NV3NV"tIli3U03W N li 'lJ.s3,~ 3 H.1. (lNV A'lV.LI
  • ROME 27S ~ t 40 Be Tll ii GH:EAT W ARS T he follo"'lng ) 'eaf an ~ll~m pl by ,h ~ Romllns 10 k"""'k ou, I}Kpana mulled in d , _ , ~ r an<! the 10.. of nearly 100 "",..h,pa. The .;uuuJ <S<. 'Or1_ ina the ...pp1y 1«1 fdl foul of the ~l<mcnlS, _til a f.. n her ' 10 hi"" and some lIoo Otlpply v Or>ct apin Ron<: _ lrlt ..... hotIt a navy. I'r<wioiom "-d 10 be "-'kd the length of Sicil y. r.. nning lhe Cart hagi nian p .. n,lct. 10 fc-ed lhe armies beoiqing Lilyt.norn. I n an aucmpl to """ify matt.... l he Roman. lauo.:hcd an a" ad on Mounl Er io<e, ..' hi~h rion a""" ~ DKpana. and a plured iI, , hu. OO'-mng lhei r ",,-n . uPflly rou,~ alonlthe north coo.. an<! r~~nt i "i the dK adcd Car' hallinian av. lr y from "I"'nlin,l fr=ly out of the I'" n i~ p.>n , Bo'h "d", "'~K eKha",,~d an<! thro Uilhout 14 8 ... ~"' wn ,~n, to hol d 'heir Ii n~ •. Bu' in Ih~ f"I1"...ing ~~ar , as part of a n~ ... in itial iv ~ to break l he deadloxk . Ih~ Cattholliniam apl'Ointed Ih" brilliant ~" u ng I lamikar B.,,'a as com m.n der on the isla"'1. lie rcali'ed that it ...ould bt: imro" ibk to di'h lge 'he Roman fore('$ hockoding the two ...",!em 1'01",", h..t by roidilti: the Italian c"'"'" he h<>p<d ,,, be abk to draw 'hem ' ''''a j' fro m ' he bl""k.Jc of Lilj'Nc ..m and Drcpana. l'aihnl in ,hi. h~ <.c;zed • hill on lhe no"h '-~ .. b<;, wccn I'ok r _ mo an<! I}repoln. fro m which he co.. ld carT)' on lhe .... , .1 ..,a ~ n d ha.- lhe Rom~n pp1y lina. r or .I~t ' Ilrtt lU " he ble to coru. ",t h from , h.. ,,;'al ."atqic voi nt , In ' .-4 he ma<k a <Unlti: anad on lhe Roman J'O'N ''''''' on .I"" nt Er icc. The Romano had bu,lt a fon on the wmmit and "-d pIao<d ........... ....., .. <he fOOl of the mountai n on . he ...,.",h-..'otem sidot 10 m in... ........-..nnll in and 0111 of Drcpana . Ham' kar manared 10 ntabboh him ..,lf bn"ttn lhe . "" fort.. "I'Iilling t he I"" foro:a and culting off ."pp1ies 10 lhe gu;oon on lOp of , he mounla,". For ' '''0 yean he mai n'ained ,hi. rerilou. pooltion and ..... onll' forced vacale il " 'hen .h~ ind ,ffere nce .nd lad of ~n~'ll)' " f hi. gt",~rnm~n' hroug h' the ..'ar 'o . n ~ nd, Th~ Ia~ k of . .......'n. in the " ..r w" ha,;ng a dc..-.ltoing clftct at Canhagc an<! l1~ fallinll nxwal~ ""'. ",lk..~ed in , he indfici~ n, "",""ion of , he <lOD1miuaria'- The bekaguered garmons """" began ' 0 f..,1 lhe pinch as lhe c:q><cted ... vpheo failed to arrive . I n con".... R""", br""'l'd hcnc:lf (or ,he final d fun . n<! .~ k..,b (or a """ Reel w"~ laid do..." , In the m mer of 24Z . . . . .11' nay)' of lOCI ohips nchcJ and sailed ..,." h , T he Canhagi nian na,"y, ..na""'.... of R""",'. ....... 0..,.., had ..i.hdra..-n to Can hag~ 10 neon lhe Ionll over due ... rpJy ships, ..i lh lhe m"ll lbat , he Rom.n....e .... abl~ to ..,izc ,he halllonl "' Drepana_ l'hen fina lly , he '''rpl y 11..,1 arrived off , he "'eol~,n end of Ihe i,lan<! i' " '", im~r­ ""pt~d b)' lbe H." ma n fl..,t ....ar the Acog. '", i,l. nd• • nd d","o}'ed (24 ' RC). T hi' woO,he d""i.i v~ ;o<;. i"n of l he "'ar , The sl"Y ing go,ri ...,n. wc,e 00'" at the m<rcy " f lh. H.om.n, and ,,,rrendered H.mik. r held otil fur 'he he" '~rm, h~ "" .. Id ge ' h .. , ' he C arth a~ i n ian. we,e f,,,• ..,d ", make a treaty agrtting to voc., . Sidl )' ~ n t i re l y and pa), a I..ge war indo m nny_ The k"" ", . uffored on OOI h . i<1<:. had b<X:n o",-,rmou• . I'ol)'bi... ~. t i m.i t e. lhot the Rom.no 1",1 .b".. , 700 warshi.,. duri ng , he conll'CI . nd ,bat ,he Canhagini.", s" ffered I"""" of SOO. Aft ~r lhe "'0' the C..arthallinian m~,- .hou. <;>;nari.. who had been ocrvinll in Sicily demanded their pay, a nd when il "'as not fort h",wrnnl m.., inied , The Cartha[l1nian rovt'rnmen. <lOD1plnely itua'ion, and b.., for mi'ma""llcd ,he O ' he >kill of Hamikar llarca ...,.,1d ha,.., been .. u ....ly ddUIN Hamilar rul dovI-n . be '~I ""th .. n cr nnhln........ I n .be wnfuoion RooM anr>n'ed Sardinia in q nical dioreprd of the 11'Cl1}lhal she had jlOl .worn. Can hagc's sit ualion ...... deore n,~ . S Ol only had . he loot .n her ~ off ,he Italian """"' but in .... ~ffon. 10 KUin her posi.ion in Sicil~ .be had been comrell~d 10 diven all her reoouroeo 10 , he i.l~n d and ,n conocque""" 1"'1 her <ffipirc in Spain "'ith i,. va., rnouroeo or man l'O...." . nd mi I. H. mi lca, Barca , d i'Il tcd " 'i, h ,he poIicie. of hio 1I,>v~rnmc n t ...hich had bellay~d , he ar my in Sici ly, " !f"'ed hi. serYi"". f" r , h~ r<.'<" 'nq .. ~" " f Spain . In . 237 h ~ lefl hi' naliy e land, ,.king hi' y"u n ~ ,,'" II"nnibo wit h him, He never returned , . nJ mc, hio dea' h in acti on eigh ' year, la' or, ofter roc<>nlj..ering , h ~ '"ulh-e." of lh e I be'ian pcnin.ula_ The Grock .~,l"n j' "f Mo"ili. (.1.1" , seill~ .) in ."..th. ,n r ,a""• • 1", had in'e,n ," in Sr ain. T he M~ ..jlio'.. had been a' Ic"l port ially r",pon>ibk f.,.t h ~ Carth. ginian k..on in S pain . Th~ colony ..... in . lloa......, wuh Rom e and lh= can boo 1",1e doubt 'hal Rom~ had "1"" """"" '0 ~;gM T.... t~." . 0' ..... _ _ " <:o<>lIo<:I in _ p......., w., 'he -, " ",""'. ~ ""'" r>oW COO""" II....., S,," v, S.."'o" ...., C<><. 'C. C <:o<>'"lI. NO" " ""'co """h ."l.,n ",,"_ S.."."" '"" B ,,.,,,,, "10'''" '"
  • IT .'l. L Y Al>. D T HE W ES TERS MED ITERR AS E....N ' ell<:Ol.ll'aflC'd ,he . a".iliol. in ,hei , ha..., had Spani.h •..,n'lHlI:. Thi. m a comide, ahk elfee< on ,he •.,., in Sicily and may ha~ bee n , he cause llf Cart hage' , ,nabil;ty to p . ~' her mcrce n. r;cs afte' the w.r. ~o ,,' . , the Pun;'; armies , hru" nonh waTd. in'o the Spani. h hinterland, the M , ,,.jliol..,. found lhei, ",,"tal trading Pl>SIO eul off from ,he in,e nor. I f lhe Canhaglnlans were ' 0 ,d" an~ hc)'ond the E b m , the Ma "ii<>t e ~ oll>nie, at Rhod c and Emporia<: (Am puri..) ju' , oouth <If the I'yrenen .."uld be thru' ene<l, T he}' appcakd to Rorne .0 in,ctWnC. Al_ lhough ,he RomaM "''C<e heanly commin C'd to their preparations meet a Ce llic i n ~ ", ion,l hey senl an em ba..y 10 Spain which managed to pe ," uade H.mik a r', , ....' tt..." , ' h,dlubal, to 1=1'11 rather in""""""". treat y all:rec· illll no! '0 Uy to "",end hi. empin beyond ,he Ebro. Thi. ,.,.. .. ~ ea, ily made ... the Eb ro lIow. in a "",' h_ e.sterl ~' dire~t i"n, leO" in ll: 9~ per ~e nt of Spain open '0 conque,t , Fi ve ye. " la' er lI..drubal ,,'0; . .. .. . ioo' ed and Harruk . ..•• SOIl Hanni t.ol, "'ho had come ""th hia father 10 Spai n as I ehild 16 }"nn earlier . was elected general by lhe tr",>pI. Me anwhile in haly Rome con, inued het gr. dual eKpamion n<>n hw.rd s. The legions ~ros.ocd the Ar"", and ad.'anced &pinS! the Ligurian•• who OIXlJpied . he whole of ,he .... hoo, d from . "" AtnO '0 ,he Rh6nc:. By n o ' '''' Rom.... h. d g. i...d control of the roo _t a. fa r a. La Spez;a. On lhe ea.t ~~,"Sl, "".id", the c"lon~' ,,'hich had been foundcd .1 & 00 Galliar (Scn iplli,) ,bOll, 1&~, . SC<'Ond coIon~' !lad been ..... blishe<l ("nher non h It Ariminu m ( Rimini) in 268 , During Ih e I. te 23"" ' M Roma'" Mdded to .ett le the . rca v, cated by Ih e Senon"" some ~' n; M fol(C , Resenl_ ing , hi. ad.... nce of tM Roma'" t",,-..rd. ,he Po valle).. I"" Cel.. bepn prepttI.lO... for a mn';"" in..... ion of 1M ren,,,"ula. Thi. w"' held up by intCTllal strife, bu' by ,heir pr ePllration. were . lmo<1 <"<lm p1e'e , It wa, In th,' face of this ,hl(Ca' 'hilt , he R" m an. scrured 1I0sdrut.ol' . ag .. e""nl '0 'M Ebro treaty. I n u ~ t"" Cel.. <t'OOOCd the Apennine, ",it h a n limy of 70,000 mcIt . h was had ,imi ng for 'he Celt. a, the '0 '0 .. ,,6 Roman••ftee of . ny other commi llnent , "'=c .bk 10 drtooe ,,,",ir en,ire re.o"en to , he Wlr. The Romans were t horoughly . 1armed at Ihe in~ a,i"n but h.d had plent y of ti me to prePll"'. Four armies we" , put into the field . l'-ch con. ul had I four · legion f""", con.i..ing of I bn le 0"'" 5o.tlOO inran"y and ) JOO ca'·llry . One of ,""'" . rm ies " ... deu,ned in Sardinil where it h.d been camPll'Ini n8· Rimini T he other wa' di. patched c,wer the Flaminian ro ut e ..'u,h . A , hird Ifmy of a , imila, .i"" l uorded k ome ilselr ...hil, t , rou " h, compooed of 5o.tlOO fOOl and 4 .000 l1one , dra",," from lhe Sa b in....nd Etruscans under , he command of one of , be ptae'o.., ~ o vcred Etru ria and wa' pro!».h1y en _ cam ped near Arezzo . Here for , he lime ...., .... the immense number of """I" . hal Rome w OIJIOlbk of .. '0 '0 fi,,' fio:ldinll· T he Celts d id not " .. ke at Klmini , .. had becn C1lpeeted, but b" rst ' hrougb the Apenn ine, into Ellur;a and a"acked ,be arm)' lhere , T "" legion . from Rimini , rri•..,d ill" in lime . 0 pm"'"1 I ~ and Celt. ",i 'hd",,,,' .0 the ",,"I with lhe arm)' from Rimini ld hO on their """I, . On reach,ng the coast they start ed nott h ,nd '" Iheir astoni , hment the ir advance rO tage.. fell in ,,·ith Ihe army of ,he ot hcr coMul ..·ho had cros..-J ""er from Sardi nia ' 0 pj...nd " ... marching ""'th I"".. .-do Rome. Near T ebmon. I-Iokm nonh of Rome , -10,000 Celt. feU fillh,i ng hra,'ely to , he c nd , T he , hrcal nf yet a!k., he. ,n"aSlOn " .- . ovCt. The koman. """,-",j it " -otlld . be rhe ..... T he legions now invaded the Po ..aile)' i...lf In ,he fi",. campaign ,he Roii. who Ii"ed SOlIt h of the Po, we,c blOu8ht 10 'Mit knen , T M follnwing year ( U 3 ) ,he eon' u l F1a_ mm,u. , ",ho " 'a, later killed by Han_ nihal II the bau le of l .;de T rasime... , croose<l t he Po . nd brouf:h' t"" I n. uhr.. ro bay ""'" lk'l!:llTIO, wipin. oul 'Mir army. T he ~nate ",r"",d .o accepl the G allic p lea. for pe. ce on any <>t her ter m, than uncon dit ional . ur",ntkr, T lie nc'" ~'ear ]0,000 (;...... i (t"" <>net ,,'ho rough' nak«l ) croucd , "" Alps to assi" their kinsmen in I"" Po ..alley . The RomaO$ I.id .iq;e 10 , he I n,ub.., n ' OW n nf A~..,trae, .." r ,h of the 1'<1, In an atte mpt to dra w off , he t"" Io-giom , he Cell. '''dC'd t"" Roman . upply depot I t c...~ ~ "'W of pjacenza. One or the con....l. , :tarcuo Claud,us M . " :,, lI u. . ru.hed 10 ,he telief of the ",...n wi, h h.. cavalry .nd ligh t_ar med tr<K'1" P urin g 'h~ con· ftiCl Ihe G allic chieftain Viridomartl. challenged him to .in.le ..-..mbat and . lll'Ollgh M """,llu. " ... narina: ~o hr ktt"'~ , he chal l....... and killed Viri<io"'" rtl'. H O' ing d riv~n olf the a"aeke" M arcellu. r"""",ed t h~ Po, ioineJ folCeS " 'i,b hi. ",,1I~q:uc ..·ho had tal<enAcerne and logether they slorm«! . t ilan. Wit h the fall of 1I,~;r r>rtncipal ,own . he I...ub.... . urrender<:-d un""ndilion.lly. In 'M rnllowi ng '''·0 yea" expedition. ...ore ..nt to dcal ...-it h pocke" of re.i" ance at tit<- hea<l of the Adrialic, hut h )' tM end ,>( n o aliltal~ Cl<ccpo ,he hay 01 Gc_ ..... unde-r Roman control. The conquest " ... consolidated by the "tablishrncnl of I"" colonie> al,mg the 1'0 ; on. on the nort h hank Cre mon. in the ,~rril()ty of , he In'ub..... nd ' M ot her o n ,he "",t h bank at Placen' il in the terrilor)' 011"" Boii. S ince the anncxatK>n of SaNrnia, Rome ha<l ~njoyed com plete control of Ihc T )'rth<onian Se• . '(-'ith her ;m m~ n", n.-'y _ the leg.cy <If her ...-. r with Carthage _it a na' ural Olcp to seck 10 pacify .he Adriatic. n.e pn>ple-o of the eastCTll Adriatic . of ",.""", ,Itt: JIl,'ria... ""'" ,he larges'. we.. acc'''I<>me d to Iivin8 by pincy and lheir light "aI 1 ·' (I,mhoi) " . re the .... ou rg~ 9 of trade.. in the lTe•. D uring tM ond half of t"" 3, d century the p<>"= of III)'ria !tad hc-R-un ' 0 in<.n.ot and ...i lh il lhe art'tlpl't<:t' of ,"" piralCSN one of ,he {; t eek "" e>. whote ... power had decli ned tragically dun ne Ihe 3td c~n!Ury, wa. c. pahl~ of deal ing ...-ith , he ,i, ultion Even ....·edonia. , he ,rad i,ional peacekeer>or of thc ""nh. ..... both incaJlOlole .nd unwilJi"8 ' 0 int......... Rome .......... IUCIan' 10 he_"""" in,"'~e<lln a ' lt ualion which ..... n" mOle , han. minor ~mb. rr."me nl , but und. r COn'tant pr...ure fro m l,. lian merchan.. sailing"u' of Irind i.i, ...-hose calgOCS ...~re bei ng Io<>ted , ."" sent .mbaHadnn to Ill)' " 10 advise ...._ 'raint . IXlten thlS em bau, ..... "'butJ«I bl' the 1II~'rian '1~n T~u ". Ro.... in,·.ded (229) and gai""d cont",l of th.. a' "'0., .e<;-
  • ROM E 275- t 40 BC T HE GREAT WARS part of JIIyria lying opposite Brindisi which is roughly oqui valen t '" the c'OOS! of modern Albania. This wa, Rome ', fint real ",- e,,~", acquisition andopened t he gare, t(} the Greek pen insula. II I.-aS to he im,.luable in yea" to come, In 2ZQ tro uble again H ared up in m yri. whieh involved both lhe consu ls , nd was not ' en led until 2 19 The scene wos now set for th e momentous .,'en" of 2 1 8 Be which plunged Rome into the greatest war in her history , The war with Hanniha l i, the w",e"hed of Romon military his tory Rome entered it as juS! another Me d iterr.nean state but em erged 16 years l.,er as the greatest milit ar}' I",wcr in the worl d, II was the climax of Rome' , military achievement, N ever a~ a i n was , he pUl t" , ueh a tc."t The p . epa r a t io ns fo r . h e second war Hannihal wa, d eCIed commander of the Carthaginian f", ,,~s in Spain in 2 2 1 Be. He wa, about 26 years " ld , For yeats his fat her Hamikar had dreamed of C'mtinuing the war with Rome. W ith hi, th ree sons, H anni bal, Hasdruba l and . lago, h ~ muS! have >a, up lare many a night aro und th~ ~amp tire di,;eu"ing tactics and how the migbty Roman legions could be hrou~ht '" their knee,. In the'e di,c u"ions a mare~ y had begun to ",-"h'~ X-'ilh Ilamikar's deat h his plans were , u'pe n d~d, H i, ,u ~ce"or Hasdrubal had been" man of di plomacy hUI Ha nnihal was ca" in the same mould as hi, fath ~r. For yea" ' la re,'anc he' had bee n planned and now, with most of Spa in secnre, Ihe time of rccknning was approaching, Doubtless if Ha nnihal had ocen in c~, m m a n d in 22 5, he wou l,] have in_ vaded Italy dur ing the Ceil ic war , He knew that if the Romans invaded Spain they could e xpe~t ,upp"rt from m. ny of the conquered tribe, whic h ",'ul d d" great damage to lhe Carl ha~inia n posi· tion. b -en if the C. rthaginian, won they wOllld gain lilt le. On the olher hand , if he could march a Punic army into h all' the , ituaIion wou ld he re' -er",d .nd he c'ou ld expect support from Ro me', tra dition al e n ~mi "" th~ Ceils, Samnites and Elfu<cans, . nd "" br~ak up the fedet ation and isolate Rome Since th", war Rome hsd maintained undi , puted mastery of l he sea But this was of litt le impo rtance as there was only one route IO the Po " alley , ,,'hcre H.nnihal cou ld expect most support , . nd thal was hy land Before he could allempt thi, he h. d to ck.r th~ ro ul~ up lhe coa" to the I'yren ee, . About z;okm nort h or ~ e w Cart h.g~ (Carla~e na) was the loft y h ill to " of Saguntum (Sag-unlo) which cont rolled the e""<lal route. It presented a .eriou. threat to the line. of eommunication of any army invad ing nort hern Spain, and h. d to be taken. II was vilal to prevent the Rom an. from u.ing it "' a base and s u p p l , i n ~ it fro m the sea , In . ome way lhat none of lhe ancient authors explain , Sagumum, which was qokm "" ut h of the Ebro, was " nder the protect ion of Rome, It is possible lhat it had "adin~ links with Marseill., and thaI once .gain it wa, the .h"i liote, who had canvassed Ro man , ,,pport, Hannibal can hO'e been in no doubt that attacking the town would p r~ cipi,",e t h ~ m ntlier with Rome For Ha nnihal timing ,,'as all- imp<ma nt . He had to a" oid be ing pre-empted by the Romans , who had the ability to put an army into nort hern Sp ain befor e he had I. unched his ,m'a",m l n the me.nt ime il wa, im pe rative to ~ onwlidate hi, pO'itio" in Sp ain, He launched lWOcam paign. int o t h ~ c~ntral highla nd., pushin~ nort h-west a' far .. the horders ()f mod em Portugal Re turning from the ""wnd of these campaigns in the autu mn "f 220 , Hanni hal must have learned of Rome' , im'o lvcment in Illyri a_ '(' hen b<lth consuh for the ~()m i ng year were commiu ed to thi , war he knew that hi, opp"rtunity had arrived and launc'hed hi, as,"ult on Saguntum , From thi. moment he wa< eommilled IO the war, There can be lin k doubt that th l> wa, pan of an overall strategy Hannihal mu" ha,'e alte. dy planne d hi. march on ltaly; thi, was not ,,,mething that could be done on the 'pur of rhe momenl, as so many commcnl . ](m hO" e sugg~" cl, but required ~(ln.um­ matc plann ing. The .. kin~ of Sagun tUm in 2 19 was the hr" "~p of thi. plan , In the . pring Ha nnibal lau n~h~d a fu ll,ca le anack on the town and after an eigh t_month , iege it fell, The Roma ns sen t an ulti matum to Carthage, " ",as reieeted an d war was declared in the ,pri n~ of 21 S. I n the autumn of 21 9 Hannibal hod gone into winter quarter, al N ew Cart ha~e, He had di, mi,,;ed hi. Spani. h ~" '''0'' '" 9 C.,m oq ,","" . " ,,, hom. A ";u mp,,.t mooumont fou nd ,n Tvn" " Th. Cu ;"" i. p ,pb, bl,- 01. ,1 The , " 'e ld O he "9"' "' " No" " Af,;o.o . nd prooobiv w" ",ed by t ho l ,by · Ph oe n" ion p h. la n , '".ze '"
  • IT A L Y " I'll T il E W' ES T E R" MEDITE R R" " EAN '0 '.... fOTc.... i.o...n ,o...ns for ,he ,., n,tt and prepared 10 han,J .,.,..". lhe go.-ern_ ment of SPilin hi. younge. br ot he. Hud. ub..1. He fin! tna<k prtpoOn,ion, for , .... ~ 01 Coonha!tC . 'It'I'l<hng q'&50 Span"h ,nfan'ry . t~ ca'.,.)ry 2nd &70 >IiflllC" from lhe Ilalcaric i.lando 10 Africa. 1'« I.... <kfe""" of Spain .... Icl", hi. brorhn' wit h u. '5O infantry. 500 Ilalc:oric >I,fIllC", a.55O <::oval!)' and a , elcphant> . 1bc IOCCIlrac}' of these figurn, and ",hen, i• •nnte<l by PoIyhill.....ho found ,lttm inscribed by Hanni""l on • bronze I. blet on , he Lo.cini.n promontory in oouthcnt h aly. H. nn,""l "".,I .lready "",de oontaet ...i,h , .... Cdts in , 1'0 v.lley. lie ita<I 1.1"" ma..k <;Ofl'1.Cf i,h , Celticchicf. in .Itt Alps en,u re hi fe pa'oage thn"J Rh lhe moun' .in. In lhe earl y opn n... hi, m""""nRe" . elUrneJ to lell him tha' th" CdlO had promi",d hd p. Hannihal no'" a" emhlcd a va" army of 90,000 infa ntry , U ,OOO cavalr y and ahout 40 clcphonts and p.epared to hulldoze his woy ,ht uulf h north.rn Spain. Polybiu, do" s no' lI'i" e a break_ down of thi , army but it c"ntained the nud"us with which Hanni""l intended to invade It aly ; t.... ,emaindcr must have been expendable. It can ,he,dote be calclllated ..'ith . e mable a" UTan"" tha, lIanni""l". a. my made up of approxima,dy :>0,000 African infan,ry, 1OPOO Span"h inf.n,ry, 6,000 Swni _ dian cavalry an,J 6,000 S pani. h "",'alry, the expe-ndable ekmen,a being S pani.h. The "",jon'y o f ,Itt 't'OOP' lighting f.,.- tltt <:.an""',n;'ns "'ffe foreign "'""""""' There "-ao, hmo.",..". a n",,1nn bOIh infanlry and cavalry ..Ito..-tte 01 half-aste Liby-Phooenician Mod.. Thi. informa,ion i. given by oay Ito.. PoI)"bius , b,u he do<'s _ many. The .n."", ma~' lie in ,he l>arrad<. for :zo..ooo inf.n,ry .nd 4,000 ca,....ry ,,·hich. "';x:o«lJng to ApptaIl, _ b,,,I, into lhe ..·.U. ofCan hage. In ,he 4' h ""n,ury Canhage possessed. ci'i""n fo= includ ,ng • S»<:t'C'd Ba,,a lion hich "'U a,500 st rong, bu, ,hi. " 'as d ,d nded af,er ,he ~Tush i n.g def.., a, ,he banle t>f the C rimi.u. ri"er in 339 IIC, I't"<Im then ,m Cart hage enlm"ed mcrc'Cnar;e. her defen,.., ent irely U nlil very rece ntl y not hing "... kno wn or Cart hagin ian ar mour , but in t he Pl." fow ye. .. a mo numen,al '0 '0 '0 ,., build,ng h... been di"""''''Te<I a' Clttm' ou in T un"ia whieh ..'as decora,ffi ...ith • frieze t>f cuir.....,.. and .hidds. The cui......., which are aim"," certainly "",ii, .re t>f the .ype worn by Hd lmjS(ic offict-n , The . hield. are oftwo typn : lhe .....1r""m tlKd by ,he 0.1,. and SpIlniud. ; .nd • hilheno unk"",,-n .....nd form """","'ha, simil.. 10 tltt Arci'" . hidd bul wilh .n imct c~"..1 dioc and • cun'C'<! rim, n..hcr , han the .ngled lCClion of .he rim of ,he A..'...., ,hield. lltew .hield. are .imil.r ,he crudely depicre<l Numi ~ dian .h"'ld••hu..'n on Tnjan·. Column • nd on ~orth African 1"......,"""" and m ust ,ukly he the 'ype uoed by lhese hoAc11len. on lhe Chem,,,,, monumen, the}' ak ,I><,..'n in ,Itt form of , roph",. an,J are OOviou .ly .u pposed to ",present ,..ptu k1! arm •. T he monument i. prooahly a "0/'<'0'<'" cdebu' ing ' he " ictory of the Numidian. and their Roman am", <lVcr the Cart hagin;an, in 146 "':, If th .. i, , n t he ro u nd shield , mU l I:><: , h"'e u, ed b y the Lih y' Ph""n;,ian " T he L iby-l'ho"n ician infantryfOTmed a M acedonian_, y!", pha lanx OrRani..,d , if Polyhius i. ' n be laken lite rally. in,o 'P<i.",.. Whet her ont: accepts , hi. or not , il m u", ce"a, nly ha"e been com posed of uni.. of ,h IS .i"". The phalan.gile would hI."'" u.w tbe weaponry of ,he ' ypical Hellenist ic infantryman. On OC>'eral '0 11""""0'. ncc",ion, Polyhiu' n:-fo... In lhe lightly .......,.j ptkemm in Hannibal' , anny. Thnc ........ ....,d to perform jobs .-maIly rn,ri",od 'n ,Itt lightly armed troops. On , he ..... hand ,hi, ma~' n:-lIe<:t lhe tilthter armamml 01 lhe <nt ...nb ; on ,he <liM. ,he fact that it " ... onl)· , he heavy piu ,har made the pha!anl{i'ecumbc""""' , Af.... . hebanle of T .............. (a l?) Hannibal armed hi. Africans "';,h ,Itt ...... ohltt am>oUr cap'urcd f...... , he RomaM_i .e. the mail .h'n.-....:i l'C' PoIybtus ron,in"", '0 n:-fn '0 lillht-.nne<l pil<cmen, >he, iflll , hal ,hi. don noc impl}' tha' it . lig ht pIt. lan, .. 00 many ha"" .uppose<!. O n , he tculptod Carthagiruan gall~' .hu..'n on p. no ,hen: i • • ".n<lard cm..-ncd w~ ,h a dioc and c"""""n'. Th is ,}·mbol'. r",,,lkn, . ppc_..""" .ulfll"'S" tha' i, ..... .Itt "anda.d of Ca rt hage, It canno, he a coi ncide "'."e , ha' the>< .ymhol. ap""ar <In Hom an manipular ..anda.d. in the iml"'ria l period . nd mi gh ' sURlle" , he orillin of !he Roman "'~""'" bulk of , he Car,haginian "m y The was mad" up or f" re ign mercen aries. T hey ~ . me f",m many sources: Cells, Sponia<d " II. le. , ;c i.lande" (who were f.mou. for lheir .h n~,,"), l. igm ian. , half-c "~ Greek. (mainly de..,ne...nd .. m na.... ~· ,Iavc'.) and lhe la r~, elemen,. tltt ~orth A(ri"" n•. Can ha.,inian di... cipli"" m ust hoove been imposed ""
  • ROME Z7S-'4C111C THE GREAT W AltS Apon from . he l.i~_PboenM:ia ..... troops IltId one ,"'OUld ""'e .1>< African '1'Xlf'O tha, Cartbag(' f'tnpected ,ban to ......e " nde-r lin;'n <>Ili<xn. 1I~. i. i. dear cnU.ro in numhcn " ..,..., ,he rernukabk Sumidian covall1' Numi(tom PoIybi...' o.:,' ""n' oi .~ oi<g< oi : Lilyr-um, in'~ fin, Punic '"-ai' , that dia roughly <:ot'Tnp<>ruh "ith noodo: rn ~r;'. 11M: camel had not )'et b«n ,~ m<nxnarics ..,rved "nd<:• • h<ir ""n ufficen, .. tlot: . u!'<'n o. m.,,,:-enory in'rod....:cd in,o S onh Africa and tlot: offi•.-e.. lried 10 ht:tray . Iot: t",,'n to , lot: ho....., '"-IS ridden ""et'jo,... l><re , In fa" Romon•. From Ih i. i, "'ould !l«m , hat I"" "'>mallie ,ri "",m<n livro on 1><....,.1>< Carthagian. only <~, m man d< d at bo<:k, T hey use<l no hridle or bi, and hanal ion level , much as . he Romano TOole bar. had:, L ike lhe lnJian. in "'et'e 10 do in the la,e' repuhlic. The AmeTi. alhe}" made super b lighl cavalry , remarkable .ucce.. nf ll . nnihol, who.e In fae, ,hey W e"'" good , h., wh,,,,vcr army 10" 50 per <'ent Celtic, is a great contro[[oJ them would win a :.J"rlh tr ihute to ,he Ca"h.~inion .y.tem, No ....fricon war, Sci pio Afci.anu, ' gr eate" o" em pt "'•• maJe ot unif"lm it y ; each a. h;evcmen, wa' 10 persu ade the Nu...., ive group foug hl in its o",n way and miJian. l<I change , ide, at Ihe enJ of had to he u>eJ 10 its ad '~ nt agc, the "'ar ,,'ith H .nnibal, The eh~ngo .... , Han nibal'. rela. io n. hip ",i, h hi. troop> .bo<>l", o l~' deci,i"e. lll' l><n ., , he end of lhe znd «ntul1' ..... ~u~lll' . ema.....b... I n .pit< of lheiT lIi,'cn<c bad<groutMh they .. ....-k "ilh Be Rom< be<:ame in.'oI. ·ro in a " '" ",ilh him fo.- 'S years " ';110 .......,r • wh;"p-er of ,he N umidia"". ' hey PfO"<d "" hard .o cnnq"'" .~ careen of more .Iton • mUliny. T I>< IWO)' told by Dio<<lnJs, . ... t In 20) Ie Hannibal one It........ JCncraI ended in humllla. rnzuacred,"'-mer~ ..ho " 'ould .ion bca...e 0( hi. inobi li.), 10 inti"" I><lI crou over frica "ith him, i • deci.i.., def"., on t hem . ""n~inl)' f"J.." Hannibel <:oUld ......".. Ntlmidi~n co"al'}' ",."..e """leu .. Ito,.., . hir pc:d .....,.,.e ,han. fe..' of hi, , ho<;k ' 1'Xlf'O, b.n like . ht- A.:1oliam men .0 ....frie. u ht- had no ....vy, E''en " 'ere ' u!,<,rb in a olrirm;.h <W In , I>< wi,h • I~tg< tl«1 he wnuld not ba~e pursUIl oi. fleeing e...my, ....t the batik C'ClI pc:d ~It~eko b)' the Roman n:t,.y, of Cannoe .hey u....ble '0 break The Roman. probal'>ly t>lfered lerm. ' 0 Rome', allied cavalry , but Ihe momom the btll k of Han nibal' , . ,my wh ich had that thi s had b« n achie"ed by , he Ne n lef, heh ind and , hen , Iaoghtered Ce lt, ond S""ni~rd' the I'ur>uit ",as Icr, ,hem 10 the Numidian. t~ Co,,"'- .""",n' m, ic"'''''''''''''' ,ha, '0 . . ""'I" Abo•• A._ 0"''''''''''' (II. P_.,.. " "",oj,..., 1>000<1 "" tho ,,".. f< ~"'" _ W ....., ,,," _ , , , _ '" """" T"'j'o', ' _ bod.. "'" .., T,," _ _ _ '" """"" t" ,," ...... .............. _ . _ _ ....., _ 'hO ..., log'" to .... ... - 'Mh-......-... .......... _ _ _ _ _ _.buI ,__ _ ..... ,_ . _.- ,,_ _ ,__ _._.01._.. ~ ......... e.:-...... -::.;~::::. _ .. . . - , ' '"" too- .... s..on- _ CotI> ..... ,.,.,.., ...".., _ " _ _ 0f'C0 -.."... _ ........... ",,",~soc ~ ........ llC .... ~ R~h' .. y .., _ _ ""T ".'T,," _ _ .... " "0 o><:eIlt • _ ....... ,"" ''Il_ ," ,,01"'<""0 AIl_ " "'_ "'gpo< ' _ ,op "P",· 0 poe ... T"" _ 0 ,,, ,",, •• .01<10 '" , 0. ""'.... t,," "' ''',''''''' 01od. , ". '" ,,," _ "" w "h "onh A'","" 'ypo Tho." '''"'''mod by.,,,,,,,,1e,""" Nooth M,« .o "'"'p ,"'" ",
  • ITALY AND T H E WES T E RN .1EDlTERRAI' EAN , , , tc e Abo"," Sp,""h we,pomv 4 '" _lnd "',," ,'., BC 1 A "'un,on, ' o.' vy ,"'" i' v. '," w " h b"""d omnl f ,o m Almed,o '''. 2 Pilum t, ,," hom NcotU'Q' 3 S","he,d h om A'med'" '''' 4 F.lc~'8 " o m Alm. d lolll, (CQldOb,) 5 Su.,g o, C " , - "" ~- , h" ,, ,w o ,~ (g liJdius h, swmenN) " o m Ag oll., de Ang u l1a ,.,"'nhe,,, 6 D ,g ~ ., 100," Almed,",II. 7 Sp.n "h d agge, " om Nom, o,' , B '''d ~ $oe" be '" 10 Ko'fe of ,h. 'V,," 10" WOS f" M '" ,he 1, le." ".o""d All we,ooo, 'cole T'8 A oove , 1 Tom"" o',e of , Sp . n ,, " me rc.n.,y 'how ,og h" , Cr<ld hel"",,- ,worOan" '''''' """ " "o m Tu ol,; a '" Th~ ~um idia ns wer e like mounted pelt,," . T h ~i r l"c'T; c wa, to dart in close to the enem y, throw ,h~i r iaveli m and then retre.t , makin~ su re ne-el to c" me in,o co",acT. Again .nd a ~.in the Cart h"ginian' u, ed T ~umidi. ns to he d' aw e ne mies on to unf, vou ra ble ground or into an amhush , The N um id ian" . re !X'r trayed on T rai"n ', Colum n in Rome wh ~re they are seen purs ui n ~ I).c;.ns , T he ir horses h ~ Ye nothin~ but a neck "r. p, The r iders h"w a round ' hield . nd short tunic but we"r no armour. Sam ple, of iro n ;.'elin heads and " sword with a hlade appro xim . ,d y 60cm lon ~ h. ve been found in . 2nd.centur y tIC pr ince' s gra'e at b S"uma... in Aiger i"_ ,fter lhe Afr icans the s"ldiers mo <1 ,.Iued by ' he Ca rt ha~ in i a ns were the S paniar d" These were dra wn fro m ' ou' h_ea<1e rn S pain and , hould mo re exactly he referred to a, C.e ltiocr iam _ • m ixt ure " I' Spanish and Cel' ic m,,'k. S panish infant ry and c.-'alry for med a , mall bUT important pan of Hanniba l's "rmy Of ' he 20 , 00::> infanTty who rc", hed Italy, 8 ,00::> were Sp" ni,h T here were three lyres of inf" ntr y B. ,o w 12_15 SCulptu 'es " om O,un, In ""-"hi'" Sp",o ' 2 S w O' ~ ,"" n wito Ce ll;C!'lDe , h,.16 .,,,, "" ,, ,. cop. 13 C,p 01 " '" ,,"'" t,pe ,_ "''' '' O' wiT" SpaOI'" ' ~ ""d_ 1.le'" , , " "oe'''' hoOO , S HoOO " I " ,oil'" t,De , 6"''''''0' 'OOw' on , ""e h om l l'" gr ou pcd under l he ge neral head ing of Sp.n i,h in Ha nnibal' s .,my ,wor ds· men, i. velineers .nd s l in~ers . T he he latter <'ame from T Baleat ic i, land' " ff the ea" m a" of Spain and werc renowned for lheir ,kill in s li ,,~;n g heav}' stone' , Polyh ius " ale' ,n., the , wt )T(hm ~n were ar m~ d wiTh a larg, shield of Cd ti< ty pe " nd > , horr ,ul· ' and -thrust sword, They wore , hoTt white tunics bord ered Wil h pur ple (by ,hi, he probably mean, cr im, on), Scu lplUre, from Osuna in , ,,ulh em Spain show "-"Trio" ,,-ho fit Po lybiu,' description well. A seoond type of infantry who were probably iaveli neers are me" ' ioned hy D;od oru, _ Tn~ y are ar med wit h round shield' a" d "ppe" to be the s.me as the light ly ar med troops c.lled w n rw i by C.e,.r, Li,'y u sc, lhis wotd to describe !he pe lm", of Philip V', ",m y_ T he, e are ai'" shown on l he O,u na relids_ Their shields h.-'e a eentr. 1 bms and ' hey wear louse moics which come dow n to ju<t abov e 'he k n ~e T he S p,ni,h ,word gained immor_ mli'}' when il . dopted by the Rom ans, Th e l e ~ i o n a r y ,word, glaJiw W ", " ~~ ) ~ , '.' )
  • ROME 27 5-<40 BG THE GREAT WARS h" pani,mi" was the point ed ",,.,,,d (~j. Ho wever, tin: com mone" type found in Sp. in "'as the elegant cur ved fa/caw (of) Thi , a cu t-a nd -thr U'1 wC'pon. T he average length of " fa /caM hlade wa, on ll-' 4s cm . It i, d car frn m a fragment of a statue (not shown here) tha, Ihe sword was suspended on the left side. The, e ' wotd, ",metime, h.d • ,hon knife .,tac'hed to the , c.bhard A l.rge numbe r of d. ggers ha'e also been fou nd (6 , 7 ). T hese are the fore--rU nnelS of the Rom an dagger T he Sp-.m i,h al,o u,ed • shon pilum but the mo,t extra,,,dinary "'e. po n was the ,mm ion I '), T his was. barbed javelin made emi rel)' of iron , Some of , he ,o ldie" on , he O, una rd id, ar c wear in g a most str iking cre"cd he.d gear, T he G reek geogra pher S, r" bo tells u, lha, ,he I berians wore cap' of , inew f hi, i, mo " likd}' what i, , how n here T he ere" pro ve' th. t il c.nn", be the sold iers' hair. These hoo ds are very similar 10 those shown On sculp tures found in , outh· we" France (s"e p. '22). The G' p' show n on u and I } seem to be a , im plified versIon of these hoods, T hese are w" A bo • • 20 R.con"ruc,ioo 0" SO""" "o,,,,m. ,, af ,ne lime ot H" n'b. 1. H, ",e"" , ioow c, p " n'" woi<e tuoie v iermed w,," O,m' OO H, i, " med w"h . 'Gund G"",,, I Modg,iOs hie'd 'p . no falca,. ,,,, Abov. ond I" h Abo• • Q• ' 11 " 'O figurine me 3'd ·con,u'y S""oi, h "" ' '''1m" _"''"9' , ioo", c,o , nd " me" "," h lOuM 'hi. ld ,ed 1,1",,,,. V.leooi. d, Don J u" " us" um, M, a"d 18 , ,"''' ".--IV of 11 ' hOW'h9 ," und 'h ..ld " "h ,en" , 1M,"'w iP ona b'o,a ",,11 19 Sou'pt "'e 0' 0 110"" , ,,,,,,,,i09 i" b,ia li ng , nd ",,' d'. brao,"t F,om EI C'g." He,o. 41 h "",tUII Be. 5' E C""''',dD Colleo .on. M,,,,,d 21 Reeo' ''' "O'oo ot , S03n" h Inf" "ym,n 01 ,ne "me of H. oniDa I H.oo",, 1",embled ,om< 70.000 SO, n" h ,"'.nt'y" the "'" 0' hi, c,mp.ign. h.s arm,-' moot exoend 'OI, elomem He "",." , " new h(H)d "" ," """ohai' ",eS! . nd. w"i ,o tuoie I'imm.d " .t" cnm,oo He " .,med w"h. Ca",be,i. n ,p ,o.d "".1 ,h ieLd . ,"unioo , od 1,lear. He m, o" ."e,o" ,v",v h, v. ""'" "'" >1"'9°' ,wo ·edged Sp, ni, h ,wo,d 22 ,M 23 Two type, 0' S""oi, ,, OIl found . , Ago," " , Anq"". ,n weth'''" S".io 'pe". ,o,m . '"
  • ITAL Y A ~D TilE WESTERN M E Dl T ERR ANE AN worn by the ~aetratl: A few bron7.c belmet, have heen found, but they arc 'ery ra", Spanish cavalr y, like 'hal of lhe Roman< and Ce ll', i' rather m nfu,ing to a modern reacler for it is quite dca' lhal lhese horsemen ofte n dism ounted and fougbt on foot , Sometimes a horne would carry two m~n ancl on~ w(}uJc! jump <>if to figbt T he Sp.ni,b hor, e_ man used a sma ll round , hield wi'h a c~ntra l ha ndgrip I ik erhaIof the ~a. l ra IU. < (, ee ' 7 and . 8, p . J~ ll . Th ~ rid er i' dr~"ed like an infantryman and appea rs '0 b~ we~ ring the sametype of headgear. I n hi, righ' h. nd be hold' a/alca,a. T h~ borse (19) , ho w, lhe bridling and a .addle blanker held in plac'e by a girt h slr ap. Sla tues also sometimes ,how rhe He llenist ic type of saddle. Horscb irs are u;ually of [he sname type and come in many fonn,. Th~ ring ( z}) and cre; cent (zz) types are lhe most common . II is dear fro m the many representati(}n;of elephants on C",lha~jnjan coins 'ho' th~ war e1~ph.n" used hy lhe Puni,' .rmie, were Afric .n. T he C.rth. ginian' hunted the fore" elephan' in I>Iorocco and . lso on t he edge of the Sah ~ra de,ert at the ""'is of Ghad.mes some 800km so u, h of C.rth.ge. T he,e elepha nts were introduced du, ing rhe first war wllh Rome at the lime of the 'iege of Agt igento in 262 8t: and were ," used ~ g. i n" inf. ntry a, well as caval ry, T hey shattered ' he Ro man morale and for a long lime the Romans would not face them, Tbey won th~ir burel, in 255 wh~Il ,h~y tmmpkd Regulus' legion' in' o the dU81 on the B.grodas plains Fi na lly, d"' ing lhe siege of Paler mo in ~so, the Romans caplured some of lhese heast' and " , regained ' heir confidence . The'e elephants, like the larger Afric an bu,h elephant , hod . saddle b.ck .nd th" Carlh'!finiam rode lhem like a hmsc. Having ,ubjugated lhe area north of lhe Eb ro, llannib.1 left H.nno 'here W . g.rri",n of to,OOO foo' and J,OOO ilh ho"e 10 keep lhe road open , Leaving behind . 1I ' he he.,'y haggage, ind ud ing his siege equipmen' , he pu, heJ on .cro" 'he Pyrence ' wi' h so,OOO infantry, abou' 9,000 cavalr y and the elephant s, T he Romans also planned 10 fi~ht the war o' erse. s on two fronts, and lh~ two cons ul' for 2t X 8e drew lots fm their pnwinccs. Tihe,iu, Sempronius Longu' drew Af'iea .nd l'ublius Corne liu, Sci pio drew S pain . '' hilst enrolling thei r legion; the y ga'" ",d~" for lhe "'t.bli,hment of ' wo ",lonies in , h ~ Po valley at C,emona and Placent ia, Each of lhes e reui'ed . boUI 6,000 colonist s who wer~ ordered to report , bere within 30 day' , The two colonies had hardly hee n e' tahli ,hed when the Roii and Ins ttbres, in .tltic ipal ion of Ab ov . Tn. ,e",,' ," of. C a ~ h ," g i n , an co< n jmm the " me of H, en,bo' '''''''''09 '" Af"e," el.oM01, . " "y ,de"" f;. ble by '" " ,ge eO', . nd " Mle wek. f .om ( ",.ge " Be'ow M '''"'''' ''"9 ,"e camp" go o' Se'"'o ,od ap H, on ,b. I ;" the .uWm" 01 ~ l S 8 (, T"" Po vallev oil<! onl, I"" """n cooQ",,'Od bv ,he Rom , ,,, woo o,d e" 3bl,,_ ,wo new colon'''' ., P'"',m,, aM C,.moo.
  • ROM E 275-!40 Be THE GREA T WA RS given first , wit h a full ar ~ume nt in ju " ification" the end , Scipio had arr ived al the mouth of the Rhfme whi le Hanni bal wa' ., ill hghting hi, way t hrou~h nort hern S pain, Here he ",aited for intelligence of lhe , ilUalion north of lhe Ebro. He knew tha I Ha nniba l had crossed lhe river , hut lacking reliable intelligence he felt una ble to allempt a landing, The nex, informalion ,h., Scipi o m :ei,'ed wo> thaI Hanniha l had cTossed the Pyr ence, and was advancing across ,outhern Gaul, apparently to attack Marseilles and knock Oul Rome', halfway hom e Scipio de<:ided '" remain where he wa, and mee l the invader in fr iendly terr i· tory, wilh M arseilles behind him and wilhoUI o~er"retching his line, of com munication with hall' Hannibal, meanwhile , was following lhe coast ro.d loward, lhe RhOne, This road skirted lhe m. rshy COast a, far ., L unel , where il vttred north_ea" to_ w.rds N lme, '" avoid lhe marshe, of the RhOne delta befo re turning due east to approach the R ht>n~ at n~a u e a i re. From hete the road foJJowcd the ' -alley of ,he Durance in lo the Alp" cross ed l h ~ M ontgenevTe pa" and desce nded lhe ,-alley of lhe Dora Riparia into Italy. Hanniba l's spies had infor med him tha , Scipio wa, "' lhe mouth of tbe Rht>ne , and in order to .void encount ering him while he was tryin~ to cross , he river he continued in a n o rt h . ea S! ~ rl y dl re ~tio n, planning 10 cwss nca r ;>,vig_ non and <!, plae'e the ri" er D urance, whic h ft owed into the eastern side of th e RhOne , between him,elf and Scipi o. On reaChing lh~ riw r the Cart haginian< bo ught up all the a,'ail able craft , of whi ~ h there was a great number as the natives carri ed on a m.ritime trade , In lWO da y, , hey h. d coJJe< ',ed a va" numbe r but hy now the far bank of lhe The m a r ch t o Italy H. nnibal' , roule fT<Jm Spain to h all' i, river wa, lh ronged wit h hoolile natives, a ' ubjec, of fierce contention , I have Hannibal re. lised tha, he cou ld nO! ' pent many year> tracking dow n the make lhe crossing in lh~ taee of m ch ",riou, possible mu le, and hn c con_ formi dahle op!"" ition, and on t he lhird cluded lbal, wilh lhe exception of a night atier his arr ival , e", off a delach considerable deviation al tho beginning ment of his army wilh n., i ~e guide, 1<l of hi, march into lhe Alp, w h~n he wa, cross further upstream , T he ,e , old iers "ying to lo, e Scipio's army, Hanni bal marched alxlUl 40km up the ri"er and "'ok the slraighlf",ward route from "Tossed whe'e il di,'ided , forming an Spain 10 lh~ Po valley , up lhe vall..· of island . He,e they reste d for a Jay, " lhe D uran"e and down the ,'allev ,i'he look them a furt her lwo nights 1<> gel Dnra Ripar ia 10 the ate. of T urin imu po,ilion '" allack ,he for"e on ' he A reconstr uction of t hi, cr",sing is ea st sid e of the river. Hannibal's arrivaL rose in re" olt and an acked the legion thaI was slalioned lhete under lhe comman d of a praetor Polyhim rders 10 this legion", the fourth . It can therefor e only b<: lhe legion of thaI number from the previous year which mu st have bee n otdeted 10 winteT in lh ~ Po ,-a JJ~y A, this i, lhe hr, t legion ment ioned in connection ",ilh lhi , war, for lhe , ake of d arity it ",ill be called lhe fir", and all , ubsequent I~g iom wiJJ b<: numb<:Ted "on,~­ " uti" ely in the ordeT of their enrolment , h is possible lhat H annibal engineered the GaJJic revolt 10 h"ld up S< 'ipio' , preparati ons. T he consul wa, obliged to dispat< one of the leg ions -h he was enrolling (t he seco nd) to the Po " alley and raise a replaeemenl fro m lhe allie<. Th~ Roma n, ' manp"wcr rc,ou«",s werc enormous, and lhcsc were 10bc the decIsive fae,or in lhe war , D uring the threa, of the Gallie in" .,ion in 226 lhe Senalc had o" Jcreel a survey of lh~ir n;",urc", which lOa, Teco rdcd by 1'011'_ bius, T his showed that Rome could dra", upon a pool of 700,000 infantry anel 70,000 <'avalry , Of lhese 150,000 infant ry and ~ ~ ,ooo "a'-aITy "arne fro m the regions of Samnium , Lueania and Calabria, all lhree of which were IOSI to lh~ Romans a h ~ r ,he hallic of Cann.e. It was early summer before the two arm Ies , et oul. Lo ngus, with t OO quinQ uere m~s, saileel for Lilybaeum in Sicily wilh his lwo legion" lhc lhird and fourt h, ready for lhe inva, ion of Africa. Scipio, with 60 galley" sailed along lhe cooS! of L iguria 10 M arseille, >TIel dm ppcd anchm off lhe eaS!~r n mouth of the Rh(me with the hft b and , ixth legions , A lill ie hdorc dawn on the fifth nighl H. nnib. 1embarked his men , filling lhe hoo" with his Ii ~ht ca,·. lr~· and lhe canoe, with his liglu infan" y T he lorger boa" were pla< upstre. m to 'ed break lhe curr en l. T wo men al the back "f cae'h hoot held the lead rein< of ,is or seven horses which were to swim behind , W h ~n lh~ barharians , aw lhe Carl hag inians pr epar i n~ to croo>, the;poured out of lheir camp and thm nged ,he river oonk Ih soon as lhe prearranged smoke signal appeared on the op pmite bank , Hannib.1 or dereel hi, soldiers 10 pull out .g~inS! lhe curr ent , T he reS! of lhe army cheere d on their comrad.. whil" the natives on the f.r han k 'C'rcamed lheir war erie, and pranced aro und br. ndishing their sword, and bragging oft beir pa' t deeds. As lhe ooats .pp ",ach~d the shore, part of lhe det. ehme nl already on the far , ide of lhe river a!lacked lhe Ce ils in lhe rcar whilst lhe rest SC I fire to ,heir deserted cam p. T.ken "om plclcly by , urprise the barha rian< Hed , lea,'i n~ lhe landing unop!"l",d, D uring lhe remainder of l h ~ day Ha nnibal managed w gel the reS! of hi, men acru" . nd p il<'hed "am p on the eaS! hank of lhe river. There remained only the problem of gell ing the eleph. nts across lhe Rhone. T he following morning he di'pat<;hed 500 of hi, !'>: umidian c'aval, y with orders 10 eros, lhe Durance and chec k the whereabout< and numbe" of lhe Romans Meanwhile Som~ Cch ic chieft ains who had ","'sed lhe Alps 10 meet lhe army we' e introduced 10 lhe soldie". They eneoura~ed the trOOp', telling them of the welcome and lhe Ixx,ty lhat . w.i ,e d them be yond lhe Alps, and pfOmi'ed 10 lead them by an ea,y wule across ,he mountains, Amid con Hicting Teport' Scipio had , ent our his c",'alry I<> reconnoitre . When the K umidians encountered them lhey naturally wilh_ drew at to p speed to repofl to Hanniba l. T he Ro m~n c. ,'alr y, interpreting lhi , wit hdrawal a, Highl, claimed a ,'ietory and pursued the :-J umid ian, to within sight of the camp on lh e ea" ,ide of the Rh6ne befor e returning at to p spee d to make a Teport lu Sdpio, Ha nnibal , b<:lie,-ing lhat his !'>: umi· dians had fallen in wilh lhe cav.I ,~· , a een advanci ng ahe.d of the k gio"" 'B
  • ITAL Y Al" D TH E W EST ERN M EDI T EIl.RAN EAN Bol o w Tho _ "" t>e"'11 , , _ 0<''''' ,... -... _""" "9 '0 """'biu' _ >I t.-""o ,... ,_ and " ' _ . . , , _ ....,. 'h." Quo" _ ' ... ",ot.' Tho ..""""" _ . u""",,,,....... .- " '210 fo r~ d '0 mne. '1ui<k dcci01Ofl , II ,,-as euenlw '" hi. "'-cnl1 OI",'eK}' ,"", ~ ",""hc-d Italy ,,~, h hIS urn}' in'-.;'l . He could no! . lford n .k • in I~ Roo.., valley. Full}' . ...... re ,h.,,~ Du, .n ~ rou" ...-as "","' ou, of 'he qUC5,ion. ~ f.,.li>Cd ''''', i' ..... . imper,",i"e ,''''' ~ Iooc Sdri". So he ordered hi. infantry, ,,-i,h ,h. hlllQlllll" ' '''in. 10 p re.. on up Ihe RMnc a, lin' lithl , He ,hen <I re'" "ul hio (a"al ry .I"n~ 'he north han k (Of 'he Du ran~ wi' h OTdcro '0 ' he Rom. ns ~ ...".int 'he , i,·cr. X'i,h their p"'irion oc~u rC<! ' hc)' oc' . hou ' gcllin~ lhe ckph.n" '0 """Ie .1"" ""I' • ~ ros , . T h. d ephant' "'-CT, ' err iliC<! of th. ra' t-flowing river which i. betWocn 200 and 500m wid• . Th. . .pf'<'n had huilt . num be r of VCTY " ,lid r.f.. ohl>.., ,."en metre' wide , T he}' I••hcd tWO of these toget her , ide hy . ide and m,,,,.cd th cm 10 the rive' bank, By .d d i n~ p.i" ." -•• .- T". ,ettv """'" 01 , ~.,....... ,' .... '" 8m _ . mo<oOO ' 0 ",. t_ "" ,,,. - . _ . 01 ..... RMne T". tu<od "" ,,, ,.,. ,. f" ~'Y "._to __ t_-. b>- ",. ,_ _ ' """ .._ ,... Cu' _ ,r>d'~ '""OIl '.ot,." t>y 'OW;"9 _ "
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  • ITALY A ~D T H E W ESTER S MEDI T ERR A:SEA N pas""d t ne Cel(i~ 'I rong nold' a I (;norg~' and Embrun which had been paid off (he previous winter and was approaching the junction of (hc (iuil . Here the}' were met by nativ e" fm m higher up tht "a lley , tarryin~ olive branche, and wrea, h, a, signs of friendsh ip, T hese were pm hal>l y willow hran~hcs, which arc plentiful in t l> i, area wherea, oli.'e lree s are not . The nali, 'c, otfe reJ guide the . rmy along the n e ~ t part icu larl y difficult stretch of lhe roUle , Han nil>al wa, , m picious bUI felt il be st to .c~e pt (I> eir offcr. A , a precaution he placed lh e ca" alry.t (I> e head of (he co lu m n and lhe infant r y at the h ac ~, wi(1) , he I>aggage train in (he ce ntre For , everal day' (he ar m y had been marching lhrough open ~ oun t r y, I>U( now the mountains began to ~rowd in again . On (he eighlh day of the .,,;ent they r eac h ~d the poim ju,t nor th of mod ern I'Ar gcntiere_I. _lk osee, where the D urance pass e, th' ough a narr ow go rge, Here the ro ad take , to the hill_ , ide' and once more lhe lroop, were , tru ng out along a narrOw path , T he ar my wa, carr yin g wit h it an im me nse amo unt of go ld Hl P" y for lhe 'n mer cenarie' Hannib" 1 planned 10 hire in Italy, Fo r sa fc ~ e e p i ng thi, " 'as l><:ing conveyed by lhe Af, ican infant r y. Tbe nali,'" had obviou sly go t wind of lhi, anJ c'ho,e t hi, spot for an am hu, h , X·' hen t he ~avalry and mU<'h of the b a ,o;g .~ e were alr eady through lhe mo ,t difficull seclion of the g<>tge , lhey attadeJ fw m th~ hig h ~r ground , lh row · ing slo ne' anJ Hllhng hou ldns Jown the hillside. Beyond the go,ge lhe ro ad ag. in descends 10 (he valley, bU l here " huge meky 'p UT iut, oul from (he eastern ,ide , k " ,'ing <mly a narm w pass.,o;e. When the cava lry and l>aggage had passed ,his point and du s ~ was l><:gin ning l() fall, l h ~ Cells charged down into thc vaHey, ~o 1l i n g the army in half and leaving lh e infa nt ry, and Hannibal W it, trapped in the defile , ilh T he nighl wos spent among the b..e rocb . On the following morning, in fear of the ~avalry, ( n e Cd t, wi,hdrew and the ar my drag,o;ed itself l P to the broad ope n sum mil of t he pass w me 20k m away. Here they encam ped for twO Jays to allow th ~ slragglers l() catch up. The ascent had taken the Pu nic ar m y nin c days. Snow had alr eady gathered on lhe sum mit and m",ale was very low, To raise their 'piTi" H annibal poi nled down the other , ide of 'hc pass t" ward, h all', indi cati n,o; nol onl y the di, en ion of the Po valley , where th. Celts awaitcd them, hot also lhat of Rome itse lf. In later year<, ,hei r mem ories undoubledly c1olded hy (he lrauma of thei r e~ perience,. lhe soldieTS belie"ed th"t they h. d actually been able to see hall' and even Rom e itself from lhe w p of t hepass , The nex, day the Puni~ ar m y b,,,k, < p and l><:gan , he descent. T he path 'am was naHO and once "gain ,hey haJ to W pass alon~ lhe edge ()f a ravinc. F ro, h fall, of ,now had covered the lrack and all who mi ,, ~ d the ir fOOli ng were da,hed he.dlo ng down the precipice, In places fresh , now had f.llen on "'p of lhe snow which re mained h om tho previou s wi nter Here lhe " ,ld ie,,' feet a . t" ", The Me 01 the '00000 .m~u, ", t ho D""o"" p "" ,hrough , 0." O'W " O'go " The ",." . ' pu. i, on lhe '. ft. Thi , wos "'hero H.o' ib, I·, " my wos 00 ' ,n 'wo b y' w,,,,,. d.,. ,mi """ C..,ie .ttac k
  • RO." IE 275-40 Be THE GREAT WARS wa, f"lIo wed by heayy ,ain. T he rainfall rcacheel hcigh" ullknown , ince the lee Age . [n the sou thern Me diterranean the arid land blosso med , but what was a blessing for G reece , It.ly and Spain wa' a di, a"er for the rc,t of Europe r he rainfall reac hcd a di max about 400 Be. At first the lowlands bec ame mar,hy, then the y flood ed, T he prehi, w ric tr ack; becam~ impa" able and Iran ' !,,"t (~)k I) t h~ wat~L The much lower tempe ratu re n ot only caused a lower rate of evapotation al low Ie'els but also caused a , imilar dttrea,ed rate of de_ic'ing at high I ~ve k A, a r~s u l t , whik the marshes adva nced m t he valleys lhe glacier, increased on the heights. I n Switzerland the eIormou' rainfall thxled the lak~s: II<x1en,ee " )Se ten metres, an almost in,'redibk amoum when it is consi dered thot it feed, the Rhine . T he lake dwe ller, were for ced to aba ndon their 'illage, and n~'er returned . .... II over Eum pe tribe, d riven fro m lheir homelands began to move ,ou,hward" breakinR in a , ucc essio n of Wa'~' on ,oul h~ rn E uro pe. Th~ Celtic j"""ion of S pain and h all' w'" T h e cli mate the most stri king result of thi s moveBefore ~""mi ni ng Hannibal's route lhm ugh ,,"'t hem G aul and aw)!;s the mem o T hi, miRtalion wos not ha lted .-I!", olle must "m.i d~r th~ cIima,e of unl il the co nq uest of G aul by Ca~' ar in the period Re~ent l y , in ordn t<l jU> tify the "t cen tur,' He. hom thi, period [ak tng Hannibal over a , 'ery high pa'S, on 'ards there was a gradual increase in it has t><." n claimed thot,he climate was temperature which reached a climax mu,h the same a, il i. tod a;-. B UI i, thi , betwee n H= and 1000 A U , The tem_ perature then began to drop aga in, claim justi fied, In 1966 selttted papers of the djs - br i n~ing on the ' Littk lee Age' wh ich occupied the period between the t 6th l ing u i , h~ d m.. eoroloRist H, H , Lamb were publi,hed under the litle The and 19th centurie, . Ciumg;ng CI;"'~l< . The", give u, a '~r y It is q<tite meallillgless to quot~ differem picture of climatic conditions examples of medieval mine" or for in the tim ~ of lIannibal and are of that malter Roman one, that have been partic ular , 'alue a, th ~ auth"r had no ,mcovered by the retreat of the glaciers interest in Hannibal's cro" ing of th e an er the ' Li llIe Ice Age' , as there i, Alp" In brief this is Lamb' s picture of now no arg um~nl that lhe tempera ture d<tring the Roman empire and later Eu rop~ in ,he pre- historic and anciem period,. Bctw~en 4000 and 2000 BC, w" warmer. in the wake of the ret reati ng ice of the The situalion in the 17th cent ur y glacial epoch, there wa, a warm dry wa, pmbahl;- 'luite , imilar II) lh" of Ikfiod known as the 'post -glacial cli- Hannibal', time. Poly biu, him , elf ,up _ matic oplimum ', O uti ng thi , ,im e lhe pon, this when he says that the pa"es wor ld temperature ro,e to 2-3 d~gree, of ,he Alp, were snow- covered all the Centigrade above the p'e,em nmm . , 'ear ro und Thi , statement ha, to In lhe , ucceeding millennium, how- refer to the lowe", passes a, thes~ are th e one, that must have been tn use. cyer, the dim" e d~[ e ri o r a , ed, Iktwee n '/00 and 5= tIC the tem_ lie .1'0 tells of ftoocled marshlands perature fell rapidly to abou, 3 degree' n~ar Florence which Hannibal had to CemlRrade below its presem level. Thi, cm " whe n he invade el eentral Ita ly in 'un k through the thin ,'-",ering of fres h , now and slid on the packed snow benea th , In contrast the hoove, of the • nim.l, broke through the packed ,now .nd they b<ocame trapped there Fun her down proh lems multiplied "s the path h.d been carried away by • land, lip over a distance of ~bo u t 300m. Hannib.1 tri~d .n .lt~mative d~secn t , but thi , pro'ed impassable .nd the army "'as forced to camp along the ridge while the road wos rebuilt. The N umi_ dian , wne , el to wmk in rdays and ",ithin a da;- they had made a pa th suffi oiently wide to get the horses and pack ,n,mals down. These were turned Ilut t<l pa"m~ on lhe lower ground , wh i~h wos free from snllW, but il was another three day, and freezing nights before ,he road wa, wide enoug h to get the elephants , no" From the foot of lh e pr~ <' i pjc ~ the going was comparatively easy alld three da)', later the ragged remnants of the great arm;- ' hat had sel ou, from Cartagena five months befor e >laggered imo the valley of the Po. I." 217. All this filS in well with Lamb', descri ption. It is aga in" ,hi, hack_ gro und thaI One must examine Han_ nibal', ro ute to It aly. The h istorians T here ha'e h<oen many acccltlnts of Hanniba l's march fro m S pain to It aly. Each "fthe' e, wi,h its own axe to grind, take, Hann ibal by a different mute. The quality of t hese account> 'aries from the , cholarly to the rid iculom , T he C"tntnerllaWrs yary widel,' and i nclu d~ suc h people a, Mark Twain, Na polel>n and Sir Gavin de Heer, who was once D irector of the N atural Hi,wry Mu>eu m in L ondon. The aUlh"r ha, 'pen t many ;-ears tracking down th" e various itineraries and feels that the time i, ripe for a new approach to lhese 'ludi"" Both Polybiu, an d Livy gi'C an accc'unt of the CfO" ing . It i, gellerally agreed ,hat Li'y's ,"coull! i, corrup, and that he is pmbably mixing two c<mlradictm y , ourc·e, . h i, impo" ible to rcco n,'ile l'olybi<t s and Liv y, Li vy' , acco"nt h.. therefore been reieCle d and lhis study i, based exclu, ively <m PI>I,' bi<t, Hefor e beginning a study of Hannibal's march all commentalor, should carefully read Polyb ,us lll, 47, 6_12. In thi, pa" age the hi't(}ri an di, mi" es all claim , that Hannib.l used an unknown pa" , got lost or took an ~x tr~ mely difficult mute. He al, o says ' hat he him, d f had in, peeled the pa"age of the Alp" '10 learn for myself a"d sec' . Polybi", f"" her ' tate, lhal he Call ,~ e no !")int in r~ c ord in g pia,,,,, with name, that 'ill mean noth ing to hi, reade ". It therefore follows that when he doe, name a place it wa, ce". inly well_know n w lhe (;reek,. and conversely when he d,,,,, not name a place, it i, for the simple reason that no well-known place as there , T he r o ute . f ro m S pain.o It a ly At the time of Hannibal there were two main routes linkinR It al}' and Spain. The, e were famili ar to the ancien " a, lh~ I ~gendar;- mute' of H ~rcules . One 1>1' the, e r"ule' led from T uscany along lhe Lig <t,ian coast, The ol her cro ,, ~d lhe Alps from lhe Po Yalle;- Th~ ' wo m utes mel a' t he Rh " ne, which they m"",d at Beaucairc-Tarascnn, and '"
  • ITALY AND TH E 1? li STERN . IED ITERRA NEA N
  • ROM E 2" 5-140 RC T H E G REAT WARS then contin ued along ,hc C a >! l() O Sp ain. T ho route over the Alp, to Spain was superseded in about itS BC hy the Rom. n Vi. Domilia. Th is po ses the que" ion weTe the Vi. D omiti• •nd the Tome of Her~uks one and the , arne ' T he suggest ion that t he Romans eut an en, irely new route thro ugh the Alps when they buill the Via Dmnitia is d early ludic·ro u,. T bi, wa, ne ither pr"Cl i~a l nor the lhmlan way T he easiest way would have . Iready been e". bli, hed hy " .vellers and merchants who had ' ",dden thi, route for ttnlUries. The Romans would merdy have improved and paved wha t was . lrc. d y there. T his ro.d is the lowest , widesl md eas;est TOu te thTt)ugh the Alp<;, I! is also the shonest m ute to the Po "alley T ra-d ling along ,he Via Domili. t he distance from Kime" on the we" side of the Rhone, to C., .le M onfe rrato, in the Po valloy where an the toutes would meet, is 48 1km, The ,hone>! toute via the Col de Larche is appr",i matd y 500km. Travelling up the lse re '-alley and over the I.ittle St Bornard, the C1apier or thc .10nt Cenis passes would stretch the dista nce to over 6ookm. The,e are all the low passes in the westeTn Alp;. T hese fi gures OffO a simpk cxplanat ion of the T ro ute followed by tho Vi. l)<lmitia For preei, dy the ;ame reas ons the toute of Hercule, must have followed the ,ame cou " e. The rou'e fro m T ar",con IS stud ded wilh Ce lt,,l. iguri an wwn , . nd orpida, Segustero (Si>lero n), Ca turi ge' (Ch",ge,), E bllrodun um (Embru n), Brig. ntio (BTian, on) on ,he western side of the pa" and Segu' io (S m a) on t he eastorn side . 11 have Cd tic n. mes and thelefore mllst ha"e been lheTe hd ' >re the Rom a'" built their roule There were abo oppida nca r Ap t and Mom Dauphin and two mm e octween Manos que .nd Si'lero n Thc,e foc 'u,,, make Out an ove r",he l m i n~ c",e fm the exi>!cnce of a pre- Rom an route along the Via Dom,tia T ho pseudo Aristolle writing in ,he second h. lf of ,he l rd ~ e n t ur y BC _ loft Th<> d<>s<eo, ',om the Mon'ge n" v," p", fo l>o,.,.iog the p,"cip ito ", _cent the re is, perm"en ' '. nd, """ or,. where '0' rno<:lom road i, prQ,ectod t>y , ,,,nc r." CO"""" (I,tt ' M m,,,,-," of p'c'u" l alx,u t the time of Ilannih. l_ m nl'Trm thi , whcn he rcree. t() an Alpine route on which one h, d to pay" toll to the CdlO-Liguri, n people living along it. J"hi, mu " be a Tefere nce 10 the , arne sou, hern route , a, the l. iguTian, c" uld hardly oc e(}nnected with a nOr( her n mute. It may the refore be st ; ted t h.t thore wa' a wd l_k nown rOU,e fro m Spain a CTOSS t he Alps u' Ita l;- which ",as in use "t the time of Ha nnihal and that it followed the sam e route a, the Roma n Via Dom itia. l'o(,'biu' Vol. ! , p. 373 and Vol, []!, p. 76h), T h ~ rOule of t he Roman t o. d ca n be d early traC on the we>!ern 'ed , ide orthe Rh6 ne between ...I,mtpd lier and N imes. H ere it fo llows the ridge of high gTound ; kirl ing ,he coas ta l ma"he, .bout nine kilome tTe' fro m the pre, ent coa.lI ino. X' hen we take into acrot",t the clim. t ic cond ition, de, cribed above, the pos ition of the road is n", ' urpri' ing. E.'en tod. ;, the coast is m. " hy Tbe ,'oa" line i, consta n ,l}' c ha ng i n~ as the Rhone bring. down an estim.ted 20,000,000 tonnes of sill • Pu lybiu s' tb r ee ~ h ec k poin'. y~ar . M ost of tbi, i, caTried westward , In hi, acco um of ,he journey from the fm ming red, . nd lag()()n, . 11 ,h~ w. y Pj-"Tenee' to the Po valley Polybius gives along the ~O"' t to S pain . I n prehi" ClTic u. three ~'heckpo i nts: th e h rSl i, the tim.. the coas t would have beon milc h roaJ fro m the Pyronees 10 the Rh6 ne; nearcr , he road, the 'ec"nd i, a >!t etch of land called the Polyhim gi,-e' us • , et of Jistances ' Island' whi<'h lie, he tween the RhOne lm tbe maTch. C nfonu natdy lhe, e aTe and one of its trihU,"Tie" an J the thirJ very '·. guo and are only ro u ~ h . pproxi· i, the pass by which Ha nn ibal entered mations , The)' are given correc to the "t h al)'. Pol}'h im gives. graphic descTip- neare>! 200 stad" . lie gives distanco, tion of the , ccond and ,hird check- for each part of the mut e which when point s .n d idem ifi e, , he Ii",. dded up gi"e a total d ," anc'e or 8,400 from Ne w C . rt ha~o to It aly, I. The road t o the Rhone !-l ()wever, eb ewhe re he g,,'e, ,he dist W hon H. nnibal p lanned hi, inva, ion anC'e a' 9 ,000. T hi, is pro hahly hecaus e of It. ly there ean be lill ie douht t hat he his breakdo,,-n fi guTe. were . lway' an intended ,,, u,e the ro uto of Hercule, undorestim. te, prompt ing him to add a acTt'" tbe Alp, u, re. ch the 1'0 valley_ litt le at the end ", make up for it. W hen During the winter of 2 '9~ 2 Ih BC the de, ,,,ihing the roa d fm m S pain to the tri bes a l o n~ the roUle WeTC conlacted river Rh6ne, Polybiu , commenl, lhat and paid ()If, the Romans had measurod it ,,-i lh a Very lin k can he ",id ()f Il.nnibars mil" l,",. c,'ery eight <1",1«. march over the Pj'Tcnee., but aCross I'm ,he pe riod 2 '8~ Z I 7 all ,he , outhern Gaul we ar c on much ' UTeT di "a n ~e' gi,-en by Polybim aTe In ground . Polybiu> says that tho road mu ltiple. of eight .<lades T he only from S pain to the ri,-e r Rho ne was possible conclusion is that he is using a carefully me",uTed hy the Koman< and Ro man source and c onver-,;n~ at oi~ht markod off with mi!cwmes . Here he Slade< to • mile, i.e. 200 <lad« = C. unintentiona lly gives us an invaluable 37krn, and not 8i a, " , many others pi e c~ of in fmnu ,ion, for hc is Slating have done , Polybius' com'e" ion i. u, ed t hat Hannih al wa' on the , arne m ute horo, as that lalor used by lhe Rom an, . He is Polybiu' td ls " ' that H .nni bal " . ting thaI, as us ual , lhe Romans had eTO"ed the Rh" ne w h er~ it i, , ingle at a merd y pa,-ed and mea, ure d the pre- distance of about four day' m a T~ h from hi' toric rou le when the y built the the sea , He also refe" to the large famous Via Domit ia " 'est of tho Rh6 ne. number of forr ' boat' that Ha nnihal Thi, mea, "ring of the ro.d has c. used wa' .h le to buy , ,,) me controve", ,- as it wa, huil, h}' The C To" ing point i, hot ly deha ted ( in .eu, Il omilio, Ahe noharbu , in ,,~ T ho rea,on fo, th i, dohat e i. qui te tl( , which is very clos o to the d. te of simple. After crossin~ lhe Rhine, Polybius' death , lIow",'er, many Hannihal maTched up the river for four ' chob", oclieve tha' thi, pa" age i, day, a place called , he 'I sland' , So authen tic .n d was pTOhably in, ere ed hy eac h of the conte ' ta n" in the de hatc the historian shortly before his de. th has to move , he cross ing p la~e to ' ult (d. F. X'alhank, Co mmm lOry on hi, choice for t he ' Isla"d '. ,.,,,d,, '0 '"
  • I TA LY A:-!U TH 10· "'ESTER~ • ,M EDlT ERRAN"A N .
  • RO ME 17~ - t 40 Be TIlE GREAT WARS Polj'biut ' rcf"..,nce to ' abou, four day,,' march from tltc oeo' it no! helpful. h is dJifocuh II. bohe~ ,hal Ite it 11.. "8 thi, n a _urcmmt from , Ite mou,h of ,be R"'- '0 , be c:rown8 poin,. h mll$l Ihtrcf...., he a rflCTCl'In ' 0 . he point when- ,he a.... y loa. " , h. of lhe """-- Tlut poin. may be 10Clued ncar old Lund, for ..... 'h~ of Ihis poon. , abou, 5oI<m from lkaUQIJr" , .he RhDn.< delta thru......... into the tel. II'" Qff abo disooum ,be s.ugation ,be army Jef, , be 00I0Sf. I' Aiguco Monn . PoIyblus mak... U qui'e ck2r Iltat lbe army ..a. on . he Via Domitia. T o reach Aill'un , tonn it ..""ld have bc<;n nn......ary 10 m ~rc h ,6lrn """, h before "an;n, back """.td.,1K RhOne. A funhet problem i. r<»c d hj' the prcei.., e.tenl of . day '. ma.ch. Al only on<: poin' in Poly!>iu,' acc"OUn, i. a marching I'"c"" liven, )u.1 bef",c begin_ ning Ihe ..cenl we learn ,h., the ar my matched lIoo IIcJd.. in ten da" , Allowing fur ",'..ee,; on III Ihe " catc", 200 ' lad.. , 'hi , tepte,,"I , . t.'c of be' ween '] an d '7km pct d.y. However, I his fig ure i. no, vory helpful .. Ihe army wa' probably foralling befnre beginning tlte . ""enl. T be only c"""lmi" n one can dra'" frum , hi, i. a nega'i ve onc.~~ tlte river CfO$ting could 001 be more ... """" '" ... '"" INp pl ,.... ~'*'"_. bl<lCkoel .... ""'''' thart four day. march from old L unel. ""-r.g ' .. hom "'; "' ""'001 'M """..... lk Hect adV<lCllled a d'OS.ing a' . .... , ~""'""'" buo" • - . . . . ~I Fourqun, just above Ade.", rbe apex -~, del.., li e,," hit choice of Aiguct .ionn .. lhe poim when- tI>e arm}' Icft lbe .,...t , U"",'ever, ,hit ' hcory hcgs a number oil imJ'<"1aIt. q"""tion>. I. 1l>cre G~ • .-.dinl P'J'M here . ·hieh Pol ybo would turd}" ha" e mentioned. 1. Suc!>. prcritc """",phial poin. .. rhe apex of t be delra """ld hardly have failed be r«:ordcd. I· ScVaUC<'nfh-<:cnlury maps show Iltal ,be area bc1""",n Ileau".....:: and Aries ..... 600dcd , Ikarinl in mil>d lhe at lhe lime of c!ima,ic W noJ Ilio Honrublol• •hit undoublcdly its aJk.icn te. 1I' lKn ,he Roma"" huill 'he' d frum t'imu . o At..... il had 10 be <~;"d ""..... the ma..hn on a via- 'ha' I." of,,,,, h low fI-ont ""',. _ no ,.... .......... _ 1 _ ) T _ " " ''''''' M"""", IN" pl , .... Spo.n (,oeI) ~ , ......_It"', ~-.. _ - . - . " " ' " "' .... r.g to ..... "'Il'*~.-.:I on IWP !Icvon<l ._. '0 ~ f' onc ~ .0.,,,, "'""",r.g It.. lwo ,"",0< 01 "'.""... _ , .... -" ," _ " ""'''' ,,' ,,_ ,,,,,,.. _ mo,, od '" >oM "'.C, • ,-,d "'on"",. '" ' 'otO m".... "" "m.o k OIOCkl ,,,,, "''''' '" ,.... ....n'"''''. ,',
  • I T A L Y A l>: D T H E W'ESTERl>: M EOI T ERR AN EA l>: du,'. S" In,,:~,,fthi.l>O n:maino bu' in w ,h~ Ik'h <:nI'''')' il "-ell-kr,own fn'un: . T he bridg~ ..... soulh-,.-est of Bdl<p..de and" comrnnnon,C'd in ,he 000., of arm. of ,ha, ,.....-n, ,,'hc'n: i, is .Jxn.-" ... t,.')-",ched bridg~ .panni"ll: ,he manhc> , TM lnx length of this bridge i• • n,,",~d bl' its name 'Ie Porn d<-o Arca' (flo< Hndge "" Ard,••). The ""mher "" the . rd.n ~}" irn_ pn:»cd the Iuca.I population i" 'Pit~ of the fact I.... ,he Pont dll Gald, wi. h i.. complex .. l1ICIII..., "r a",lIn, .."2> less ,han ls.km ....y, " bridgc hn,.-cr:n ~imn and Ar ln i. n:f~rn:d to in the 4th.-antu. y Hordeaux or J~rusatern Iti"",,"ry undcr ,h~ nom. of A.rariu• . 1X' h i l ~ on lht .ub;c.., or rk llctr', RhO"" • •"",ine, i, i. ",m t h commcn'ing on hi. 'ugg."ion lhallhe rive r DuTane<: , ", hi,'h "0'" 11<,,,,, imo the RhO". iust ."ul h of A,ign"n , jllined it south of ' Ari es . 1 ,he tim e or Hannih. L T he C ra", Ihc .re. ><lUth_we" of ArI.., i, . ,:altered w;l h " " nc, T hi, ha, led g,~,l"gi 'l ' U> h<lie ,'~ lhal Ihc Durane<: one<: H"wed Thi, WI ;' .nd no doubl,hey are righl . T he '1u"'li" n i. , whcn' The .ncie n" .1", no'~d lhe.. " " ",,", . nd many ....pl.",ni"n. " -ere pU l forward fm lheir pn:..nc"", It i. nOllhe . ...planaTion. lIun an: inlc""l ing bUl ,,,," '00 !p'" lhtm. Amo,,!!,,' 'he lis, are Ancb}'I ... (525- <4 56 IIC) and AnSlotte (314-322 I'IC), rros'i"ll bel'ond doobt ThaT The llu l'll~ had .handuned ,m. ......... hefcore their tnnc. h iI " n lln that H."nihal did DOll ttuI& , he Rhl>ne south of Beaucairc. PoIl'bi... I~lb ... lhal lhe di.tan<:e from Emp:..'x (Arnpuriu) '" the RhOne was , ,600 .....us. He abo "a'n that ,be Via Domi.ia wnl of lhe Rhl>ne had be<:n _urC'dcarcfully by , he Romans . Thy, lhen , docs he DOll give ,he occul'll.e ~Ill'" bu' wnlinun to '""""" To Ipp.mllmalion. ? . 1001 scholars believe lhal lhe ,"Ommenl aboUI ""n:rul mea.'u.c-menl ....... Iddcd ...h>cquCTltly by ~ilhe r Pt>Iyhiu. h,m..lf or a la'e. edi,or. Thi, rails I" convi""" at Polybi ... did no, £h. njtC lh~ ~ i/;ure or 1,600 'u,. J f • ,". 01.0<'" <> ~, c .~ .' J P"". R;g ht Tho R,*,< ",,, _ pas,, "'o "01""11 ,I>< doH. '0 ""'"' tho !let",. "'" t>u,ldo"9 (, nown ' uh>e""e otlv., , • , 'I 4 •, J ~D 'M Romon ," • ,. ,,- I • . ~ f r -, "" , " 01.0, ... C lARASCOh .. P<H"" ,---,--, . H "."",:t h, •• bwn ,,,,,,,,,,it;. o I.pont d,,, """.)" would '0 «0.. >outh 0' 6. ,"0.i,o· To""""" of S'A, .'f'/('Qf .. 0' "
  • RO ME ~75 -[40 B(; TI lE GREAT WARS ,ho, doe "1. ' cros' IRB place, I b nniN I ",ok he mon, h, [ 0 reach Italy from Ca r1a,«na. ll e [he rerore left csos""d a, , he The di.. a "C' from f..... pooiac (Am· C --anagena. abou[ [he midd l. or M ay. p wia» ' " lkaucaire can be p " ged 'Iocre is ... , " ... y h" wuld hn e kaCbc-d from lbe Roman im perial itinerann. , he R hOne by e". ly J"I)'. A' "." di. _ It i. ' 9'J R< n mlln ur 29 5km . ru<..-.l earliotf Pol)'''' ''' 1i>'Cd in , he S,n bo, ,he ""'n' J'C''''npher. eo.l i- houl.e s..- i"", Amllhanu., the adopoc-d mates i, aI ' 94 Roman miles . A' ";gh' great , ....nd..... o( ,hi, 5<.~ pio . lie u4&n ,,, a mi le , hi. is . herefore rell ,ha, he had ,he u <><la, P<>Iyb" ..• approltima'" family line. 1111. Scirio.nJ Aeonil,""",' ligur" of , ,600 2IJo.. ~ rur a ...,unl grandfa, he•• Aeoniliu. Paull"" .......'ion of 9'J .,;,~ ""'Yo ,"" " 'ere an in[etlral J'forl or ,he d",..,er , hal ~.., t'Olld boo as m""h as another oven.><>I;. Ro. ne in ,he early )'C" ~ of . hi, 2OItm. The """, P'J"ibk ",,-,"ina pbc<: war , 8 .., ,he family t. aJilion, " 'OIlld ..""Id be Aramon. l>u, , hi, " 'OIld """'" _ "''I",p[ I'C'<'OIIIil'oiht y for ,hex mi. '" olfe. no advan' a,., over Ikauo.:aire. !aI<.. and ••:a pq....,. had 10 he found, Above ,hi. i, ,,viII""'" wh",h i. ,Rkm A' [he N Il Ie of , he T rehhi. and a[ funhcr ,twn lleaucai re. Thi> brings u, Ca n""" , .. wO , ha ll lICe, .he o[hcr ,othe ah. ..I,,' e Iimi, of Poll'bi".· fillur"". conoul wa. I>LamN ....[ the Rh one and II is j Ul! ove r ;rokm fr.. m Old Lund _ al T i" inu. histury had be r...·rin en. • re.wnable fou r day. ma«h. ·T he "" "I~"ding p,>!yhiu" I b nnil>ool did « .. ...,n fn. I lannil>al' . choice of crossing not hear of ScipiO" pre""ncc a' the poinl a' Avignon he . in , he movement mOUlh of.he RMne un'il afle r !>e had (or ra,her la"k nf m,>Vemcn') or Scipio. •w.,ed ,he ,i" er , I lere h. i. on"e ag. in Poiybiuo ,elis us , hal Scipio ,c' , ail in r<lll"w ing [he S"ipi" " ic fa",ill' 1Iadition carly , urn mer and II,", i, took him five wh ich tries ,,, "wer S"ipio', failure to dOl" l<l ",il rr<' m Pi,a'" 'he Rh6ne, stop Ha nn ib.1 al ,he HMne hy ,ugge" A"cordina ' 0 Varr". who 10" a ing ,hal h,' onlt' mi"ed Ihe Cartl'a· cun'cmporar y of Cae..' anJ who lOa> gini a" bt, a hair ' , h,nd!h . If Scipio f.miliar wilh l><>t h lhe newl}' introouced reached [he Rh6"" earlier , !!>cn HanJulian t'O k-ndar and ,he earlier Ro.....n nihal knew al><IOI u alld for [hi. reason on. , ,"mmer I><:, an on ,he 23'd day cros""d.!>c RM ne al>o." ·e in <~,nauen"" . : af,.... [he . un had en'"",d tl><: ,,<,. 'S[ella- ,,'i,h ,he Dora.... ., ' n place , ha, ",'cr nun uf T auru. and enJc-d 94 da,.. La' . r. he'''ttn him",lf and [he Romans. "rhi. " .... olfu....lly 9 M ay [0 " Augur.{ , . "".n 2l"""i ng rur lhe d."K.-i,~· o f doe 1. The h ,land r-cpublJcan caknJar , •....rll· sommer' can "" hen HannlNI'. Sumldi.n. fe ll in be pu<hc-d f"",'ard no bo'er ,lUIn !he end ",,1'0 5<.'1';0" ...".Iry H.nnibal m",' ....,,, belie>""" [hII, tbe lq:ionI "'. re close of J"ne , A_her problem .. puoN by ,be lxhind . hem and rur [hr. raoon he limine of Ihnn,I>aI ·. am,-"I ,,' . be .ba~d hi. rlan ... rol""" ,he rou ,e RhOne . Poly"'''' .. ~-. ,...., he reached or Hen:ule-o anJ ,"" ead .umed up!be sumrn.i. of the A I", 'doo<' on . he . .,.."m . ry [hr",,' off Scipio. ",,-[i ng of . he Pkiadn·. Th. is anothet s..-iP;O arrived a' hi. eamp ,h""" <Lo~-..­ aotronomical J.o,e and ........, &pi n "arro af,er he had k:f, II and a <Loy la.e. liv" III a Janna for i•. . Inert: are 57 Hannibal '. IC<'UlI augh, up " ,, 1'0 him day. be1" ... n 'M on.in, or .he Pkiadel and wid him .lUI[ Scipio had ' umed and [he ",n[e. The on.ing ha<k [ u [he coot<I. of[he l'Ieiadn mU<l. , herefore be ,,' , he Thi, f""r..hl' march brough, t he .nd of OcIobe-r , " nd Hannibal'. arri,'a1 Can!la&lnian. ' 0 a I"-"n, ,,'he!-.: [he n ,he .urnm" of lhe Alps arou nd , he RMne ,,'a. joined hy ."",her ri,'er midd le of ,hal II,"' h. By bad arackin!l wh",h Polybiu. call• •he Skar... 'Ilte one can pl..." Ilan nll>ool a' , he RhOne a"'a C ughl be["'""n , Itn<' [wo rivers . ",as ,,,lIod . he · 1. land·. It ,,·a. a popuClOMin, a"",nd ,he end of , u8m ' Polybiu. ai".. u,. he ;ml""" io,, ' ha' lou. di . Ir i<1 p"",t""ing an ahu nda""e Scipio arri ved ., ,he RhOne deha at of corn and deriVing its name fro m its appTO:<ima' ely 11'0••am . lim. as Han- ,itua[ion. It w•• •imil.r in , hape and nibal w"" c,,"',il1glhc river. [lowever, , i2. to the E!ln'l ian Della, [h. principa l ,here is a dcHdt "I' IW" mon,h, differenc" I><:ing Ihal it> has eline wa, 1Udt., """ di d he ".,e arm~' or R ........, S,....,. ,.,.,2 '0 '0<: '0 .0 '0 ool.",..,. '0 form.d 1'0) ' an 'aIm" .. ll1KCC'l>si bl. · range of ""'un,a,,... The ' loLand', l,ke ",'cry Dt he:-.- aspet~ or Hannibal'. ,, '. n e. hat co....... mass or ron'roveny. 1 '1u",k gla....,. at . he map .ho.. [hI"here i& one oo"ioos can,b da",_. he """" ""'''''''''' ,he RhOne and , he I....... ~C"'" he ..... ""wra! commen,a,on ha.." arguc-d lhat . be are-a lay ..... Wftn lhe hgun and lhe Rhiir>e. Th ei. main "'gumeT11 hin ~ on old namn (~ , he Eyguel. among ,,·htdt ia lhe name fobri. "h",h is "cry u milar Skat... Ru[ il m.... be pnin. c-d <>U[ ,haI . he I.a ll n name fur ,he l"Ore ..... I........ ..hlCh i, ju", as .imilar. Li,) · olfe.. "'" help in ,his maner for he ,,,lI. , he river 11'00 Aror, [he La[in name for ,1'00 S.....,.,. T hi, i. ' l'p"'al of Li,) ' ...ho h... exchanged a name , hal he one he J.x," nn. ; Prof"."" kno",< H. H, Sculla.d 0 d,"'.n 0 . more . xa",pl.. of [hi. in relation to Spain and ~M, h ,(rica 111 hi, hook Scipw Aj,.i"",u" S~lditr ~"d SI~l<Jm~~. One can . 1'0 di,te~anl Liv~"s list oj tribe, , hruul:h which II .nnib. 1 p",scd. Au e", pto havc I><:en made to lomte !hc", hy com parillll. hem ' u !hc arc.. ul' G . ul Juring , he R,,"'a" " mpire . Thi. i•• poillll... u erci.. a. t !>ere w., a ron,in",,,,. mi~ra!ion do"'n t!>e Roo"" 'Illq .. ~,,,:h tri be pu.heJ. he nex, une f"rth.r do,""n T he. e muS! ha,'c also been in.er- lfiN I ...... A. ,he .im~ of HanniNI .... ca n"", e"en be cen ain ,lUI, , he IId " e[ii had o",:u p;" d S..·itzerland ..,i, h [he " phno,'a1 , ha[ IOu", haee ,,·.H '0 1',,, It". a""" '0 "".. H annibal in••• 'w ned Ie a diopone in ,he ' ls1anJ·. This hi. led oome """"""",,[on w r"",,"1 [be area bn"... n ,he I ...... and t he RM ne .. duri nl!:' , he .m('li", ,his ...... , he hoIne or , be .-llobrt:>in. and Pol)'billl ""pressl~' Hannr l>otl later had ,rouble ,,';[ 1'0 [he .-llottrogn. Hu[ a. " " ....,·c """n, i. is Im!'<JN,bk "'). ..-here , hese tribesmen ....~." .. , he limo or HanniN L So i. be.:"me. a or dc><:ri p[ion, Pol,·bi" . ,,,, mpa,,,,, , he 'IsLand',' . ize ' 0 [h., of [he ~ l le De lta. " 'hich in hi. <by had an area of abou, I ~ ,ooo SQ km. Tho aroa I><:,w""n [he RhOne and . he Ist r. i. al>o.,ul 5,000'" km and [he ar." be',,-een [1'0 " RM no ond the Aigu"" km, Tho d.fenders is onl;- abuut of [he •...igu"' h lalld' ",gue unmn",n · cingll' !hal oin"e """c "f the e" n ' endc,.,; ".... ,ha, """,.ion 100'"
  • I T AL 't' AND T H E ~' ESTER l' MEDl TE RRA l'EA N ro.. II>< •....nd · :u~ .. btg a. t l>< S il< llelta II>< oizc an I>< illnorN. 11 " impossi ble '0 com"",n. on ,I>< P"f'tlla. ion-o"" con only poi nl 10,1>< a~. A, fo.- th ~ abundantt of cum, w hil~ il must I>e admllt ~ d lh:.>t lhe Aill"e. a,..,. is mo"e fe rt ile, Ih~ lse..~ arc a, t><."ause of its .i,~ . p",d u e~s a far gr.'Mer yiel d and in Roman limes it suprort ed t he pow erful and nume",oS A Uob~. T I>< lUI and """" imporlanl part of I' ol)'b,u, ' dcsaipl ion i. ,h~ ,..,f~,..,,,,,,, to an i, " nd. Polybiu. sal" il dc-ri"ed its """'" fro m i.. '''UlI1ion, T t... Is. ", it one ohl>< Ihftt """n . n hularics of I'" RhOne ; It... SaOnc ....., II>< l>uranee: Ixi", IhI: ...1tcr lwo. AU It... 0Ih<r1 are i"'illni!ica n' cotrIl"'",d 10 Ihtw, The Ai, tlcs i. a " .....m ...hich prll<"! icllly dries up in Ihe . ummer. 0 ... con .....lk:ocr<>5> i. anl::le <leeI'. A. for II>< ·. Imool inacces.ih le' ,anlle of moun,.i .... Ihey do nol eK i" in n:1. ,ion 10 ' he ,' igue' , It, def~nd e" lal k vaguely " r Ih~ Haronn ie, but do eK plai n how Ihey lill'olybiu,' de,eripli"n a, they are e""sed by a mu h i'ude of pOlh. and pre,ent no son of bart" r. Howe,,~ lhe lsere i,land is a vinua l fon loot of t he In_ . nllular area i••urrounded b)' It... l sen: or lhe R hOne . The l ap beo ..ft1I It... 1"'0 ri,~ i. blocked h)' II>< Chan........ ;b.. if and II>< . Ionl du OUt. In addilion i. .. p....ecIed by II>< La k ~ of Bout,n and if< ma.."'" ..-hlCh "'en today ocrveh 10 . h< bonk. of Ih< R.........,. ""t ] . Th~ paS5 Every 1"'' ' frum Ihe (;,,1 de La'ehe 10 I h~ S implo n in Switler lan d ha' bee n .dv,"'. ted , It would he I><' t h bori ng and fru itl e.. 10 exam ine aU lhe claim•. Relw" en Ihe yea.. I c;t. ~ and 1973 my wir. and I .,oo.cd and e"a mined aUl he t ~ d and pa.... ,,'hi.h ha,'~ been all II>< mmo.. fIll"OCII ..·hich h.,·~ been pUI f.......-..rd as. . t... .i,e of It... linu ambo.h. fi..l ...'~ m uot deal ..ilh I I>< heigh. of Ih< pau. PoIybtu> sa), 1"'1 tl>< """... of the Alp' ...-.:K '''''''''-em'CKd . 1I 1h< )"CI" rou nd. " ·... n hi: mne-s ' hit .. at~mcn. h< mool be incl uding .... 10..''''' ras-scs , u.h as t he . lonlg e"","Te and th~ L ittle S, Iktnat d a, these an: lhe only passe, in Ihe w ,," l ~'n Alp' that we knn '" We'~ in u," . 1 Ihi. time, Thi' w"uld accnrd well wit h I I II, l."m h·s ."gg.. ," 1"'1 I'" '00"" e><el ....... f'f')bahly.""", Ip:x>m 1o...,C1' . han il i' .oday. TherefOk HannIbal's pass. which .,ill ~ lbe ~-io... }"n r's.oow lyi ng on iI, d, .... 001 h'1"~ 10 be hllth. I' ,>lyhi". c1.im. Ih., I>< himself e'o>""d " h e paso' . II i' de« ription of Ih e .ol,