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DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching
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DecisionWise - The Psychology of Coaching

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Helping managers DRIVE individual & organizational change.

Helping managers DRIVE individual & organizational change.

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  • This “filling in” effect is also noted in subsequent research.  More recently, researchers at Dartmouth used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to scan the auditory cortex of the brain while their subjects listened to music.  Subjects were exposed to both familiar and unfamiliar songs.  These songs all contained silent gaps—brief periods in which the music was replaced with silence.  The gaps in familiar songs, the researchers found, were not consciously noticed by the subjects.  Conversely, when these gaps were introduced into unfamiliar songs, they noted a marked difference in the level of activity in the auditory association areas of the brain.
  • Are you saying that this is like a cycle dude? MAKE A CIRCLE ADD NUMBERS
  • Validation: Psychologist Richard Davidson suggests that there are two types of emotions associated with reaching goals (1) Pre-goal attainment positive affect -which is the pleasurable feeling you get as you make progress towards your goal, and (2) Post-goal attainment positive affect -which is the pleasurable feeling you get after you reach your goal. He found that pre-goal was much more lasting and created more motivation in the change process, and that the post-goal emotions were much shorter lived. So if you want to achieve something, you have to seek out validation during the process rather than wait until you have achieved your goal.
  • Dissonance: The Adaptation Principle suggests that the human mind is very sensitive to changes in conditions, but not so sensitive to absolute levels. Meaning we notice dramatic changes (either positive or negative), but create a baseline very quickly once the changes have taken place. Example: A leader may be very engaged in their job as they are climbing the corporate ladder, but become dissatisfied after reaching their professional goals (they have adapted). Creating dissonance can correct this.
  • Transcript

    • 1. The Psychology of CoachingHelping Managers DRIVE Individual & Organizational Change Dr. Tracy Maylett Dr. Paul Warner President/CEO Director of Consulting DecisionWise DecisionWise
    • 2. About DecisionWise ClientsAwareness | Action | Accountability 360-Degree Feedback Employee Engagement Leadership Coaching Talent Assessment ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 2
    • 3. Our Purpose Today Clarify common coaching misconceptions Discuss the application of psychology in coaching Review the manager’s role as a coach Introduce the DRIVE coaching philosophy ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 3
    • 4. The Roots of Coaching1758: Human 2000: Positive Psychologybehavior and emotion 1968: Beginning of the developed by Martincan be understood Human Potential Seligman in opposition tothrough Phrenology- Movement. Abraham the medical model inanalyzing the Maslow develops clinical treatment ofstructure of the skull Hierarchy of needs mental illness 1970-80s: 1890: Sigmund Freud Organizational uses medical case studies Development Present: and psychoanalysis to becomes an Contemporary understand the role of the established discipline Coaching subconscious in human in HR and academic thought and emotion arenas ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 4
    • 5. And the Survey Says…From our 2010 Employee Engagement Database (7+ million responses) and 360-Degree Feedback Database (1.2+ million responses):Lowest-scoring themes: • “My manager provides me with regular feedback about my performance.” (Employee survey) • “This person takes the time to coach, mentor, and support others.” (360) • “This individual provides feedback in a way that facilitates improvement.” (360) ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 5
    • 6. Why Do We Care? Filling in the missing information: White Christmas Effect Dartmouth fMRI Don’t Forget the Lyrics Management informational vacuumsKraemer, D.J.M., Macrae, C.N., Green, A.E., and Kelley, W.M. (2005). The sound of silence: Spontaneous musical imagery activates auditory cortex. Nature, 434, 158. ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 6
    • 7. Coaching is NOT… Coaching is NOT … Because … Corrective Action Coaching focuses on both the past and the future. A Confrontation It’s not a clash– it’s a development process that improves performance. Counseling It’s out of the scope for coaching. Micro-Managing It’s not “playing the game” for them. Code for “Bad News” It’s not focused on the negative.Performance Appraisal It’s not an evaluation of work done. They are learning while doing the work. Personal Criticism It’s not judgmental of the person, but the behavior. ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 7
    • 8. Coaching is …Coaching is … Because …An ongoing process It’s more than a singular event.Focused on development It’s learning while the work is done.Purposeful It’s focused on behaviors and action.Providing feedback It provides candid, clear information.Supportive of growth It encourages self-awareness.Challenging to do better It moves us beyond a comfort zone.Building trust It develops effective relationships. ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 8
    • 9. PollMost managers in my organization:Effectively coach their direct reportsDo an OK job of coaching their direct reportsMostly conduct corrective action interventionsCant even conduct a performance reviewRely on HR to solve their problems ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 9
    • 10. Getting Personal Harvard Business Review 2009 study of coaching practices: 3% of leaders pursue coaching because of personal issues but… 76% of coaching engagements evolve into discussion on personal issues Internal Coaches risk crossing a critical boundary! ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 10
    • 11. The Dilemma Most psychologists have never been managers.Most managers havenever studied thebasics of psychology. ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 11
    • 12. An Effective Coaching ProcessAWARENESS ACTION ACCOUNTABILITY ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 12
    • 13. An Effective Coaching Process AWARENESS ACTION ACCOUNTABILITY D R I V EDissonance Reach Immediate Validation Environment Steps ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 13
    • 14. Meet Dr. StallingerDirector of Emergency Medicine for a large university medical systemClinically strongResponsible for over 120 employees and a significant portion of the hospital’s revenueHigh employee attritionTime-to-treatment levels are unacceptableRecent high-profile treatment issuesLost the confidence of hospital administration, the Board, and the University ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 14
    • 15. D R I V EDissonance Reach Immediate Validation Environment StepsDissonance:1. Lack of agreement, consistency or harmony; conflict.2. Current state versus desired state. ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 15
    • 16. We have anatural desire toresolvedissonance:MUSICBUSINESSPERSONALPHYSICALEMOTIONALRELATIONSHIPSETC… ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 16
    • 17. Awareness: Internal and External Dissonance ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 17
    • 18. Awareness: Resolving DissonanceCurrent Dissonance Desired Deny that Current State xxxxxxxxx Desired State Dissonance exists Change the desired Current State Desired State state (REACH) Change behavior to Current State Desired State match the desired state ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 18
    • 19. Dissonance: Preserving Sense of SelfPHANTOM COACHING:V.S. Ramachandran- Phantoms in the Brain78% of 360 participants score themselves higherFreud’s ego defenses ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 19
    • 20. Awareness: Denying the Dissonance Barriers to Leadership Intelligence® Naïve Realism: Each of us thinks we see the world directly, as it really is. We also think that what we see is what everyone else sees. Self-serving bias: tendency to use or make dispositional attributions (put our own spin on) for success, and situational attributions (explain away or justify) for failures. Individual RealityPerceptions Ego Defenses: We will approach this dissonance in a way that maintains our self- concept and esteem. Negativity Bias: The tendency to focus all attention on negative feedback. ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 20
    • 21. Awareness: Changing the Desired State Often, we try to resolve dissonance by shifting our REACH. (Belief disconfirmation; Induced compliance; Free choice; Effort-justification…) ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 21
    • 22. Awareness: Creating dissonanceFeedback- Reinforcing or redirecting One-on-one, direct 360-degree feedback Performance evaluationsMetrics and measurements; KPIsAllow natural consequences to occur (example: children)Visioning: Identify possibilities and REACHOthers? ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 22
    • 23. Creating Dissonance: Dr. StallingerReviewed KPIs360-degree feedbackOther psychometric assessmentsDirect feedback from hospital CEOLooked for “evidence”Stepped through a REACH exercise ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 23
    • 24. D R I V EDissonance Reach Immediate Validation Environment StepsReach:1. (noun) Capability; limit.2. (verb) To gain with effort. ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 24
    • 25. Awareness: ReachWHY NOT START HERE? (Most coaching models “begin with the end in mind”)Change does not occur without a triggering event (Dissonance)A destination must include a reason (the “why”) for getting there. This is where emotion and logic meet.Without clear Dissonance, we tend to forget the compelling “why,” and give up before we get there.Many goals are simply wishes, and not within reasonable reach.Managers incorrectly assume that because they (managers) have set the vision, dissonance will follow. ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 25
    • 26. Awareness: Reach and Visioning I want to play Basketball with my Teenage Daughter. I am in Control. I want to see my grandkids grow up. I’m embarrassed asking for a seat belt extension on the airplane.I liked the way I looked when Iwas running each morning. I am more productive at work when I’m healthy. These pants don’t fit. My cholesterol is too high. I feel better when I work out I want to be healthy. Alberto’s restaurant’s all-you-can-eat couldn’t be good for me. Is that even beef? I love to ski. I’m tired of feeling joint pain. ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 26
    • 27. Awareness: Reach and VisioningThe Paradoxical Theory of Change says that… change occurs when one becomes what he is, not when he tries to become what he is not.Arnold Beisser, M.D. Paradoxical Theory of Change" originally appeared in Fagan and Shepherds Gestalt Therapy Now ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 27
    • 28. Reach: Dr. Stallinger This is serious… I could I SHOULD be Attending Physician of the year. be fired! I’m better than this. I want people to want to be on my team. I need to do it for my patients. My ineffective relationshipsBeing more effective would callfor less hours, and improve my are impacting my clinicalown health. effectiveness. I used to be at the forefront inI can help more people. teaching research. It felt good. I want to be back there. ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 28
    • 29. D R I V EDissonance Reach Immediate Validation Environment StepsImmediate Steps:1. Immediate, clear actions leading to the REACH2. Behaviors or habits ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 29
    • 30. Why Immediate StepsEasier to begin (1/4-mile versus marathon)Creates momentum (going in the right direction)Minimizes discouragement (I can see accomplishment)Uses Self-efficacy as the motivator (Belief in my ability to perform specific tasks)Continues to challenge the individualIt’s easy to observe outcomes ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 30
    • 31. Action: Immediate Steps If I play this through to the end, will this action lead to my desired Reach? ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 31
    • 32. Action: Dr. Stallinger’s Immediate stepsWithin the next 10 days…Interpersonal: Create the “Network” relationships diagram Review 360 results with direct reports Review REACH exerciseClinical: Implement new pain protocol procedures Increase provider hours with mid-level providers for lower acuity patients Identify and contact 3 best practices hospitals that have implemented a Rapid Medical Examination process ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 32
    • 33. D R I V EDissonance Reach Immediate Validation Environment StepsValidation:Part One: MeasurementPart Two: Acknowledgement, reward, recognition ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 33
    • 34. Accountability: ValidationEmotions associated with reaching goals:(1) Pre-goal attainment positive affect : the pleasurable feeling you get as you make progress towards your goal(2) Post-goal attainment positive affect : the pleasurable feeling you get after you reach your goal. Pre-goal was much more lasting and createdmore motivation in the change process than did post-goal emotions. Richard Davidson, PhD; University of Wisconsin- Madison ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 34
    • 35. Validation: MeasurementDon’t let the goal get in the way of the reach: Too focused on the metric We get easily discouraged if we don’t see validation along the wayAre we measuring what’s really important? Customer Service ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 35
    • 36. Accountability: Validation through Measurement THE MYTH OF MEASUREMENT: “On a daily level, there was the competition between the air force and the navy, which sometimes led to the misuse of men and equipment, and if not to outright lying, then to exaggerated claims about the damage inflicted during air strikes. One manifestation of the competition was in the sortie rate—a sortie being one round-trip combat flight by one airplane—which was used as a measuring stick to show how hard each service was working to win the war. When a bomb shortage occurred in early 1966, both the air force and the navy sent their planes up with only one or two bombs per plane, to keep their sortie rate high and prevent their competitor from getting ahead in the statistics game. There was constant pressure to show results in the numbers of targets hit.” (Zalin Grant in “Over the Beach: The Air War in Vietnam”). ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 36
    • 37. Accountability: 90-day Measurement July August Sept Increase Employee EngagementCustomer Service 11% 28% 49% Scores by 30%Left w/o Being Seen 12.94% 10.14% 8.20%Ave min to treatment 92.3 51.1 28.2 Meet with Coach weeklyLength of Stay (Mins.) 267 265 282Volume/Volume per Day 5228/169 5794/187 6127/204 Weekly Sr. Team meetings 85% ratings by Administration Complete one-on-ones with Sr. ER physicians Complete the book “Switch” ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 37
    • 38. D R I V EDissonance Reach Immediate Validation Environment StepsEnvironment:1) The circumstances that surround one2) The factors that act on an organism, population, or ecological community and influence its survival and development ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 38
    • 39. Accountability: EnvironmentWithout treatment, nearly 95% ofMeth addicts will return to drug use within one year.Only 5% to 10% of those that lose weight are able to keep it off beyond a 2-year period. ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 39
    • 40. Accountability: Environmental acclimationABILITY TO ACCLIMATE TO SUCCESS AND FAILURE:Weight lossLottery winnersMajor physical lossInaccuracy at predicting future satisfaction (I would be happy if…)Adaptation Principle (creating a baseline) ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 40
    • 41. An Effective Coaching Process AWARENESS ACTION ACCOUNTABILITY D R I V EDissonance Reach Immediate Validation Environment Steps ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 41
    • 42. Tracy Maylett President and CEO360-Degree Feedback tmaylett@decision-wise.comEmployee Engagement Paul Warner Director of Consulting ServicesLeadership Coaching pwarner@decision-wise.com Talent Assessment 1.800.830.8086 www.decision-wise.com www.decision-wise.com/blog LinkedIn: “Leadership Intelligence” Twitter: DecisionWise ©2011. DecisionWise, Inc. All Rights Reserved. www.decision-wise.com 42

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