Greece and Rome at war - Peter Connolly


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Greece and Rome at war
Autor: Peter Connolly
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Historia Ilustrada

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Greece and Rome at war - Peter Connolly

  1. 1. PETER CONNOLLY G R EEC E E , AN ID RO #:~ . .. AlT A. • •
  2. 2. Con t en t s Greece a n d Macedonia Chapter 1 T he City States 800-360 BC 10 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 The States at War II The Phalanx 37 The Phalanx in the Field 44 Armour and Weapons 51 Chapter 2 M acedon 360- 140 BC 64 Part 1 T he M acedonian Wars 64 Part 2 The New Macedonian Army 68 Part 3 The L ater Macedonian Army 75 Italy a n d T he Wester n Med iter ranean Chapter 1 T he Rise of Rome 800-275 BC 86 Part 1 T he Struggle for Italy 87 Part 2 The Italian Military Systems 91 Chapter 2 Rome 275-140 B C 129 Part 1 T he Roman Army 160 BC 129 Part 2 T he Great Wars 143 The Ro man E m p ire Chapter 1 T h e Empire 140 BC-AD 200 210 Part 1 Part 2 Part 3 Part 4 Conq uest of the World 210 Army Organisation (D r Brian D obson) 213 Equipment 228 T h e Army in the Field 239 Chapter 2 The Later Empire AD 200-450 249 Pa rt 1 T he M obile Army (D r Roger T omlin) 249 Part 2 Equipment 259 Appendix 1 War at Sea 262 Appendix 2 Fortifications and Siege W arfare 274 Appendix 3 Roman Military Costume 304 Bibliography 314 Index 316
  3. 3. GREECE AN D MACEDO:--IA The City States 800-360 DC ) . .,.'. .. ) - ~ • , • } , rc ...,,, • -/ .' •
  4. 4. T H E C ITY STAT ES 800-360 Be T HE STATES AT WA R Int roductio D Soon aftfi 1200 Be the great Bronu_ Age crvilisauon which had f1ourishC'd in Greece for several ceerunes ...-ent into a rapid decline and tinally collapsed. Barbarou s uibn poured southwards obliterating the last re mnants of th e xt ycenaean culture, and a dark age descended on G reece. T his book is a surve y of t he militar y system. th at emerged from this dark age. An au empt is made to t race t h~ developm~ nt of militar y organisation, tact ics and ar mament in Greece and Italy from t he 8t h cent ur y Be, when ci"ili.ation once more began to eme rge in Gree« , unt il the onsct of the second dark age when t he Roman em pire in the West collapsed. Both Greece and Rome had to face the supreme tnl. With G reece it WI$ .....hCII the Penian.<t at the begtnning of the 5th e>:ntury , ...·hile Rome faced a similar cruci al situation whe n the gratest of the ancienl generals, Hannibal, invaded I taly 260 yea" later. Both t hese wan are examined in considereble detail to show how the t wo military syste ms rose to t he situaILon. .toll of Rome's or ganisation and equipmen t was borrowed from the nation. with whom she came into confl ict: the Etruscans, Samnites, Celts, Canna ginians and, of course, the Gree ks , T he contr ibutic ns c f each of the . e sta tes will be examined in tu rn . Alread r by t he late M ycenaea n period in the 13th and t 2th cent uries Be central European influences were bei ng fel t in t he Aegean world. T his continued in the succeeding centuries and. b>· the time that Homer 's epic poems of t he .i.ycenaean era, the l/iad and the Odyruy, w ere commiued 10 " Titing, pra.;ticall>· nothi ng of the ancient weaponry survived. For t his reason , unless there is adeat derivation from theearlier period, the Bronze Age ...i ll be ignored. O ur knowledge of the 8t h and l1 h centuries is very sparse b ut, by t he 6th, we have a conti nuous written history. T he hislory of the 6t h and 5t h cen· rune s is dom inated first by t he rise of Persia and later by the bl uer war betwee n Sparta and At hens. T he period is very well docume nted by IWO great wnrers-c- Hero dot us, who ",·as alive at the time of the Pen ian invasion of Gt'eece, and T bucydides, the greatest of the ancie nt historians, who "'as actually inv olved in ue .... r betwee n Spana and Athens, T o t hese one mu st add Xenophon, who " Tore alVUIld t he beginning of mc 4th century Be. Xenophon's writ ings arc not in the same class as Herod OllIS or Thucydid es but he was a soldier and served for man)· }'e an with the Spanan•. He is t hus an incom parable sou rce of infor m at ion about t he Spart an military system. The~ e literary sources ar e supple_ mented b y a mass of archaeological evidence. An er a battle it was custom ary for the victor to dedicate some armou r in a sanct uary such as Olympia. In time t hese shrines became .0 clutte re d wit h armou r that it became neceasar}' to t hro...' out the older pieces. At O lym pia some were dumped in t he 5treams and dis used " "ells. whib t other pio;es ~re used to reinforce t he banks of the stadium. In rece nt years some of this armour has been recovered during exca'·at KlIIS. The S tates a t War When t he M ycenaean states fell soon after t 200 IIC, hotdes of savage tribesmen, G reek speaking but from the mountaimlU' north · ....e.tern region , moved down into sout hern G reece. T he most formid abl e of t hese invaders were the Dori ans. M any of t he origina l inhabitants fled fro m G r eece and settle d along the west coast of Asia M inor (Turkey ) in Ihe area t hat became kno",'n as Ionia. T he invasions and subsequenl m igrations came 10 an end about 1000 BC. This followed by a period of settlement. Finally, order began to . The little states ,.'hich emerge<t consisted of SC'Veral ,·illages wit h their land under t he control of a heredita ry watlord . These gradually consolidated until, by t he 8th century. a political stru cture which to characterise G reece began tc emerge. T his was th e polis or city sta te where the government of an area sett led on a single town . G radu ally pow erfu l cities began to absor b the ir neighbours ; t he foremost of these were Spart a and Athens, In Athens, t he king was su bsequently oust ed and supplanted by t he nobility. I n time t hey. tOO, weIC th rown out and cont rol ta ken over by a demagogic dic tator, or tyrant. Final ly the tyrant was ove rt hrown and democracy established. This last Slep "" IS only aochieYC'd on the eve of the Persian wa rs. Athens gained control of the whole of AUica dur ing this period, and, b)' 500 Be. she was becoming the cuituraj cent re of the Hellenic world and the mOSI pcwertul Slate in central Greece. Spana, on th e orher hand , had a very differe nt development. T he Spartans were descended from the Do t ian in vaders who had conq uered Laconia. T hey had enslaved part of the native population and subjected th e rest. T he enslaved popu lation were called helots, T hey were tied to th e land aod com· pelted to work t he state-ow ned farms which pro,'ided Ihe Spartans with their livelihood. The subject peoples, ca.lled ~, were allo "'"ed a measure of independence but were compelled to provide soldi ers to fight on the Spartan s.ide. The Spanans were com manded in baule by 1;O·c herediw)' kings. By the end of t he 7th century Sparta had overcome " l essenia to the west I nd gained control c f t he whok: of the southern Pelcponnesu •. Over the next 100 years, either by coercion or persuasion, she managed to unite t he states of the Peloponnes us into a league known to t he ancients a. 't he Lacedaemonla ns and the ir all i e~ ', but called today simply the Peloponnesian League. In t he middl e of the 6th cent ury , th e tyra nt Pe isi~t rat us seized power at Athen. , which he, and larer his son trenrly for Hippias, governed im errru half a cent ury until deposed by the Spanan kin g Cleomenn ",-hen he invaded Attica in 511 Be. 10 t he ,,'ake of the tyran ts ci,ojl strife broke out as democrat and oligarch st ruggk:d for power. When t he oligarch Is>.goras "'as thrown out, he appealed to his personal friend Cleomenes for assista nce. Clcomenes, wit h a small bod y of rel ainers , agai n invaded Attica, and so great was t he aura of Span a tha I he took the city wit hout a blo w and gar risoned t he Acro rcn•. When the Athenians discovere d t he paltry size of Cleomenes' party, t hey besieged the Acropolis and Clecmenes, in the face of starvation, .... a. forced to sur render, Fear ing repri, t he Athenians felt ob liged to release the king and his retainers. Enr aged at his humiliat ion Cleome nn re lurned to Spana and mobilised t he entir e Peloponnesian League against Athens. Accompanied b y t he rr
  5. 5. G R EE C E A:-JD MACE DON IA other king Dema ratus, he led his arm~ to"'ards the borders of A ttica. In the non h T hel:>l:s and C hakis, Alhens ' ~'OlTlmcrcial ri"al, se ized the o p portunity to stri ke at Ihcir enem y and alw mobilised . hUI I:>I:fo"" the assault CQUld be launched d isse nsion broke out in t he Peloponnestan ranks , !o.1any of the allied Slates refuse<! to fig hl C leomenes' peTsonal wa rs fot him . Dcmaratlli> took their &ide and the army broke u p_ T he Athenians could ha rdly have bl:lie,'ed tneir good fo n une and had the presence of mind 10 ClI.pitalise o n th" situalio n. T hey marched notl h and in lhe same day defeated bot h t he Tbebans and t he C halc,di ans, redu cing the lat ter to the st alUs nf a colony . Th~ bl:s continued the ,,'ar and " 'as latn jo ine d by' anot her of Athens' cumm ~rcia l ri" al s. t he island of Acgma. [t was d uring this war that Athem emerged as a mili ta ry power . Her st ruggl" wit h Aegina forced her to bui ld a na",- which , in a few short ye ars , was to be come t he strungesr in Greece . T he ri se o f I' ",. ia Mean",hile, evems in Asia ",ere begin ning to have an elf~1 on Greece . AI the end of the 7th century lie the g reat em pi re of Ass yria ha d fallen and , by t he midd le of t he suc e«<! lIlg Cent tIr)·, a new giant had arisen " 'hieh was 10 absorb all the previo us empires. This ,,-as Persi:>.. I n ~-I6 the Lyd ian empire fell and t he G reat King Darius overran Asia M inor (furtey ). One by' One l he Gr=k cities along the eea" fell to t he Persi ans. Some. in deSf"' nll ion , t ook 10 the sea . lne P"""""ans, like l he kg"ndal} Aene a> . crossed the Aegean and t he Adriatic and fi na lly' settled al rhe colony of Alalia in ' Corsica . How,,'er Ihey were moved on by the ns in ~35 and ult imalely joined the colon y' of !o. iassilia (.br~ sc illes) on the southern coast of France In ~ tO, whe n all the islands along t he co.ast of A.ia . hoor were in Persian hands. Dariu s in'aded E urope . Pushing u p t he west coast of the Blac k Sea, he cro>;,cd t he Danu be and imade d Scythia, Next T hraee was o verru n and .-tacedo niu forced to submit. Only 'I'hessaly now , «x,d hel ween t he Greek states and Persia. In 500 the Greek slate, in Asia , I m" r, led by Mil" IU' , revolte d and looked for help from t he wes t . Athens and Eretr ia on the wes t CQ;lSt uf Huboe a se nt expe ditionary fo rces to Ionia which res ulted in t he saet inll end bur ning of Sardis, capi tal of t he Persian san ap~·. T he Persians rUl h l essl~' put down the "" '011 .•li lerlli> was overt hrown and its pnpu lark>ll ooId into d a,'ery, By -194 the revcn " -as over and the Pers,ans prepat'N for a pumnve o f"'dition against GINa . An embassy was se nt (0 G reece demanding eart h and water, the traditional symbols of suhm ission. All hough practically all t he Greek states refused , " .::gina. which ha d t rad ing links wnh t he eaSl , su bm itted . Aegi na lies in the Saronic gulf " nly te n kilometres olf the An ic coaSi and cont rols access to At he n. ' harbouMi. W ith t he Isla n d under Persia n contro l Al hens woul d be: strangled . Aegina was a mem hcr of the Pcloponne sian League and Athens appealed to he r old enemy C le" me nes , The Spartan king to"k up t he Atheni an cause hur nnce aKain he Ca rne int o co nfl ict with his co llealo:ue Dema rat us. The enmit y which had smouldered between the I WO ' ince the abortive at tempr to invad e All iea some t 7 years he f"re now bursl into flame , Cjeomenes laid charges of illegit imacy against his colleague and Dema ratus " 'as depmcd. T he fonner king fled GR'eCe and toot ..,fuge wil h the l' eMilans . Cleomenes, freed of his partner, forcibly ..,turned A'gina 10 its former loy'allies and pa tched u p an alliaOCe ,,-ith Athens agai m l the t hreatened lOva,ion . T he PeMiians om"iously in_ lended only a lim iled puniti"e o peration agalOst At hens and l':.-etria which had aid ed t he loman eevon. I n 490 the P ersia'" launched a seaborne anack . E etria was sacked and the r llcct moved dow n 10 t he ba~' of .' laratoon ..,ady for 1he sIri ke agains t Athens. The Al henians scm a ru nner 10 Sparta and marched QU I 10 meet the inva ders. W hat ha ppened at Uarathon isconfused and t he tru th will pro ba b ly ne'"er be known . The S partans delayed their march be cause they were ecl ebn ting a resli val and ar rived 100 late fo r t he batt leo T o t he ir ast onishment they di scovered lhal the At he nians bad decisive ly defeated Ihe Persia ns and dr iven t hem Out of Attica. The defeat at Maratho n serve d onl y 10 in itat e t he Persia ns. All knew fha t t he matl el WIS unsettled, but it was te n years hefore a """ontJ arternpr " as matJe" [n t he meamime Athens was a ble to build u p he r lleel u nt il it ",as eq uai lOr he combmed fleels of all tbe ot her Greek stales. X"hen it became obvious t ha t the in" sion was imm ine nt. a C)f1g"'ss was as5Cm bled at the i.thmus of U>rlnlh 10 try 10 'el tl e fhe imCTnal d ifrere ncn of the G reet Slates SO t ha t they oould present a united front. In l~ sprmg of 480 BC lhe Persian t ing Xe n:es, accompanied b)" D~ mar ­ alUt, the deposed king of Spar1a. crossed the He llespont. H it vase army advanced on (irec<.--e " il h t he fleet fo llowing along t he coast. The ann y fo rced its Ih",ug h T hrace and down into . Iacedo ni. , bui ldi ng u p the road a. u advan"f:d, Herodotu s says t hat th~ Th racia ns we re >0 o ve rawed that even in hi. o wn day they wo uld not dig or 80W the area th roug h which the army pa ssed , "'.j' The P cr sian a rmy T he ancient Greeks believed t hu! Xerxes' arm)' n umbered t hree m illion plus camp followers_ Herodotus gives t he total as fIve and a quarter million , bUI he is clearly a linle scept ical about how such an ar my could be fed, AI the end of the t92OS, General Si r Frederick .l aurice made a detailed stud )' of Xerxes' route fro m the Helksronl, examining in pa nicu lar the pro bk m of water su pply, and concluded that t he P enian arm y could not ha '"e numbered more lha n 2r O,ooo me n plus n ,ooo animal•. " ~ms probablethallhe rain fan allhi t lime ,,-as conside ra bl)' hig her l ha n today' ( <cc p . 157), t hn efore these figu res could be mcreased shghtly. Even so, t he fiKU re could hardly have been over 1 ~0,ooo. O f this number about three-qua rlen would ha'"e been com batants" The !'ersi an ar my was a polyglot affair d rawn from all qu aners of a ,'ast em pire . L ike the Romans, t he Pers ians de _ manded Iroops from Iheir su biect races. The VBS! majo rit y of t he Persian army were lig ht- armed skir mishers, eit her archers f" ,m ce ntral Asia or javeli neers fro m the easter n M edi ter ran ea n, T he I' e" ian. and M edea who formed the nucleus " f t he arm y' w"re I""se ca ps, mult k olou red. long-sleeved tunics (be neat h which was a scale shir t) and hreeches. T hey carried wicker shield. , proha !> l)" L "Overcd with hide, wh ich were
  6. 6. T H E C IT Y ST ATES &>0-360 lie TH E S T ATIS AT W AR som e w hat SIm ila r in a ppeara nce (0 the U." eOliafl . hid d., this was a ce ntralhand grip tv pc on It, wh ich was stitched a metal 00"•. Their weapons co nsrsred of a 'ho rt sp~3 r . bou t zm in le n gt h, a lu ng composite lin'" with hronz e- lippe d ITcd arruws and . dai/;ger w h ich hu n g on the rig ht . ide, The elite of t he !' eThlan anny werC rhc klll g '6 pe rsonal Ix>dygu a rd, the 10,000 Im mort als, '" called he~au,e thei r st rengt h w a, alw ays kept up to t hi, numhe r. T h" 'I cq uipm< differed frum 'nl orher I'er. ian, o nly in t he ri ~h ne" of it, a~~"utre menlS. The l'er. ian cavalry wa, armed in t he same fa ' hio n as the infant ry ex~ that s"me wore met al helm" " . l lemdm u, cla,ms thaI the Per, ian cavalry n umbe red &>,000, bul 8,<XXl rna)' be a mo re reason able es t imate . H erodo tus gIves t he size "f the Persia n flee t as t.,207 triremes, includ ing 300 I' hoe nician "es,d" 200 Egypt ian and 290 loma n Greek It ,eems pro ba bl.. t hat the his toria n i. he re rec",<l ing the pap<: r ' !lengt h of the Pe rs ian . le.1iterranean fleet and nm Ihe operational n umber , as it is dea r from the later engagement ' that the " ersian . d id nm have a ma"ive n umerical superiorit y The prillcipal ves",1 "f t he day was t he' tr ireme. Thi. was a galley propdled by about t 70 00" al three di fferent le"ek At t he fro nt of t h~ ship, at water level, wa' a hrnnze- pJated bea k whic h Was used to ho le and . ink enem y ship,. T hi, t n'" of ship, varyi ng o nly sup....ficially , wa, used by all t he M edit erraneun tleets of t he time, Aut hese galleys carried a com plemmt of ma rines WOO"" lob It was to t ry til hoard and capture t he enemy shi ps . G reek ships carried ten bo plite, and li,ur archers, wheIT a' t he Io nian ships each carrie d 30 10 ,*0 ma rines. T he. e m arines we re armed mainl y wit h spea rs, javelins and poleaxes . crosse d the Hellespont. Tllese force. ~-uul d ha"e Ileld tile na rrow passes 10 l he south and w~.., t uf . Iuunt Olympu, inde fin irely. Hut , for "o rne reaS<lIl-pcrha ps because the troop, d id like fig hting so far trom home-t his fo r .... ard io n was aoando n~"tl , I k rod" t u, .o ~gest. t ha I the army wit hd rew be cause t he Persian fifth ~~,] um n was alread y opcrarmg in the area and rhe "outhern G reeks felt they could nor trust t heir no nhern allie•. H erodutus also mentions the fear that Ihe Pers ian fleet m ight outfl ank them and land t roops fu nhe r dow n t he coast. In the unrest ricred area alo ng t h" ~oaSl the G reek fleet could not g uaranI"" to S1Up the Persians ct.)ing Ihis an d il was prol>ahly the main rea..m for the w,thdraw·aL T Il~..,sa l y was a ba ndo ned. Thi. had ",rinus rep<:reussiuns among th e alh" , . . any of the non he rn I" wn, be lieved t ha t Sp una only inte nded 10 make her real stand at t he is!h mu s of ("-"rinth, and in fa" 1 many uf t ile l' e1o pn nn" . ian, open l~' advocated thIS line. As a res ult m any of t he northern ro wn s decided to suomit. In "uk r 10 halt t his defect ion it Wa' tinally' d..cided to m "ke a 't and al Thermop d "e, a place wr.o. " name has become a bywo rd for heroism. ,I<" ,,' A The d efe n ce o f G r eece F a<:ed with inva.ion, Athens and S parta ~"a<'l sP'O!'rmon{arche< Tn,. proboblv _ , . an -lmmo<'oI' , """ 011fle 10.(l(X} ha d buried rh.... d ilfncn"es, Athens had e",. p"'",,,,1 bod~Iu.,d. of 'Il<> Per••an k,.... eve n go ne .0 far a. to pla"c h.... ent ire F,om s...... 511' "" nw", Be N""" In the Lo uvre military strength, ship. a. well as me n, Pa,,, und er S pan an command . It w'a. decide d Ul st<>p tile Persia n ar m y at t he Abova 1 2 3 Two a"owneadsar<l ••I,,,,,,""01 fl"'" T em pe Gorge, a nar row' defil e at the MOl.t hon B""s~ Mu","um h••"lrr;>m suuth end of , o unt O lympus , A furce ,... '1." stand ' hillock.t Th" nT>opyl"" Nal",,,,,1 of ro.coo hopfire s was despa tc hed and A!cn_ lOij,cal M u,,"um , Ar"""" S P."" .. in p"'it ion he fo re Ihe Persians Ilad eve n sh..-d boss from Sarno. ,, "'''ow ._ . Ea'tem ""I""'t po...,!;Jly PI'OM"".n, !oor>d a, Probobly I,,,,,, ,r.e boll.. 01 M.ralllon The <!ed ,caMn fNds ·To Z"". the Atllen,,,no rlIKliu,. thol.., 'iJO'l. tro<n t he Mede.' Ol~"'p .. Archaoolog ,c.t Mu,,",,m, Olympia '3
  7. 7. GR EECE A:-.: n .'I.1AC f: DO :--J I A At T hermopylae the mou ntains come in cl",e to the sea, leaving only tWO possible ro ute! south -one along t he CNS! and the (Mher a vcry di fficult route over the mountains . T oda y t here is a ma rshy plain berween t he hills and the sea, brou ght about by the silting of the ri,·cr Sperchrius ; in t he ~th ~n1Ur)· tIC t here was only a nalTow passage between the hills and the sea. Th ese hills, the Callidromus ra nge, streich in an easl-wnl direcnon down t he ecase and al t hrtt points ther co me very dose: to the sea . T he lint of t bese (t he west gate) is at the very beginning of the pass. Herodotus descr ibes t his as so narro"· lhat t here was only roo m for a single cartway. Here the hills are not very high and could easily be crossed. Beyond t he wnl gat e the pass wide ns. Here was situated the and ent vilb ge of Anthela T wo and a half kilometres beyond the west gate lay the village of The rmopylae, named after the hot springs which still rise there today. T he calcium car bonate in these ther mal spr ings gives t he land· scapc t he appear ance of cru sty grey rock. A great cl iff, know n as Zastano , to wers nearly r.ocorn above Thermopylae_ '4 Th is cliff is the ke~· to t he pass . A shon distance be}·ond the cliff a spur jUls out towards the sea (t his is t he m iddle pass). Along t his spur t he people of Phocis had const ructed a ..-all st re tc hing OU t into l he manM 10 stop the Malians in,.,.d_ ing Iheir CO!.Inlry. An }one ",~shing to bn'lss this poi nl ....oeld neve to neg0nate the Zan ano cliff_About t hree kilometres fan her along the pass is a t hIrd narm'" poi nt (Ihe east gate) wit h t he ancient ,-mage of .. lpe ni built on a spur jut ting out into the mars hes . Here t he hills are low and easy to CIo. s. As me nt ione d before, th ere anot her stee p and d ifficult route into cent ral Greece at the CS t end of Ihe range. T his rout e follo s the valle}" of the Asopu s, which passes t hrough a precip itous gorge. T oday the railway and road bot h follow th is route , th e for mer passing t hrough a tunnel on th e we, t . ide of t he gorge, whilst th e lalter climb. up th e hillside "n t he east of the ravine and then runs over t he hills above t he gorg e. T his route was guar ded by t he ancient citadel of Trac hi. built on top or t he stee p cliff. overlooking the ..-est side of the gor ge. "So commander " 'ou ld auempr to force a passage at Ihis point in thefaeeoCdetermined and wellorganised opposition_ .- shun d istance off the coast lies t he long island of Euboea, which st retehe, for 1 7 ~ km in a south-eas te rly di rection, leaving onl)· a narro.... channel bet....een {he isla nd and the mainland . Here, unlike t he original position a{ T empe , i{ "as posMblr for Ihe Grttk tlerI: 10 p~_ '·ent the Pen ian na'-y bypass ing the G rttk army on the mainland . This, lhen, t he area .,,-here the Grttks elected to halt t he Persian ad.-ancr _ An edvance guard ....a s imme di alely sent out to man the pass until tbe rest of t he army could be bro ught up. Cleomenes had met a violent end .e'"en years earlier and had bee n succeeded by his you nger brot her Leonid as. It .... as Ihis new Spart an king who marched nort h .... it h hi. h..,dyguard of 300, th e h'ppm , to hold t he pa•• a_l ow A model 01 Il"Ie p. .. 31 Trn.,rnopyl... o. ,t prob 30'" 3l>p"a'lld c 500 Be. Tho Po,...,.,. "",comped i~ I'" pla n on " '" 1011 T"'" 010<:"", w. ~ o :A) I nd Il"Ie ~; nock _ . _ 1"" _~ S Pl'''a~ . m_ lh, ,, I t $I.M : 6) ..
  8. 8. TH E CITY ST AT ES 800- 360 Be THE STATES AT WAR With the Spartans were 2,800 other Peloponnesians. The war memoria l seen by H erodotus at Thermopylae records 4,000 Peloponnesians -900 more t han he lim ; t his may include the hetou who accompanied every S partan army . As they advanced nort hward t hey were joined by 100 T hespians and 400 T hebans. T his army was finally swelled by 1,000 Phocians and t he compl ete armyofthe Locria ns. Each grou p served under its own Slraugos, or gener al. T he G t eek hoplite used a spear abour 2_5m long , giving him the advantage in reach ov er his Per sian opponent. He was heavily armed with a round shiel d so-coon in diameter , a cuirass, helmet and greaves (leg gu ards). He also carrie d a sword which he would only use if his spear broke, He fought in phalanx, or format ion, about eight ranks deep. This phalanx was probably organised in unit s of 100 (lac/wi) whi ch were subdivided into four sm aller un its, each of three files of eight plus a rear-rank officer. The officer comm and ing each file fought in the front ran k. This system may have varie d slightly from state to Slate, and the S pan ans seem 10 have confused t he issue by applyi ng the name of lochos to t he five major d ivisions of t heir army (see p. 41) The soldiers who joined Leonidas at T hermopylae wer e told that the;: were on ly t he advance guard for the rest of t he army. When they reached the pass they established a supp ly base in the village of Alpen; at the east gate and took u p their position at the m id dle gate T hey then set about repair ing the wall which t he Phocians had built. T his wall was exca vated ju st before Ihe Second World Wat; remains were discovered on ly on the top of t he ridge. Th e wall started with a tower and t hen zigzagged do wn t he hill , It m ust have com inued across t he level ground and probably fini shed with another tower in the ma rshe s, There is a narrow gateway next to t he tower on t he r idge, and H erodot us claim s there wer e severa l more. T he 1,000 Phocians wer e placed on top of t he mountain to counter any Persian attempt to tu m t he Spa rtan position by forcing t heir wa;: up t he Asop us valley. The combi ned G r eek fleet, consist ing of 21t tri remes, took up position at Atte misium at t he no rth end of Euboea. Of t hese 127 were from Athens. This was not t he tota l m USter -ctarer, a further 80 shi ps were sent to Artemisium , of which 53 were Athe nian. T hey had been held back i n case the Persian fleet trie d to sail round Euboea , Thi~ num ber was swelled by volunt eers fro m Greek cities in Italy and desert ions from Greek i~ land~ held by t he Persians to br ing the tota l u p t o 368 , of which almost half were Athenian. The Gre ek fleet, like the army, wa~ under t he overall comma nd of a Sp art an, Eurybiad as, whilst each of the squadrons from t he variou~ cities was under the com mand of its own adm iral. The At henian fleet was co mm and ed by t he wily T'hemistocles, who had played suc h an important part ill building up t he Athenian nav y. The Gteek fleet, as it could t ravel fast er , may have taken up its position at Below The p ••" oj Th e r m o ~ y l . e seen from {he 'Ia.t 'le nd' hillo c'. The cl,fls of Za'ta no, towering ne,rly 1.000m o" er Tlw mopylae, rise on the left. The aoe;ool coastli ne wou ld ~ a y e be-e n just {o thO r;ghl ol lhe mod ern (oad "
  9. 9. GREECE A:-: D MAC ED O~Lo • J ' AO' ' ,V1" MTl"' S ' O ~ "'Jill'"" .....1I...~ GUlF ' ,~"" L <; _ BO EOTIA '_ •• • A i " ,,'M • - '",'''''~' • • ." - • • . rR,,, • • • ~ ., / .I
  10. 10. T ilE C I T Y S TATES 800- 360 80:; T HE S TATES AT WA H lmemisium shun h' before t he land force reached Thermopylae . The site of the lemple of Anemi. , from " 'hich Artemnrum go!: in name, has 00'" been established with rea 'C<1llbk certainty. hs posil io n is IlUu1'ed by the ehapel of .~ Gcorgios o n the hiD. beI",een and Kur bat " . T he Greek a, can i1w:rdo~ be identifie d as me broad, o pe n beach II PC"'ki Bay, ",'hi<.:h is io.kall > suited foc the pllrJlOSe. · I);'esl of Pe"ki lhe beadlo str etch oul in an almost un broke n line along t he non h coast of E uboca , and t he Greek shi!>S "u,J1d have had am ple space to beach in a single line . Lookoul posn we re ""lab-lished o n Ille lIill•. O ne of these mu.t certainly ha"e been placed abo" e Cape ....rtemision , len kilometres cast of Pe"1<i Bay. Anoi ller wa, posted on Ihe island of Skiathos , which he s four kilometre' off [he headland ,)1' Mag ne.ia, A. t he I'e r_ si.n flcet sa iled south it wo uld have to pa" betwee n Skiarhos and the m ainl and in order til enter the Eu boean channel. X'hen the Pe..ian. were sighted, t he lookout s on Skialho. would signal with ~a~ ...n. and the observancn post above Cape An emi.ion woutd relay the message to t he flcet at Pe,'ki. Three .hi!>S were also 1X"led al Skialhos to keep "" atch in case conditions were uesuirable for sigmlli ng, Two Iighl galley., o ne stalioned at P~'ki and the O1hct at 1'hcrmopylae, were used to maintai n commumcanoas between t he land and 1ft forces. Ha,;ng cstablished the'r position. t he t.ired<. ""tl ed down 10 a"'ait t he ani","! of the Persians. XerJl e. adva n ces into Greece Xerxes, ~an ",,'hile. was at Therm.. (modern Saloniki) with both t he fled and the army . When he advanoc:d imo The.saly the twOarm. of hi. force would be ..,paIlted ..nd would o nly be able 10 rejoi n at the E u boean channel. At Therm a t he tinal plan. for the mv asion of the pemnsula would ha"e been wor ked out. A. t he army moved mm e slo", ly, it <ct OUI I I days before t he fleet. T he tW Ofo rces probably agre ed to meet ~" Map 01 ""ntral G'ftCO ' how, ng ,hot ' hoo" e 01 ""Of. The "",n fo ul n a re Cfqm Ancien' pia"" names a"" displ aYed on lla'oo COIl"'" T"'s d ,<!,tlCloon .. ma de 'hr~ho<J' ,~- '''''wn '" in the .1&lian gulf o n the loort eent h da y, after Ihe arm y had secured ancoorago there fu r t he fleel. Xerxes al read~' knew lhal the pesses into Thessal)" we~ no! occupied and he entered lhe plain ....-n hour o pposit ion. A, he ad ''aOCCd sout h his S<.'OUts informed him IMl lhe Span ans ...-ere holding the pa ss al Thcrmop)"lac . Herodotus reOON' l he " " ,If )' lhallhe Great K ing .ent OUI a horseman to reco nnoi t re lhe Gred< posillon. T hil SCOul adv'anoc:d to a posit ion from ",'hich he could sec l he ....'all across Ihe m idd le gale but ....'15 una ble to see into the Greek camp. It .... as the Spanan da)' for dUly. The La<.-edaemonians ha d piled l heir arm. outside: the wall and we re eithe r stripped olf eXelciSlOg o r combing their long hair. When Xerxes heard this he called D em aut u< to a. k him wha t it meant. T he exiled king exp lained t ha t it was the Spa rt an custo m to comll thei r ha ir be fore pun inll their lives at risk, T his .tor)' is probably a pocr yphal, bUl it illust rates the a 'w in which Ihe Spar tan s were held by t herr fello w Greeks. Xerxes reac hed Ihe plain of Lami a 14 days after Ieavmg Thcnna. He had cove red the 2llo km al lhe rate of 2Okm. day . The a rmy camped in fr om of Tl1Ichis and ,, '.i ted for the fleet to join them. Tbe Persian na" l had sem out len fast galln 'S to ~noilre the COUI. These ed vanced as far as Skiathos u nnoIiced and puun«d on t he llu-ee Greek galk)'S posted the-re 10 keep .... alch , t'hen lhe lookouts o n t he island signalled to rhe IIttt at Pevki, Herodotus claims rhat t he G reeks panicked and ..... ithd re w down the cha nnel 10 Cha.lcis, lea'lOg the Spanan /lank uncovered. Before re jC<; ing this o ur of hand, it mUst be remembered IMI lir e signalling at this time coul d only conve y a single message (see p . 275) and the Grttks m a)" have thought the d readed Persians were upon them , T he main Pe rsian fleet sailed Ircm T herma on the r.... elfl h day afte r the arm y had left. It rca ched rhe area of Keram idhi ju", nort h of Ca p" l'on and st" p ped for t he nig ht. l lere the be ac hes are ver y sp arse an d only the first arrivals could be pu lled cle ar of the .....ate r, Ihe res t ha' ing to r ide al ancho r eijl:hl de ep. It was a clear. calm night but at dawn a storm got up and many of the ships were d u lled on the rock)' T he sto r m lasted for three da)'S, but o n the fo urt h tlK: fleet ....... ..ble I" SCI OUI ap,in , round l he promonh>ry of . 1:ag nes ia and bea<: h at Aphe l"". On t he second da r of Ihe S10nn the watchen on the he igh.. of Euboca had informed the Greek flttl of t he shipwreck of rhe Persian lleel . Encouraged by this ne.n t he Greek shi ps returned 10 l hei r original Slation al Anemisium, Thi. ra-~Sl1gC' has been called into question b)' hiSlorians, and wit h some just ificalion. It is possibl~ tha t the look_ "Uti o n Skial hos, if they were still there aflcr the capture of the t hree ships, m,ght have seen a .....reck o r t ....'o. How_ evcr , even o n the c1earesl of days il would have been impossible to sec a wrecked galley frum a di S1an~e of aboUI ten kilomet re. , let alone in a storm . T he)' ~"u l d Iherefo re ha"e had no idea of the extent of t ile dam age. T his pan of rhe story rs pro ba bly an attempt ttl ace..sunt for I he G r eek fleet be ing back at Arte mi.ium whe n t he Persians reached Aphetae. 'I'he retreat 10 Chak is is probably a complete fiction. Herodotus has also prullably naggerated Ihe effeCl of the st"nn , Ihe P ersian fleet ",IS probabl>' ne " er as hig as he claimed. He kne..... l ru. t l he fleet at A phetse did not grea tl y outnumber the Greeks, so he has u ied 10 reduce il to a more real istic size by wreding a large pan of it in the storm. He cal mly ....TCI."k. anulher zoo galle>'s only a rouple of da~', later . COISt. The ba ilie for Thermo p ylae It was well int" August when Xerxc-s reacbed the plain of Lamia, He hope d lhat when his ann)' assemhled . its sheer size would cause the Greeks in the pass to Iosc hean and dcs,," their polIS . The Great K ing waited for fou r da ys, probabl y anucipanng the arrival of the lIeel . W he n Ihe)' did not show up, and rhe G r«l:s remained obSlinatel)' loo!!ed in t he pass, he ral her flamboyantly orde red for....ard his Medes and Cjssians (who wele , im ilarly ar med . but the lat ter wo re turbans) , wil h o rde .. to 'brinll: t hem hack alive', The M cdes launched a ,eric, of cha rges whic h failed to make any im_ pr~sion on Ihe G reek s. W hen Xerxes law lhal t ile Greeks were holding firm. he .ounded the recall and scm forward hi, pe rsonal bod yguard, t he Imm ort als, led hy their com ma nder H ydarne• . Ten "
  11. 11. GREECE ....!';I) .iACEDO~IA thou sa nd " ra"k troops " f the g reate$t ar m y that the ,,'mid had ever seen mUl'hed out w do the ir kin !!'. hiddinl!' ' ) '0 tho'" wlm wat"hed from the Pcrs ian l-amp a, they moved fo r"o ard, il m us t Ita"e seemed imp"", iblc that they could fail. ...., tM I mmonals ad"aill-cd. the Sparta rrs p",,,,,d th rough 1M "-all 10 m«1 t hem , For all Ihe aura that sUJ'To u nJcd t he Immort al••.tbeycould achieve not Itin.o: agamSlthe heavily armed Spa rl aos, III t he wntincd ' pace of t he !Xl"' t heir numbe r. were of no ad'amage and. hoeeause thei r spears were .llOrler t itan tho<.c of tltc Greeks. Ihey " 'CTe unablc to enllage t hem at dose quarters. Herod olU~ he re rec ords t he f....oun le Spanan Irick of preten<ling to run aWa}'and IMn lUm mg and catching t he pUT'lumg cnemy unawa r"", but it seem, most unltkclv that this manoeuvre could have lx-en carried out in t he'c ,"nd ition' and in ,uc h a cram pe d space. Also, as the {,reeks ,, 'crc lighting a dd en.i,·c acuon. it was ",..,mial t hai rite}' kepi: l he it format ion ; any breaktng of rank. ....ould ha "e presemcd the Pen;an. with thei r dun"e. On Ih... follOWing day Ih... I' e...ian. at ta" ked , Each Gr""k l'<.lm ingem fought t hem in tum Alt hough a few Grech had been killc<l , at the en..! oft he day the I'e"ian, were no nearer their object ive, The [>er. i a n fleet arrivlC'll The Pe...ian flttt arrived at Aphctac 16 Ja~'s afrer t he army had left Therma, T he . ite ,,' her~ rhe !leel beached is uncertain: Herod otus saysl hal it wa,ab<xl[ 80 Slad~$ ( I ~ km;' from Artemi,ium and had a good supply of water , About ~o stllde' must he interpreted as between 70 and 90 ' tad," ( t 3-17km ). T hi, lim its the .ite 10 Oliw n or Plalama flay . W'. K . Prrrchen, who ha s .pent man y years I..mping over Greek haulefiel d" con", nei ngl}' argun in fa"(lIl r of the PIatania ' ite hoecarn;e of its large r water supply , !'latania Ba~' eun, of a ""rin of 'ma ll heach~-s se parated b~' rocky I'romontnrie'. The large, t of the'c beaches i' nnlv ahoU! 450 m lo ng. T hi, beach, whic h is just we.t of Plalani.., has a , pri ng. I' lat a"ia it self has a small Uream , Siroc~ it ,,'a, cs.~m ial fo r the P ersiaes to beach tMir galle)'. if lhe y ...-ere OOtlO lose any more 10t he weather, they wou1<l ha ,-e needed a considera ble ra space In ac""m m",date the ",h"l~ !leer. xone " f the be aches at ['Iat ania i, deep cn" ullh for mnre than nne line uf ,hi p. , If the Ik el we re onlj' 450 strong. al1"w_ ing a m1llimum of j m pe r . hi p the line wo uld st retch fo r mull: tha n rhree kilo- met res. Platania Bay it self could onl~' hol d aoout Ko galleys. and lite boay totbe ...-es t about 6 ~ , Thrs mean_ t haI the res t of l he !l""t mu. t have been beached . probably squmlron hy "-lu" dn1l1, along the t iny tx'achcs tn the w" , t "I' P latania st retching down as far as Oliw n Hay six kilomerre. west of Plalania , These bc ac hes arc very narrow and il would nnlj' have been pl"sible ro pull rhe stem of l he .hlp ck ;lr of lite water , The be aches . lope <luit e ste.:ply at lhe ...- ater ·, ed~. which wo uld mean that the prows of l he gall eys 'Hlu ld ha"e bee n eomplCl ely allu," t, Thi, wa, prohahly "o rmal pract ice whcn hattie wa< im mi nent, allo wing the ship, ro he launched easily and quicl<h' , T he supplv ships were probabl~' moored JUS t o lfshore. T he Greeb o n t he wuth side of t he cha nnel ha d one g rea t ad" antage over t hei r ad,·~rs.aries o n the nort h. 1'01 most of the day the ha ze makes ir imp""sible to see acros s the c ha nnel f",m t he north. " 'herea, one gets a perfect view frnm the s",uh side . So the ( ir ecks cou ld observe the Pe" ian m,)'ement , w[{hnut being se en t hem!'c1,·cs. and t he y USl"d t his to great elfcct. The p""ian' feared that , if Ihey attal'ked , the (;reeks would withdraw inl<1 the narrOW S "f t he Eub<>can ch annel "' file l ok m to the ea" lI ere, "'here the narrow!' arc o nlv t hree kilom erres " 'ide, t he}' could either stand and tig hl o r '<lip a...--a.}-. T he Greeks had chosen t hei r pl><illon well. fo r this escape rout" ...... alway.ope nto l he m , T he Persian. m uld har<l ly sail dow n the channel before the)' haJ destroy ed t he Greek fo rce. a. the ( ,reeb could then anac'l< the rea r half of the fleet when t h,' front half was alread~' in the channel. T he Pe.. tans t herefore decided to rry to rum Ihe G reek positton by' "C nd mg a force around Eu boca to occupy l he"hanncl, On Ihe afternoon of their arrival they dl-spatehc.:l 200 ~hi J"$ to cru,'lC o lf the island of Skiat hos . appa r~ndy guardinl! lhe , ha rmel for t he stragglers whl>were st ill co m ing in. (T he figure or 200 shou ld he treated with eaut inn.) The,e Ihen sailed round hehind t he an d . keeping sufficient ly far o ut to se a to rem ain out of sighl of the watch",,'t above Cape Ancmi. ion. 'lei off down Ihe cast e03M of Euboea. T he Greek Ioo!<ou r posl on Sk,arhos had "'0 . ""ow 1.101> ng ' '''' ' oill"v" posw"n, ollhe ""'" for"",, du"nQ 'he ba!lle tor thermODvl.. VO A L ;das 6 X eo,, erxe" C Gree , fleet 0 Pe",an t"' l The Spa' ta n "."" aJ n"""""'PIIH has beCome • b......"., fo< _(>Ism
  12. 12. THE CITY STATES 800-360 Be THE STATES A T WAR ob'iously been a bandoned as the G reeks only learned whar hud ha ppe ned fro m a deserter Th is post had ['robably bcen withdraw n after the t hree warch ships at rhe i, land had bee n captured. T be de serte r who informed the Greeks was a man calle d Seyll ias. rhe greatest diver of his day. II e had escaped by swimmingl he Euboca nch anncl. T he Greeks imme diardy ,em a fast sh ip dow" t hro ug h t he Euripus to in[ot m the 53 Athenian ship s which had been hdd back in anticipation of the Persi an move. F ifteen Per>lan ships had be en delayed at their anchorage farther up the ,0051 and did nol set out {() j", n rhe mai n fleet at ipherae unt il lon g afrer t he other ships had left. T hese late comers did not reach thc channel betw een Skiathos and the mainland unril late 111 the afte rnoon , W lhe ir view we,t wa, blind ed by t he hetl glare of t he sett ing sun . T hey failed to ,ee tht ir com pani on s in the shadows at Platania Bay bU I did ,ee the G reek 'e"eb shining in lhe evemn g sun 10 t he south- west. .' li <taking t he m for t he v Persian navy , the y held their ,'ourse and sailed stt aig ht in to t he arms of t he Greeb, T hi, i, ll1leres t ing as it lim its the exten t of the Pcr,ian anchorage to rhe e",1. If Ihere had Ix'en any , hip, e"t of Pla tan ia they were bou nd to h e seen, wherea< t he anchora ge at I'lat ania wa< shielded by a promontory at t he eas t en d, Unfo nun" td y, Hcrodotu,' para llel diar ies for t he fleel an d army hreak down al lhi, point and he appears to lo <e two days. -t he tleet arrived at Aphctac on the six teenth day after the army set out fwm T her ma . The Cvents ofth is and the succeedi ng t hree day, 'eem 10 have heen condenscd into two days. A. H.. Bum in his book Pa,<i" ""d Ihe (heeks h,,, made' a detailed ex"mination " f th~se event, and suggeste d a recom truetion which has generally heen follo wed he re The next day (the seventeenth) the Pen; ians, who wCle waiting for t hclI detal hmenl lO round Eu hoea , made no attempt to attack t he Greek fleet. I .ale in the afternoon t he (;reeks lau nched t heir ships and rowed ou t into t he channel, planning o n a limite d engagement to te,t the enemy's meltIe and ge t ,orne experience of Iheir tac tics 'X'hen t he Pc"ians Sa'" t he Greek fleet approa ching, they put to sea. The Greeks had probahly been rowing in a diamond form ation. The enem y ships, purting o ut from rhcit '·"rious anc horages, tried lom<' Iheir superior num ber s and greater manoeuvrability lO surround t hem. A< Ihe enemy ,hips approac hed, t he G reek ships, acting on a signal from Eurvbiadas' f1ag,h ip , turne d t heir prows outwards, at the ,ame t ime drawing t beir sterns together to form a cird e. T he n, on a seco nd signal, t hey cha rged the light er Persian ships head on. The Persians, who ha d expect ed an easy viclOry, had walked st raight into t he trap. Having mo vcd right indo,e on t he Greek ships, th~y were now una ble to manoeuvre and use t bei r supe rior seamanshi p; they were forced to lig ht o n t he G reek lerms. X'hen, shonly afterwa rds, darkness began 10 descend t he ban le was btoken off, T he G reeks mwed back 10 Anem isium elat ed wit h t heir su ects, - they had capture d 30 Below The ,lte ot the Per> on a"c ~U!ag" "' PI..""" Bay at Ihe Southern lip of t he Magne,i an p ,o m o ~ t "'y . About 30 qal reys we re Moc hed here. The ,emai~de r w ere , tru ~Q o u1 a 'o~g smalle r bys to the west as far as O llzu ~ 8,y '9
  13. 13. GR EECE AND M AC EDON IA enem y vessels and damaged or sunk several mo r e, Herodo{u~ does not state the Greek losses hu t se veral of their ,hips must have be en sunk . T hat night a violent s<m'we'ler sprang up accom pa nied by to rrent ial rain . T he wind blew t he wrecka>:e from t he battle into the Pers ian ancho rages and it hecarne entangled in the ,hip" whic h were only half beache d , Alt ho ugh t he fleet at Aphetae suffere d con'iderahly , t he ir troub les wer e as nothin>: compared with the plight of th eir companio n, tr ying to round t he southern end of Euhoea . They ....·ere caught by Ihe fu ll fo rce of the storm and das hed on 10 the rock y Coa~t at the SOUl h end of the island. Herodotus , tates that t he follow ing morning the 53 At henian sh ips which had be en left to watch the southern end ofEu hoea saile d into Anemisium hring_ ing the news of the total destruction of t he PelSian detachment . T h is is impossible and clearly a day has Ix..,n loS!. I n all likel ihood no t hing happened on t his day' as both sides re paired their sto rm damage. It w(mld be t he following morning, t he ni net eenth, that the Alhenian sh ips arrived bringing tbe new~ of t he shipw reck . L ate that afternoon t he reinforced Grttk lIeet o nce more rowed OUI into the channeL Thi, time , probably because of t he haze, t hey managed to cross the channel unobserved and swooped upon t he C ilician galley's which were st ill at thei r moori ngs, destro yed some of the ,hip" and then with drew into t he dusk It i, poss ible that t he Cilician squadro n was moore d in Olizon Rayand that the Greek Beet was able to sail unohserved past Cape Griba , roun d the we' tern head lan d and into t he hav to attack the Cilician squad ron before it co uld be manned , T his is feasible as they would have been approaching out of the setting ,un. The en d of T hc rm op r la c M ea nwhi le, at Thcrmopyla c the second day's figh ting had com e to an end. D ay afler day Leon idas had sellt messengers ,oulh ple ading fo r reinforceme nt s but it was no w clear t ha t none were coming. The Spa rtans were o n their o wn and their code of honour express ly forbadj; t hem to de, ert t heir posts. Xerxes and his advi'e rs had pro ba bly bee n aware si nc soon after their arrival t hat the re e was a route ove r the mountai n whIch could be used to o utflank the Spartans in Ihe pass. T he Call id rom us mountain is laced wit h paths va ryin g from st eep and narrow goat tracks to fairly wide paths. T he tro u ble wa , that the mountain was de m el y fores ted and it wou ld he impossible to find o ne's way across without a guide. T oday, whe n a g reat d cal of deforestation has taken place, it is st ill easy to lose one's way u p thcre, even in daylight . At last the Persians found a local pe~sant nam ed Ephialtes who informed them that t here was indeed a ro ut e know n as t he Anopa ea path, and that fo r a price he wou ld lead them across. ThaI night, as soon a, it was dark , H yda rnes led the Im mort als o ut of camp and, wit h Ephialtes showing t he way, hegan t he ascent oftbe mountain. Be low T h~ v,ew a clOSS the Euooe an ch a on", hom lhe Athe n '8n DoM ion at Pevk; B8y. The Pe";80 ancho'age to the fight of cent,e DO the oppoS ite 'ide of the , ,,ait i' as deafly v i s i bl~ as it to Ihe Gree k, w "
  14. 14. TH E CIT Y STATES 800-360 lie T HE STATES AT WAR All night long t he Pers ians toi led up the winding pat h until, at last, as t he sky began to grey m the east , the grou nd levelled off and t hey entered a smal! plain . T hey were plodd ing along beneath oak trees. Last year's leave, lay thick "n the ground and ru stled he ne ath the ir feet. Ahead of thcm there was a movemem and vokes hroke the sile nce , then they saw Greek hopl ite s ha,t ily donning t hcir armour . lI ydarnes asked who these men were, ad ding in consternation, ' Are they S partans? ' T hese were in fact t he t ,000 P bocia'" whom l.c'Onida , had detailed t o cover t he m"untain path , H av mg est ablished their identity, Hydame, arrayed his men for batt le and showered the Ph""ians with arrows. T he Phocians, f"rgett ing their m is_ sion, be came convinced th at they were the Immo na ls' prime larget, wilhdrew to Ihe top of the hill and t here prepared !() ' ell their lives dearly. W il h t he mute d ear the Persians ig nored Ihe l' hocians on the hill and pushe d on over the moumam. The ro Ul e taken by t he ImmonaJs ha' provoked a great deal of debate . In rec ent yea r, P ritchett has made a ve ry de ta iled ' lUd y of t he , it e and has suggest ed a route wh ich se ems to satisfy most of the criteria. He rodotus claim' thal H yda rnes look with him t he men he comm anded, i ,e. Ihe 10 ,000 I mmo r tals. There seems no reason to dou ht t his. If the route were a narrow goat t rack wh ere the men co uld o nly m arc h in single fi le, t hen the co lumn would ha ve str etched ou t for ten kilo metres or m ore. T his i, unacceptable , and Pritchett conclud es thai one m ust be looking fo r a broad path wh ere the so ld ier' could march three o r fo ur ah reaSL There is one po int in Herodotus ' topography which is easy to identify : ' It begi", at the river Asopus wh ich flows th rough the tavine.' T he site of t he Asopus gorge can hard ly he in q ues tion . l ie continu es t hat the Persians crossed the Asopm before start ing the asce nt. Thi, m ndu sively pla~es t hem On t he eas t side of the go rge. T here is a very easy rout e u p the hill,ide axmt o ne kilo metre east of t he Asopu s gorge , T his is both the short est and the easiest route u p t he mountain sid e fro m t he Lamian plai n , l t lead, by wa y " f t he Chalkomata spring to the village of Elcut he rochori, where the re are t he rema in' of an ancient fo rt covering t he begin ning of t he route. Thi~ proves th at t he path was in use in anc ient ll mes. Herodotus de scribe' Ihe Pen ' an, as m arching all night with the m"untain , of the Ocracans on Ihe r ight and those of t he Traehinian, on thcir left. O n me face of it t his i, im possible 10 reco nn le with any oft he suggested ro Uies over t he mou ntains, pa rticularly if t he Pe"ians crossed the Asopus before they started the a,cent , fm Trae his and ,'-Iount Oeta are hoth wes t of t he Asopu, gorge. However, since T her mopy lae itself was in t he terr ito ry of Tr actus and J Iount Octa mus l surcly be included amongst t he mo untains of the Oetaeans, one mu st conclu de t hat the mountains of Trac his include d t he northern pa rt ofthe Call id romus range . T his is admitted ly d um ,y hut there ""em , to be no ot her explanat ion, especially as Herodo tus say s t he P ers ians march ed 'all nig ht ' hetwee n these mount ain s. [f this is t he r ightcxplana lion , l hen the march woul d be in a southerl y d irecti on along the west , ide of !1ount Callidromu" Herodotus also de' cr ihe' t he ro ute as pa" ing along the ha ckxme of t he m{)un~ lain . Thi, is an accurat e de script io n of t he ro ute from E lcuthcrochori across the Ncvrcpohs pla in to t he pass between t he Liathitsa and C allid rom us pcab. Thi , ro ute follows the plateau iu' t hel" w the ridge of the moun tain on the south side .The Ph"cians,a ccord ingto H erodm us, were statio ned in a posit ion from which t hey could defend t he route over the m (mnta ins and the route 10 thei r own count r y. Thi, can he no ot hn place than the Ken opolis plain , w hich lies about Iwo kilometres from t he su mm it of the pass , Here the re is a sm all lake which today drie' out in the summer h ul may not have in ancient t ime' There i, also a spring wh ich would give an ample su ppl y of dr inking wate r for the 1 ,000 hopliles. The pat h from P hoeis joinslhe Anopaea route at t his point; if t he P hocians had taken up their positio'" any neare r t he pa" , they would have Le ft The plain of Nevropolis juS! 0 ~e ' ouln of ,he l i.t hitsa· C" II ,dromus pat• . Its P'Us i' ion .tthe iunction of the "'ute to the pass oM the route 10 Ph"" i, ma 'e 11 1he most l,ke1v " Ie for th e Phocian po. it>on
  15. 15. {~ RE ECE AND M AC EI) O NI A
  16. 16. Till , CI TY STXI ES S OO - , ~Q ~<: 'rm: SLTES AT w .. W; been ~U' "rt I,,,,,, II,.. ruul" ro P h,>.; ". I'un henn",." ~n~' r"ul,' o,cr lh., L ia,hlt>;l-C"lhd , n", u, r a" w"uld h~"e I" g" Ihl> "~, . Ik'i h Jlu ,n ~ndl'rildl"lr arc agreed lh~1 Ih,' 1'1.. ",i"n< up Ih,.." '00 ur .I".. ' ",,,"n " 'n "n . ' Jlm I j~ t hi l >~ '" the ",,"h "I rill' r"lh. ~nJ Ihi, """IJ "en,"nl" lil 11.-"..I" IU' · d.......·rif'l ",,,. T h" I'.,'-" Ian, ", lJ hm'" r...""h" d Ill. lop of ,lie r>a" ..1:'< 1 I hr,·...·<jlLln " r' " I an hour Lu,·, -alo.,u' h~lf 1''''' ,j in h"'" ,h., """nlng L," 'niJ.h ' CW1".,J ,h., """, lha' ,h., Imm on al, ' ,·r..., ,";( the m"" m alll> li...a [r"m ,k-erl"l', wh.. , am, ,,, ,l uli ng 'ht nig hl. anJ Ih,'n I" ,,,, I,,,,,,,'m , l' "k'-.l On rh" hci~ h l ' "h" ,a n J "wn ' 0 lllf"UT' hr m )U" a ll,1' da wn T h, ,'''Ill malllkr, imlll,dr ~I "h' hdd J ,oun, ,1 .1>" , W~ f' f,, ' ,, " hdr~wing ,,'hik Ih,'~ ' till haJ a ,'han ,'" . 1..,,, niJ a, . ,,'I1,'n h" , a,, thar t heir h,'an, ''1'" tI,'1 in iI, ,em lhem on t heir way , ..h " SI''''I<l''' h, (,,,,,,k "h n" TI>o,." 0 " . , ,om"an" 0(*" ~ :1.:> .,"C L '"" ,,,,,, .c"""C J"".nc .. ,,..,,1 ,. . ,~ o ve< ._. '. '",.. , n", ,.., 1~'~ "1 re~'~ '" ol" ""••.." ", "~ g ~ '" , .1 ", ,- Below T". .. :e ~ ~" .·,a .~ ~ " . ,,,,,ld never d ~""'f1 h" I"". 'I'll. , 00 Th,',!" ,,"' an d .100 Thd 'a," ,,,main,',j "nh him 1I"'1.,J.> lU' 'u!:~~."" I h ~1 1.. .., "l ida' 1'",.",.1 II", The Nn, 1<' .la' '''Ih him ..".I ,,,hI< I h~[ Ill"" J~":n,,,1 h.,.·(•• Ihen",,) NolTk. .-, I be·' " Ie lhc lT 1 , 1 m~...1 " "I':,·,h" r . " l .c. 'mJ~~ " '''r1",,,,J 1"I,aw ~""I. ' I la,'~ ~ ~,,. ...I ,",,,·a"f,,>(. 40.1-: ,n' ,hall d tn" in H ~d,..,, · . lt "'"ulJ ul;~ ,ll" ! mm", u l, -cvc ral h...,r, ' " g..'{ ."-,wn f""n III" " ... i~h" ~ n J l h ~ :-r ~nan ' ir.l"nJ.d ." m~h Ih.. l'~ r.i~n> pAy J ... " r!,' h.:l< >r~ · Ihe' Ji~,t 1 1~ "Jnl: ~rn,'" Ih" " f lh. rl",un · lam [he I',·,_i.,n, ~1~ rl C,t l h" d ~ '~-':I1l. 1....." .1,,1,," .~" lh"l Ih,' .. n"ra~a I'~r h , 'a111" d. .w n 111'" 1h" P"'~ ~ I . 1pcni T h,' ,ill; "I rh i, 1 '11 h." h~~n "'l "hli> h~d Wilh ,,>It'" .I ,g , " ~ "I' ~~ ,m in1' Oil,' , id ~~ )ll ltin~ <111 ilh' lh~ m." ,h", alI,'''t three b l"lll.-t r,·, c·,,' 1 " I' l h ,' Phocian ",,111 at Ihe' ' i t c' of I he' c·,,, l ~a l e Th l'l" i, ,m <:~" d: ,,''' 'll l n ,-l l'_ !,,,i n ~ <, "'ll hc ho"k ,, [ 'ni / ,a ' )J l1 Ll ,It,d ,"1 J o ... n thro ug h Il ral:,,· , pili" II j, "I" ," t rakm I"nl allu ~", 'h· "Ill y h~,k II", I '~ ,~ia n , lh re~ In h"ur' h' n'1,"lI~k "ax,', lId ,t h~" k hi, aHack lInl ,l mid_ m,,, rOl n~, ' h,'n hi, 1n " '1" " mn"J 'h. I'a" the :-'1'~ rl.lI" n" longer In ,,J I" d"k",llh,' ,, ~11 1> ,, 1 ~,h·.m".J ak, ng th" I...." h' ib ",.1,"'1 p"inl ~nd h...., ,i r"" u I' in n",,,, ~ll'hab.n x " ilh lh,' ligh l" " ~m,,'d lid,." ,,,, "rin~ Ih,: " "'~ ,. 11",,- r, '''I' I ,,,,, lh,'~ " '1 ~hl "'nh ""'kl",, trc'''z~'_ Th .. I',·, ,, ~ n,_ ,,- c .lrC h'IJ . h~J 1" 1>,' ,lrn 'en "n WlIh """r)!,'" an.i d a,,-,hc,,-J "Wr the r de' ,,.' Ih"ir J~ad h' !l.el ~ : Ih" ( ;"...·k,. :-.'~'n m,"1 "flh. (ir",-.: ' I'_a" were hr"h.., ~ n,l l "e h.'phl'" J",, rh,';r ,,,,,,J, 3n ,1 n." " '-.I in d,,,~r. h..... king~' rhe ,,-~ "f f;o,.-.." lx·f,."" ,hem H.·,,· I.,"'" 01,1 tdl ~n,j Ihe battle r~~J ,..-,., h> 3' ""I""~' ( ,r" ek and P""ian 'lru~t.-,I I" " " "" " '" " , 'he t-.lo.iy . " " ur l im,... the l'er ' lan, "'''I'lu,,-'.1 il anJ 1~'uI II,",'" Ihc ( 'h·,.. k, Jr ~l!ged 11 h ""k "I(" i". :-." (he .1 '''~". I":r" ' l,,d unllll.",J,;,'m, ",,, u!!t ht Ih" ne'" that (he I mm,'n" l, h~J ""adl'.1 'he lo.'I,,'m ,,1' ,he f'alh . Till: ('re,·k. "I,.....·" r~n'" a",1 ""l"".lred h'...a, J . Ih, all. ' I'he~' f'a,,,·" Ih",u ;,, " Ihe 1("'''' anJ II hd l' C I" " 'mall hill"." k n""l( at-.'lI l r cm ali-,.-.- th, mar- Ill' ~"'UIl J ",h," ,' t hcv ("'''1<",1 a k and I'l'el'"c.'J ". ,I..., J'h. 1', r, i:tn, " ,· '!tlned rim lIl( h the; ',Lll 'md Ir icd m d"rnl>" 1 u p 111" hill, id" blI III ,'; " ','r,' ,ll' i""n ba ck , .- 1 tir" til c ( ;n:,,'" d..r,·",kd the; m, d ",', ',,11 their ""'rJ,. but "' h"n t h,'" br" k,' th,', ,ll l~,·k. " thctr """i bn " wi 'h Ih" Ir li,t, ~n d 1.elh T h"" i< ',,!,lu on unril lh~ ",..... """rwh d ",,'d by lh" ha il ,,1 mI>· . ik>, 11 ",,,Id,,,· all " 01' ,nil. Ikr,,,t" lu, n...-""l- a ",ll" "f '"'' 'I'.m an, " 'h" at I h~ lim" ,,1 rh,' 1a'1 >l a",. ","" h'lll~ III u' ilh "l'lnhalmi".1l :II',: ni. Th,' fir-I. nam,' J EU"1"', "Il k ar:llllg Ih~1 Itt..· I-'"r,ian' haJ ,T,,,,,,,·.l ror ,i" • 'J
  17. 17. G REECE AND ,.iACEDON IA t he mountaill~, called for his armour and , though he could not !>Ce, ordered his IIdoilO Ind him into t he thic: of the batde. The 5<'<:ond, Aristooemus, lost his courage alld $Iipped a",,,y w;l h the othe r ~pilti allies. 'hen he returned to Spana he "'''$ di sgrao. ed and "'''' onl)' ' able to red«m himself by his extrao rdinary courage alt he bame of Ptaraea the followillg year , .-s for Ephialtes. , a pri... e "'as put 011 his head, fi e fled imo T hc>.saly, feari lti t ha t the Sp;on ans "" ou ld hum him down, Yea'" later he retu rne d 10 his home at Anticyra, ",'here he was killed by a mall who had a private grud ge against him hm who neven hel ess claimed the re"" ard. At abou t the S<lme ti me as the last of the Spartans died in the pass, t he Per. "an /led, stung hy the attack of the previo us evclli nl:, put to sea and eru"ed the cha nnel in force . The G ree b, who were determ ined to maintain dose con· tact with their camp , lined u p fo r battle in the shallo"'. iust " fJ t he beach. T he Persian shiP'S fo rmed a half circle and tried to eng ul f the smaller Greek fleet. Once again the Gn-ch charged head on , crashing into rhe bows of t he lighter Pe",ian '·essel•. In Ihe engagement t he Greclts we re roug hly hand led and lost several shiP'S. but the)' also inflicted "",,'en casuahin on Ihel< """mies, X'hen tbe P ersians found that they were achiC"'ing little t ~· wit hdrew. AlIllou gh ne ithe r .ide c--ould cla im a ,'ictory . the Greeks ha d been severely maulrd . About 90 Athenian shi ps had suffered damage . Saon afte r the hattie the jo-oared gal- Icy whk h ha d been act ing as a liaison shi p bet wee n the Iorce in the pass and the fleet carne in bringin g t he tragic ne w'S from Thermop)'Iac. "hc n the sailors heard of the death of Leomdas lhei r heans sank. The)' :new lbat there "" as no point in stay'ing, ll>c)' hauled in lhei r anchors and S-C1 off down rhe cha nncl lowa rds t he F,uriru~. T he y sailrd in thei r appointw order , with tile Corinthians making u p the vang ua rd and the Alhenians bringing up t he rea! T he ha ttered G ree: flee t limped solIhw"rd , pa ssing t h roug h the Euri pus, down past the slle of the great At henian victory al , tarat hon, around Cape Su oiu m and u p to At hens. The Petsi..ns had no t seen the G reek tleel slip ..way-s-once again IOC haze had cove red Ihe Ath.. nian movements , The y " did m't learn of the tleet's de parture L1 l1 t il early t he followi ng morning. T he f a n of A thens The d ISaster at Thermopylae, and e<pc<;iall y the failure to rehe ve the tTOOPS in the pa~ s, had a se r ious effect on t he morale of Sparta ", alii•.,., Tm: ancient accoums imply that t he re were se riol" defeclio ns amongst the nort h-weste rn Pcl"ponne~ian s , 'X"cs tern Arcadia had su pplied a q uarter of the Peloponn....i"n lmops in Leo n idas arm y, but the fol. Io",-jng yeat when t he call fo r troops wem coul 10 the whole of the Pelopon,,"Ian l .<:lIg ue, not a single unit "'''~ senl. O n l he Ihird da y- after taking [he pa $'S the I'e";an army se[ out again . The baKSa~ lrain. especially' the hell")' wallons. must have gone b )" the coast ,'- lt PSO(OOTA LI road, h ut now t hat all oppos ition had been crushed, pa rt of t he army pushed th ro ug h the mou m ains and in'aded I'hocis, The,' SlIcked ""er)" ,'illagt', loot· inl! and hurning Ihe temples as. the)' went. T he inhahi[an[s flw "'~ and soul h 10 the moumains OUI of reach of the pillaging ooldicr., ~ l ha t wrre Clughl "'-cre .hown no merC)', Phocis ",'as 10 be ma de an el<.3m pk fo r [he rest of GI'C«C to see and "'-cig h ceeruuv before the~' de..-ided to continue rhe unequal conresr. T he demo nstrat ion was nOi wasted T he towns of Boeotia offered eart h and wate r. the token"f submission. and Ihey W ere spared but Ihey were compelled, in ac"COrdancc with t he norma l Persian custom. to sc nd co nt inllcnts to tillht o n the Persian side , Herodotus ' clai m t ha i the T he h ~n, surrendered at T hermo_ p,. lae may be true. as only the tuwns of The sp i"e "nd P lataea were listed for de struction : t he Th espians for t he patt they played at T hermo pyb e , and the P lat aean. for figh ting on t he Al henian ~ide at ,1arath on and fo r se rvi ng wit h the At henian fleet a t Anemisium These Platacan sa ilors ha d disemha ri<.w at C halas when the flcct was pass inll lhroug h Ihe Euripus and made t hei r way- home so t haI the)' could help in t he evacuation of the [O""n. Hnth l he I'latacans and the Thespians were e-vllCWIIN to t he P elo pormcsln . .- ....".. _ " I l _ POl""" ~ ~ ..... '" _,,,,, 10 A""-,,, The G"", ' '",",_ boNcfIed '" ,.... ~l P¥I ~ _ .,.."... on tIw ..., (''IIhl) sOOt of "'" oJ...", and tile Pe<.,. n _ , w... bNct>e<l .. Pho ~'um &v
  18. 18. THE C I TY S T ATE S 800- 360 ec TH E STATES AT W AR The Persian arm y pre"ed o n south eastward, and en tered Attica. A then s was a scene of feverish aetl vit y a, the population tried to evaCuate the city . Most of the women am! children ,vcre ferried across the Sar<mic Gulf to T roeze tl on the nort h-cast cornet of the Pelopo nnesu s. Somc wetc ,em to the island ofAeg inaand the remainder, wit h all t he able -bodied men , were re movcd to the i, land of Salamis in the hay of Eleusis on ly JUS! over a kilometre from the Athcnia n coast. T he n ac ua twn was earne d o ut in such a pa nic th~t many of the o ld and helple,. were left to their fate. A few ' zealo t s' >Iayed behind and barricaded themselves in the temples. Earlie r, when the Atheniam had sent to the oracle at Delphi to ask f" r it. advice, they had received a rep ly which contained the sentence: 'Zeus of t he broad heav ens grants to the Triton bo rn a wooden wall alone to rem "tn un,aeked, that shall help thee and th}' "hildren' , Th i, int er preted by Themi,tocles to mean that t he y ,hnuld lake to t heir wooden ,hips , .-l ost Athen iam a~cepted thi, interpreta tion, but a d issent mg minority bui lt a pali,ade arou nd t he lOp of the Acro p"lis and t here awaited the Persiam . ,leanwhile t he Spartans had at la, t mobilised t hei r ar my and a"embled at Corinth under the command of the survi"i ng king Clcornb rorus They broke up th~ coast roa d along t he isthmus and threw up a rampart aero" Its narrowest pan ncar where t he Corimh ,hip cana l now runs . T he Pe" ian army cont inued ir. t hrust southward" laying waStC the ~"untry­ sioe ",hilst t he lIeet sailed down the coast burning t he ,ea,ide villages , T hey occupied Athens and capture d t hc A~ropoJis , bUl only afte r a dogged resisrance by its defenders , Th~y then lo oted and bu rned t he temple, and all thc other buildi ngs on the anciem "i tadel. On the isbnd of Salamis the : lhenian. m us t ha.-e b~"£ n a ble to sec the col um n of smoke that marked the end of th"l r city. The l'e" ian lIeet moved up the Anic coast and h~aehe d at the o ld o pen harbour of Phalcrum. The ( i reek fleet "la, bca(hed o n the east side of Sal am i, . There was a furo re on t he " land as the adm irals of t he 'ari(m , tle ets arg ucd a bo ut what t o d c) Th e , quadrons from the Pelo ponnesus ,m, wante d to q ui t t he ir posit ion at Sa lamis and jo in up wit h t he army at Corint h, wherea s t he .'1.t henians quite u nder,tandably refused 10 abandon the ir fam ltie' on t he island . The mlStod e" in "pite of "ppos ition from the Corinthi ans, m'lnaged to con.- ince Euryb iadas, th e Spa rtan admiral, t hat if he left Sabmis the flee t wo uld d isintegra te a, ea ~h sq uadron looked lO the defence of its own territory. The b "ttl., o f S a l<O mi s As Pritchett remarked whe n he puhlished his second art icle on the ba tlle of Sa lam is in Iyl'i 5, there have probab ly been more art icles published on this battle than any other lfl worl d historyHcrodotus devotcd th e eq uiva lem of a ho"k to it and Aeschylus wrote a play about it . It is also dealt with by Pluta rch l n 1",0 of his lives and Diodor us S l(ulu" who "1", gIves an a(eOurn of thc hall ie. Am ongst the modern w m mentalOr" l' G L H am mond give, the most complete survey in wh ich he inclu de s some vCt y important o t" crvation, . He is 'lui tc righ t in im isti ng that Aes chylus shou ld be used as , air hough the eviden,'e comes from his play , the Pers;an.<. and he has us ed considera ble 'poe tic lice nce' in hi, presentat ion of t h~ m"teriaL he foug ht in t he hattie and t herefore must be treated as an eyewitness. X'hile X ct xes h~ d becn pUlting down t hc rc ,is t anc~ al Athens the two ficets lay al an,'hor, each wait ing for t he other to make the fi rst move . T he ma in I'e rsian fleet was be ached m the bay 01 Ph"lerum iust south of At he ns, while deta "hme ms were anchore d at Ihe ent rance to the Salamis strai t. He rodotu, later mentions de tachments at Ccos and Cyno'ura. Ceos is impmsi ble [0 identify bUi it may he "ne "fthe two small islands off Lipsokou tali. Cv nosura (t he dog 's lail), howeve r, is easy t o identify a~ the long, narrow prom ontory projecti ng eastwa rds fro m Salam is island. T his places t he (~ree k ancbm age farther u p t he channel, probably d ivided into t hree parts : o ne in the ba y of Ambelaki in fro nt of the an~iem town of Salam i. ; ano ther in t he hay of P alo ukia; and a t hird in t he ooyof Arapis . H erodotus gives the n umber of shi ps in the G reek lIeet as 380. O f t h" number 89 came from the Pelo po nnesus (t his in· d ude s 40 fro m Corinth ) and )80 from Athens. Among t he minor contingen ts the larges t numbers were f((lm Aegma (30), Chaki s (20) "nd .1egara ( 20 ), The subsequent ha ltle for mat ion im pl ies thal the Athenians occupied [he bay of I'aloukia, the l' elojXl nnesi"ns t he northern bay of Arapi" and the o t hers the ,0Ulhern bay of Amhelaki, for t hi, i, how t hey formed u p in ba ttle line , Aeschylu, in his play The Pc"",,,, give. lhe G reek numbers a, 3 t O, but he has probably red uced the number for effect, just as he has , urely g rossly exaggerate d the Pers ian numbers . ' 1-1 0 greal was t he number of the Gr~,<;k ships tha t dared with theIr ra m, to engage the l' ersian h",t /' T he ans wer - 310 Greek Jga in' t 1,~07 Persian 'r he PerSIan figure is obviously not meant to h~ taken serio usly a, this is lhe number of ships given by He rodm us for t he beginning of the campa ign and . even if t he origmal figure were to be accepted, it makes no allowance fo r the hundreds of ships lost in t hc storm, along t he cast coast . To suggesr that the Ileet was bro ug ht u p to exactly t he same strength by reinforce ments is qui te ahsurd. T h,' st rength of the Persian fleet ma y be gues,ed by examining the Persian st rategy, Agai n and ag~i n H erodotus , tresse s t he su periori ty of t he Persian , h ips and se amen, so it i, dear t hat Xetxes d id not need to o utnum ber the Greeh to expect to win. W hy the n d id Xerxe, not hl<K"bd e th e Greek ttccr in t he Sa lam is chan nel wit h half his Ileet and t hen lau nch J two- pro nged atta"k on t he Peloponnesu~, by land along t he isth mus and by sea wllh the remainder of t he fleet ' T he attrac tion of t his cou rse of a~t io n "enormous. C ut off by land and sea , the gre at numb er of Alheni~ ns On Salam is would soon have exhausted thei r mea gre su pplies . In a ,-cry short time they would ha ve been sta rved into submission , Xer xes was unahle to adop l t hese tactics for one simp le reJson - he had neit her enough ships nor so ldier' to accomplish the t ask j t is likely th at t he Pe rsian lIeet now numbe red no more t han 500 .- esse ls. Once again rhe Per, ians appear 10 have waited several days to see if t he G reek Ilcct would abandon its pos it ion . Xer xe, must have k no wn tha t, as usua l, the Gr eeks we re at log ge rhe ad~ , The story t hat it was Themi 'lOdes who '5
  19. 19. G RE EC E ,:-;:0 . 1..KEDO~I A broul(hl on the battk]:ly ", nd ing a m.:S"sengcr to Xerxes 10 tell him lhat the (;r~ ,<:k lIeet intended to escape is r rul>ahly um rue. AllIumn was draw in!l on an d Xcrxes almost ce rrainly hOld nn ly planncd iln a onc_",ason cam paign. O n..(: the lleel was destroyed nothing ' oould .top him in"ading the Pelopon . So Ix decided to lakC lhe m itiative and bring on the battle. Ha-ing decided to force a confromaI,,,n ""it hin IIx srrans o n rhe follo"~ng morn ing. t he Persians set about p~rar­ ing the propo",d banlc area. T he main lIeet put out from Ph aterum and began to mll"e up towards the channel. S,,.'n after d usk the Persian, moved a' many soldiers as t he ~- .. auld across to l he island of PS~·l1 alea . which la~' heIween SalamIS ..nd the mainland Thi. island lay in thc pIllh of the projected ~llle arC;l and man~' oltbe '....edt. from the battle wouad toe .. ashed u p there, Heu the soldiers could sla~ the (i rC'Cks and offcr succour to their shipw recked friends. Thc idenutica non ofttus island is hotly disputed. Il ammond claim, that it m u", he the island of Ag;o. Geurgim o p p",ite [' cram" in t he m idd le "I' t he 'Irait. whil S! PriICheU eome nds thaI II entraoce of the strair. occu pying the must he thc island of l .ipsokout ali atthe area from Salami. to M unychi a. entra nce 10 t he ,,·hanncl. Hammo nd N ewsl hat the P er, ian lIeet ha d mm'eo wou ld arrear 10 PUI must tru, t in up IIlto the ent rance to the stra;1 was t he a......'unt s of ancient authors such as received in t he Greek cam p d uri ng t he ·. Srrabo ,, -ho had probably neve r vrsitcd night. It was said 10 have been hrought the ar.,. , Draw inll: ~",' nclus ions Irom in hy AriSlidcs. the Athenian exile. a lheir descri ptions wou ld appea r to l>e ",110 managed to get throull:h rhe Penian ''''r)' hazardous . [flhe Peniansoa;upied lines frum Aegma so Ihal he could fill:ht Ag ius Georgios. wh ich lies directb- in for h.. ~'I)' in it. hourof peri l. The look fronl of t he Greek an~horagconl,· -thoul o ut s o n Salami• . ho..... ver . must Iu.,'e got some idea of ..'hal was ha ppening . from the .hore , the G reeks w"uld The <Jreeh oow Itnew rhal they had to "" nallll~' ha .-e ",cn thcm at finl lig ht. T hc re " -could ha"e been little rha t the fighl F. verything was 10 Iheir ad,·amall:e. In the narrow ,traits the P hoenicia ns Per.ian. could ha ve d, me to preven t their inMant d,. lodltemcnr, M o reover . v,co uld he unab le to usc thei r ,uperi" r t he of Li r "" k"utali control. the , eam an, hip , J ust l>eforc first lil(ht t he Grecks entrance to the st ran, and it wo uld have been vital fo r t he Pen ian. to secure it dragged their galley. do"'n to Ihe waler . bef"re 11l<' ", ng into rhe channel itse lf. II boarded. ran o ut their oars and waited mu", he added that lhe wreclt. did drift for the ,ig na l. The trumpets sounded and the lIutes S1ruck up the ir rune , southward. after the baltk. Alter occupving l he t he Per - Then. 10 lhe rh)'thmlC chanl of lhe,r sian. d C'< pa lched Ihe F.1!~.. tian•. ..-"" maJe up thc wes ler n wing of the f1eel , t o blockade the weSlcrn end "flhe Sal amis 1t>e Site of tt>e dec,.,Ye bon>e O! Sa emo. Th<I 'ong or"".,~ro<, (Cy""..,'a) IS on I"" C(lfU. ch anneL T hen al midnight the rest of an d lho:> . ,to 01 ,he one,ent town of Salam; , o-n t he Heet. including the detachments at 1h. " ght P" rt 0' tho) ,sl" nd of L,p,okou'al , c.n C ynosura and C eo•• moved ;ntu Ihc be coea,'y M<l" nO the lef, <,., "001II ....
  20. 20. T HE C IT Y STA TES lloo·3f1O Be Tim STATI,S AT WAN. lur wnlt, they pulle.:! II t hei r oaf' and the galley5 beg" to move out IntO rhe J.n ~lunnel. Xerxes had taken up hi5 posi tio n o n .' luunl Aeltaleos overfookmg lhe st rait. Here a throne had hcen et ccted for him so Ihal he could watch the hanle. T he Persian <;eam en strained at their ""rs and p ulled towards I he Greek lin~'!< , As t he I w·o tlcets do"".:!, t he G reeks m the a nt re backed waler SO t ha t rheir till<" bo...'ed . Seeing the G ree ks bad ing the J'ersian sai lors ....ere con,'inu:.:!l ha l they were going 10 in flig ht an.:! , raising their war Cf)' , the!' charged into the ....lient_ and still l he cent re backed water . ,·..:cord ing to Plulareh t he~' " 'et'C waiting for someth inll rhar t he~' kne.... must happen. Suddenl)' t he l'eNian fic<.:t lurched as the ....'ell carne u p the d umne!. The wave ca ught th e Pers ian shif's from be hin". S"m~ of them wcr<' knod'cd out of linc, veering hmsd,ide on to the G ree b . The (,ree k sailn,. raised a g rea t shout _'On you sons of Greece! l-rce your native land , free your children, your wi ,'es, t he fan..,; of ~'our falhers' God s. and tho;- tombs of ynur ancesl ors. ~ow~"OU balt ic for ~"OUr all' , • T hen tM~'o;-ha'K"d; their hron;ze. plall"d ram, darting thn>Ugh the foam crashed th rough the hanl:, of oan; and ripped into t he bow. of lhe I'e..ian shi~. It is rather ,hftkult to undersland Herodotus' description of t he ha tt ie fo r ma lion : 'Th~ l'lme nicia m (fo r t hey had t he western wi nK. towar ds Ekusis) were arraye d "pp<"'i t ~ 10 t he AIheni ans, and to the Lacedaem"nians the lo nians, on Ihe eastern .... rng, neaTesI the P irK us'. 11 ,,"OUld nnl)' Ill" poss,hle to use l he terms cast anJ "' es t ....inlt if he rs descnb iog t he pcsinon of Ihe tttt be fore it ente ",d the channel, and from (hel"'," <.'O nl in uing 10 use this dc..,ripllun for tbe Ion ian and Phoenic ian flee ts , -II i. interesti ng (hat he does nol use t hese l ~rm5 for the Greek lleel.) If Ihi. were Ihe c,",,,,,, Ihen Ihe des cript ion of the l as heing towards lileusrs i, a lillie strange. However , it wo uld he impm, ihk to usC t he term, ea, t and west .... hen the IIcet is d rawn u p in a no n h to .out h lin~ and aJ,'ancing Jireotly westward s. It seems ce rt ain Ihal the ships from A~g ma were Malio ned in lhe ha ~' uf Amhdaki as Ih,s " The only po," t from ....hich they could ha,-., buochl"d II flank allack o n l he ·il hd ra...'ng Penians, II was also l he }' ho came 10 Ih c IUp port of an Athenian . hip that was in tro u ble . It folio..... that rhe Al henian, must ha,'e held pnsil io n nelll to t hc Aeginelans. i.e . Ihe ce nt re and right. and t herefore t he Pel0l'" nrl< ian, held t he left wing , ', It sc em , to he agreed that t hero;- has been a general rise in t he se a level in the ar<'a around At hens. P ritchett '1lk>!e, man~' {'l[ample,; uf place<; t haI " 'ere aN"'e t he ....lIler e el in classical rim..,; and are now belo iL Sewul ,"""iem quarries ha ve been discovered SUhmerged henell(h I....., (0 t h ree met res of ",·aler. The sa me featun: ....~ ot>se,,-ed ""Mn the . h,p .hed, al ua .... ~re ell~"""aleJ_ A ela... tc 1 shrine al Ihe "illage of Agio, C -,"'ma, a' also fo und helo"" Ihe water lel'el. The re is a ,mall reef 350m " n Ihe All ie coas t " pp<>site l'erama , in ..-[u" ical Below the bonle of ceo" e of Sa,-,. ''''or t iu<,og t"" P..-- t_ ,,,ott>,,, on<l Iu" """"'" _ The G,,,,,,• • WI1I>O''''''' tt1e ""0 001 of "" _...,,_ r"" '",., "'a IS P!>oen,c " . .<11..... ,1> wn
  21. 21. GRE ECE AN D MACEDO N I A ti mes Ihis m un bave M.: O ao island. Ik n , ""o this i~Land and I ~ mainland t bere wou ld beve been a sballo'" chan",,] ".~", the water was not d«p enoug h for gal"'ys [0 navigate. Thi. small island would made an excd lem point 0 0 ro which t he G ree ks could lock t heir left wing without fear of missile all ac k from the P enian infant ry o n the mainland o r of hc ioll out fl anked. T heir inferio rity in n umhers made it all the more im portant fo r t he G reeh t o avoid bein g ou tflanked , For this rea, On t he Corint hian Iteet of 40 ships was despalChed to prevent the Eg vpuans enteri ng t he W C$t end of the channel. T h ere can be no t ru th in Herodot us' S1ateme nt_almos t cert ainly laken from a biased Athe nian source -c- rhar t he Corint hians fled befOl e l he battle . This also undermi"". Ille argume nn of t """" ",'ho ...-ould ~ t ile bailie ana fart her u p tile channe l in front o f the island of Agios Grorgjos ,,-jth no 1od::ing point for t he n g hl ...-jog. This wou ld hi,·e allowed Ihe P ersian ship'" to break t hrough t ile r ight ",-jng at will. T ile G reek fleet wo uld have been d rawn u p in front of t hei r anchorages wilh t he ha,·., Peloponnes ian I1«t of 49 ships occupyiog the Iefl ..i ng and Inling o n t he i.let. It is also inc:onsi5'l em to att emp t 10 reconci le Ae",hylus' figure of 3 10 for lhe GTttI: fleet wit h H erodOlus' 380 by suggesling l hat the missing 10 ships fOTmed Ihe Cori nt hian squadron which left before t he ban le. This w<)Ild ha ve left o nly 19 Pe1o ponnes ian ships to form t he left wing. The Athenian fl eet of 1 80 ships cove red t he c<: mre wit h us right wi ng rest ing on the tip of th<: K am at<:ro promontor y, whi lst the ot her t i l ship. , ind ud ing t he 30 ships from Aegina , occu pied l he ba y of A mbe taki. The d istance from the i. let 10 t he l ip of t he Kama rero promontory is about l ,os o m , Alk:»>'ing a m inimum of 20m per gal le}the ships would have to be d rawn up in fow 10 th·e lines , Accord ing 10 Aeschy lus., :I S lhe Persians en tered the strails Ihe)- firsl heard t he Greek flee1 singing their ba ttle h)'m n and only later saw t hem . This has been used to suppan t he ,'ie..- that the Greek fleet was d ra....n u p in the cha nnel to t he nort h of Kamalero, shielded from t he Persian view by M o unt Aegakos. How- c """"",., "" "-'''-', EaS ..;...1 1 1 II ever, al thoug h Burn and Ham mond both malte Ihis poi nt , neil he r actua lly shoo..· the G rcek tl«1 in this posil ion. Roth socw it piVOied o n t he Kamatero promontory in full y)ev,' of the Persian 11«1. If Aes<:hyhn is to be interpreted this '...y, l hen t he ba tt le wou ld ha w to he fought be l ...een Arapis and Cape Eilato uri. A mo re lik ely expl anation is that t here m igh t ha ve " een a slig ht ha~e or it was st ill dark. Alt er na t ively, t he Persians may ha ve hear d t he Greek singing before t hcy actually entere d t he 51taits , H erodotu. later ment io ns a wes! wind which hie.... t he wreckage dow n the coast. T his coul d have carried t he sound of the G rcek singing the t hree to tou r kilometres 10 t he Persian fleet. T he battle was o n. Caug ht in Ihe narrow chan",,' t here was no room 10 manoeuvre. II _. ship against ship. T he Grceks managed 10 retain thei r formation but, for the Persians, t his was impossi ble . ~ ma.. of the Persian ships Wet"e jostl ed in the cn me of t he cha n""l, caught in l he dC"an at ing pm~ en movement as t he ...'ings cha rged . The Persians tried despe ratel ~' to t um about while at the same li me l rying to avo id ramm ing each o t her. Th<: G reeh were able to pick off the enemy sh ips on t he oUiside of the m asS at will. T he Persian sailors fou g ht bra,-e!y before t he gaze of t heir king. T he iavehneers swept t he decks of the G reek galleys as they In ed to ram t hem . Just off the promontory of Ka ma tero an Ionian ship from Semorhrace cba rged ou t from t he mass of Persians and ripped into t he hull of an Athe nian gal ley, but he f.,..e it could free itse lf from the wreck2ge a trireme from Aegrna rounded the promontory and caught I ~ Io nian shi p amid ships, " 'hile t he Ionian shi p " 'a s sinking, het complement of iaveIi neers . wept l he Greek mati~ o ff l he dc.;k, boarded and ca pt ured the u ireme. much to the delig ht of Xerxes. D es pite these isolated successes, the ~" The Pe",a n l loot ente ,ed th e , tro,t w ith tho Pho en,c,a n, sail ing in column to tM 01 L,o so kout a li (ne.,.,st ,he P" "'usl ond Ihe lon,ons '0 the ""'Sl of the .. let The Vwoold he >'e dolHOVod in,o h nol ,n ,he Sto .. , T"" r.!O(>Onn,....ns t oo-mod up """,,",to lhe PhOO'loe,.ns and the Alhe....... ~t" the Ion,..... w haSl the ,..t (e 110 Shop$) 'ay in w ar< ,n bay 01 Atnf>eoIo u. h om _ thov anacQd the 'WNlong Pe<s .. n S'IoOO .a" t'" "
  22. 22. T HE C ITY STATES 800-360 BC T H E S TATES A T WA R Persian fleet , crammed hel plessl)' in t he chan~l, ",as in a despet au~ posil>on. ~ bIInercd fleer tried to d isoengage. A s Ihe~' "'ilhdrew from the narro"'~, t he ships from Aegina la~' ...'aiti ng foc lhem in t he hay of AmbeLaki and , IS they p~, ca ugh t lhem m a d e.... taHng Oank a u"",k , T he Alhenians too, fullo",· ing up Ih e retreat , pla yed havoc amongst the fleeing sn ips. The victuriuus Gree k sailor-s showe d no me rc y to their shipwrecked enem ies , Grahh ing oa n; nr any other weap"n I har cam e to hand, t he y dubl>cd to dealh o r dro wned t he enem ~' uilo" a. t hey slruggled helplessly in the water. .leaowhi1e, Ansndes , t he Alhenian exile, galhered logelher man~' of the hop hles "'ho were o n the shore .... tching tile sca hattie, and " 'itb these maruged 10 captu re lhe Isla nd o f Psyllalea and .Lo.ugbu~ lhe Pers1aIl gamson l here , r tbus W iling o ff the last resort foc the wreck ed Persian shi ps , Those ...nd.s tha i d id flOC drift asllon: on t he island Iioaled do",n l he e <>asl and came a.bore on the pru munlury of ColilS a bout four kilome tr es $OIIl b of Phalerum . Alth<>Ug h the P ersia n fleet was f.. from being dc,troye d a nd . till p ro ba bl)' outnu mhere d t he Greeks, Xe rxes now realised lhal his hopes of a q uick campaign were go ne. He ha nck d ove r c" m · mand of lhe bulk "f his anny _po. ",sihly 150,000 me n-to Mardoniu. and rclurned to Asia, Mardc nius withdrew into Thes.aly and t here went int o wimer quarters. For a fe", month s at lca" iOulMm Greece had a breallung , ~, Xerxes feared l hal the defeat al Salantis m ighl encourage t he lcmans 10 revoh, so he ~Ihdrewlhe fleet 10 Cyme and lhe foll"",~ng spri ng stationed il al s.m... The S p..rl. ns lJlobilisc In t he following spring Ar1 S1 id es and Xanrhipp us, another e xile w ho had returned 10 de feml his coum ry, ",c re elected generals at At he ns, M ardoniu s no w tr ied by d iplomac y to separa te At hens from her allia n,'e witb the Pcloponncs ians , offering her "cr y ha ndsome terms, Bu t Athens was full of bine rness over wha t had happened a nd, alt ho ugh unde r normal errcum"anccs she. like all t he other G TC'e1< stales , would TIOI shy a....a y from betTII )'ing a cause m the preferen<:<: o f setf fj,.., im erest, she now rejected t he P ersian rhousand Spanans, nearly W'OproposalSOUI of hand. Ho we ver , .hedid thirds o f the lotal Spanan 1<:1', plus usc lhem 10 tl")', WIlhout success. to focce 3S,ooo Itdou , imm.,.jiale l~· set o u t non hSparta into p romising more aid, ...'ard s. On lhe «'a!' the)' .....,re joi ned b y 17,000 hoplites from the non h-castem Summer had a rri" ed when .Ia rd onius mO'ed soul h agam. 1l:"aiting Peloponnes us. until lhe ~ ...'crc ripening, be ad: ardomu. im me<.ha tcly e" acuated "anced o nce more on Athens and once Athens, destroying what remained of again occupied it unopposed. And onc e t he city be fo re he left , E1eusis was also again Spa n a falled 10 co me 10 Ihe aid of put 10 the fla me , Hc now wit hdrew to her ally. AI Sala m is Al hens had ri sked Boeotia where t he cou m ry was much all a nd in su dning sa ved S pana , She mo re ope n a nd suit able fo r his cavalry. had alsn refused 10 betr ay the ( i ree k As .h rdoni us started northward he cause b ut t his had lillie effect on the hea rd that all ad vance gua rd of 1,(Xl() S panans. The o nly Ihing that held the Spart ans had already reached :cgara, Greeks loget bc r was a fo re ig n c ne m)' , o n ly 4Skm flom Alhens. Mardonius not a ny Iovc for each other. Tbe G reek lurned a n J., sendrng his cavall")' ahead , resistance 10 Persia fro m M ara t ho n o n- made a ligblning strike againSI . k gala, ..aids is a ClItalogue of had planning , but wben he fai led t o lake the town and groo;s inefficiency and se lfishness punc- heard that the G reek aim)' was gatherNalcd ...ith OlXaSional acts of brilli<tncc ing at t he ist h m us, he called o ff his a nd heroiOTTl, I t is incredible t hat l he~' troops and r et ired 11110 Boeotia. He could possihly have WOD_ Tbc Persia ns , pa ssed 10 lhe caSI of . l 00 nl P arnes.. o n the other hand, dl5pLayed exceuem <;tosscd lhe Asopus river (lhis is nor the st ra legy,a grea l deal of e ner-g}' and con- sa me as the nver a t T berrnopylae) and sid e rable b ra"CI")' hUl suffe red from ascended its nonh bank palt T anagra to appalling back luc k, I n t he final camSoolu. in the IcrrilOry o f T hel>es . H ere paign t hey com pletely outmanoeuvred he es la blished a fon ified camp whicb H erodolUS d escribe. as about 10 stades t he Greeks, and then ma d e one missqua re (a boul 1,8oom"), which IS JUSt calculation whi c h "cos ll he m the war, W it h the re,,.,,cupalio n o f Athen. Ih" over fi "" times rhe sil,e of lhe Roman citize ns aga in crossed ove r to Salamis, ca m p described hy l'olybius wh ich hel d " lardonius once more tried to co me 1U l O,OOO infant ry a nd 2 , SOO ca valr y. This te rm s wit h lh" , e o n Ihe island . The suggests t hat .I,-Iatd"ni u.' a rm y m ighl Arhe nia ns sent an e mbassy 10 Spana 10 nOI be mucb more Iha n IlO,(Xl() men beg them to come to Iheir aid hUl, a. at ind ud ing cavalry. xtarerhon a nd Thcrrncpy lae. they were Herodotus says that Ihe Persi an keeping a religiou. f",t i" al a nd refused lroops were ranged along Ih e rive r from 10 move. In t he mea ntime Ih e)' we re F.Il1hr"" to paSI H ysiae as fa r as the fc."e ri shly bcig hle ning the "'all a"TOSS lands of Plataea_ It is unfonu nate that the isthm us, m aking u d ear to al i lhal o nly lhe site of Plalaea can be idenlified t his ..'as where lhe)' intended 10 fighl . with certainty ; t he sites of Scolus, Day af ter day tbey tcm pori""d, eac h day H~--siac and Erytltrae are uncertain, p utting o ff l heir d.«ision until the """I ; (h'er sc"cral ~"ears Prrt cbett has done this went o n fo r te n da~'s_ It no! a tremendous a mount o f gtound",orl:; on until the Ath enians threatened to accepr the bat tlefield o f Phu aca , He has walked . l ardoni us' term s, which would place SCOTes of miles across the fields a nd hillt he At henia n 03 " )' under Pe rsian 000- side. t hai make up the hanlcficld sea rehtrol, t hus la~'ing the Pelopon nesus wid e for tra" ...,s of ancie n t habila tio n. T he o pen to alfack a nd rendering the ist hmus me thod he has u >!Cd is called s he rdi ng~ defe nces obsolete, tha t Sparta act ed, scat chmg the grou nd , preferably im · Once the d ec isio n was mad e Spart a mediate ly after pillughin/-: , fo r fragact ed witb gr eal e nerg y. The enure ments of a ncie nt t iles and pots . X'hc re Greek f,m; es were placed under the lhese are found in la rge numhcrs o ve t a com mand o f I'a usa nias, son of kinll; wide a rea, o ne can po:;lulale an ancient Cleombrotus (as Leoni das' son P lcisl- to..-n or villa ge" Til<: resulls nf his find arc h us was still a minor) a nd Eurya nu , ing> ha" e bee n publisbcd in t ..'o atticles . the son of D oreius whom C leomb rot us The first appeared in tlte A......,c"" Journal of A " M eoioxy in 19 57. The had oo-upted "" h is ooI lea~, '9
  23. 23. GREECE Ar-; n . 1/ C E D O :-'; IA '""'-'OM, in uhkh he modified ""me of his "'t'''s. apl'Car,'d In a "ork entitled 'Sl udi,,,; In :ocicnt <ired; Topographv' published ellthl years later_ [Jsing this method of sherdlnlt he has identified three vires, l<> the "<:sl of Plala,';I. Two of these are on t he northern slopes of , Ioo n! Pa~I"''' which. with . Iount Cu h3<"ron. hmll' lhe southern ~ide of lhe baukfidd. aM a third rs on tlte river .... sopu~, L'" ng t he anciesn .oun-~, lhe tu'o ,il'" on the $lof'C'> of .Ioum Pasl ... can be idcnntied wilh H,,,;,ae (ah.) . Ls l<m ea.1 of modern Er vthraij and and cm ErYlhrae (" I:><' ul one kilomeue wCSI of m.>Jern Daphne ). The lh'rd .ite o n t he A" ,pu, was found while t'xp re"I,' I"o" ing for S''<,lus, w h ,~h I'au, ,,nias desn ibc s a, ahout 40 sloJdeJ (ei.:lll kil" m" lre. ) down .I ream frum the 1'1ala,:a to T hehe, roa d , AI a p'Hm " X'l<:ll y 4 0 .<!oJde ,' downstream from Ihc crossin.:, l'rildlCl l f"u nd ample remains "r a do"skal settlement . S l1bscq ucr nly, Bur n Il;'s ,uggn t"d Ih"1 il shc' uld he lo,';lled on l h,' ",uth side " f Ihe n ve, but a''''''pl' rn t he main Pri l_ ehcll's i..k nlitk al ,o n of Ihe th ree tow ns, The remain s l hal Pritchett fou nd were in the area marhd on the ge neral sl alf map;; from ,he la'l " ar a, Pahom iloi . The 1 :1: of ....'",..q uare {ired maps makes .... Ihe s1Ud~' of ItlJ"<'ll:r"phy in Ihat COUntrv J"'rtkularlr dilli" ult So the I'"",ian army" as ranged along llle- n<"nh hank of Ihe river ....""pu, from oppc."ile Er~'lh rae 10 almo..1 ">rposile Plataea for a disl"rt,:" oj" "bout r zkm . The sile of the Pers ia n e;, "';,I.S probably on lhe hIgh I(round above S<.-olu", this "~,,,Id """"er the main road fro m Al h~ ns 10Then.:. anJ :l<."'Ule the Asoru. bridge. The A"'>ru~ ilself In t his area i. a faIrl y insignifieam Slream which Can be e,...,.""".1 ea.lly. .lC"dn wh,k Ihe [' c1"1",n...." ian army haJ moved alon g Ihe i,lhmu, to Eleu, i• . where Ihcy were j"",ed by t he Athenia n, who cros sed oVer from Salami., Fr<>m here t hey headed n"rt h and foll<>wcd Ihe I' e" ian army imo Ilo~olia Onc"C past ,U num I'"rnc" they lurned west along Ihe '''u t h side of t he A",I"'" I Inodo lU' lell, u, Ih~t th,' n reck armv rea ched Erylhrae wh ere thq' learned ~f rhe Pe rsian I""it ion •. Ae<:or<l ingly t hey look up Ihei r I'''"illon, ~lun g Ihe fO hills of Ihe Ol moum ain. l'ritcbe rr. in his on ginal arncje o n Phll a~". made a d,,'lailed st ud y 01 Ihe mUles .wer t he m,>untain< im" lUll ~U''''"CSM"C rca... ""'ith h,s '<Ivai'}' ' lhe ";;IlIey of lhe ""'-'rus, lie concluded he ,,<mid " Te" k havoc on rhe Gr,-e k.. Ihal rbcre ""'n: only 1"'0 roul,"; : ollC 1'01- supply roUle, W hen .Ia,doniu< ,,""' Ihallhe (;n:el: k'''ed wUlthly Ih" roUl" of Ih" mo.krn Alhens_T henc, road ,,·hich. fo, con- arm)' planned 10 h<:>Id the hilth 1!:1'<",nd ,'en,er><,."C. i, IcrmeJ the liyr hloeaSlrn aM d Id ",'I imend ro come oo" ;n mill ...-.1. aM l he ..>lher• "'h,eh was lra.xd by the ptain. he de.patehed ,la,miu, wlI h Ham mond . a-o..""d a ,lightly higher hi. e"s·al'}'. Th" horsemen cros'ICd lhe I"l'" al:><>IIl 1..0 kilomelres fanher "'nt. m'er anJ charged ur II.: hillside in Th i, ""uld hll.'e been the route 10 '<.Iuad ' c ns. cbcwenng the hoplitcs. wn h . kgara anJ "iII be so "d. I n his I"ICT arrows. The ( ,reek army. which "",,<,,d,ng 10 amek he reie.. "d t he firsl roUle . daim1 ing Ihal only lhe .legara roUle "'as I lerod.l{ u' consisted of )8,;00 hel!"liln rl""liea" le , [ mU<l conclude From lhis anJ at'l<... l 70.000 lighl-atm"d IW...p•• Ih;,l. l he meant for a baggage lrd'" ot was ~1n:I<:hed om III banle order al"nl( whc"CJc d .·ehid~ •• a. lhe "" i'len...., (>f an the f."'1 of the hills wil h the, r ....aek> to . .... thc nia n fori al (i ,-phloca' iro at Ihe Ihe ditl•. Allowi ng f(>r a deplh of eight , south end "f Ihe pa., pro"es ..onclu- l he h"l'litc. alo ne would have Sl retched , ,"'dj' tha t it wa, in usc in Ihe 4l h cen- fo r about 1iv~ kilometrc,,;, The lightIUT j' ac. n,oth I'a,,~" were oceupieJ by armed Imop' wou ld plOhahl y have heen Ihe At hcm'lIl I(eneral Cha hria, in 379 , slrat~Il ,ea lly plal-ed " n t he wing, and l ie him«'Il' u':""l'ied Ihe ( iy phto",m rn alonl( Ihe va, iou, spurs t h"t jU lted out pa" hut Ihe Spa rta ns F rced the ir wa y m to th ~ pla in, T he o b", uu, ,i le tor the o o... cr Ihc route th rough !'lal'l"a, i ,e. ri gh t wing, m ad" up of the S panan,. Ham m" nJ' ~ , lcgara wad, would hc t WO kilometre, we.1of m"d ern If Pritc hett i. eorren in his idem i_ Da phne Wilh Iheir 35.000 lIeI"" e"verti ~a t i"n of ancienl Ervi hrac . ju,t wesl (>f inl: Ihe 'upply mule 10 Ihe eas!- The Ihphne. Ihen t he G reeks wo uld have resl or the h,'phle. would have be en ' learned' of the I'~ ",ian posili"ns tirsl "Irel"h,'d out pa.. an,'len! E rylh rae a, hand. k ll' from here one g.. 1S a pd""r. far "sl he l'lIlll ridgc lhat jutsoul inw Ihe > armc vie..... of Ihe whole Persia n line, In 1'1"", Iwo and a half k ilomet re~ wesl of flk:l Ihi, view can be seen from any Daphne. "'ilh a . tr(>ng connngem of po int "Ionl( lhe 1:>;o$C of the hills aU tile lig hl-armoo u o<' p;; en lhe I,lng ridge wa" 10 Plal.....a r akm fan hcr "-esI. The gis'in~ a birly "rong co"cr 10 t he left impl k al ion <It H el ooOlus' remar k i, l ha l wmg, Although Ihe Iighl- anned Ir< il "'as from El)"l hrae lhal the Gre.,.... o n Ihe 'pu ,s "'(>!Ild ha"e I:>ccn a....1e '" lir" sa,,' lhe Penian f"O'6ilion•• ,,'hich give faid)' g<lod cover 10 the "'->rhles. p'e.... uJ''S an" I"",ibihty Ihal Ihey l here was one s'C'!)-- "-C';ll: spor iu" West entered the s'alley ....y either lhe ,lcgaTa ". aeoem E~"lh r"" wocn: t he gl<>IInd or G)· phl .....a" ro pas",s aho....1 eig.... l to is ."",n, Hen: lhe j-coo he>p litC'> f",m ren k,lomel rC'! farther ".."t. E,'en if .Iegar;,l. "'er" I"km g a terrible healing Ik rodulUs' .talement i!; dJSreg,u <kd. from , t.... i"ius' ca..-alry. T he . l egar1a ns t here Ca n be no .Iralel.lie ju "'Ii... ,lIion for "Cnt a he rald 10 the general, begging for . II.: (~ree l: 3rm~' ID<w ing eight 10ten I<ilo- help , In response 300 Athen ian ""rhte. metres "asl warJs alo ng {he 1'001 of rhe wll h a "onling~m of archers votunreered rnountam, Iea.'ing their supply Imcs h' take up a I""iu o n in from of lhe widc 0l'Cn 1<> a tlank a!tack. espec'iallv a, . kgarians and ....reak Ihe force of It>., Ihey t hen proceeded 10 move westwa rd . ea"al r~' ch arges. Allain anJ again lhe 3l1:ain, ()ne must therefo re conclu de t hai s<.l uad rnns or P er, ian cavalry eha '1led in they marehcd u p the ...alley fwm [he up",n Ihe 300 Atheman, . showe rinll "aM, them wilh m i"i le', .la,i'liu, himwl f. ,l ard,'niu. ha d skilfullv ehmen t hc clothed in a 1'11fplc t unic , led t hc cha'I(C< ,il e un whic'h he wi, hed 10 figbt. II e ha d rid ,nil h" richly caparisoned Ncsacan ralk n ha,'k on hi s ow n , u pply lines an d h""e wnh its I(olden bit. In the t hi ~k "l al Ihe ' arne umc plac'ed a range or mounrhc hallie his ho..e ...a, caug ht III Ihe t " in, he t " '''''n Ihe (lrc"h and their "de hy a ' l ray arm ... , The animal reared source " I' sUP I'Ii~, which ,,'ould have 10 m ram. IhrowlIIg the Persian general. from the Pd "'I"",n"·, u,, as .... uiea Ad"'e he <:ould gel 10 hi, teet Ihe had be en '~'M"malically ra" aged d uring .... Ihema"" we re upon hi m. '('l;"hile ."me ,,,11..