Elements of style 2


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Elements of style 2

  1. 1. the elements of style Grammar rules Presented by THE BLUE AND GOLD William Strunk, E.B. White, and Maria Kalman Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  2. 2. Disclaimer I’m no expert. I may be wrong. In language, who’s to say who’s right? Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  3. 3. Commas , Apostrophes Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  4. 4. Apostrophes • Charles’ or Charles’s? • Exceptions: • Moses/Jesus/Isis Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  5. 5. Eats shoots and leaves The power of the comma Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  6. 6. After every term... Red, white, and blue Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  7. 7. Interruptions • The best way to see a country is to travel on foot. • The best way to see a country unless you are pressed for time is to travel on foot. • The best way to see a country, unless you are pressed for time, is to travel on foot. Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  8. 8. Interruptions • Well Susan, this is a fine mess you’re in. • Well, Susan, this is a fine mess you’re in. Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  9. 9. Combining sentences • The audience was at first indifferent. Later they became more interested. • The audience, which had initially been indifferent, later became more interested. Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  10. 10. Is it a key phrase or not? • A key phrase should not have commas when inserted • People sitting in the rear couldn’t hear. • A person trained in the arts tends to be more creative. • Uncle Bert, who is a friend of mine, came over for dinner. Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  11. 11. Semicolons • Used for sentences not inclusive of conjunctions “ • No “but”, “and”, etc. Man proposes, • It is nearly half past five; God disposes. making it back to town will be challenging. ” • Except proverbs, cliches, conversational sentences Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  12. 12. More interruptions • The interrupting clause does not make the tense • The journey of Gandhi - all of the ups and downs - makes great reading. Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  13. 13. None = no one = not one Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  14. 14. His first thought when he got out Introducing the dash of bed - if he had any thought at all - was to get back in again. Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  15. 15. Who... or whoever? A guide to pronouns • Tricky! • Avoid ambiguity, but don’t go into excess • Who is it? • Blake and myself stayed home. • Whoever made this mess should clear up. • Blake and I stayed home. • Gerald is the new person who is in charge of finances. • She loves you more than me. • Gerald is the new person whom • She loves you more than she you should look for. loves me. Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  16. 16. Do you mind me asking a question? Do you mind my asking a question? Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  17. 17. Referring to the right term • Wondering resolutely what to do next, the clock struck twelve. • While I wondered resolutely what to do next, the clock struck twelve. • Being in a dilapidated condition, I was able to buy the house very cheap. • The house, being in a dilapidated condition, was sold rather cheaply. Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  18. 18. Active voice • More concise • At dawn the crowing of a rooster could be heard. • The cock’s crow came at dawn. • There were a great number of dead leaves lying on the ground. • Dead leaves lay on the ground. Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  19. 19. Positivity • Also helps to be more concise • He was not often on time. • He was often late. • Shakespeare portrays Brutus as a person whose character is not strong enough to handle the temptation of being noble. • Shakespeare portrays Brutus as weak, naive, and malleable. Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  20. 20. Be specific • Clarity is key • A period of unfavorable weather forced the harvest to a later time. • The farmer postponed the harvest due to rain. • The satisfaction that he showed when he collected his hard-earned reward was obvious. • He grinned as he pocketed the coins. Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  21. 21. Needless words The question as to whether Whether He is a man who He In a nasty manner Nastily Her story is a strange one Her story is strange The reason why is that Because Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  22. 22. Avoid loose sentences The teacher was almost thirty. She just started at this job. She used to be a financial adviser. The hours were long and the pay often miserable. Thus, she decided to switch. She became a teacher, not because of passion, but because she used to be a financial adviser, working long hours with miserable pay. Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  23. 23. Parallel construction • Be consistent • In spring, summer, or in winter • In spring, summer or winter • A time not for words but action • A time not for words but for action Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  24. 24. Related words - keep them together • You can call your mother in • New York’s first commercial human- London and tell her all about sperm bank opened on Friday with George’s taking you out to dinner semen samples from eighteen men for just two dollars. frozen in a stainless-steel tank. • For just two dollars, you can call • New York’s first commercial human- your mother in London and tell her sperm bank opened on Friday with all about George’s taking you out to semen samples taken from dinner. eighteen men. The samples were then frozen in a stainless-steel tank. Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  25. 25. Extras Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  26. 26. Common mistakes • Alright vs. All right • “Case” can often be omitted: It is often the case that... (You don’t need this) • Comprise: means embrace • Data: always plural • However: better not used at the beginning • Irregardless vs regardless • Meaningful: often meaningless Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  27. 27. Common mistakes • Firstly, secondly, thirdly, fourthly?: Omit the -ly • The truth is... the fact is...: You don’t need this. • While: Don’t use as a connective • Avoid overdoing similes and metaphors • Fancy words: Avoid. Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  28. 28. Tips • Write with nouns and verbs • Do not overwrite • Prefer the standard to the offbeat • Be clear Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  29. 29. InDesign: The Basics 10 September 2010 Tuesday, 7 September 2010
  30. 30. Thank you Tuesday, 7 September 2010